WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological cluster mass

  1. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas B. Lentz

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln{sup 11}]-amyloid {beta}-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will become

  2. Classification and Cluster Analysis of Complex Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tian, Xue; Tao, Qingping; Henderson, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Identifying and separating subtly different biological samples is one of the most critical tasks in biological analysis. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is becoming a popular and important technique in the analysis of biological samples, because it can detect molecular information and characterize chemical composition. ToF-SIMS spectra of biological samples are enormously complex with large mass ranges and many peaks. As a result the classification and cluster analys...

  3. Disentangling correlated scatter in cluster mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Noh, Yookyung

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of obtaining galaxy cluster masses is increasingly being addressed by multiwavelength measurements. As scatters in measured cluster masses are often sourced by properties of or around the clusters themselves, correlations between mass scatters are frequent and can be significant, with consequences for errors on mass estimates both directly and those obtained via stacking. Using a high resolution 250 Mpc/h side N-body simulation, combined with proxies for observational cluster mass measurements, we obtain mass scatter correlations and covariances for 243 individual clusters along ~96 lines of sight each, both separately and together. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize scatter trends and variations between clusters. The dominant mass scatter combination identified by PCA is common to many clusters, and tends to dominate the mass scatters when viewing the cluster along its long axis. We also correlate cluster mass scatter, environmental and intrinsic properties, and use PCA t...

  4. Mass analyzed threshold ionization of hydrogen bonded clusters of biological molecules: the 3-methylindole·C6H6 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) technique has been used for measuring the adiabatic ionization energy of the 3-methylindole·C6H6 cluster (58 018 cm-1) and the binding energies in its ground ionic (4448 cm-1) and ground neutral state (1775 cm-1). We compare our results with those recently obtained for the 3-methylindole·H2O and the indole·C6H6 cluster. The small influence of methylation on the binding energies confirms the π-hydrogen bonding character in the 3-methylindole·C6H6 complex

  5. Precision cluster mass determination from weak lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Baldauf, Tobias; Smith, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has been used extensively in the past decade to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, and is the most promising observational technique for providing the mass calibration necessary for precision cosmology with clusters. There are several challenges in estimating cluster masses, particularly (a) the sensitivity to astrophysical effects and observational systematics that modify the signal relative to the theoretical expectations, and (b) biases that can arise due to assumptions in the mass estimation method, such as the assumed radial profile of the cluster. All of these challenges are more problematic in the inner regions of the cluster, suggesting that their influence would ideally be suppressed for the purpose of mass estimation. However, at any given radius the differential surface density measured by lensing is sensitive to all mass within that radius, and the corrupted signal from the inner parts is spread out to all scales. We develop a new statistic that is ideal for estima...

  6. Optical Mass Estimates of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M; Boschin, W

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate in a homogeneous way the optical masses of 170 nearby clusters (z< 0.15). The sample includes both data from the literature and the new ENACS data (Katgert et al. 1996, 1998). On the assumption that mass follows the galaxy distribution, we compute the masses of each cluster by applying the virial theorem to the member galaxies. We constrain the masses of very substructured clusters (about 10% of our clusters) between two limiting values. After appropriate rescaling to the X-ray radii, we compare our optical mass estimates to those derived from X-ray analyses, which we compiled from the literature (for 66 clusters). We find a good overall agreement. This agreement is expected in the framework of two common assumptions: that mass follows the galaxy distribution, and that clusters are not far from a situation of dynamical equilibrium with both gas and galaxies reflecting the same underlying mass distribution. We stress that our study strongly supports the reliability of present cluster mass estima...

  7. Masses of galaxy clusters from gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Henk; Dahle, Haakon; Israel, Holger; Limousin, Marceau; Meneghetti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Despite consistent progress in numerical simulations, the observable properties of galaxy clusters are difficult to predict ab initio. It is therefore important to compare both theoretical and observational results to a direct measure of the cluster mass. This can be done by measuring the gravitational lensing effects caused by the bending of light by the cluster mass distribution. In this review we discuss how this phenomenon can be used to determine cluster masses and study the mass distribution itself. As sample sizes increase, the accuracy of the weak lensing mass estimates needs to improve accordingly. We discuss the main practical aspects of these measurements. We review a number of applications and highlight some recent results.

  8. Carbon-cluster mass calibration at SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon-cluster ion source has been installed and tested at SHIPTRAP, the Penning-trap mass spectrometer for precision mass measurements of heavy elements at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). Carbon-cluster ions 12Cn+, 5 ≤ n ≤ 23, were produced by laser-induced desorption and ionization from a carbon sample. They were tested for the first time as reference ions in an on-line mass measurement of the radionuclides 144Dy, 146Dy and 147Ho. In addition, carbon clusters of various sizes were used for an investigation of the systematic uncertainty of SHIPTRAP covering a mass range from 84 u to 240 u. The mass-dependent uncertainty was found to be negligible for the case of (m - m(ref)) -8 was revealed. (authors)

  9. Correlation functions for extended mass galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Naseer; Hamid, Mubashir; Masood, Tabasum

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of clustering of galaxies on the basis of correlation functions in an expanding Universe is studied by using equation of state, taking gravitational interaction between galaxies of extended nature into consideration. The partial differential equation for the extended mass structures of a two-point correlation function developed earlier by Iqbal, Ahmad and Khan is studied on the basis of assigned boundary conditions. The solution for the correlation function for extended structures satisfies the basic boundary conditions, which seem to be sufficient for understanding the phenomena, and provides a new insight into the gravitational clustering problem for extended mass structures.

  10. Carbon-cluster mass calibration at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Ankur

    2007-12-10

    A carbon-cluster ion source has been installed and tested at SHIPTRAP, the Penning-trap mass spectrometer for mass measurements of heavy elements at GSI/Darmstadt, Germany. A precision mass determination is carried out by measuring the ion cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c}=qB=m, where q/m is the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion and B is the magnetic field. The mass of the ion of interest is obtained from the comparison of its cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c} with that of a well-known reference ion. Carbon clusters are the mass reference of choice since the unified atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the {sup 12}C atom. Thus the masses of carbon clusters {sup 12}C{sub n}, n=1,2,3,.. are multiples of the unified atomic mass unit. Carbon-cluster ions {sup 12}C{sub n}{sup +}, 5{<=}n{<=}23, were produced by laser-induced desorption and ionization from a carbon sample. Carbon clusters of various sizes ({sup 12}C{sub 7}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 9}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 10}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 11}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 12}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 15}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 18}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 19}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 20}{sup +}) were used for an investigation of the accuracy of SHIPTRAP covering a mass range from 84 u to 240 u. To this end the clusters were used both as ions of interest and reference ions. Hence the true values of the frequency ratios are exactly known. The mass-dependent uncertainty was found to be negligible for the case of (m-m{sub ref})<100 u. However, a systematic uncertainty of 4.5 x 10{sup -8} was revealed. In addition, carbon clusters were employed for the first time as reference ions in an on-line studies of short-lived nuclei. Absolute mass measurements of the radionuclides {sup 144}Dy, {sup 146}Dy and {sup 147}Ho were performed using {sup 12}C{sub 11}{sup +} as reference ion. The results agree with measurements during the same run using {sup 85}Rb{sup +} as reference ion. The investigated radionuclides were produced in the

  11. Cluster mass estimates in screened modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gronke, Max; Mota, David F; Winther, Hans A

    2016-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the effect of screened modified gravity models on the mass estimates of galaxy clusters. In particular, we focus on two novel aspects: (i) we study modified gravity models in which baryons and dark matter are coupled with different strengths to the scalar field, and, (ii) we put the simulation results into the greater context of a general screened-modified gravity parametrization. We compare the mass of clusters inferred via lensing versus the mass inferred via kinematical measurements as a probe of violations of the equivalence principle at Mpc scales. We find that estimates of cluster masses via X-ray observations is mainly sensitive to the coupling between the scalar degree of freedom and baryons -- while the kinematical mass is mainly sensitive to the coupling to dark matter. Therefore, the relation between the two mass estimates is a probe of a possible non-universal coupling between the scalar field, the standard model fields, and dark matter. Fina...

  12. Improving lensing cluster mass estimate with flexion

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Vincenzo F; Er, Xinzhong; Maoli, Roberto; Scaramella, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing has long been considered as a valuable tool to determine the total mass of galaxy clusters. The shear profile as inferred from the statistics of ellipticity of background galaxies allows to probe the cluster intermediate and outer regions thus determining the virial mass estimate. However, the mass sheet degeneracy and the need for a large number of background galaxies motivate the search for alternative tracers which can break the degeneracy among model parameters and hence improve the accuracy of the mass estimate. Lensing flexion, i.e. the third derivative of the lensing potential, has been suggested as a good answer to the above quest since it probes the details of the mass profile. We investigate here whether this is indeed the case considering jointly using weak lensing, magnification and flexion. We use a Fisher matrix analysis to forecast the relative improvement in the mass accuracy for different assumptions on the shear and flexion signal - to - noise (S/N) ratio also varying t...

  13. Mass distribution of products of cluster impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass distributions of ionic atomic and molecular fragments sputtered from carbon surfaces by singly charged positive cluster ions containing 80 water molecules have been determined. With cluster kinetic energy of 240 keV significant yields of molecular fragments containing up to 21 carbon atoms were observed. Ion yields were used to estimate relative yields of neutral fragments with the assumption that relative yields of the respective ionic and neutral sputtering processes were determined by kinetic factors which could be evaluated independently. The derived neutral yields were then used to estimate the fraction of total projectile energy utilized in evaporative cooling, i.e., sputtering. The results indicate a major fraction of the energy available is used in the cluster sputtering process. 9 refs., 1 tab

  14. Cluster mass reconstruction from weak gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, G; Frenk, C S; Wilson, Gillian; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S

    1996-01-01

    Kaiser & Squires have proposed a technique for mapping the dark matter in galaxy clusters using the coherent weak distortion of background galaxy images caused by gravitational lensing. We investigate the effectiveness of this technique under controlled conditions by creating simulated CCD frames containing galaxies lensed by a model cluster, measuring the resulting galaxy shapes, and comparing the reconstructed mass distribution with the original. Typically, the reconstructed surface density is diminished in magnitude when compared to the original. The main cause of this reduced signal is the blurring of galaxy images by atmospheric seeing, but the overall factor by which the reconstructed surface density is reduced depends also on the signal-to-noise ratio in the CCD frame and on both the sizes of galaxy images and the magnitude limit of the sample that is analysed. We propose a method for estimating a multiplicative compensation factor. We test our technique using a lensing cluster drawn from a cosmolo...

  15. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  16. CLAG: an unsupervised non hierarchical clustering algorithm handling biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Linda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching for similarities in a set of biological data is intrinsically difficult due to possible data points that should not be clustered, or that should group within several clusters. Under these hypotheses, hierarchical agglomerative clustering is not appropriate. Moreover, if the dataset is not known enough, like often is the case, supervised classification is not appropriate either. Results CLAG (for CLusters AGgregation is an unsupervised non hierarchical clustering algorithm designed to cluster a large variety of biological data and to provide a clustered matrix and numerical values indicating cluster strength. CLAG clusterizes correlation matrices for residues in protein families, gene-expression and miRNA data related to various cancer types, sets of species described by multidimensional vectors of characters, binary matrices. It does not ask to all data points to cluster and it converges yielding the same result at each run. Its simplicity and speed allows it to run on reasonably large datasets. Conclusions CLAG can be used to investigate the cluster structure present in biological datasets and to identify its underlying graph. It showed to be more informative and accurate than several known clustering methods, as hierarchical agglomerative clustering, k-means, fuzzy c-means, model-based clustering, affinity propagation clustering, and not to suffer of the convergence problem proper to this latter.

  17. A comparison of different cluster mass estimates: consistency or discrepancy ?

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiang-Ping; Chiueh, Tzihong; Fang, Li-Zhi; Xue, Yan-Jie

    1998-01-01

    Rich and massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift are capable of magnifying and distorting the images of background galaxies. A comparison of different mass estimators among these clusters can provide useful information about the distribution and composition of cluster matter and their dynamical evolution. Using a hitherto largest sample of lensing clusters drawn from literature, we compare the gravitating masses of clusters derived from the strong/weak gravitational lensing phen...

  18. ClusterViz: A Cytoscape APP for Cluster Analysis of Biological Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin; Zhong, Jiancheng; Chen, Gang; Li, Min; Wu, Fang-xiang; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cluster analysis of biological networks is one of the most important approaches for identifying functional modules and predicting protein functions. Furthermore, visualization of clustering results is crucial to uncover the structure of biological networks. In this paper, ClusterViz, an APP of Cytoscape 3 for cluster analysis and visualization, has been developed. In order to reduce complexity and enable extendibility for ClusterViz, we designed the architecture of ClusterViz based on the framework of Open Services Gateway Initiative. According to the architecture, the implementation of ClusterViz is partitioned into three modules including interface of ClusterViz, clustering algorithms and visualization and export. ClusterViz fascinates the comparison of the results of different algorithms to do further related analysis. Three commonly used clustering algorithms, FAG-EC, EAGLE and MCODE, are included in the current version. Due to adopting the abstract interface of algorithms in module of the clustering algorithms, more clustering algorithms can be included for the future use. To illustrate usability of ClusterViz, we provided three examples with detailed steps from the important scientific articles, which show that our tool has helped several research teams do their research work on the mechanism of the biological networks. PMID:26357321

  19. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntampaka, Michelle; Trac, Hy; Sutherland, Dougal; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Poczos, Barnabas; Schneider, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are a rich source of information for examining fundamental astrophysical processes and cosmological parameters, however, employing clusters as cosmological probes requires accurate mass measurements derived from cluster observables. We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers, and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create a mock catalog from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. The presence of interlopers in the catalog produces a wide, flat fractional mass error distribution, with width = 2.13. We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement (width = 0.67). Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even a scaling relation approach applied to uncontaminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  20. Relevance of Dynamic Clustering to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K

    1993-01-01

    Abstract Network of nonlinear dynamical elements often show clustering of synchronization by chaotic instability. Relevance of the clustering to ecological, immune, neural, and cellular networks is discussed, with the emphasis of partially ordered states with chaotic itinerancy. First, clustering with bit structures in a hypercubic lattice is studied. Spontaneous formation and destruction of relevant bits are found, which give self-organizing, and chaotic genetic algorithms. When spontaneous changes of effective couplings are introduced, chaotic itinerancy of clusterings is widely seen through a feedback mechanism, which supports dynamic stability allowing for complexity and diversity, known as homeochaos. Second, synaptic dynamics of couplings is studied in relation with neural dynamics. The clustering structure is formed with a balance between external inputs and internal dynamics. Last, an extension allowing for the growth of the number of elements is given, in connection with cell differentiation. Effecti...

  1. Mapping Cluster Mass Distributions via Gravitational Lensing of Background Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Broadhurst, T. J.; Taylor, A. N.; Peacock, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new method for measuring the projected mass distributions of galaxy clusters. The gravitational amplification is measured by comparing the joint distribution in redshift and magnitude of galaxies behind the cluster with that of field galaxies. We show that the total amplification is directly related to the surface mass density in the weak field limit, and so it is possible to map the mass distribution of the cluster. The method is shown to be limited by discreteness noise and gal...

  2. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters: a measurable quantity

    CERN Document Server

    De Boni, Cristiano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Giocoli, Carlo; Baldi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters by using dense galaxy redshift surveys of their outer regions. By approximating the accretion with the infall of a spherical shell, the mass accretion rate only depends on the mass profile of the cluster in a thin shell at radii larger than $R_{200}$. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios, where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter haloes contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range $z=[0,1]$, our prescription returns an average mass accretion rate within $20 \\%$ of the average rate derived with the more realistic merger trees of dark matter haloes extracted from $N$-body simulations. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real Universe. Our result suggests that measuring the mass accreti...

  3. Optimizing weak lensing mass estimates for cluster profile uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Gruen, Daniel; Lam, Tsz Yan; Seitz, Stella

    2011-01-01

    Weak lensing measurements of cluster masses are necessary for calibrating mass-observable relations (MORs) to investigate the growth of structure and the properties of dark energy. However, the measured cluster shear signal varies at fixed mass M_200m due to inherent ellipticity of background galaxies, intervening structures along the line of sight, and variations in the cluster structure due to scatter in concentrations, asphericity and substructure. We use N-body simulated halos to derive and evaluate a weak lensing circular aperture mass measurement M_ap that minimizes the mass estimate variance in the presence of all these forms of variability. The resulting mass estimator improves on M_ap filters optimized for circular NFW profile clusters in the presence of uncorrelated large scale structure (LSS) about as much as the latter improve on an estimator that only minimizes the influence of shape noise. Optimizing for uncorrelated LSS while ignoring the variation of internal cluster structure puts too much w...

  4. Rapid dynamical mass segregation and properties of fractal star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jincheng; Chen, Li

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of young star clusters using N-body simulations. We confirm that subvirial and fractal-structured clusters will dynamically mass segregate on a short timescale (within 0.5 Myr). We adopt a modified minimum-spanning-tree (MST) method to measure the degree of mass segregation, demonstrating that the stars escaping from a cluster's potential are important for the temporal dependence of mass segregation in the cluster. The form of the initial velocity distribution will also affect the degree of mass segregation. If it depends on radius, the outer parts of the cluster would expand without undergoing collapse. In velocity space, we find 'inverse mass segregation,' which indicates that massive stars have higher velocity dispersions than their lower-mass counterparts.

  5. Limitations on Precision Cosmology using Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hallman, E J; Burns, J O; Norman, M L; Hallman, Eric J.; Motl, Patrick M.; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We critically analyze the role of clusters of galaxies as probes for precision cosmology. Using synthetic observations of numerically simulated clusters viewed through their X-ray emission and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE), we reduce the observations to attain measurements of the cluster gas mass. We utilize both parametric models such as the isothermal cluster model and non-parametric models that involve the geometric deprojection of the cluster emission assuming spherical symmetry. We are thus able to quantify the possible sources of uncertainty and systematic bias associated with the common simplifying assumptions used in reducing real cluster observations including isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that intrinsic variations in clusters limit the precision of observational gas mass estimation to ~10% to 80% confidence excluding instrumental effects. For the full cluster sample, methods that use SZE profiles out to roughly the virial radius are the most accurate and precise way to ...

  6. Richness-based masses of rich and famous galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreon, S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy cluster masses derived by exploiting the tight correlation between mass and richness, i.e., a properly computed number of bright cluster galaxies. The richness definition adopted in this work is properly calibrated, shows a small scatter with mass, and has a known evolution, which means that we can estimate accurate (0.16 dex) masses more precisely than by adopting any other richness estimates or X-ray or SZ-based proxies based on survey data. We measured a few hundred galaxy clusters at 0.05 html

  7. Richness-based masses of rich and famous galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreon, S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy cluster masses derived by exploiting the tight correlation between mass and richness, i.e., a properly computed number of bright cluster galaxies. The richness definition adopted in this work is properly calibrated, shows a small scatter with mass, and has a known evolution, which means that we can estimate accurate (0.16 dex) masses more precisely than by adopting any other richness estimates or X-ray or SZ-based proxies based on survey data. We measured a few hundred galaxy clusters at 0.05 URL http://www.brera.mi.astro.it/~andreon/famous.html

  8. Integrated pathway clusters with coherent biological themes for target prioritisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Chen

    Full Text Available Prioritising candidate genes for further experimental characterisation is an essential, yet challenging task in biomedical research. One way of achieving this goal is to identify specific biological themes that are enriched within the gene set of interest to obtain insights into the biological phenomena under study. Biological pathway data have been particularly useful in identifying functional associations of genes and/or gene sets. However, biological pathway information as compiled in varied repositories often differs in scope and content, preventing a more effective and comprehensive characterisation of gene sets. Here we describe a new approach to constructing biologically coherent gene sets from pathway data in major public repositories and employing them for functional analysis of large gene sets. We first revealed significant overlaps in gene content between different pathways and then defined a clustering method based on the shared gene content and the similarity of gene overlap patterns. We established the biological relevance of the constructed pathway clusters using independent quantitative measures and we finally demonstrated the effectiveness of the constructed pathway clusters in comparative functional enrichment analysis of gene sets associated with diverse human diseases gathered from the literature. The pathway clusters and gene mappings have been integrated into the TargetMine data warehouse and are likely to provide a concise, manageable and biologically relevant means of functional analysis of gene sets and to facilitate candidate gene prioritisation.

  9. Protostar mass functions in young clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    In an improved model of protostar mass functions (PMFs), protostars gain mass from isothermal cores in turbulent clumps. Their mass accretion rate is similar to Shu accretion at low mass, and to reduced Bondi accretion at high mass. Accretion durations follow a simple expression in which higher-mass protostars accrete for longer times. These times are set by ejections, stellar feedback, and gravitational competition, which terminate accretion and reduce its efficiency. The mass scale is the m...

  10. Total mass biases in X-ray galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piffaretti, Rocco

    2008-01-01

    The exploitation of clusters of galaxies as cosmological probes relies on accurate measurements of their total gravitating mass. X-ray observations provide a powerful means of probing the total mass distribution in galaxy clusters, but might be affected by observational biases and rely on simplistic assumptions originating from our limited understanding of the intracluster medium physics. This paper is aimed at elucidating the reliability of X-ray total mass estimates in clusters of galaxies by properly disentangling various biases of both observational and physical origin. We use N-body/SPH simulation of a large sample of ~100 galaxy clusters and investigate total mass biases by comparing the mass reconstructed adopting an observational-like approach with the true mass in the simulations. X-ray surface brightness and temperature profiles extracted from the simulations are fitted with different models and adopting different radial fitting ranges in order to investigate modeling and extrapolation biases. Diffe...

  11. Binaries and the dynamical mass of star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N

    2007-01-01

    The total mass of a distant star cluster is often derived from the virial theorem, using line-of-sight velocity dispersion measurements and half-light radii, under the implicit assumption that all stars are single (although it is known that most stars form part of binary systems). The components of binary stars exhibit orbital motion, which increases the measured velocity dispersion, resulting in a dynamical mass overestimation. In this article we quantify the effect of neglecting the binary population on the derivation of the dynamical mass of a star cluster. We find that the presence of binaries plays an important role for clusters with total mass M 10^5 Msun, binaries do not affect the dynamical mass estimation significantly, provided that the cluster is significantly compact (half-mass radius < 5 pc).

  12. Beams of mass-selected clusters: realization and first experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work concerns the production of beams of mass-selected clusters of metallic and semiconductor materials. Clusters are produced in magnetron sputtering source combined with a gas aggregation chamber, cooled by liquid nitrogen circulation. Downstream of the cluster source, a Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight setup allows to select a given cluster size or a narrow size range. The pulsed mass-selected cluster ion beam is separated from the continuous neutral one by an electrostatic 90-quadrupole deflector. After the deflector, the density of the pulsed beam amounts to about 103 particles/cm3. Preliminary deposition experiments of mass-selected copper clusters with a deposition energy of about 0.5 eV/atom have ben performed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, indicating that copper clusters are evidently mobile on the HOPG-surface until they reach cleavage steps, dislocation lines or other surface defects. In order to lower the cluster mobility on the HOPG-surface, we have first irradiated HOPG samples with slow highly charged ions (high dose) in order to create superficial defects. In a second step we have deposited mass-selected copper clusters on these pre-irradiated samples. The first analysis by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) techniques showed that the copper clusters are trapped on the defects produced by the highly charged ions. (author)

  13. Mass segregation in star clusters is not energy equipartition

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Parker; Goodwin, S. P.; Wright, N. J.; Meyer, M.R.; Quanz, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Mass segregation in star clusters is often thought to indicate the onset of energy equipartition, where the most massive stars impart kinetic energy to the lower-mass stars and brown dwarfs/free floating planets. The predicted net result of this is that the centrally concentrated massive stars should have significantly lower velocities than fast-moving low-mass objects on the periphery of the cluster. We search for energy equipartition in initially spatially and kinematically substructured N-...

  14. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Ntampaka, M; Sutherland, D J; Fromenteau, S; Poczos, B; Schneider, J

    2015-01-01

    We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create two mock catalogs from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation, one with perfect galaxy cluster membership information and the other where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. Assuming perfect membership knowledge, this unrealistic case produces a wide fractional mass error distribution, with width = 0.87. Interlopers introduce additional scatter, significantly widening the error distribution further (width = 2.13). We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to...

  15. Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with CLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Penna-Lima, M; Rozo, E; Melin, J -B; Merten, J; Evrard, A E; Postman, M; Rykoff, E

    2016-01-01

    We determine the mass scale of Planck galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing mass measurements from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We compare the lensing masses to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) mass proxy for 21 clusters in common, employing a Bayesian analysis to simultaneously fit an idealized CLASH selection function and the distribution between the measured observables and true cluster mass. We use a tiered analysis strategy to explicitly demonstrate the importance of priors on weak lensing mass accuracy. In the case of an assumed constant bias, $b_{SZ}$, between true cluster mass, $M_{500}$, and the Planck mass proxy, $M_{PL}$, our analysis constrains $1- b_{SZ} = 0.73 \\pm 0.10$ when moderate priors on weak lensing accuracy are used. Our analyses explicitly accounts for possible selection bias effects in this calibration sourced by the CLASH selection function. Our constraint on the cluster mass scale is consistent with recent results from the Weighing the Giants p...

  16. The mass function of young star clusters in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S

    2008-01-01

    The initial cluster mass function (ICMF) in spiral galaxy discs is constrained and compared with data for old globular clusters and young clusters in starbursts. It is found that the observed ages and luminosities of the brightest clusters in spiral discs can be reproduced if the ICMF is a Schechter function with a cut-off mass (Mc) of a few times 10^5 Msun and disruption of optically visible clusters is dominated by relatively slow secular evolution. A direct Schechter function fit to the combined cluster MF for all spirals in the sample studied here yields Mc = (2.1+/-0.4)x10^5 Msun. The MFs in cluster-poor and cluster-rich spirals are statistically indistinguishable. An Mc=2.1x10^5 Msun Schechter function also fits the MF of young clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the same ICMF applies in the Milky Way, a bound cluster with M>10^5 Msun will form about once every 10 Myr, while an M>10^6 Msun cluster will form only once every 50 Gyr. Luminosity functions (LFs) of model cluster populations drawn from...

  17. Mass spectrometric studies of the cluster formation of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental system is developed to study the cluster formation of radon progeny with neutral molecules in the environment, which includes a modified mass spectrometer and a surface barrier detector. With the system, the cluster research is carried out at molecular level at which the mass of individual cluster formed is measured. A theory is also proposed to treat the cluster formation as a discrete process based on the ion-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions. Comparison between the theory and experiment is given. (author). 16 refs., 6 figs

  18. Measuring Consistent Masses for 25 Milky Way Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmig, Brian; Ivans, Inese I; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass to light ratios ($M/L$s), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters. We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 globular clusters from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of $M/L$ with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of $M/L$ and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing $M/L$ with cluster mass, and lower than expected $M/L$s for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasi...

  19. Biologically supervised hierarchical clustering algorithms for gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyn, Grzegorz M; Datta, Susmita; Datta, Somnath

    2006-01-01

    Cluster analysis has become a standard part of gene expression analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised approach that offers the same flexibility as that of a hierarchical clustering. Yet it utilizes, along with the experimental gene expression data, common biological information about different genes that is being complied at various public, Web accessible databases. We argue that such an approach is inherently superior than the standard unsupervised approach of grouping genes based on expression data alone. It is shown that our biologically supervised methods produce better clustering results than the corresponding unsupervised methods as judged by the distance from the model temporal profiles. R-codes of the clustering algorithm are available from the authors upon request. PMID:17947147

  20. THE STELLAR MASS GROWTH OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES IN THE IRAC SHALLOW CLUSTER SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The details of the stellar mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) remain an unresolved problem in galaxy formation. We have developed a novel approach that allows us to construct a sample of clusters that form an evolutionary sequence, and have applied it to the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) to examine the evolution of BCGs in progenitors of present-day clusters with mass of (2.5-4.5) × 1014 M☉. We follow the cluster mass growth history extracted from a high resolution cosmological simulation, and then use an empirical method that infers the cluster mass based on the ranking of cluster luminosity to select high-z clusters of appropriate mass from ISCS to be progenitors of the given set of z = 0 clusters. We find that, between z = 1.5 and 0.5, the BCGs have grown in stellar mass by a factor of 2.3, which is well-matched by the predictions from a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model. Below z = 0.5 we see hints of differences in behavior between the model and observation.

  1. Analytical model of peptide mass cluster centres with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrach Hans

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elemental composition of peptides results in formation of distinct, equidistantly spaced clusters across the mass range. The property of peptide mass clustering is used to calibrate peptide mass lists, to identify and remove non-peptide peaks and for data reduction. Results We developed an analytical model of the peptide mass cluster centres. Inputs to the model included, the amino acid frequencies in the sequence database, the average length of the proteins in the database, the cleavage specificity of the proteolytic enzyme used and the cleavage probability. We examined the accuracy of our model by comparing it with the model based on an in silico sequence database digest. To identify the crucial parameters we analysed how the cluster centre location depends on the inputs. The distance to the nearest cluster was used to calibrate mass spectrometric peptide peak-lists and to identify non-peptide peaks. Conclusion The model introduced here enables us to predict the location of the peptide mass cluster centres. It explains how the location of the cluster centres depends on the input parameters. Fast and efficient calibration and filtering of non-peptide peaks is achieved by a distance measure suggested by Wool and Smilansky.

  2. Mass segregation in star clusters is not energy equipartition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.; Wright, Nicholas J.; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.

    2016-06-01

    Mass segregation in star clusters is often thought to indicate the onset of energy equipartition, where the most massive stars impart kinetic energy to the lower-mass stars and brown dwarfs/free-floating planets. The predicted net result of this is that the centrally concentrated massive stars should have significantly lower velocities than fast-moving low-mass objects on the periphery of the cluster. We search for energy equipartition in initially spatially and kinematically substructured N-body simulations of star clusters with N = 1500 stars, evolved for 100 Myr. In clusters that show significant mass segregation we find no differences in the proper motions or radial velocities as a function of mass. The kinetic energies of all stars decrease as the clusters relax, but the kinetic energies of the most massive stars do not decrease faster than those of lower-mass stars. These results suggest that dynamical mass segregation - which is observed in many star clusters - is not a signature of energy equipartition from two-body relaxation.

  3. Mass segregation in star clusters is not energy equipartition

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J; Wright, Nicholas J; Meyer, Michael R; Quanz, Sascha P

    2016-01-01

    Mass segregation in star clusters is often thought to indicate the onset of energy equipartition, where the most massive stars impart kinetic energy to the lower-mass stars and brown dwarfs/free floating planets. The predicted net result of this is that the centrally concentrated massive stars should have significantly lower velocities than fast-moving low-mass objects on the periphery of the cluster. We search for energy equipartition in initially spatially and kinematically substructured N-body simulations of star clusters with N = 1500 stars, evolved for 100 Myr. In clusters that show significant mass segregation we find no differences in the proper motions or radial velocities as a function of mass. The kinetic energies of all stars decrease as the clusters relax, but the kinetic energies of the most massive stars do not decrease faster than those of lower-mass stars. These results suggest that dynamical mass segregation -- which is observed in many star clusters -- is not a signature of energy equipartit...

  4. A new method to measure the mass of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Falco, Martina; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Brinckmann, Thejs; Lindholmer, Mikkel; Pandolfi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The mass measurement of galaxy clusters is an important tool for the determination of cosmological parameters describing the matter and energy content of the Universe. However, the standard methods rely on various assumptions about the shape or the level of equilibrium of the cluster. We present a novel method of measuring cluster masses. It is complementary to most of the other methods, since it only uses kinematical information from outside the virialized cluster. Our method identifies objects, as galaxy sheets or filaments, in the cluster outer region, and infers the cluster mass by modeling how the massive cluster perturbs the motion of the structures from the Hubble flow. At the same time, this technique allows to constrain the three-dimensional orientation of the detected structures with a good accuracy. We use a cosmological numerical simulation to test the method. We then apply the method to the Coma cluster, where we find two galaxy sheets, and measure the mass of Coma to be Mvir=(9.2\\pm2.4)10^{14} M...

  5. Measuring cluster masses with CMB lensing: a statistical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the masses of galaxy clusters using the imprint of their gravitational lensing signal on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The method first reconstructs the projected gravitational potential with a quadratic estimator and then applies a matched filter to extract cluster mass. The approach is well-suited for statistical analyses that bin clusters according to other mass proxies. We find that current experiments, such as Planck, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, can practically implement such a statistical methodology, and that future experiments will reach sensitivities sufficient for individual measurements of massive systems. As illustration, we use simulations of Planck observations to demonstrate that it is possible to constrain the mass scale of a set of 62 massive clusters with prior information from X-ray observations, similar to the published Planck ESZ-XMM sample. We examine the effect of the thermal (tSZ) and ...

  6. The Mass Accretion Rate of Galaxy Clusters: A Measurable Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, C.; Serra, A. L.; Diaferio, A.; Giocoli, C.; Baldi, M.

    2016-02-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate (MAR) of galaxy clusters from their mass profiles beyond the virial radius R200. We derive the accretion rate from the mass of a spherical shell whose inner radius is 2R200, whose thickness changes with redshift, and whose infall velocity is assumed to be equal to the mean infall velocity of the spherical shells of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter halos contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range z = [0, 2], our prescription returns an average MAR within 20%-40% of the average rate derived from the merger trees of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. The MAR of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real universe. Since the measurement of the mass profile of clusters beyond their virial radius can be performed with the caustic technique applied to dense redshift surveys of the cluster outer regions, our result suggests that measuring the mean MAR of a sample of galaxy clusters is actually feasible. We thus provide a new potential observational test of the cosmological and structure formation models.

  7. Constraints on Neutrino Mass from Sunyaev--Zeldovich Cluster Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Daisy S. Y.; Pierpaoli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The presence of massive neutrinos has a characteristic impact on the growth of large scale structures such as galaxy clusters. We forecast on the capability of the number count and power spectrum measured from the ongoing and future Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster surveys, combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation to constrain the total neutrino mass $\\mnu$ in a flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. We adopt self-calibration for the mass-observable scaling relation, and evaluate const...

  8. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the impl...

  9. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global...... temperatures measured with ASCA and masses inferred from weak and strong gravitational lensing. The surface lensing masses are deprojected in accordance with N-body simulations and analytic results. The data are well-fitted by the mass-temperature relation and are consistent with the empirical normalization...

  10. Radial Variation in the Stellar Mass Functions of Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Jeremy J

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent observational studies of Galactic globular clusters have measured the variation in the slope of a cluster's stellar mass function $\\alpha$ with clustercentric distance $r$. In order to gather a deeper understanding of the information contained in such observations, we have explored the evolution of $\\alpha(r)$ for star clusters with a variety of initial conditions using a large suite of $N$-body simulations. We have specifically studied how the time evolution of $\\alpha(r)$ is affected by initial size, mass, binary fraction, primordial mass segregation, black hole retention, an external tidal field, and the initial mass function itself. Previous studies have shown that the evolution of $\\alpha_G$ is closely related to the amount of mass loss suffered by a cluster. Hence for each simulation we have also followed the evolution of the slope of the cluster's global stellar mass function, $\\alpha_G$, and have shown that clusters follow a well-defined track in the $\\alpha_G$-$d\\alpha(r)/d(ln(r/r_...

  11. Constraining the Mass-Richness Relationship of redMaPPer Clusters with Angular Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Eric J; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Rykoff, Eli; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    The potential of using cluster clustering for calibrating the mass-observable relation of galaxy clusters has been recognized theoretically for over a decade. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this technique to achieve high precision mass calibration using redMaPPer clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey North Galactic Cap. By including cross-correlations between several richness bins in our analysis we significantly improve the statistical precision of our mass constraints. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is constrained to 7% statistical precision. However, the error budget is systematics dominated, reaching an 18% total error that is dominated by theoretical uncertainty in the bias-mass relation for dark matter halos. We perform a detailed treatment of the effects of assembly bias on our analysis, finding that the contribution of such effects to our parameter uncertainties is somewhat greater than that of measurement noise. We confirm the results from Miyatake et al. (2015) that the clus...

  12. Measuring the Mass-to-Light Ratio of Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, P.

    1996-12-01

    There is ample evidence from lensing for the clumping of dark matter on different scales within clusters, although the spatial extent of dark halos of cluster galaxies are yet to be constrained. The issue is of crucial importance as it addresses the key question of whether the mass to light ratio of galaxies is a function of the environment, and if it is indeed significantly different in the high density regions like cluster cores as opposed to the field. Weak shear maps of the outer regions of clusters have been successfully used to map the distribution of mass at large radii. However the typical smoothing lengths generally employed preclude the systematic study of the effects of galactic-scale substructure on the measured weak lensing signal. We present two new methods to study the effect of bright cluster galaxies on the cluster weak shear field - aperture averaging of the local shear and a maximum likelihood method to obtain limits on parameters that characterize galaxy halos. The composite lensing effect of a cluster is modeled by the superposition of mass clumps with different scales: a large-scale clump to describe the cluster and smaller scale ones for individual cluster galaxies. Working in the local frame of each perturber, the shear induced by the larger scale component can be efficiently subtracted, yielding the averaged shear field induced by the smaller-scale mass component. Cluster galaxy halos are modeled using simple scaling relations and the background high redshift population is modeled in consonance with observations from redshift surveys and lensing constraints. We demonstrate using simulations that these observed local weak-shear effects on galaxy scales within the cluster can be used to statistically constrain reliably the mean M/L of cluster members, and fiducial parameters like the halo size, velocity dispersion and hence mass of cluster galaxies. The results of the members, and fiducial parameters like the halo size and the velocity

  13. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass--temperature rela...

  14. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters: a measurable quantity

    CERN Document Server

    De Boni, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in investigating the growth of structures at the nonlinear scales of galaxy clusters from an observational perspective: we explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters from their mass profile beyond the virial radius. We derive the accretion rate from the mass of a spherical shell whose infall velocity is extracted from $N$-body simulations. In the redshift range $z=[0,2]$, our prescription returns an average mass accretion rate within $20-40 \\%$ of the average rate derived from the merger trees of dark matter haloes extracted from $N$-body simulations. Our result suggests that measuring the mean mass accretion rate of a sample of galaxy clusters is actually feasible, thus providing a new potential observational test of the cosmological and structure formation models.

  15. What do dynamical cluster masses really tell us about dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Goodwin, Simon P

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostic age versus mass-to-light ratio diagram is often used in attempts to constrain the shape of the stellar initial mass function, and the stability and the potential longevity of extragalactic young to intermediate-age massive star clusters. Here, we explore the pitfalls associated with this approach and its potential for use with Galactic open clusters. We conclude that for an open cluster to survive for any significant fraction of a Hubble time (in the absence of substantial external perturbations), it is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to be located close to the predicted photometric evolutionary sequences for "normal" simple stellar populations.

  16. Temperature Structure and Mass-Temperature Scatter In Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ventimiglia, D A; Rasia, E

    2012-01-01

    Precision cosmology studies based on wide-field surveys of galaxy clusters benefit from constraints on intrinsic scatter in mass-observable relationships. In principle, two-parameter models combining direct measurements of galaxy cluster structural variation with mass proxies such as X-ray luminosity and temperature can be used to constrain scatter in the relationship between the mass proxy and the cluster's halo mass and to measure the redshift evolution of that scatter. One candidate for quantifying cluster substructure is the ICM temperature inhomogeneity inferred from X-ray spectral properties, an example of which is T_HBR, the ratio of hardband to broadband spectral-fit temperatures. In this paper we test the effectiveness of T_HBR as an indicator of scatter in the mass-temperature relation using 118 galaxy clusters simulated with radiative cooling and feedback. We find that, while T_HBR is correlated with clusters' departures \\delta lnT_X from the mean M-T_X relation, the effect is modest.

  17. The impact of baryons on massive galaxy clusters: halo structure and cluster mass estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Henson, Monique A; Kay, Scott T; McCarthy, Ian G; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    We use the BAHAMAS and MACSIS hydrodynamic simulations to quantify the impact of baryons on the mass distribution and dynamics of massive galaxy clusters, as well as the bias in X-ray and weak lensing mass estimates. These simulations use the sub-grid physics models calibrated in the BAHAMAS project, which include feedback from both supernovae and active galactic nuclei. They form a cluster population covering almost two orders of magnitude in mass, with more than 250 clusters with masses greater than $10^{15}\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$ at $z=0$. We start by characterising the clusters in terms of their spin, shape and density profile, before considering the bias in both weak lensing and hydrostatic mass estimates. Whilst including baryonic effects leads to more spherical, centrally concentrated clusters, the median weak lensing mass bias is unaffected by the presence of baryons. In both the dark matter only and hydrodynamic simulations, the weak lensing measurements underestimate cluster masses by ${\\approx}10\\%$ fo...

  18. Effect of asphericity in caustic mass estimates of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Svensmark, Jacob; Hansen, Steen H

    2014-01-01

    The caustic technique of mass estimation of galaxy clusters relies on the assumption of spherical symmetry, which is not always a valid assumption. Here we demonstrate the effect of spatial anisotropy of galaxy clusters on the inferred caustic mass profiles by considering particle data from dark matter N-body simulations. We find a factor of ~3 discrepancy between major and minor axis mass estimates in ellipsoidal clusters within the virial radius Rv, and up to ~5 within 3 Rv. We also find filaments to influence caustic mass estimates at a comparable magnitude. By stacking halos to align their principal axes we find that a line of sight along the major axis overestimates the caustic mass of galaxy clusters, as well as a line of sight along the minor axis underestimates it. The mass discrepancy between the major and minor axis is a factor of 2.47, 2.97 and 3.95 at 1, 2 and 3 Rv for virial masses Mv = [1,2] x 10^{14} Msun/h, and $(30-35)\\%$ larger for Mv > 2 x 10^{14} Msun/h. Furthermore, the caustic mass is ov...

  19. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Shweta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Results Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics. Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. Conclusion ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in

  20. A Systematic Analysis of Caustic Methods for Galaxy Cluster Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Gifford, Daniel; Kern, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We quantify the expected observed statistical and systematic uncertainties of the escape velocity as a measure of the gravitational potential and total mass of galaxy clusters. We focus our attention on low redshift (z 25, the scatter in the escape velocity mass is dominated by projections along the line-of-sight. Algorithmic uncertainties from the determination of the projected escape velocity profile are negligible. We quantify how target selection based on magnitude, color, and projected radial separation can induce small additional biases into the escape velocity masses. Using N_gal = 150 (25), the caustic technique has a per cluster scatter in ln(M|M_200) of 0.3 (0.5) and bias 1+/-3% (16+/-5%) for clusters with masses > 10^14M_solar at z<0.15.

  1. Mass-losing red giants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass-losing stars in open clusters with main-sequence turn-offs at intermediate mass have been searched for by using the IRAS data base. The absence of many strong 60 micron sources in open clusters implies that intermediate-mass stars lose much of their mass during an intense wind phase of rather short duration. For stars of about seven solar masses, this phase, if it exists at all, lasts for not much more than 100,000 yr. For stars of about four solar masses, the intense wind phase appears to last considerably less than 10 million yr; it may well last for less than a million yr. 37 references

  2. Richness-based masses of rich and famous galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2016-01-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy cluster masses derived by exploiting the tight correlation between mass and richness, i.e., a properly computed number of bright cluster galaxies. The richness definition adopted in this work is properly calibrated, shows a small scatter with mass, and has a known evolution, which means that we can estimate accurate ($0.16$ dex) masses more precisely than by adopting any other richness estimates or X-ray or SZ-based proxies based on survey data. We measured a few hundred galaxy clusters at $0.05clusters, that have a known X-ray emission, that are in the Abell catalog, or that are among the most most cited in the literature. Diagnostic plots and direct images of clusters are individually inspected and we improved cluster centers and, when needed, we revised redshifts. Whenever possible, we also checked for indications of contamination from other clus...

  3. Richness-mass relation self-calibration for galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2012-01-01

    This work attains a threefold objective: first, we derived the richness-mass scaling in the local Universe from data of 53 clusters with individual measurements of mass. We found a 0.46+-0.12 slope and a 0.25+-0.03 dex scatter measuring richness with a previously developed method. Second, we showed on a real sample of 250 0.06clusters, most of which are at z<0.3, with spectroscopic redshift that the colour of the red sequence allows us to measure the clusters' redshift to better than Delta z=0.02. Third, we computed the predicted prior of the richness-mass scaling to forecast the capabilities of future wide-field-area surveys of galaxy clusters to constrain cosmological parameters. We computed the uncertainty and the covariance matrix of the (evolving) richness-mass scaling of a PanStarrs 1+Euclid-like survey accounting for a large suite of sources of errors. We find that the richness-mass scaling parameters, which are the input ingredients of cosmological forecasts using cluster counts, can b...

  4. Characterization and Modeling of Mass Segregation and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2011-10-01

    Studies of the dynamics and stellar populations of globular clusters are at the forefront of HST research. These two topics are deeply intertwined. Clusters experience an interplay of collisional processes that drive stars toward energy equipartition, thus segregating more massive stars to the core. In young clusters, this can even lead to the formation of intermediate-mass black holes {IMBHs}, which are of great astrophysical interest, although evidence for them continues to be disputed. Our recent HST{-supported} observational and theoretical studies indicate that equipartition in a cluster is not generally attained. Measurement of the actual mass segregation in clusters can yield significant insight into some of the most important cluster parameters, including the mass of any IMBH {which tends to quench mass segregation}. We have demonstrated this explictly on archival data of NGC2298 and M10. HST imaging {including parallel fields} exists in fact over large radial ranges for many globular clusters. This trove of information remains largely untapped, as studies generally focus on the cluster core. We propose here to rigorously quantify and model the mass segregation in all 66 Galactic globular clusters with suitable HST data. We will create CMDs, LFs, and MFs as function of radius, and will release the resulting Legacy data products to the community to enable a host of ancillary investigations. We will run N-body models to interpret the observed mass segregation in the sample clusters. Data-model comparisons will constrain the mass of any IMBHs, will identify IMBH-candidates for more targeted follow-up, and will shed new light on cluster structure and evolution.

  5. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2016-06-21

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because "each-atom-counts" toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well-defined surfaces may be explored using ion soft landing (SL) in a custom

  6. Measuring the neutrino mass from future wide galaxy cluster catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Carmelita; Moscardini, Lauro; Cimatti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    [abridged]We present forecast errors on a wide range of cosmological parameters obtained from a photometric cluster catalogue of a future wide-field Euclid-like survey. We focus in particular on the total neutrino mass as constrained by a combination of the galaxy cluster number counts and correlation function. For the latter we consider only the shape information and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), while marginalising over the spectral amplitude and the redshift space distortions. In addition to the cosmological parameters of the standard LCDM+nu model we also consider a non-vanishing curvature, and two parameters describing a redshift evolution for the dark energy equation of state. For completeness, we also marginalise over a set of "nuisance" parameters, representing the uncertainties on the cluster mass determination. We find that combining cluster counts with power spectrum information greatly improves the constraining power of each probe taken individually, with errors on cosmological parameter...

  7. Quantization State of Baryonic Mass in Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotational velocity curves for clusters of galaxies cannot be explained by Newtonian gravitation using the baryonic mass nor does MOND succeed in reducing this discrepancy to acceptable differences. The dark matter hypothesis appears to offer a solution; however, non-baryonic dark matter has never been detected. As an alternative approach, quantum celestial mechanics (QCM predicts that galactic clusters are in quantization states determined solely by the total baryonic mass of the cluster and its total angular momentum. We find excellent agreement with QCM for ten galactic clusters, demonstrating that dark matter is not needed to explain the rotation velocities and providing further support to the hypothesis that all gravitationally bound systems have QCM quantization states.

  8. Mass distributions of star clusters for different star formation histories in a galaxy cluster environment

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Christine; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies usually contain rich populations of globular clusters (GCs). We investigate how different star formation histories (SFHs) shape the final mass distribution of star clusters. We assume that every star cluster population forms during a formation epoch of length dt at a constant star-formation rate (SFR). The mass distribution of such a population is described by the embedded cluster mass function (ECMF), which is a pure power law extending to an upper limit M_max. Since the SFR determines M_max, the ECMF implicitly depends on the SFR. Starting with different SFHs, each SFH is divided into formation epochs of length dt at different SFRs. The requested mass function arises from the superposition of the star clusters of all formation epochs. An improved optimal sampling technique is introduced that allows generating number and mass distributions, both of which accurately agree with the ECMF. Moreover, for each SFH the distribution function of all involved SFRs, F(SFR), is computed. For monoton...

  9. Low-end mass function of the Quintuplet cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2016-05-01

    The Quintuplet and Arches clusters, which were formed in the harsh environment of the Galactic Center (GC) a few million years ago, have been excellent targets for studying the effects of a star-forming environment on the initial mass function (IMF). In order to estimate the shape of the low-end IMF of the Arches cluster, Shin & Kim devised a novel photometric method that utilizes pixel intensity histograms (PIHs) of the observed images. Here, we apply the PIH method to the Quintuplet cluster and estimate the shape of its low-end IMF below the magnitude of completeness limit as set by conventional photometry. We found that the low-end IMF of the Quintuplet is consistent with that found for the Arches cluster-Kroupa MF, with a significant number of low-mass stars below 1 M⊙. We conclude that the most likely IMFs of the Quintuplet and the Arches clusters are not too different from the IMFs found in the Galactic disc. We also find that the observed PIHs and stellar number density profiles of both clusters are best reproduced when the clusters are assumed to be at three-dimensional distances of approximately 100 pc from the GC.

  10. Low-end mass function of the Quintuplet cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2016-08-01

    The Quintuplet and Arches clusters, which were formed in the harsh environment of the Galactic Centre (GC) a few million years ago, have been excellent targets for studying the effects of a star-forming environment on the initial mass function (IMF). In order to estimate the shape of the low-end IMF of the Arches cluster, Shin & Kim devised a novel photometric method that utilizes pixel intensity histograms (PIHs) of the observed images. Here, we apply the PIH method to the Quintuplet cluster and estimate the shape of its low-end IMF below the magnitude of completeness limit as set by conventional photometry. We found that the low-end IMF of the Quintuplet is consistent with that found for the Arches cluster-Kroupa MF, with a significant number of low-mass stars below 1 M⊙. We conclude that the most likely IMFs of the Quintuplet and the Arches clusters are not too different from the IMFs found in the Galactic disc. We also find that the observed PIHs and stellar number density profiles of both clusters are best reproduced when the clusters are assumed to be at three-dimensional distances of approximately 100 pc from the GC.

  11. CLASH: The Concentration-Mass Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Merten, J; Postman, M; Umetsu, K; Zitrin, A; Medezinski, E; Nonino, M; Koekemoer, A; Melchior, P; Gruen, D; Moustakas, L A; Bartelmann, M; Host, O; Donahue, M; Coe, D; Molino, A; Jouvel, S; Monna, A; Seitz, S; Czakon, N; Lemze, D; Balestra, I; Rosati, P; Benítez, N; Biviano, A; Bouwens, R; Bradley, L; Broadhurst, T; Carrasco, M; Ford, H; Grillo, C; Infante, L; Kelson, D; Lahav, O; Massey, R; Moustakas, J; Rasia, E; Rhodes, J; Vega, J; Zheng, W

    2014-01-01

    We present a new determination of the concentration-mass relation for galaxy clusters based on our comprehensive lensing analysis of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our sample spans a redshift range between 0.19 and 0.89. We combine weak lensing constraints from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and from ground-based wide field data with strong lensing constraints from HST. The result are reconstructions of the surface-mass density for all CLASH clusters on multi-scale grids. Our derivation of NFW parameters yields virial masses between 0.53 x 10^15 and 1.76 x 10^15 M_sol/h and the halo concentrations are distributed around c_200c ~ 3.7 with a 1-sigma significant negative trend with cluster mass. We find an excellent 4% agreement between our measured concentrations and the expectation from numerical simulations after accounting for the CLASH selection function based on X-ray morphology. The simulations are analyzed in 2D to account for possib...

  12. X-ray galaxy clusters abundance and mass temperature scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Stéphane; Douspis, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of clusters of galaxies is known to be a potential source of cosmological constraints through their mass function. In the present work, we examine the information that can be obtained from the temperature distribution function of X-ray clusters. For this purpose, the mass-temperature ($M$-$T$) relation and its statistical properties are critical ingredients. Using a combination of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from Planck and our estimations of X-ray cluster abundances, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to estimate the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological parameters and the mass to X-ray temperature scaling relation simultaneously. We determine the integrated X-ray temperature function of local clusters using flux-limited surveys. A local comprehensive sample was build from the BAX X-ray cluster database, allowing us to estimate the local temperature distribution function above $\\sim$1 keV. We model the expected temperature function from the mass function and the $M$-$T$ scaling re...

  13. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.; Smith, D.F.; Jungmann, JH; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyat

  14. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  15. Photofragmentation and photoabsorption cross sections for mass selected argon cluster ions, n = 3 to 108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to measure photofragmentation mass spectra and optical absorption spectra of mass selected argon cluster ions in the n=3 to 108 atoms per cluster range. (orig.)

  16. What determines large scale clustering: halo mass or environment?

    CERN Document Server

    Pujol, Arnau; Jiménez, Noelia; Gaztañaga, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We study the large scale halo bias b as a function of the environment (defined here as the background dark matter density fluctuation, d) and show that environment, and not halo mass m, is the main cause of large scale clustering. More massive haloes have a higher clustering because they live in denser regions, while low mass haloes can be found in a wide range of environments, and hence they have a lower clustering. Using a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) test, we can predict b(m) from b(d), but we cannot predict b(d) from b(m), which shows that environment is more fundamental for bias than mass. This has implications for the HOD model interpretation of the galaxy clustering, since when a galaxy selection is affected by environment, the standard HOD implementation fails. We show that the effects of environment are very important for colour selected samples in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. In these cases, bias can be better recovered if we use environmental density instead of mass as the HOD va...

  17. A Dynamical Evolution Study of 40 2MASS Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Güneş, Orhan; Bonatto, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of 40 open clusters (OCs) by means of their astrophysical parameters derived from field-decontaminated 2MASS photometry. We find a bifurcation in the planes core radius vs. age and cluster radius vs. age, in which part of the clusters appear to expand with time probably due to the presence of stellar black holes while others seem to shrink due to dynamical relaxation. Mass functions (MFs) are built for 3$/$4 of the sample (31 OCs), which are used to search for indications of mass segregation and external dynamical processes by means of relations among astrophysical, structural and evolutionary parameters. We detect a flattening of MF slopes ocurring at the evolutionary parameters $\\tau_{core}\\leq 32$ and $\\tau_{overall}\\leq 30$, respectively. Within the uncertainties involved, the overall MF slopes of 14 out of 31 OCs with $m_{overall} > 500~M_{\\odot}$ are consistent with Kroupa's initial mass function, implying little or no dynamical evolution for these clusters. The re...

  18. Estimations of cluster emission rates based on 1988 mass tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight table of calculated nuclear decay properties are presented. Kinetic energies, half-lives and branching ratios relative to alpha-decay are estimated for the most probable clusters, with Ze≤28, spontaneously emitted from nuclides with masses tabulated in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables in 1988 (E.P.Haustein special editor).(authors)

  19. Lensing and X-ray mass estimates of clusters (SIMULATION)

    CERN Document Server

    Rasia, E; Martino, R; Borgani, S; Bonafede, A; Dolag, K; Ettori, S; Fabjan, D; Giocoli, C; Mazzotta, P; Merten, J; Radovich, M; Tornatore, L

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a comparison between weak-lensing (WL) and X-ray mass estimates of a sample of numerically simulated clusters. The sample consists on the 20 most massive objects at redshift z=0.25 and Mvir > 5 x 10^{14} Msun h^{-1}. They were found in a cosmological simulation of volume 1 h^{-3} Gpc^3, evolved in the framework of a WMAP-7 normalized cosmology. Each cluster has been resimulated at higher resolution and with more complex gas physics. We processed it thought Skylens and X-MAS to generate optical and X-ray mock observations along three orthogonal projections. The optical simulations include lensing effects on background sources. Standard observational tools and methods of analysis are used to recover the mass profiles of each cluster projection from the mock catalogues. Given the size of our sample, we could also investigate the dependence of the results on cluster morphology, environment, temperature inhomogeneity, and mass. We confirm previous results showing that WL masses obtained from ...

  20. The star cluster mass--galactocentric radius relation: Implications for cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Weijia; Fan, Zhou; Cameron, Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the initial star cluster mass function is established through a universal, galactocentric-distance-independent stochastic process, on the scales of individual galaxies, remains an unsolved problem. This debate has recently gained new impetus through the publication of a study that concluded that the maximum cluster mass in a given population is not solely determined by size-of-sample effects. Here, we revisit the evidence in favor and against stochastic cluster formation by examining the young ($\\lesssim$ a few $\\times 10^8$ yr-old) star cluster mass--galactocentric radius relation in M33, M51, M83, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. To eliminate size-of-sample effects, we first adopt radial bin sizes containing constant numbers of clusters, which we use to quantify the radial distribution of the first- to fifth-ranked most massive clusters using ordinary least-squares fitting. We supplement this analysis with an application of quantile regression, a binless approach to rank-based regression takin...

  1. Measuring the neutrino mass from future wide galaxy cluster catalogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present forecast errors on a wide range of cosmological parameters obtained from a photometric cluster catalogue of a future wide-field Euclid-like survey. We focus in particular on the total neutrino mass as constrained by a combination of the galaxy cluster number counts and correlation function. For the latter we consider only the shape information and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), while marginalising over the spectral amplitude and the redshift space distortions. In addition to the cosmological parameters of the standard ΛCDM+ν model we also consider a non-vanishing curvature, and two parameters describing a redshift evolution for the dark energy equation of state. For completeness, we also marginalise over a set of ''nuisance'' parameters, representing the uncertainties on the cluster mass determination. We find that combining cluster counts with power spectrum information greatly improves the constraining power of each probe taken individually, with errors on cosmological parameters being reduced by up to an order of magnitude. In particular, the best improvements are for the parameters defining the dynamical evolution of dark energy, where cluster counts break degeneracies. Moreover, the resulting error on neutrino mass is at the level of σ(Mν) ∼ 0.9 eV, comparable with that derived from present Lyα forest measurements and Cosmic Microwave background (CMB) data in the framework of a non-flat Universe. Further adopting Planck priors and reducing the number of free parameters to a ΛCDM+ν cosmology allows to place constraints on the total neutrino mass of σ(Mν) ∼ 0.08 eV, close to the lower bound enforced by neutrino oscillation experiments. Finally, in the optimistic case where uncertainties in the calibration of the mass-observable relation were so small to be neglected, the combination of Planck priors with cluster counts and power spectrum would constrain the total neutrino mass down to σ(Mν) ∼ 0.034 eV, i.e. the minimum

  2. Low-end mass function of the Quintuplet cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Jihye

    2016-01-01

    The Quintuplet and Arches clusters, which were formed in the harsh environment of the Galactic Center (GC) a few million years ago, have been excellent targets for studying the effects of a star-forming environment on the initial mass function (IMF). In order to estimate the shape of the low-end IMF of the Arches cluster, Shin & Kim devised a novel photometric method that utilizes pixel intensity histograms (PIHs) of the observed images. Here, we apply the PIH method to the Quintuplet cluster and estimate the shape of its low-end IMF below the magnitude of completeness limit as set by conventional photometry. We found that the low-end IMF of the Quintuplet is consistent with that found for the Arches cluster--Kroupa MF, with a significant number of low-mass stars below 1 $M_{\\odot}$. We conclude that the most likely IMFs of the Quintuplet and the Arches clusters are not too different from the IMFs found in the Galactic disc. We also find that the observed PIHs and stellar number density profiles of both c...

  3. Galaxy cluster mass estimation from stacked spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi, Arya; Evrard, August E.; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-08-01

    We use simulated galaxy surveys to study: i) how galaxy membership in redMaPPer clusters maps to the underlying halo population, and ii) the accuracy of a mean dynamical cluster mass, $M_\\sigma(\\lambda)$, derived from stacked pairwise spectroscopy of clusters with richness $\\lambda$. Using $\\sim\\! 130,000$ galaxy pairs patterned after the SDSS redMaPPer cluster sample study of Rozo et al. (2015 RMIV), we show that the pairwise velocity PDF of central--satellite pairs with $m_i galaxy membership matching. We apply this approach, along with mis-centering and galaxy velocity bias corrections, to estimate the log-mean matched halo mass at $z=0.2$ of SDSS redMaPPer clusters. Employing the velocity bias constraints of Guo et al. (2015), we find $\\langle \\ln(M_{200c})|\\lambda \\rangle = \\ln(M_{30}) + \\alpha_m \\ln(\\lambda/30)$ with $M_{30} = 1.56 \\pm 0.35 \\times 10^{14} M_\\odot$ and $\\alpha_m = 1.31 \\pm 0.06_{stat} \\pm 0.13_{sys}$. Systematic uncertainty in the velocity bias of satellite galaxies overwhelmingly dominates the error budget.

  4. Radiation, chemical and biological protection. Mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this text-book mass destruction weapons and radiation, chemical and biological protection are reviewed. The text-book contains the following chapter: (1) Mass destruction weapons; (2) Matter and material; (3) Radioactive materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Biological resources; (6) Nuclear energetic equipment; Appendices; References.

  5. Galaxy Cluster Mass Estimation from Stacked Spectroscopic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farahi, Arya; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We use simulated galaxy surveys to study: i) how galaxy membership in redMaPPer clusters maps to the underlying halo population, and ii) the accuracy of a mean dynamical cluster mass, $M_\\sigma(\\lambda)$, derived from stacked pairwise spectroscopy of clusters with richness $\\lambda$. Using $\\sim\\! 130,000$ galaxy pairs patterned after the SDSS redMaPPer cluster sample study of Rozo et al. (2015 RMIV), we show that the pairwise velocity PDF of central--satellite pairs with $m_i < 19$ in the simulation matches the form seen in RMIV. Through joint membership matching, we deconstruct the main Gaussian velocity component into its halo contributions, finding that the top-ranked halo contributes $\\sim 60\\%$ of the stacked signal. The halo mass scale inferred by applying the virial scaling of Evrard et al. (2008) to the velocity normalization matches, to within a few percent, the log-mean halo mass derived through galaxy membership matching. We apply this approach, along with mis-centering and galaxy velocity bias...

  6. ON THE BIRTH MASSES OF THE ANCIENT GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for internal (star-to-star) variation in their light-element abundances (including Li, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, and probably He). These variations have been interpreted as evidence for multiple star formation episodes within GCs, with secondary episodes fueled, at least in part, by the ejecta of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars from a first generation of stars. A major puzzle emerging from this otherwise plausible scenario is that the fraction of stars associated with the second episode of star formation is observed to be much larger than expected for a standard initial mass function. The present work investigates this tension by modeling the observed anti-correlation between [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] for 20 Galactic GCs. If the abundance pattern of the retained AGB ejecta does not depend on GC mass at fixed [Fe/H], then a strong correlation is found between the fraction of current GC stellar mass composed of pure AGB ejecta, fp , and GC mass. This fraction varies from 0.20 at low masses (104.5 M☉) to 0.45 at high masses (106.5 M☉). The fraction of mass associated with pure AGB ejecta is directly related to the total mass of the cluster at birth; the ratio between the initial and present mass in stars can therefore be derived. Assuming a star formation efficiency of 50%, the observed Na-O anti-correlations imply that GCs were at least 10-20 times more massive at birth, a conclusion that is in qualitative agreement with previous work. These factors are lower limits because any mass-loss mechanism that removes first- and second-generation stars equally will leave fp unchanged. The mass dependence of fp probably arises because lower mass GCs are unable to retain all of the AGB ejecta from the first stellar generation. Recent observations of elemental abundances in intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud clusters are re-interpreted and shown to be consistent with this basic scenario. The small scatter in fp at

  7. On the Birth Masses of the Ancient Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Charlie

    2012-10-01

    All globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for internal (star-to-star) variation in their light-element abundances (including Li, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, and probably He). These variations have been interpreted as evidence for multiple star formation episodes within GCs, with secondary episodes fueled, at least in part, by the ejecta of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars from a first generation of stars. A major puzzle emerging from this otherwise plausible scenario is that the fraction of stars associated with the second episode of star formation is observed to be much larger than expected for a standard initial mass function. The present work investigates this tension by modeling the observed anti-correlation between [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] for 20 Galactic GCs. If the abundance pattern of the retained AGB ejecta does not depend on GC mass at fixed [Fe/H], then a strong correlation is found between the fraction of current GC stellar mass composed of pure AGB ejecta, fp , and GC mass. This fraction varies from 0.20 at low masses (104.5 M ⊙) to 0.45 at high masses (106.5 M ⊙). The fraction of mass associated with pure AGB ejecta is directly related to the total mass of the cluster at birth; the ratio between the initial and present mass in stars can therefore be derived. Assuming a star formation efficiency of 50%, the observed Na-O anti-correlations imply that GCs were at least 10-20 times more massive at birth, a conclusion that is in qualitative agreement with previous work. These factors are lower limits because any mass-loss mechanism that removes first- and second-generation stars equally will leave fp unchanged. The mass dependence of fp probably arises because lower mass GCs are unable to retain all of the AGB ejecta from the first stellar generation. Recent observations of elemental abundances in intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud clusters are re-interpreted and shown to be consistent with this basic scenario. The small scatter in fp at

  8. Stellar mass and population diagnostics of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Joel C.

    2013-12-01

    We conduct a broad investigation about stellar mass and population diagnostics in order to formulate novel constraints related to the formation and evolution of galaxies from a nearby cluster environment. Our work is powered by the use of stellar population models which transform galaxy colours and/or absorption line strengths into estimates of its stellar properties. As input to such models, we assemble an extensive compilation of age and chemical abundance information for Galactic globular clusters. This compilation allows a confident expansion of these models into new regions of parameter space that promise to refine our knowledge of galactic chemical evolution. We then draw upon a state-of-the-art spectroscopic and photometric survey of the Virgo galaxy cluster in order to constrain spatial variations of the stellar ages, metallicities, and masses within its member galaxies, and their dynamical masses. We interpret these data in the context of the histories of star formation, chemical enrichment, and stellar mass assembly to formulate a broad picture of the build-up of this cluster's content over time. In it, the giant early-type galaxies formed through highly dissipational processes at early times that built up most of their stellar mass and drew significant amounts of dark matter within their optical radii. Conversely, dwarf early-types experienced environmental processes that quenched their star formation during either the early stages of cluster assembly or upon infall at later times. Somewhat perplexing is our finding that the internal dynamics of these galaxies are largely explained by their stellar masses. Lastly, Virgo spirals also suffer from their dense environment, through ram pressure stripping and/or tidal harrassment. In addition to quenching, these effects leave an imprint on their internal dynamical evolution too. Late-type spirals exhibit evidence of having ejected significant amounts of baryons from their inner regions, likely via energetic

  9. Weak Lensing Mass Reconstruction of the Galaxy Cluster Abell 209

    CERN Document Server

    Paulin-Henriksson, S; Haines, C P; Radovich, M; Mercurio, A; Becciani, U

    2007-01-01

    Weak lensing applied to deep optical images of clusters of galaxies provides a powerful tool to reconstruct the distribution of the gravitating mass associated to these structures. We use the shear signal extracted by an analysis of deep exposures of a region centered around the galaxy cluster Abell 209, at redshift z=0.2, to derive both a map of the projected mass distribution and an estimate of the total mass within a characteristic radius. We use a series of deep archival R-band images from CFHT-12k, covering an area of 0.3 deg^2. We determine the shear of background galaxy images using a new implementation of the modified Kaiser-Squires-Broadhurst pipeline for shear determination, which we has been tested against the ``Shear TEsting Program 1 and 2'' simulations. We use mass aperture statistics to produce maps of the 2 dimensional density distribution, and parametric fits using both Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and singular-isothermal-sphere profiles to constrain the total mass. The projected mass distributi...

  10. Matrix effects in biological SIMS using cluster ion beams of different chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajeebi, Afnan M; Vickerman, John C; Lockyer, Nicholas P

    2016-06-01

    The influence of the matrix effect on secondary ion yield presents a very significant challenge in quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis, for example, in determining the relative concentrations of metabolites that characterize normal biological activities or disease progression. Not only the sample itself but also the choice of primary ion beam may influence the extent of ionization suppression/enhancement due to the local chemical environment. In this study, an assessment of ionization matrix effects was carried out on model systems using C60 (+), Arn (+), and (H2O)n (+) cluster ion beams. The analytes are pure and binary mixtures of amino acids arginine and histidine biological standards. Ion beams of 20 keV were compared with a range of cluster sizes n = 1000-10 000. The component secondary ion yields were assessed for matrix effects using different primary ion beams and sample composition. The presence of water in the cluster beam is associated with a reduction in the observed matrix effects, suggesting that chemically reactive ion beams may provide a route to more quantitative SIMS analysis of complex biological systems. PMID:26825287

  11. Dynamic Reactive Ionization with Cluster Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) have been tuned to enhance secondary ion yields by doping small gas molecules such as CH4, CO2, and O2 into an Ar cluster projectile, Arn + ( n = 1000-10,000) to form a mixed cluster. The `tailored beam' has the potential to expand the application of secondary ion mass spectrometry for two- and three-dimensional molecular specific imaging. Here, we examine the possibility of further enhancing the ionization by doping HCl into the Ar cluster. Water deposited on the target surface facilitates the dissociation of HCl. This concerted effect, occurring only at the impact site of the cluster, arises since the HCl is chemically induced to ionize to H+ and Cl- , allowing improved protonation of neutral molecular species. This hypothesis is confirmed by depth profiling through a trehalose thin film exposed to D2O vapor, resulting in ~20-fold increase in protonated molecules. The results show that it is possible to dynamically maintain optimum ionization conditions during depth profiling by proper adjustment of the water vapor pressure. H-D exchange in the trehalose molecule M was monitored upon deposition of D2O on the target surface, leading to the observation of [Mn* + H]+ or [Mn* + D]+ ions, where n = 1-8 hydrogen atoms in the trehalose molecule M have been replaced by deuterium. In general, we discuss the role of surface chemistry and dynamic reactive ionization of organic molecules in increasing the secondary ion yield.

  12. Mass transport by buoyant bubbles in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Edward C D; Pavlovski, Georgi; Bower, Richard G; Dotter, Aaron; Victoria, University of; Southampton, University of; Durham, University of

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of three important processes by which AGN-blown bubbles transport material: drift, wake transport and entrainment. The first of these, drift, occurs because a buoyant bubble pushes aside the adjacent material, giving rise to a net upward displacement of the fluid behind the bubble. For a spherical bubble, the mass of upwardly displaced material is roughly equal to half the mass displaced by the bubble, and should be ~ 10^{7-9} solar masses depending on the local ICM and bubble parameters. We show that in classical cool core clusters, the upward displacement by drift may be a key process in explaining the presence of filaments behind bubbles. A bubble also carries a parcel of material in a region at its rear, known as the wake. The mass of the wake is comparable to the drift mass and increases the average density of the bubble, trapping it closer to the cluster centre and reducing the amount of heating it can do during its ascent. Moreover, material dropping out of the wake will also ...

  13. Virial masses of galaxy clusters in the post-Newtonian limit

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    We estimate virial masses of galaxy clusters using the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) virial theorem. Also, we show explicitly that post-Newtonian corrections can not address the mass discrepancy in the galaxy clusters.

  14. Globular Clusters Hosting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes: No Mass-Segregation Based Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Mario; Miocchi, Paolo; Won, Sohn Bong; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Recently, both stellar mass segregation and binary fractions were uniformly measured on relatively large samples of Galactic globular clusters (GCs). Simulations show that both sizable binary-star populations and intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) quench mass segregation in relaxed GCs. Thus mass segregation in GCs with a reliable binary-fraction measurement is a valuable probe to constrain IMBHs. In this paper we combine mass-segregation and binary-fraction measurements from the literature to build a sample of 33 GCs (with measured core binary fractions), and a sample of 43 GCs (with binary-fraction measurements in the area between the core radius and the half-mass radius). Within both samples we try to identify IMBH-host candidates. These should have relatively low mass segregation, a low binary fraction (segregated (and show a larger binary fraction), confirming the theoretical expectation that the energy sources responsible for the large core are also quenching mass segregation.

  15. Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Nelson; Deborah Paul; Greg Riccardi; Austin Mast

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes and illustrates five major clusters of related tasks (herein referred to as task clusters) that are common to efficient and effective practices in the digitization of biological specimen data and media. Examples of these clusters come from the observation of diverse digitization processes. The staff of iDigBio (The U.S. National Science Foundation’s National Resource for Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections) visited active biological and paleontologic...

  16. Globular Cluster Mass Loss in the Context of Multiple Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Many scenarios for the origin of the chemical anomalies observed in globular clusters (GCs; i.e., multiple populations) require that GCs were much more massive at birth, up to $10-100\\times$, than they are presently. This is invoked in order to have enough material processed through first generation stars in order to form the observed numbers of enriched stars (inferred to be second generation stars in these models). If such mass loss was due to tidal stripping, gas expulsion, or tidal interaction with the birth environment, there should be clear correlations between the fraction of enriched stars and other cluster properties, whereas the observations show a remarkably uniform enriched fraction of $0.68\\pm0.07$ (from 33 observed GCs). If interpreted in the heavy mass loss paradigm, this means that all GCs lost the same fraction of their initial mass (between $95-98$\\%), regardless of their mass, metallicity, location at birth or subsequent migration, or epoch of formation. This is incompatible with prediction...

  17. The Mass and Structure of the Pleiades Star Cluster from 2MASS

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J D; Monet, D G; Strutskie, M F; Beichman, C A; Adams, Joseph D.; Stauffer, John R.; Monet, David G.; Strutskie, Michael F.; Beichman, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a large scale search for new members of the Pleiades star cluster using 2MASS near-infrared photometry and proper motions derived from POSS plates digitized by the USNO PMM program. The search extends to a 10 degree radius around the cluster, well beyond the presumed tidal radius, to a limiting magnitude of R ~ 20, corresponding to ~ 0.07 M_sun at the distance and age of the Pleiades. Multi-object spectroscopy for 528 candidates verifies that the search was extremely effective at detecting cluster stars in the 1 - 0.1 M_sun mass range using the distribution of H_alpha emission strengths as an estimate of sample contamination by field stars. When combined with previously identified, higher mass stars, this search provides a sensitive measurement of the stellar mass function and dynamical structure of the Pleiades. The degree of tidal elongation of the halo agrees well with current N body simulation results. Tidal truncation affects masses below ~ 1 M_sun. The cluster contains a total ...

  18. Constraining amplitude and slope of the mass fluctuation spectrum using cluster baryon mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Voevodkin, A

    2004-01-01

    We derive the baryon mass function for a complete sample of low-redshift clusters and argue that it is an excellent proxy for the total mass function if the ratio f_b=M_b/M_tot in all clusters is close to its universal value, Omega_b/Omega_M. Under this assumption, the baryon mass function can be used to constrain the amplitude and slope of the density fluctuations power spectrum on cluster scales. This method does not use observational determinations of the total mass and thus bypasses major uncertainties in the traditional analyses based on the X-ray temperature function. However, it is sensitive to possible systematic variations of the baryon fraction as a function of cluster mass. Adapting a weak dependence f_b(M) suggested by observations and numerical simulations by Bialek et al., we derive sigma_8=0.72+-0.04 and the shape parameter Omega_M*h=0.13+-0.07, in good agreement with a number of independent methods. We discuss the sensitivity of these values to other cosmological parameters and to different as...

  19. Constraining Amplitude and Slope of the Mass Fluctuation Spectrum Using a Cluster Baryon Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodkin, A.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2004-02-01

    We derive the baryon mass function for a complete sample of low-redshift clusters and argue that it is an excellent proxy for the total mass function if the ratio fb=Mb/Mtot in all clusters is close to its universal value, Ωb/ΩM. Under this assumption, the baryon mass function can be used to constrain the amplitude and slope of the density fluctuation power spectrum on cluster scales. This method does not use observational determinations of the total mass and thus bypasses major uncertainties in the traditional analyses based on the X-ray temperature function. However, it is sensitive to possible systematic variations of the baryon fraction as a function of cluster mass. Adapting a weak dependence fb(M), suggested by observations and numerical simulations by Bialek et al., we derive σ8=0.72+/-0.04 and the shape parameter ΩMh=0.13+/-0.07, in good agreement with a number of independent methods. We discuss the sensitivity of these values to other cosmological parameters and to different assumptions about variations in fb.

  20. From light to mass: accessing the initial and present-day Galactic globular cluster mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The initial and present-day mass functions (ICMF and PDMF, respectively) of the Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are constructed based on their observed luminosities, the stellar evolution and dynamical mass-loss processes, and the mass-to-light ratio (MLR). Under these conditions, a Schechter-like ICMF is evolved for approximately a Hubble time and converted into the luminosity function (LF), which requires finding the values of 5 free parameters: the mean GC age (\\tA), the dissolution timescale of a $10^5 \\ms$ cluster ($\\tau_5$), the exponential truncation mass (\\mc) and 2 MLR parametrising constants. This is achieved by minimising the residuals between the evolved and observed LFs, with the minimum residuals and realistic parameters obtained with MLRs that increase with luminosity (or mass). The optimum PMDFs indicate a total stellar mass of $\\sim4\\times10^7$ \\ms\\ still bound to GCs, representing $\\sim15%$ of the mass in clusters at the beginning of the gas-free evolution. The corresponding ICMFs resemble ...

  1. Mass extinctions vs. uniformitarianism in biological evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, P.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-12-31

    It is usually believed that Darwin`s theory leads to a smooth gradual evolution, so that mass extinctions must be caused by external shocks. However, it has recently been argued that mass extinctions arise from the intrinsic dynamics of Darwinian evolution. Species become extinct when swept by intermittent avalanches propagating through the global ecology. These ideas are made concrete through studies of simple mathematical models of co-evolving species. The models exhibit self-organized criticality and describe some general features of the extinction pattern in the fossil record.

  2. Bayesian inference of mass segregation of open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhengyi; Chen, Li; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Zhong, Jing; Hou, Jinliang

    2015-08-01

    Based on the Bayesian inference (BI) method, the mixture-modeling approach is improved to combine all kinematic data, including the coordinative position, proper motion (PM) and radial velocity (RV), to separate the motion of the cluster from field stars in its area, as well as to describe the intrinsic kinematic status. Meanwhile, the membership probabilities of individual stars are determined as by product results. This method has been testified by simulation of toy models and it was found that the joint usage of multiple kinematic data can significantly reduce the missing rate of membership determination, say from ~15% for single data type to 1% for using all position, proper motion and radial velocity data.By combining kinematic data from multiple sources of photometric and redshift surveys, such as WIYN and APOGEE, M67 and NGC188 are revisited. Mass segregation is identified clearly for both of these two old open clusters, either in position or in PM spaces, since the Bayesian evidence (BE) of the model, which includes the segregation parameters, is much larger than that without it. The ongoing work is applying this method to the LAMOST released data which contains a large amount of RVs cover ~200 nearby open clusters. If the coming GAIA data can be used, the accuracy of tangential velocity will be largely improved and the intrinsic kinematics of open clusters can be well investigated, though they are usually less than 1 km/s.

  3. Mass transport by buoyant bubbles in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Edward C. D.; Babul, Arif; Pavlovski, Georgi; Bower, Richard G.; Dotter, Aaron

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the effect of three important processes by which active galactic nuclei (AGN)-blown bubbles transport material: drift, wake transport and entrainment. The first of these, drift, occurs because a buoyant bubble pushes aside the adjacent material, giving rise to a net upward displacement of the fluid behind the bubble. For a spherical bubble, the mass of upwardly displaced material is roughly equal to half the mass displaced by the bubble and should be ~ 107-9 Msolar depending on the local intracluster medium (ICM) and bubble parameters. We show that in classical cool-core clusters, the upward displacement by drift may be a key process in explaining the presence of filaments behind bubbles. A bubble also carries a parcel of material in a region at its rear, known as the wake. The mass of the wake is comparable to the drift mass and increases the average density of the bubble, trapping it closer to the cluster centre and reducing the amount of heating it can do during its ascent. Moreover, material dropping out of the wake will also contribute to the trailing filaments. Mass transport by the bubble wake can effectively prevent the buildup of cool material in the central galaxy, even if AGN heating does not balance ICM cooling. Finally, we consider entrainment, the process by which ambient material is incorporated into the bubble. Studies of observed bubbles show that they subtend an opening angle much larger than predicted by simple adiabatic expansion. We show that bubbles that entrain ambient material as they rise will expand faster than the adiabatic prediction; however, the entrainment rate required to explain the observed opening angle is large enough that the density contrast between the bubble and its surroundings would disappear rapidly. We therefore conclude that entrainment is unlikely to be a dominant mass transport process. Additionally, this also suggests that the bubble surface is much more stable against instabilities that promote

  4. The Main Sequence Luminosity Function of Low-Mass Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical work indicates that the dynamical evolution of globular clusters of low mass and low central concentration is strongly determined by mass-loss processes, such as stellar evaporation and tidal stripping, that can eventually lead to cluster dissolution. In fact, mass loss and cluster disruption is now considered to be a viable explanation for the form of the faint end of the Milky Way globular cluster luminosity function. A clear observational demonstration of the prevalence of cluster mass-loss would have ramifications not only for the dynamical evolution of individual globular clusters and their internal stellar mass distributions, but also for the relationships between halo field and cluster stars and the properties of globular cluster systems in galaxies. Our previous WFPC2 imaging of the low-mass diffuse halo cluster Palomar 5 revealed a main sequence deficient in stars compared to other low-concentration globular clusters of much higher mass, consistent with there having been a considerable loss of stars from this system. But is Pal 5 typical of low-mass, low-concentration halo clusters? We propose to place the mass-loss scenario on a firm observational footing {or otherwise} by using WFC3 imaging to measure the main-sequence stellar mass functions of two of the lowest-mass lowest-concentration globular clusters in the Milky Way, AM-4 and Palomar 13, in order to search for analogous evidence of stellar depletion.

  5. A highly efficient measure of mass segregation in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Olczak, C; Henning, Th

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of mass segregation are of vital interest for the understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of stellar systems on a wide range of spatial scales. Our method is based on the minimum spanning tree (MST) that serves as a geometry-independent measure of concentration. Compared to previous such approaches we obtain a significant refinement by using the geometrical mean as an intermediate-pass. It allows the detection of mass segregation with much higher confidence and for much lower degrees of mass segregation than other approaches. The method shows in particular very clear signatures even when applied to small subsets of the entire population. We confirm with high significance strong mass segregation of the five most massive stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our method is the most sensitive general measure of mass segregation so far and provides robust results for both data from simulations and observations. As such it is ideally suited for tracking mass segregation in young sta...

  6. RASS-SDSS Galaxy Cluster Survey. VII. On the Cluster Mass to Light ratio and the Halo Occupation Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Popesso, P; Böhringer, Hans; Romaniello, M

    2006-01-01

    We explore the mass-to-light ratio in galaxy clusters and its relation to the cluster mass. We study the relations among the optical luminosity ($L_{op}$), the cluster mass ($M_{200}$) and the number of cluster galaxies within $r_{200}$ ($N_{gal}$) in a sample of 217 galaxy clusters with confirmed 3D overdensity. We correct for projection effects, by determining the galaxy surface number density profile in our cluster sample. This is best fitted by a cored King profile in low and intermediate mass systems. The core radius decreases with cluster mass, and, for the highest mass clusters, the profile is better represented by a generalized King profile or a cuspy Navarro, Frenk & White profile. We find a very tight proportionality between $L_{op}$ and $N_{gal}$, which, in turn, links the cluster mass-to-light ratio to the Halo Occupation Distribution $N_{gal}$ vs. $M_{200}$. After correcting for projection effects, the slope of the $L_{op}-M_{200}$ and $N_{gal}-M_{200}$ relations is found to be $0.92\\pm0.03$,...

  7. The High-Mass Stellar Initial Mass Function in M31 Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Dolphin, Andrew E; Beerman, Lori C; Williams, Benjamin F; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W; Fouesneau, Morgan; Johnson, Benjamin D; Bell, Eric F; Boyer, Martha L; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S; Lewis, Alexia R; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    We have undertaken the largest systematic study of the high-mass stellar initial mass function (IMF) to date using the optical color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of 85 resolved, young (4 Myr 2 Msun. For the ensemble of clusters, the distribution of stellar MF slopes is best described by $\\Gamma=+1.45^{+0.03}_{-0.06}$ with a very small intrinsic scatter. The data also imply no significant dependencies of the MF slope on cluster age, mass, and size, providing direct observational evidence that the measured MF represents the IMF. This analysis implies that the high-mass IMF slope in M31 clusters is universal with a slope ($\\Gamma=+1.45^{+0.03}_{-0.06}$) that is steeper than the canonical Kroupa (+1.30) and Salpeter (+1.35) values. Using our inference model on select Milky Way (MW) and LMC high-mass IMF studies from the literature, we find $\\Gamma_{\\rm MW} \\sim+1.15\\pm0.1$ and $\\Gamma_{\\rm LMC} \\sim+1.3\\pm0.1$, both with intrinsic scatter of ~0.3-0.4 dex. Thus, while the high-mass IMF in the Local Group may be unive...

  8. Spatial dependence of 2MASS luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C; Santos, J F C

    2005-01-01

    Luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188 are analysed by means of J and H 2MASS photometry. Within the uncertainties, the observed projected radial density profile of NGC 188 departs from the two-parameter King model in two inner regions, which reflects the non-virialized dynamical state and possibly, some degree of non-sphericity in the spatial shape of this old open cluster. Fits with two and three-parameter King models to the radial distribution of stars resulted in a core radius of 1.3 pc and a tidal radius of 21 pc. The present 2MASS analysis resulted in significant slope variations with distance in the mass function $\\phi(m)\\propto m^{-(1+\\chi)}$, being flat in the central parts ($\\chi=0.6\\pm0.7$) and steep in the cluster outskirts ($\\chi=7.2\\pm0.6$). The overall mass function has a slope $\\chi=1.9\\pm0.7$, slightly steeper than a standard Salpeter mass function. Solar metallicity Padova isochrone fits to the near-infrared colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 188 resulted in an age of $7....

  9. Intermediate Mass Black Hole Induced Quenching of Mass Segregation in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Michael; Miller, M Coleman; van der Marel, Roeland; Hamilton, Douglas; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    In many theoretical scenarios it is expected that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, with masses M ~ 100-10000 solar masses) reside at the centers of some globular clusters. However, observational evidence for their existence is limited. Several previous numerical investigations have focused on the impact of an IMBH on the cluster dynamics or brightness profile. Here we instead present results from a large set of direct N-body simulations including single and binary stars. These show that there is a potentially more detectable IMBH signature, namely on the variation of the average stellar mass between the center and the half-light radius. We find that the existence of an IMBH quenches mass segregation and causes the average mass to exhibit only modest radial variation in collisionally relaxed star clusters. This differs from when there is no IMBH. To measure this observationally requires high resolution imaging at the level of that already available from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the cores of a ...

  10. EVIDENCE FOR TWO DISTINCT STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTIONS: REVISITING THE EFFECTS OF CLUSTER DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the velocity dispersions of six galactic globular clusters using spatially integrated spectra, to test for the effects of internal dynamical evolution in the stellar mass-to-light ratios, Y*, of star clusters. In particular, we revisit whether the low values of Y* that we found in our previous study, from which we concluded that there are at least two population of stellar clusters with distinct stellar initial mass functions, are artificially depressed by relaxation driven mass loss. The combination of our previous sample of five old clusters and these six now provide an order of magnitude range in cluster mass with which to explore this issue. We find no relationship between cluster mass, or relaxation time, and Y*. Because relaxation is mass dependent, we conclude that the values of Y* for these clusters are not strongly affected by dynamical effects, and so confirm the presence of the population of clusters with low Y*.

  11. Comparisons of Cluster Mass Determinations by X-ray Observations and Gravitational Lensing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiang-Ping; Fang, Li-Zhi

    1996-01-01

    Gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies has been detected on scales ranging from $\\sim10^{-1}$ Mpc to $\\sim10$ Mpc, namely, arcs/arclets, weak lensing and quasar-cluster associations. This allows us to derive an overall radius matter distribution of clusters of galaxies. While the dynamical analysis of the X-ray observations has yielded a great number of data for the virial cluster masses, it becomes possible to statistically compare the cluster mass determinations by these two independ...

  12. Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 1: Identifying Proteins Based on Molecular Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological mass spectrometry is an important analytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. Currently, few hands-on opportunities exist for undergraduate students to learn about this technique. With the 2002 Nobel Prize being awarded, in part, for the development of biological mass…

  13. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05. No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  14. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  15. Radial structure, inflow & central mass of stationary radiative galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Saxton, Curtis J

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the radial structure of self-gravitating spheres consisting of multiple interpenetrating fluids, such as the X-ray emitting gas and the dark halo of a galaxy cluster. In these dipolytropic models, adiabatic dark matter sits in equilibrium, while the gas develops a gradual, smooth, quasi-stationary cooling flow. Both affect and respond to the collective gravitational field. We find that all subsonic, radially continuous, steady solutions require a non-zero minimum central point mass. For Mpc-sized halos with 7 to 10 effective degrees of freedom (F2), the minimum central mass is compatible with observations of supermassive black holes. Smaller gas mass influxes enable smaller central masses for wider ranges of F2. The halo comprises a sharp spike around the central mass, embedded within a core of nearly constant density (at 10-10^2.5kpc scales), with outskirts that attenuate and naturally truncate at finite radius (several Mpc). The gas density resembles a broken power law in radius, but the temperat...

  16. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissu...

  17. Mass segregation in rich clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud - III. Implications for the initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    De Grijs, R; MacKey, A D; Wilkinson, M I; Beaulieu, S F; Johnson, R A; Santiago, B X

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of core radii of rich clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) systematically increases in both upper limit and spread with increasing cluster age. Cluster-to-cluster variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF) have been suggested as an explanation. We discuss the implications of the observed degree of mass segregation in our sample clusters for the shape of the initial mass function. Our results are based on Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of six rich star clusters in the LMC, selected to include three pairs of clusters of similar age, metallicity, and distance from the LMC centre, and exhibiting a large spread in core radii between the clusters in each pair. All clusters show clear evidence of mass segregation: (i) their luminosity function slopes steepen with increasing cluster radius, and (ii) the brighter stars are characterized by smaller core radii. For all sample clusters, both the slope of the luminosity function in the cluster centres and the degree of mass s...

  18. Extrinsic Sources of Scatter in the Richness-Mass Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin; Nord, Brian; Wu, Hao-Yi; Evrard, August; Wechsler, Risa

    2011-01-01

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness-mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using SDSS data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely (\\approx 1% - 5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of opt...

  19. The Intracluster Gas Fraction in X-ray Clusters Constraints on the Clustered Mass Density

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, A E

    1997-01-01

    The mean intracluster gas fraction of X-ray clusters within their hydrostatic regions is derived from recent observational compilations of David, Jones & Forman and White & Fabian. At radii encompassing a mean density 500 times the critical value, the individual sample bi-weight means are moderately ($2.4 by numerical simulations removes the discrepancy and results in a combined sample mean and standard error $\\fbargas(r_{500}) = (0.060 \\pm 0.003) assumption to maximize cluster gas content, this value constrains the universal ratio of total, clustered to baryonic mass $\\Omega_m/\\Omega_b \\le 23.1 physically plausible approach based on low D/H inferences from quasar absorption spectra and accounting for baryons within cluster galaxies yields an estimate $Ømega_m \\h^{2/3} = 0.28 \\pm 0.07$ with sources of systematic error involved in the derivation providing approximately $35%$ uncertainty. Additional effects which could provide consistency with the Einstein-deSitter case $Ømega_m \\se 1$ are presented, ...

  20. Precision cosmology with the 2MASS clustering dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, Maciej; Hellwing, Wojciech; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of peculiar velocities of galaxies with their gravitational accelerations (induced by the density field) is one of the methods to constrain the redshift distortion parameter \\beta=(\\Omega_m^0.55)/b, where \\Omega_m is the non-relativistic matter density parameter and b is the linear bias. In particular, one can use the motion of the Local Group (LG) for that purpose. Its peculiar velocity is known from the dipole component of the cosmic microwave background, whereas its acceleration can be estimated with the use of an all-sky galaxy catalog, from the so-called clustering dipole. At the moment, the biggest dataset of that kind is the Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC) containing almost 1 million galaxies and complete up to ~300 Mpc/h. We applied 2MASS data to measure LG acceleration and used two methods to estimate the beta parameter. Both of them yield \\beta~0.4 with an error of several per cent, which is the most precise determination of this parameter from the clustering...

  1. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS galaxy Clusters II: Cluster Density Profiles and the Mass--Richness Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin P.; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; Becker, Matthew; Annis, James

    2007-09-28

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.

  2. Determination of the Linear Mass Power Spectrum From the Mass Function of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, A G; Lambas, D G

    2002-01-01

    We develop a new method to determine the linear mass power spectrum using the mass function of galaxy clusters. We obtain the rms mass fluctuation sigma (M) using the expression for the mass function in the Press & Schechter (1974), Sheth, Mo & Tormen (2001) and Jenkins et al. (2001) formalisms. We apply different techniques to recover the adimensional power spectrum Delta ^{2}(k) from sigma (M) namely the k_{eff} approximation, the singular value decomposition and the linear regularization method. The application of these techniques to the tCDM and LCDM GIF simulations shows a high efficiency in recovering the theoretical power spectrum over a wide range of scales. We compare our results with those derived from the power spectrum of the spatial distribution of the same sample of clusters in the simulations obtained by application of the classical Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994), FKP, method. We find that the mass function based method presented here can provide a very accurate estimate of the li...

  3. Optimum Metallic-Bond Scheme: A Quantitative Analysis of Mass Spectra of Sodium Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏长荣; 李家明

    2001-01-01

    Based on the results of the optimum metallic-bond scheme for sodium clusters, we present a quantitative analysis of the detailed features of the mass spectra of sodium clusters. We find that, in the generation of sodium clusters with various abundances, the quasi-steady processes through adding or losing a sodium atom dominate. The quasi-steady processes through adding or losing a sodium dimer are also important to understand the detailed features of mass spectra for small clusters.

  4. Globular clusters hosting intermediate-mass black-holes: no mass-segregation based candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquato, Mario; Sohn, Bong Won; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Recently, both stellar mass-segregation and binary-fractions were uniformly measured on relatively large samples of Galactic Globular Clusters (GCs). Simulations show that both sizeable binary-star populations and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) quench mass-segregation in relaxed GCs. Thus mass-segregation in GCs with a reliable binary-fraction measurement is a valuable probe to constrain IMBHs. In this paper we combine mass-segregation and binary-fraction measurements from the literature to build a sample of 33 GCs (with measured core-binary fractions), and a sample of 43 GCs (with a binary fraction measurement in the area between the core radius and the half-mass radius). Within both samples we try to identify IMBH-host candidates. These should have relatively low mass-segregation, a low binary fraction (< 5%), and short (< 1 Gyr) relaxation time. Considering the core binary fraction sample, no suitable candidates emerge. If the binary fraction between the core and the half-mass radius is consid...

  5. A Stacked Search for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in 337 Extragalactic Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Nyland, K. E.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    2015-10-01

    Forbes et al. recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to localize hundreds of candidate star clusters in NGC 1023, an early-type galaxy at a distance of 11.1 Mpc. Old stars dominate the light of 92% of the clusters and intermediate-age stars dominate the light of the remaining 8%. Theory predicts that clusters with such ages can host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses To investigate this prediction, we used 264 s of 5.5 GHz data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to search for the radiative signatures of IMBH accretion from 337 candidate clusters in an image spanning 492″ (26 kpc) with a resolution of 0.″40 (22 pc). None of the individual clusters are detected, nor are weighted-mean image stacks of the 311 old clusters, the 26 intermediate-age clusters, and the 20 clusters with stellar masses The clusters thus lack radio analogs of HLX-1, a strong IMBH candidate in a cluster in the early-type galaxy ESO 243-49. This suggests that HLX-1 is accreting gas related to its cluster's light-dominating young stars. Alternatively, the HLX-1 phenomenon could be so rare that no radio analog is expected in NGC 1023. Also, using a formalism heretofore applied to star clusters in the Milky Way, the radio-luminosity upper limit for the massive-cluster stack corresponds to a 3σ IMBH mass of suggesting black hole mass fractions of

  6. 2MASS photometry and kinematical studies of open cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Elsanhoury, W H; Chupina, N V; Vereshchagin, S V; Sariya, Devesh P; Yadav, R K S; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our results for the photometric and kinematical studies of old open cluster NGC 188. We determined various astrophysical parameters like limited radius, core and tidal radii, distance, luminosity and mass functions, total mass, relaxation time etc. for the cluster using 2MASS catalog. We obtained the cluster's distance from the Sun as 1721+/-41 pc and log (age)= 9.85+/-0.05 at Solar metallicity. The relaxation time of the cluster is smaller than the estimated cluster age which suggests that the cluster is dynamically relaxed. Our results agree with the values mentioned in the literature. We also determined the cluster's apex coordinates as (281.88 deg, -44.76 deg) using AD-diagram method. Other kinematical parameters like space velocity components, cluster center and elements of Solar motion etc. have also been computed.

  7. Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 2: Peptide Identification via Molecular Mass Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a routine analytical tool in the undergraduate curriculum in the form of GC-MS. While relatively few undergraduate programs have incorporated biological mass spectrometry into their programs, the importance of these techniques, as demonstrated by their recognition with the 2002 Nobel Prize, will hopefully lead to…

  8. The impact of galaxy geometry and mass evolution on the survival of star clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Martig, Marie [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Direct N-body simulations of globular clusters in a realistic Milky-Way-like potential are carried out using the code NBODY6 to determine the impact of the host galaxy disk mass and geometry on the survival of star clusters. A relation between disk mass and star-cluster dissolution timescale is derived. These N-body models show that doubling the mass of the disk from 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} to 10 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} halves the dissolution time of a satellite star cluster orbiting the host galaxy at 6 kpc from the galactic center. Different geometries in a disk of identical mass can determine either the survival or dissolution of a star cluster orbiting within the inner 6 kpc of the galactic center. Furthermore, disk geometry has measurable effects on the mass loss of star clusters up to 15 kpc from the galactic center. N-body simulations performed with a fine output time step show that at each disk crossing the outer layers of star clusters experiences an increase in velocity dispersion of ∼5% of the average velocity dispersion in the outer section of star clusters. This leads to an enhancement of mass loss—a clearly discernable effect of disk shocking. By running models with different inclinations, we determine that star clusters with an orbit that is perpendicular to the Galactic plane have larger mass loss rates than do clusters that evolve in the Galactic plane or in an inclined orbit.

  9. Mass spectrometric analysis with cluster projectiles and coincidence counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for maximizing the amount of secondary ion information, per primary projectile, are described. The method is based on time-of-flight mass spectrometry and event-by-event coincidence counting. The information obtained from coincidence counting time-of-flight mass spectrometry includes: (a) surface composition, (b) relative concentrations, and (c) degree of intermolecular mixing. The technique was applied to the study of an important new class of polymers: polymer blends. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, when applied to the analysis of synthetic polymers, induces backbone fragmentation which is characteristic of the homopolymer. The characteristic fingerprint peaks from polystyrene and poly(vinyl methyl ether) were used to identify the presence of these two polymers in a polymer blend. The percent coincidence between the characteristic secondary ions from each component of the blend were used to determine both the relative concentration and the degree of molecular mixing. Results indicate molecular segregation of the two polymers on the film surface. The largest degree of segregation was determined for the phase separated blends. The performance of this technique depends on the desorption efficiency of the primary projectiles. In practice one seeks primary ions which are surface sensitive, have controllable parameters such as size, velocity, and charge state, and generate high secondary ion yields. Focus was placed on the use of keV organic cluster projectiles to meet these criteria. Of interest to this study were C[sub 18] (chrysene), C[sub 24] (coronene), and C[sub 60] (buckminster-fulleren). Results indicate enhanced secondary ion yields for C[sub 60]. For example, when CsI is bombarded with 30 keV C[sub 60], the yields for I[sup [minus

  10. Evidence for Cluster to Cluster Variations in Low-Mass Stellar Rotational Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, Carl T; Terndrup, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    A concordance model for angular momentum evolution has been developed by multiple investigators. This approach postulates that star forming regions and clusters are an evolutionary sequence which can be modeled with assumptions about the coupling between protostars and accretion disks, angular momentum loss from magnetized winds that saturates in a mass-dependent fashion at high rotation rates, and core-envelope decoupling for solar analogs. We test this approach by combining established data with the large h Per dataset from the MONITOR project and new low-mass Pleiades data. We confirm prior results that young low-mass stars can be used to test star-disk coupling and angular momentum loss independent of the treatment of internal angular momentum transport. For slow rotators, we confirm the need for star-disk interactions to evolve the ONC to older systems, using h Per (age 13~Myr) as our natural post-disk case. Further interactions are not required to evolve slow rotators from h Per to older systems, implyi...

  11. Cluster Structure in Cosmological Simulations. I. Correlation to Observables, Mass Estimates, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltema, Tesla E.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Motl, Patrick M.

    2008-07-01

    We use Enzo, a hybrid Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement/N-body code including nongravitational heating and cooling, to explore the morphology of the X-ray gas in clusters of galaxies and its evolution in current-generation cosmological simulations. We employ and compare two observationally motivated structure measures: power ratios and centroid shift. Overall, the structure of our simulated clusters compares remarkably well to low-redshift observations, although some differences remain that may point to incomplete gas physics. We find no dependence on cluster structure in the mass-observable scaling relations, TX-M and YX-M, when using the true cluster masses. However, estimates of the total mass based on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, as assumed in observational studies, are systematically low. We show that the hydrostatic mass bias strongly correlates with cluster structure and, more weakly, with cluster mass. When the hydrostatic masses are used, the mass-observable scaling relations and gas mass fractions depend significantly on cluster morphology, and the true relations are not recovered even if the most relaxed clusters are used. We show that cluster structure, via the power ratios, can be used to effectively correct the hydrostatic mass estimates and mass scaling relations, suggesting that we can calibrate for this systematic effect in cosmological studies. Similar to observational studies, we find that cluster structure, particularly centroid shift, evolves with redshift. This evolution is mild but will lead to additional errors at high redshift. Projection along the line of sight leads to significant uncertainty in the structure of individual clusters: less than 50% of clusters which appear relaxed in projection based on our structure measures are truly relaxed.

  12. Interaction of metallic clusters with biologically active curcumin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K.; He, Haiying; Liu, Chunhui; Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Ravindra

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the interaction of subnano metallic Gd and Au clusters with curcumin, an important biomolecule having pharmacological activity. Gd clusters show different site preference to curcumin and much stronger interaction strength, in support of the successful synthesis of highly stable curcumin-coated Gd nanoparticles as reported recently. It can be attributed to significant charge transfer from the Gd cluster to curcumin together with a relatively strong hybridization of the Gd df-orbitals with curcumin p-orbitals. These results suggest that Gd nanoparticles can effectively be used as delivery carriers for curcumin at the cellular level for therapy and medical imaging applications.

  13. Observation of Electronic Shells and Characteristic Products from Mass Abundance Spectra of Al Cluster and Al-C Cluster Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing-Chen; ZHAI Hua-Jin; ZHOU Ru-Fang; NI Guo-Quan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    Using a laser vaporization/pulsed molecular beam cluster source, Al cluster anions and Al-C mixed cluster anions are produced and recorded by a time of flight mass spectrometer. Mass abundance spectra of the Al cluster anions in the size range from Al2 to Al42 show that Al-13, Al23, Al35, and slightly, Al37 are local maxima, as predicted by the electronic jellium model. Mixed clusters Aln C- and Aln C2 are also shown, among which the most abundant species are Al3 C2 , Al6 C2 , Al7 C- and Al7 C2 in the small size range. The formation mechanism of these products is discussed.

  14. THE MASS-RICHNESS RELATION OF MaxBCG CLUSTERS FROM QUASAR LENSING MAGNIFICATION USING VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurement of galaxy cluster masses is an essential component not only in studies of cluster physics but also for probes of cosmology. However, different mass measurement techniques frequently yield discrepant results. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey MaxBCG catalog's mass-richness relation has previously been constrained using weak lensing shear, Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ), and X-ray measurements. The mass normalization of the clusters as measured by weak lensing shear is ∼>25% higher than that measured using SZ and X-ray methods, a difference much larger than the stated measurement errors in the analyses. We constrain the mass-richness relation of the MaxBCG galaxy cluster catalog by measuring the gravitational lensing magnification of type I quasars in the background of the clusters. The magnification is determined using the quasars' variability and the correlation between quasars' variability amplitude and intrinsic luminosity. The mass-richness relation determined through magnification is in agreement with that measured using shear, confirming that the lensing strength of the clusters implies a high mass normalization and that the discrepancy with other methods is not due to a shear-related systematic measurement error. We study the dependence of the measured mass normalization on the cluster halo orientation. As expected, line-of-sight clusters yield a higher normalization; however, this minority of haloes does not significantly bias the average mass-richness relation of the catalog.

  15. Spectroscopic structure and mass determination of plasma cluster accelerated by a coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of air cluster by spectral line intensities is determined using an unstationary collisional-radiative model. The ratio of filling gas and admixtures is stated. The dependence of cluster mass on the time delay of discharge after admitting of filling gas is calculated at known electron density and cluster volume. (author)

  16. Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gil; Paul, Deborah; Riccardi, Gregory; Mast, Austin R

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates five major clusters of related tasks (herein referred to as task clusters) that are common to efficient and effective practices in the digitization of biological specimen data and media. Examples of these clusters come from the observation of diverse digitization processes. The staff of iDigBio (The U.S. National Science Foundation's National Resource for Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections) visited active biological and paleontological collections digitization programs for the purpose of documenting and assessing current digitization practices and tools. These observations identified five task clusters that comprise the digitization process leading up to data publication: (1) pre-digitization curation and staging, (2) specimen image capture, (3) specimen image processing, (4) electronic data capture, and (5) georeferencing locality descriptions. While not all institutions are completing each of these task clusters for each specimen, these clusters describe a composite picture of digitization of biological and paleontological specimens across the programs that were observed. We describe these clusters, three workflow patterns that dominate the implemention of these clusters, and offer a set of workflow recommendations for digitization programs. PMID:22859876

  17. Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Nelson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and illustrates five major clusters of related tasks (herein referred to as task clusters that are common to efficient and effective practices in the digitization of biological specimen data and media. Examples of these clusters come from the observation of diverse digitization processes. The staff of iDigBio (The U.S. National Science Foundation’s National Resource for Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections visited active biological and paleontological collections digitization programs for the purpose of documenting and assessing current digitization practices and tools. These observations identified five task clusters that comprise the digitization process leading up to data publication: (1 pre-digitization curation and staging, (2 specimen image capture, (3 specimen image processing, (4 electronic data capture, and (5 georeferencing locality descriptions. While not all institutions are completing each of these task clusters for each specimen, these clusters describe a composite picture of digitization of biological and paleontological specimens across the programs that were observed. We describe these clusters, three workflow patterns that dominate the implemention of these clusters, and offer a set of workflow recommendations for digitization programs.

  18. The Stellar Populations of Deeply Embedded Young Clusters: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Emergent Mass Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of this thesis is to test the following hypothesis: the initial distribution of stellar masses from a single "episode" of star formation is independent of the local physical conditions of the region. In other words, is the initial mass function (IMF) strictly universal over spatial scales d adopt appropriate mass-luminosity relationships. Stellar luminosity functions constructed from complete extinction-limited samples can then be used to characterize emergent mass distributions of deeply embedded young clusters. Because of systematic uncertainties in these models at the low-mass end, we adopt the ratio of intermediate (10 solar mass > M_* > 1.0 solar mass) to low-mass (1.0 solar mass > M _* > 0.1 solar mass) stars in order to compare these mass distributions to the Miller-Scalo IMF. As an example of this analysis we present a study of the embedded cluster associated with the NGC2024 nebula. Although this cluster contains an enhanced number of intermediate mass stars, we cannot distinguish the distribution of stellar masses from the field star IMF. A detailed comparison between the stellar luminosity functions of the embedded clusters associated with the NGC2024 cluster and the embedded population found in the Ophiuchus cloud cores suggests that it is unlikely they were drawn from the same parent population. After finding the evolutionary states and accretion properties of both clusters to be similar, we interpret the difference in stellar luminosity functions as a difference in their emergent mass distributions. Synthesizing results for NGC 2024 and Ophiuchus with those from other studies of embedded clusters, we arrive at the following conclusions: i) the emergent mass distributions of most of the embedded young clusters considered are consistent with having been drawn from the Miller--Scalo IMF; and ii) there is a hint that regions of high central stellar density contain a greater proportion of intermediate mass stars. (SECTION: Dissertation Summaries)

  19. A Statistical Comparison of Cluster Mass Estimates from Optical/X-ray Observations and Gravitational Lensing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiang-Ping; Fang, Li-Zhi

    1997-01-01

    We present a statistical comparison of three different estimates of cluster mass, namely, the dynamical masses obtained from the velocity dispersion of optical galaxies, the X-ray masses measured from the temperature of X-ray emitting gas under the assumption of isothermal hydrostatic equilibrium, and the gravitational lensing masses derived from the strong/weak distortions of background galaxy images. Using a sample of 29 lensing clusters available in literature, we have shown that the dynam...

  20. An indigenous cluster beam apparatus with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Raina; G U Kulkarni; R T Yadav; V S Ramamurthy; C N R Rao

    2000-04-01

    The design and fabrication of a Smalley-type cluster source in combination with a reflectron based time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer are reported. The generation of clusters is based on supersonic jet expansion of the sampling plume. Sample cells for both liquid and solid targets developed for this purpose are described. Two pulsed Nd-YAG lasers are used in tandem, one (532 nm) for target vapourization and the other (355 nm) for cluster ionization. Methanol clusters of nuclearity up to 14 (mass 500 amu) were produced from liquid methanol as the test sample. The clusters were detected with a mass resolution of ~ 2500 in the R-TOF geometry. Carbon clusters up to a nuclearity of 28 were obtained using a polyimide target. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated by carrying out experiments to generate mixed clusters from alcohol mixtures.

  1. Angular Momenta, Dynamical Masses, and Mergers of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jimmy,; Brough, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; von der Linden, Anja; Couch, Warrick J; Sharp, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Using the VIMOS Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of $z=0.1$. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies $(10^{10.5} M_{\\odot} < M_{dyn} < 10^{11.9} M_{\\odot})$ are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the $\\lambda_{Re}$ parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS\\textsuperscript{3D} teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS\\textsuperscript{3D} criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a $\\lambda_{Re}=0.35\\pm0.05$. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in...

  2. Biological effects of clustered DNA damage produced by heavy ion beams with its complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion beams produce denser ionized region around their track, and cause accumulated damage cluster in the target DNA molecule, termed ''clustered DNA damage.'' Although any ionizing radiations can generate clustered DNA damage with respective degree, heavy ion beam might very effectively produce clustered DNA damage for a reason as mentioned thereinbefore. However, we have less knowledge about molecular mechanism how clustered DNA damage is involved in the degree of biological consequence, and relationship between the species of ionizing radiation and the result. Our previous in vitro study showed that the yields of clustered DNA damage in the target DNA was in inverse proportion to the linear energy transfer (LET) of irradiated radiation (J. Radiat. Res., 49; 133-146, 2008). This result suggests that the yield is not simply responsible to the biological consequence. Therefore, we focused on the structure of clustered DNA damage induced by heavy ion beams in this study. We evaluated the number of damaged site in the designed target oligonucleotides irradiated by gamma-rays, carbon ions and iron ions beams. Also, we estimated the intracellular yields of clustered DNA damage consisted of oxidative base lesions (clustered base damage), because we investigated only DSB not clustered base damage in the previous study. (author)

  3. Detection of clustered DNA lesions: Biological and clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandros; Georgakilas

    2011-01-01

    Humans are daily exposed to background radiation and various sources of oxidative stress. My research has focused in the last 12 years on the effects of ionizing radiation on DNA, which is considered as the key target of radiation in the cell. Ionizing radiation and endogenous cellular oxidative stress can also induce closely spaced oxidatively induced DNA lesions called "clusters" of DNA damage or locally multiply damage sites, as first introduced by John Ward. I am now interested in the repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage, which is considered as the most difficult for the cell to repair. A main part of my research is devoted to evaluating the role of clustered DNA damage in the promotion of carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo . Currently in my laboratory, there are two main ongoing projects. (1) Study of the role of BRCA1 and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit repair proteins in the processing of clustered DNA damage in human cancer cells. For this project, we use several tumor cell lines, such as breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HCC1937 (BRCA1 deficient) and human glioblastoma cells MO59J/K; and (2) Possible use of DNA damage clusters as novel cancer biomarkers for prognostic and therapeutic applications related to modulation of oxidative stress. In this project human tumor and mice tissues are being used.

  4. Deriving physical parameters of unresolved star clusters. I. Age, mass, and extinction degeneracies

    OpenAIRE

    de Meulenaer, Philippe; Narbutis, Donatas; Mineikis, Tadas; Vansevičius, Vladas

    2013-01-01

    Context. Stochasticity and physical parameter degeneracy problems complicate the derivation of the parameters (age, mass, and extinction) of unresolved star clusters when using broad-band photometry. Aims. We develop a method to simulate stochasticity and degeneracies, and to investigate their influence on the accuracy of derived physical parameters. Then we apply it to star cluster samples of M31 and M33 galaxies. Methods. Age, mass and extinction of observed star clusters are derived by com...

  5. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics in cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, T. C.; Mann, M

    2010-01-01

    The global analysis of protein composition, modifications, and dynamics are important goals in cell biology. Mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics has matured into an attractive technology for this purpose. Particularly, high resolution MS methods have been extremely successful for quantitative analysis of cellular and organellar proteomes. Rapid advances in all areas of the proteomic workflow, including sample preparation, MS, and computational analysis, should make the technology more eas...

  6. Massive stars reveal variations of the stellar initial mass function in the Milky Way stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dib, Sami; Hony, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal, or whether there are significant cluster-to-cluster variations of the IMF among young stellar clusters in the Milky Way. We propose a method to uncover the range of variation of the parameters that describe the IMF for the population of young clusters in the Milky Way. The method relies exclusively on the high mass content of the clusters, but is able to yield information on the distributions of parameters of the IMF over the entire stellar mass range. This is achieved by appropriately comparing the fractions of single and lonely massive O stars in a recent catalog of the Milky Way clusters with a large library of simulated clusters built with various distribution functions of the IMF parameters. The masses of synthetic clusters are randomly drawn using a power-law distributions function, while stellar masses in the clusters are randomly drawn using a tapered power-law function. The synthetic clusters are further corrected for the ef...

  7. Analytical model for non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters - III. Removing the hydrostatic mass bias

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xun; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters leads to underestimation of the mass of galaxy clusters based on hydrostatic equilibrium with thermal gas pressure. This occurs even for dynamically relaxed clusters that are used for calibrating the mass-observable scaling relations. We show that the analytical model for non-thermal pressure developed in Shi & Komatsu 2014 can correct for this so-called `hydrostatic mass bias', if most of the non-thermal pressure comes from bulk and turbulent motions of gas in the intracluster medium. Our correction works for the sample average irrespective of the mass estimation method, or the dynamical state of the clusters. This makes it possible to correct for the bias in the hydrostatic mass estimates from X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations that will be available for clusters in a wide range of redshifts and dynamical states.

  8. Central kinematics of the globular cluster NGC 2808: Upper limit on the mass of an intermediate-mass black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Noyola, Eva; Jalali, Behrang; de Zeeuw, P Tim; Neumayer, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Globular clusters are an excellent laboratory for stellar population and dynamical research. Recent studies have shown that these stellar systems are not as simple as previously assumed. With multiple stellar populations as well as outer rotation and mass segregation they turn out to exhibit high complexity. This includes intermediate-mass black holes which are proposed to sit at the centers of some massive globular clusters. Today's high angular resolution ground based spectrographs allow velocity-dispersion measurements at a spatial resolution comparable to the radius of influence for plausible IMBH masses, and to detect changes in the inner velocity-dispersion profile. Together with high quality photometric data from HST, it is possible to constrain black-hole masses by their kinematic signatures. We determine the central velocity-dispersion profile of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy. In combination with HST/ACS data our goal is to probe whether this massive cluster hosts an int...

  9. Observational constraints on star cluster formation theory - I. The mass-radius relation

    CERN Document Server

    Pfalzner, S; Sills, A; Urquhart, J S; Kauffmann, J; Kuhn, M A; Bhandare, A; Menten, K M

    2015-01-01

    Stars form predominantly in groups usually denoted as clusters or associations. The observed stellar groups display a broad spectrum of masses, sizes and other properties, so it is often assumed that there is no underlying structure in this diversity. Here we show that the assumption of an unstructured multitude of cluster or association types might be misleading. Current data compilations of clusters show correlations between cluster mass, size, age, maximum stellar mass etc. In this first paper we take a closer look at the correlation of cluster mass and radius. We use literature data to explore relations in cluster and molecular core properties in the solar neighborhood. We show that for embedded clusters in the solar neighborhood there exists a clear correlation between cluster mass and half-mass radius of the form $M_c = C R_c^{\\gamma}$ with gamma = 1.7 +/-0.2. This correlation holds for infra red K band data as well as X-ray sources and for clusters containing a hundred stars up to those consisting of a...

  10. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury III. Measuring Ages and Masses of Partially Resolved Stellar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Beerman, Lori C; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Weisz, Daniel R; Seth, Anil C; Williams, Ben F; Bell, Eric F; Bianchi, Luciana C; Caldwell, Nelson; Dolphin, Andrew E; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Kalirai, Jason S; Larsen, Søren S; Melbourne, Jason L; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skillman, Evan D

    2012-01-01

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function, when inferred from the integrated color of low mass clusters (less than ~10^4 solar masses). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the initial mass function is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies o...

  11. FORMATION OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN DENSE STAR CLUSTERS. II. INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND PRIMORDIAL MASS SEGREGATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising mechanism to form intermediate-mass black holes is the runaway merger in dense star clusters, where main-sequence stars collide and form a very massive star (VMS), which then collapses to a black hole (BH). In this paper, we study the effects of primordial mass segregation and the importance of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) on the runaway growth of VMSs using a dynamical Monte Carlo code for N-body systems with N as high as 106 stars. Our code now includes an explicit treatment of all stellar collisions. We place special emphasis on the possibility of top-heavy IMFs, as observed in some very young massive clusters. We find that both primordial mass segregation and the shape of the IMF affect the rate of core collapse of star clusters and thus the time of the runaway. When we include primordial mass segregation, we generally see a decrease in core-collapse time (tcc). Although for smaller degrees of primordial mass segregation this decrease in tcc is mostly due to the change in the density profile of the cluster, for highly mass-segregated (primordial) clusters, it is the increase in the average mass in the core which reduces the central relaxation time decreasing tcc. The final mass of the VMS formed is always close to ∼10–3 of the total cluster mass, in agreement with previous studies and is reminiscent of the observed correlation between the central BH mass and the bulge mass of the galaxies. As the degree of primordial mass segregation is increased, the mass of the VMS increases at most by a factor of three. Flatter IMFs generally increase the average mass in the whole cluster, which increases tcc. For the range of IMFs investigated in this paper, this increase in tcc is to some degree balanced by stellar collisions, which accelerate core collapse. Thus, there is no significant change in tcc for the somewhat flatter global IMFs observed in very young massive clusters.

  12. Mass segregation in the diffuse outer-halo globular cluster Palomar 14

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Matthias J; Küpper, Andreas H W

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the radial dependence of the stellar mass function in the diffuse outer-halo globular cluster Palomar 14. Using archival HST/WFPC2 data of the cluster's central 39 pc (corresponding to ~0.85*r_h) we find that the mass function in the mass range of 0.55 to 0.85 solar masses is well approximated by a power-law at all radii. The mass function steepens with increasing radius, from a shallow power-law slope of 0.66+/-0.32 in the cluster's centre to a slope of 1.61+/-0.33 beyond the core radius, showing that the cluster is mass-segregated. This is seemingly in conflict with its long present-day half-mass relaxation time of ~20 Gyr, and with the recent finding by Beccari et al. (2011), who interpret the cluster's non-concentrated population of blue straggler stars as evidence that dynamical segregation has not affected the cluster yet. We discuss this apparent conflict and argue that the cluster must have either formed with primordial mass segregation, or that its relaxation time scale must...

  13. Extended Main Sequence Turn-Offs in Low Mass Intermediate Age Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2016-01-01

    We present an imaging analysis of four low mass stellar clusters ( 5 times less massive than the eMSTO clusters previously studied - suggests that mass is not the controlling factor in whether clusters host eMSTOs. Additionally, the narrow extent of the eMSTO in the two older (~ 2 Gyr) clusters is in agreement with predictions of the stellar rotation scenario, as lower mass stars are expected to be magnetically braked, meaning that their CMDs should be better reproduced by canonical simple stellar populations. We also performed a structural analysis on all the clusters and found that a large core radius is not a requisite for a cluster to exhibit an eMSTO.

  14. Extrinsic Sources of Scatter in the Richness-Mass Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rykoff, Eli; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, Benjamin; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nord, Brian; /Michigan U.; Wu, Hao-Yi; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-03-27

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness - mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using SDSS data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely ({approx} 1%-5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of optically selected clusters that suffer from these projection effects is {approx} 5%-15%. We expect these numbers to be generic in magnitude, but a precise determination requires detailed, survey-specific modeling.

  15. Extrinsic Sources of Scatter in the Richness-mass Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Koester, Benjamin; Nord, Brian; Wu, Hao-Yi; Evrard, August; Wechsler, Risa

    2011-10-01

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness-mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low-mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely (≈1%-5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of optically selected clusters that suffer from these projection effects is ≈5%-15%. We expect these numbers to be generic in magnitude, but a precise determination requires detailed, survey-specific modeling.

  16. Angular momenta, dynamical masses, and mergers of brightest cluster galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Brough, Sarah [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Von der Linden, Anja [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Couch, Warrick J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Sharp, Rob [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-12-01

    Using the VIMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of z = 0.1. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies (10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} < M {sub dyn} < 10{sup 11.9} M {sub ☉}) are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the λ {sub Re} parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS{sup 3D} criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a λ {sub Re} = 0.35 ± 0.05. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in the combined SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} surveys to 11 BCGs total and find that above M {sub dyn} ∼ 11.5 M {sub ☉}, virtually all galaxies, regardless of environment, are slow rotators. To search for signs of recent merging, we analyze the photometry of each system and use the G – M {sub 20} selection criteria to identify mergers. We find that 40% ± 20% of our BCGs are currently undergoing or have recently undergone a merger (within 0.2 Gyr). Surprisingly, we find no correlation between galaxies with high angular momentum and morphological signatures of merging.

  17. Extended main sequence turn-offs in low mass intermediate-age clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Bastian, Nate

    2016-05-01

    We present an imaging analysis of four low mass stellar clusters (≲5000 M⊙) in the outer regions of the LMC in order to shed light on the extended main sequence turn-off (eMSTO) phenomenon observed in high mass clusters. The four clusters have ages between 1-2 Gyr and two of them appear to host eMTSOs. The discovery of eMSTOs in such low mass clusters - more than 5 times less massive than the eMSTO clusters previously studied - suggests that mass is not the controlling factor in whether clusters host eMSTOs. Additionally, the narrow extent of the eMSTO in the two older clusters (~2 Gyr) is in agreement with predictions of the stellar rotation scenario, as lower mass stars are expected to be magnetically braked, meaning that their colour magnitude diagrams should be better reproduced by canonical simple stellar populations. We also performed a structural analysis on all the clusters and found that a large core radius is not a requisite for a cluster to exhibit an eMSTO. Full Table 2, and Tables 3-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A50

  18. Stellar Populations of Deeply Embedded Young Clusters: Near--Infrared Spectroscopy and Emergent Mass Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    1996-02-01

    The goal of this thesis is to test the following hypothesis: the initial distribution of stellar masses from a single ``episode'' of star formation is independent of the local physical conditions of the region. In other words, is the initial mass function (IMF) strictly universal over spatial scales d adopt appropriate mass--luminosity relationships. Stellar luminosity functions constructed from complete extinction--limited samples can then be used to characterize emergent mass distributions of deeply embedded young clusters. Because of systematic uncertainties in these models at the low--mass end, we adopt the ratio of intermediate (10 Modot > M* > 1.0 Modot) to low--mass (1.0 Modot > M * > 0.1 Modot) stars in order to compare these mass distributions to the Miller--Scalo IMF. As an example of this analysis we present a study of the embedded cluster associated with the NGC2024 nebula. Although this cluster contains an enhanced number of intermediate mass stars, we cannot distinguish the distribution of stellar masses from the field star IMF. A detailed comparison between the stellar luminosity functions of the embedded clusters associated with the NGC2024 cluster and the embedded population found in the Ophiuchus cloud cores suggests that it is unlikely they were drawn from the same parent population. After finding the evolutionary states and accretion properties of both clusters to be similar, we interpret the difference in stellar luminosity functions as a difference in their emergent mass distributions. Synthesizing results for NGC2024 and Ophiuchus with those from other studies of embedded clusters, we arrive at the following conclusions: i) the emergent mass distributions of most of the embedded young clusters considered are consistent with having been drawn from the Miller--Scalo IMF; and ii) there is a hint that regions of high central stellar density contain a greater proportion of intermediate mass stars.

  19. The Morphologies and Alignments of Gas, Mass, and the Central Galaxies of CLASH Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan; Ettori, Stefano; Rasia, Elena; Sayers, Jack; Zitrin, Adi; Meneghetti, Massimo; Voit, G. Mark; Golwala, Sunil; Czakon, Nicole; Yepes, Gustavo; Baldi, Alessandro; Koekemoer, Anton; Postman, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be “relaxed” based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Toward a quantitative characterization of this important sample of clusters, we present uniformly estimated X-ray morphological statistics for all 25 CLASH clusters. We compare X-ray morphologies of CLASH clusters with those identically measured for a large sample of simulated clusters from the MUSIC-2 simulations, selected by mass. We confirm a threshold in X-ray surface brightness concentration of C ≳ 0.4 for cool-core clusters, where C is the ratio of X-ray emission inside 100 h70-1 kpc compared to inside 500 {h}70-1 kpc. We report and compare morphologies of these clusters inferred from Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) maps of the hot gas and in from projected mass maps based on strong and weak lensing. We find a strong agreement in alignments of the orientation of major axes for the lensing, X-ray, and SZE maps of nearly all of the CLASH clusters at radii of 500 kpc (approximately 1/2 R500 for these clusters). We also find a striking alignment of clusters shapes at the 500 kpc scale, as measured with X-ray, SZE, and lensing, with that of the near-infrared stellar light at 10 kpc scales for the 20 “relaxed” clusters. This strong alignment indicates a powerful coupling between the cluster- and galaxy-scale galaxy formation processes.

  20. Comparing the biological coherence of network clusters identified by different detection algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction networks serve to carry out basic molecular activity in the cell. Detecting the modular structures from the protein-protein interaction network is important for understanding the organization, function and dynamics of a biological system. In order to identify functional neighborhoods based on network topology, many network cluster identification algorithms have been developed. However, each algorithm might dissect a network from a different aspect and may provide different insight on the network partition. In order to objectively evaluate the performance of four commonly used cluster detection algorithms: molecular complex detection (MCODE), NetworkBlast, shortest-distance clustering (SDC) and Girvan-Newman (G-N) algorithm, we compared the biological coherence of the network clusters found by these algorithms through a uniform evaluation framework. Each algorithm was utilized to find network clusters in two different protein-protein interaction networks with various parameters. Comparison of the resulting network clusters indicates that clusters found by MCODE and SDC are of higher biological coherence than those by NetworkBlast and G-N algorithm.

  1. Mass effect on the lithium abundance evolution of open clusters: Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M.; Duarte, T.; Pace, G.; do Nascimento, J.-D.

    2016-05-01

    Lithium abundances in open clusters provide an effective way of probing mixing processes in the interior of solar-type stars and convection is not the only mixing mechanism at work. To understand which mixing mechanisms are occurring in low-mass stars, we test non-standard models, which were calibrated using the Sun, with observations of three open clusters of different ages, the Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67. We collected all available data, and for the open cluster NGC 752, we redetermine the equivalent widths and the lithium abundances. Two sets of evolutionary models were computed, one grid of only standard models with microscopic diffusion and one grid with rotation-induced mixing, at metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.13, 0.0, and 0.01 dex, respectively, using the Toulouse-Geneva evolution code. We compare observations with models in a color-magnitude diagram for each cluster to infer a cluster age and a stellar mass for each cluster member. Then, for each cluster we analyze the lithium abundance of each star as a function of mass. The data for the open clusters Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67, are compatible with lithium abundance being a function of both age and mass for stars in these clusters. Our models with meridional circulation qualitatively reproduce the general trend of lithium abundance evolution as a function of stellar mass in all three clusters. This study points out the importance of mass dependence in the evolution of lithium abundance as a function of age. Comparison between models with and without rotation-induced mixing shows that the inclusion of meridional circulation is essential to account for lithium depletion in low-mass stars. However, our results suggest that other mechanisms should be included to explain the Li-dip and the lithium dispersion in low-mass stars.

  2. The very low-mass stellar content of the young supermassive Galactic star cluster Westerlund 1

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; Brandner, W; Stolte, A; de Marchi, G; Meyer, M R; Zinnecker, H

    2016-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared HST/WFC3 observations of the young supermassive Galactic star cluster Westerlund 1 and an adjacent control field. The depth of the data is sufficient to derive the mass function for the cluster as a function of radius down to 0.15 M$_\\odot$ in the outer parts of the cluster. We identify for the first time a flattening in the mass function (in logarithmic units) at a mass range that is consistent with that of the field and nearby embedded clusters. Through log-normal functional fits to the mass functions we find the nominal peak mass to be comparable to that of the field and nearby embedded star clusters. The width of a log-normal fit appears slightly narrow compared to the width of the field IMF, closer to the values found for globular clusters. The subsolar content within the cluster does not appear to be mass segregated in contrast to the findings for the supersolar content. The total mass of Westerlund 1 is estimated to be 44-57 $\\times 10^3$ M$_\\odot$ where the main uncertain...

  3. Analysis of individual biological particles by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M. P.; Platz, R. M.; Vilker, V. L.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A method is developed for the detection and identification of biological particles introduced in aerosol form into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The bacterial aerosol is generated by nebulizing an ethanol suspension. The particles are introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer in the form of a beam, where they are individually volatilized on a V-type rhenium filament and ionized by electron impaction. It is shown that the average intensity of a mass peak is obtained from the pulse height distribution of about a thousand ion pulses from different particles. Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus are used in the studies. Differences between the relative intensities of mass peaks in the spectra from P. putida and B. subtilis are found and may provide a method for differentiation of microorganisms. The results for the two species agree reasonably well with those reported by Kistemaker et al. (1975) and Schulten et al. (1973). However, there exist some differences between the two spectra in the high mass range due to the difference in the pyrolysis conditions.

  4. Mass spectrometric determination of early and advanced glycation in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Naila; Ashour, Amal; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Protein glycation in biological systems occurs predominantly on lysine, arginine and N-terminal residues of proteins. Major quantitative glycation adducts are found at mean extents of modification of 1-5 mol percent of proteins. These are glucose-derived fructosamine on lysine and N-terminal residues of proteins, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone on arginine residues and N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine residues mainly formed by the oxidative degradation of fructosamine. Total glycation adducts of different types are quantified by stable isotopic dilution analysis liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Metabolism of glycated proteins is followed by LC-MS/MS of glycation free adducts as minor components of the amino acid metabolome. Glycated proteins and sites of modification within them - amino acid residues modified by the glycating agent moiety - are identified and quantified by label-free and stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) high resolution mass spectrometry. Sites of glycation by glucose and methylglyoxal in selected proteins are listed. Key issues in applying proteomics techniques to analysis of glycated proteins are: (i) avoiding compromise of analysis by formation, loss and relocation of glycation adducts in pre-analytic processing; (ii) specificity of immunoaffinity enrichment procedures, (iii) maximizing protein sequence coverage in mass spectrometric analysis for detection of glycation sites, and (iv) development of bioinformatics tools for prediction of protein glycation sites. Protein glycation studies have important applications in biology, ageing and translational medicine - particularly on studies of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, renal failure, neurological disorders and cancer. Mass spectrometric analysis of glycated proteins has yet to find widespread use clinically. Future use in health screening, disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, and

  5. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON MASS-DEPENDENT DISRUPTION OF STAR CLUSTERS IN M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use UBVI Hα images of the Whirlpool galaxy, M51, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFPC2 cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to select star clusters, and to estimate their masses and ages by comparing their observed colors with predictions from population synthesis models. We construct the mass function of intermediate-age (1-4 x 108 yr) clusters, and find that it is well described by a power law, ψ(M) ∝ Mβ, with β = -2.1 ± 0.2, for clusters more massive than M ∼ 6 x 103 Msun. This extends the mass function of intermediate-age clusters in M51 to masses lower by nearly a factor of five over previous determinations. The mass function does not show evidence for curvature at either the high or low mass end. This shape indicates that there is no evidence for the earlier disruption of lower mass clusters compared with their higher mass counterparts (i.e., no mass-dependent disruption) over the observed range of masses and ages, or for a physical upper mass limit MC with which clusters in M51 can form. These conclusions differ from previous suggestions based on poorer-quality HST observations. We discuss their implications for the formation and disruption of the clusters. Ages of clusters in two 'feathers', stellar features extending from the outer portion of a spiral arm, show that the feather with a larger pitch angle formed earlier, and over a longer period, than the other.

  6. The XMM Cluster Survey: The build up of stellar mass in Brightest Cluster Galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Stott, J P; Sahlen, M; Hilton, M; Lloyd-Davies, E; Capozzi, D; Hosmer, M; Liddle, A R; Mehrtens, N; Miller, C J; Romer, A K; Stanford, S A; Viana, P T P; Davidson, M; Hoyle, B; Kay, S T; Nichol, R C

    2010-01-01

    We present deep J and Ks band photometry of 20 high redshift galaxy clusters between z=0.8-1.5, 19 of which are observed with the MOIRCS instrument on the Subaru Telescope. By using near-infrared light as a proxy for stellar mass we find the surprising result that the average stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) has remained constant at ~9e11MSol since z~1.5. We investigate the effect on this result of differing star formation histories generated by three well known and independent stellar population codes and find it to be robust for reasonable, physically motivated choices of age and metallicity. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we find that the result is unaffected by any correlation between BCG mass and cluster mass in either the observed or model clusters. The large stellar masses imply that the assemblage of these galaxies took place at the same time as the initial burst of star formation. This result leads us to conclude that dry merging has had little effect on the average stellar ma...

  7. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of supported mass selected silver clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, Ben; Mende, Kolja; Duffe, Stefanie; Groenhagen, Niklas; Hoevel, Heinz [Experimentelle Physik I, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Issendorff, Bernd von [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) was used to investigate size selected Ag{sub 923{+-}}{sub 9} and Ag{sub 55} clusters which were softlanded on a clean graphite substrate (HOPG) at 100 and 50 K, respectively. With increasing cluster coverage closer to the centre of the deposition spot a continuous change of the d-band signal is observed. Differences in the fine structure of the d-band and comparison to UPS spectra of clusters grown at nanopits on HOPG show that the clusters in the centre of the deposition spot coalesced. However, Ag{sub 55} spectra measured at the rim of the deposition spot indicate that the clusters stay separated in regions of lower coverage for a deposition temperature of 50 K. This is corroborated by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) images measured at 5 K using 1 monolayer (ML) Xe to fix the Ag{sub 55} clusters to the substrate, thus making them observable with STM. By comparison to UPS data taken on different sample positions in a 1 x 1 mm{sup 2} grid it was determined that at the rim of the deposition spot the coverage of 30 clusters per 100 x 100 nm{sup 2} was low enough for an UPS measurement of single separated Ag{sub 55} clusters. Differences in the spectra for the largest coverage of Ag{sub 55} and Ag{sub 923} clusters in the deposition spot centre indicate that the resulting Ag film has a partial (111) orientation for the deposition of Ag{sub 55} at 50 K whereas it is mostly polycrystalline for Ag{sub 923} deposited at 100 K. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Revisiting the variation of clustering coefficient of biological networks suggests new modular structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dapeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central idea in biology is the hierarchical organization of cellular processes. A commonly used method to identify the hierarchical modular organization of network relies on detecting a global signature known as variation of clustering coefficient (so-called modularity scaling. Although several studies have suggested other possible origins of this signature, it is still widely used nowadays to identify hierarchical modularity, especially in the analysis of biological networks. Therefore, a further and systematical investigation of this signature for different types of biological networks is necessary. Results We analyzed a variety of biological networks and found that the commonly used signature of hierarchical modularity is actually the reflection of spoke-like topology, suggesting a different view of network architecture. We proved that the existence of super-hubs is the origin that the clustering coefficient of a node follows a particular scaling law with degree k in metabolic networks. To study the modularity of biological networks, we systematically investigated the relationship between repulsion of hubs and variation of clustering coefficient. We provided direct evidences for repulsion between hubs being the underlying origin of the variation of clustering coefficient, and found that for biological networks having no anti-correlation between hubs, such as gene co-expression network, the clustering coefficient doesn’t show dependence of degree. Conclusions Here we have shown that the variation of clustering coefficient is neither sufficient nor exclusive for a network to be hierarchical. Our results suggest the existence of spoke-like modules as opposed to “deterministic model” of hierarchical modularity, and suggest the need to reconsider the organizational principle of biological hierarchy.

  9. New isolated planetary mass objects and the stellar and substellar mass function of the sigma Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez, K Peña; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Petr-Gotzens, M G; Martín, E L

    2012-01-01

    We report on our analysis of the VISTA Orion ZYJHKs photometric data (completeness magnitudes Z=22.6 and J=21.0mag) focusing on a circular area of 2798.4 arcmin^2 around the young sigma Orionis star cluster (~3Myr, ~352pc, solar metallicity). The combination of the VISTA photometry with optical, WISE and Spitzer data allows us to identify a total of 210 cluster member candidates with masses in the interval 0.25-0.004Msun, 23 of which are new planetary-mass object findings. These discoveries double the number of cluster planetary-mass candidates known so far. One object has colors compatible with a T spectral type. The cluster harbors about as many brown dwarfs (69, 0.072-0.012Msun) and planetary-mass objects (37, 0.012-0.004Msun) as very low-mass stars (104, 0.25-0.072Msun). Based on Spitzer data, we derive a disk frequency of ~40% for very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects in sigma Orionis. The radial density distributions of these three mass intervals are alike: all are spatially conc...

  10. Mass-Loss Timescale of Star Clusters in an External Tidal Field. II. Effect of Mass Profile of Parent Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tanikawa, Ataru

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of star clusters in a steady tidal field produced by its parent galaxy. In this paper, we focus on the influence of mass profile of the parent galaxy. The previous studies were done with the simplification where the parent galaxy was expressed by point mass. We express different mass profiles of the parent galaxy by the tidal fields in which the ratios of the epicyclic frequency to the angular velocity are different. We compare the mass-loss timescale of star clusters whose tidal radii are identical but in parent galaxies with different mass profile, by means of orbits calculations in fixed cluster potential and N-body simulations. In this situation, a cluster rotates around the parent galaxy more rapidly as the parent galaxy has shallower mass profile. We found that the mass-loss timescale increase 20% and 50% for the cases that the mass density profile of the parent galaxies are proportional to R^-2 and R^-1.5 where R is the distance from the galaxy center, c...

  11. The estimation of masses of individual galaxies in clusters of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. A.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    Three different methods of estimating masses are discussed. The 'density method' is based on the analysis of the density distribution of galaxies around the object whose mass is to be found. The 'bound-galaxy method' gives estimates of the mass of a double, triple, or quadruple system from analysis of the orbital motion of the components. The 'virial method' utilizes the formulas derived for the second method to obtain estimates of the virial-theorem masses of whole clusters, and thus to obtain upper limits on the mass of an individual galaxy in a cluster. The analytic formulas are developed and compared with computer experiments, and some applications are given.

  12. A Stacked Search for Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in 337 Extragalactic Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Wrobel, J M; Miller-Jones, J C A

    2015-01-01

    Forbes et al. recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to localize hundreds of candidate star clusters in NGC 1023, an early-type galaxy at a distance of 11.1 Mpc. Old stars dominate the light of 92% of the clusters and intermediate-age stars dominate the light of the remaining 8%. Theory predicts that clusters with such ages can host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses M_BH \\lesssim 10^5 M_sun. To investigate this prediction, we used 264 s of 5.5 GHz data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to search for the radiative signatures of IMBH accretion from 337 candidate clusters in an image spanning 492 arcsec (26 kpc) with a resolution of 0.40 arcsec (22 pc). None of the individual clusters are detected, nor are weighted-mean image stacks of the 311 old clusters, the 26 intermediate-age clusters, and the 20 clusters with stellar masses M_star \\gtrsim 7.5 x 10^5 M_sun. The clusters thus lack radio analogs of HLX-1, a strong IMBH candidate in a cluster in the early-type galaxy ESO 243-49. ...

  13. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. III. MEASURING AGES AND MASSES OF PARTIALLY RESOLVED STELLAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerman, Lori C.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Ben F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larsen, Soren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Melbourne, Jason L. [Caltech Optical Observatories, Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Mail Stop 301-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: beermalc@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), when inferred from the integrated color of low-mass clusters ({approx}<10{sup 4} M {sub Sun }). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the IMF is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar IMF in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies of clusters throughout the Local Group and other nearby galaxies.

  14. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. III. MEASURING AGES AND MASSES OF PARTIALLY RESOLVED STELLAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), when inferred from the integrated color of low-mass clusters (∼4 M ☉). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the IMF is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar IMF in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies of clusters throughout the Local Group and other nearby galaxies.

  15. A stellar-mass black hole population in the globular cluster NGC 6101?

    CERN Document Server

    Peuten, Miklos; Gieles, Mark; Gualandris, Alessia; Henault-Brunet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Dalessandro et al. observed a similar distribution for blue straggler stars and main-sequence turn-off stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101, and interpreted this feature as an indication that this cluster is not mass-segregated. Using direct N-body simulations, we find that a significant amount of mass segregation is expected for a cluster with the mass, radius and age of NGC 6101. Therefore, the absence of mass segregation cannot be explained by the argument that the cluster is not yet dynamically evolved. By varying the retention fraction of stellar-mass black holes, we show that segregation is not observable in clusters with a high black hole retention fraction (>50% after supernova kicks and >50% after dynamical evolution). Yet all model clusters have the same amount of mass segregation in terms of the decline of the mean mass of stars and remnants with distance to the centre. We also discuss how kinematics can be used to further constrain the presence of a stellar-mass black hole population an...

  16. Cluster Structure in Cosmological Simulations I: Correlation to Observables, Mass Estimates, and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Burns, Jack O; Motl, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    We use Enzo, a hybrid Eulerian AMR/N-body code including non-gravitational heating and cooling, to explore the morphology of the X-ray gas in clusters of galaxies and its evolution in current generation cosmological simulations. We employ and compare two observationally motivated structure measures: power ratios and centroid shift. Overall, the structure of our simulated clusters compares remarkably well to low-redshift observations, although some differences remain that may point to incomplete gas physics. We find no dependence on cluster structure in the mass-observable scaling relations, T_X-M and Y_X-M, when using the true cluster masses. However, estimates of the total mass based on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, as assumed in observational studies, are systematically low. We show that the hydrostatic mass bias strongly correlates with cluster structure and, more weakly, with cluster mass. When the hydrostatic masses are used, the mass-observable scaling relations and gas mass fractions depen...

  17. The mass profile and dynamical status of the z~0.8 galaxy cluster LCDCS 0504

    CERN Document Server

    Guennou, L; Adami, C; Limousin, M; Neto, G B Lima; Mamon, G A; Ulmer, M P; Gavazzi, R; Cypriano, E S; Durret, F; Clowe, D; LeBrun, V; Allam, S; Basa, S; Benoist, C; Cappi, A; Halliday, C; Ilbert, O; Johnston, D; Jullo, E; Just, D; Kubo, J M; Marquez, I; Marshall, P; Martinet, N; Maurogordato, S; Mazure, A; Murphy, K J; Plana, H; Rostagni, F; Russeil, D; Schirmer, M; Schrabback, T; Slezak, E; Tucker, D; Zaritsky, D; Ziegler, B

    2014-01-01

    Constraints on the mass distribution in high-redshift clusters of galaxies are not currently very strong. We aim to constrain the mass profile, M(r), and dynamical status of the $z \\sim 0.8$ LCDCS 0504 cluster of galaxies characterized by prominent giant gravitational arcs near its center. Our analysis is based on deep X-ray, optical, and infrared imaging, as well as optical spectroscopy. We model the mass distribution of the cluster with three different mass density profiles, whose parameters are constrained by the strong lensing features of the inner cluster region, by the X-ray emission from the intra-cluster medium, and by the kinematics of 71 cluster members. We obtain consistent M(r) determinations from three methods (dispersion-kurtosis, caustics and MAMPOSSt), out to the cluster virial radius and beyond. The mass profile inferred by the strong lensing analysis in the central cluster region is slightly above, but still consistent with, the kinematics estimate. On the other hand, the X-ray based M(r) is...

  18. Planck intermediate results: III. the relation between galaxy cluster mass and Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Le Jeune, M.; Piat, M.; Rosset, C.; Carvalho, P.; Hobson, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bond, J.R.; Bernard, J.-P.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Da Silva, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Yvon, D.; Linden-Vørnle, Michael; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Frommert, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Bikmaev, I.; Scott, D.; Pierpaoli, E.; Liddle, A.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Meinhold, P.R.; Zonca, A.; Matarrese, S.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Piacentini, F.; Balbi, A.; Bourdin, H.; De Gasperis, G.; Mazzotta, P.; Vittorio, N.; Cabella, P.; Kneissl, R.; Dupac, X.; Jagemann, T.; Leonardi, R.; Mendes, L.; Tauber, J.A.; Partridge, B.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Colafrancesco, S.; Polenta, G.; Borgani, S.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Maris, M.; Zacchei, A.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cuttaia, F.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Natoli, P.; Paoletti, D.; Ricciardi, S.; Sandri, M.; Terenzi, L.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Donzelli, S.; Maino, D.; Rossetti, M.; Tomasi, M.; Melchiorri, A.; Stivoli, F.; Désert, F.-X.; Chamballu, A.; Clements, D.L.; Pearson, T.J.; Rusholme, B.; Aghanim, N.; Aumont, J.; Dole, H.; Douspis, M.; Kunz, M.; Lagache, G.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Pajot, F.; Ponthieu, N.; Puget, J.-L.; Remazeilles, M.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Popa, L.; Marleau, F.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Efstathiou, G.; Dahle, H.; Eriksen, H.K.; Hansen, F.K.; Lilje, P.B.; Génova-Santos, R.T.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Barreiro, R.B.; Diego, J.M.; Herranz, D.; López-Caniego, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Toffolatti, L.; Vielva, P.; Platania, P.; Bartlett, J.G.; Doré, O.; Holmes, W.A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Mitra, S.; Rocha, G.; Battye, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Brown, M.L.; Davis, R.J.; Noviello, F.; Ashdown, M.; Harrison, D.; Lasenby, A.; Sutton, D.; Luzzi, G.; Perdereau, O.; Tristram, M.; Coulais, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Arnaud, M.; Démoclès, J.; Piffaretti, R.; Pratt, G.W.; Starck, J.-L.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Hurier, G.; MacÍas-Pérez, J.F.; Renault, C.; Van Tent, B.; Enßlin, T.A.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Knoche, J.; Matthai, F.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; White, S.D.M.; Böhringer, H.; Chon, G.; Savini, G.; Baccigalupi, C.; González-Nuevo, J.; Leach, S.; Perrotta, F.; Ade, P.A.R.; Munshi, D.; Sudiwala, R.; Burenin, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Borrill, J.; Stolyarov, V.; Osborne, S.; Khamitov, I.; Benabed, K.; Bouchet, F.R.; Hivon, E.; Prunet, S.; Wandelt, B.D.; Banday, A.J.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Giard, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Montier, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ristorcelli, I.; Dolag, K.; Weller, J.; Battaner, E.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Górski, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relation between the galaxy cluster mass M and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect signal DA2 Y500 for a sample of 19 objects for which weak lensing (WL) mass measurements obtained from Subaru Telescope data are available in the literature. Hydrostatic X-ray masses are derived from XMM-N...

  19. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Projected Galaxy Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, D J; Norberg, Peder; Metcalfe, N; Baldry, I; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J I; Hopkins, A M; Lacey, Cedric G; Liske, J; Loveday, Jon; Palamara, David P; Robotham, A S G; Sridhar, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    We measure the projected 2-point correlation function of galaxies in the 180 deg$^2$ equatorial regions of the GAMA II survey, for four different redshift slices between z = 0.0 and z=0.5. To do this we further develop the Cole (2011) method of producing suitable random catalogues for the calculation of correlation functions. We find that more r-band luminous, more massive and redder galaxies are more clustered. We also find that red galaxies have stronger clustering on scales less than ~3 $h^{-1}$ Mpc. We compare to two different versions of the GALFORM galaxy formation model, Lacey et al (in prep.) and Gonzalez-Perez et al. (2014), and find that the models reproduce the trend of stronger clustering for more massive galaxies. However, the models under predict the clustering of blue galaxies, can incorrectly predict the correlation function on small scales and under predict the clustering in our sample of galaxies with ~3$L_r$ . We suggest possible avenues to explore to improve these cluster- ing predictions....

  20. Study of mass and cluster flux in a pulsed gas system with enhanced nanoparticle aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drache, Steffen; Stranak, Vitezslav; Hubicka, Zdenek; Berg, Florian; Tichy, Milan; Helm, Christiane A.; Hippler, Rainer

    2014-10-01

    The paper is focused on investigation of enhanced metal (Cu) cluster growth in a source of Haberland's type using pulsed gas aggregation. The aggregation Ar gas was delivered into the cluster source in a pulse regime, which results in the formation of well pronounced aggregation pressure peaks. The pressure peaks were varied by varying the different pulse gas frequency at the same mean pressure kept for all experiments. Hence, we were able to study the effect of enhanced aggregation pressure on cluster formation. Time-resolved measurements of cluster mass distribution were performed to estimate the mass and particle flux. The paper demonstrates that pulse gas aggregation influences growth of Cu nanoparticles, i.e., cluster mass/size, mass flux, and particle flux emitted from the cluster source. It was found that cluster mass related quantities are strongly influenced by pulsed gas frequency; the highest value of mass flux appears at the most pronounced pressure peaks. On the other hand, the particle flux depends only slightly on the gas pulse frequency. The explanation based on cooling and thermalization of sputtered particles is discussed in the paper.

  1. High mass accuracy and high mass resolving power FT-ICR secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological tissue imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.F.; Kiss, A.; Leach, F.E.; Robinson, E.W.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performe

  2. Mercury clusters: Jellium-like mass spectra and threshold laws for electron impact ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury clusters have been ionised by impact of electrons of variable kinetic energy. For cluster sizes n≤540 a linear threshold law is observed, which allows an accurate identification of the ionisation energies. The differences to photo ionisation are discussed. Jellium like intensity variations are observed in the mass spectra, in a size region where the bonding in Hg clusters has not yet become metallic. (orig.)

  3. Testing cosmological models using relative mass-redshift abundance of SZ clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent detection of high-redshift, massive clusters through Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations has opened up a new way to test cosmological models. It is known that detection of a single supermassive cluster at a very high redshift can rule out many cosmological models all together. However, since dealing with different observational biases makes it difficult to test the likeliness of the data assuming a cosmological model, most of the cluster data (except those with high mass-redshift) stays un...

  4. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters with gravitational microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kains, N.; Bramich, D.M.; Sahu, K. C.; Calamida, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the gravitational microlensing method as a unique tool to detect unambiguous signals caused by intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. We select clusters near the line of sight to the Galactic Bulge and the Small Magellanic Cloud, estimate the density of background stars for each of them, and carry out simulations in order to estimate the probabilities of detecting the astrometric signatures caused by black hole lensing. We find that for several cluster...

  5. The stellar and hot gas content of low-mass galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Bower, Richard G; Eke, Vince; Bourdin, Herve; Lu, Ting; Theuns, Tom

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the stellar and hot gas content of 18 nearby, low-mass galaxy clusters, detected in redshift space and selected to have a dynamical mass 3E14mass in hot gas and stars to the dynamical mass and state of the clusters. Only 13 of the clusters are detected in X-ray emission, and for these systems we find that a range of 7-20 per cent of their baryonic mass, and <3 per cent of their dynamical mass, is detected in starlight, similar to what is observed in more massive clusters. In contrast, the five undetected clusters are underluminous in X-ray emission, by at least a factor 10, given their stellar mass. Although the velocity distribution of cluster members in these systems is indistinguishable from a Gaussian, all show subtle signs of being unrelaxed: either they lack a central, dominant galaxy...

  6. A new methodology to test galaxy formation models using the dependence of clustering on stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, David J R; Mitchell, Peter D; Helly, John C; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lacey, Cedric G; Lagos, Claudia del P; Simha, Vimal; Farrow, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    We present predictions for the two-point correlation function of galaxy clustering as a function of stellar mass, computed using two new versions of the GALFORM semi-analytic galaxy formation model. These models make use of a new high resolution, large volume N-body simulation, set in the WMAP7 cosmology. One model uses a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF), while the other assumes different IMFs for quiescent star formation and bursts. Particular consideration is given to how the assumptions required to estimate the stellar masses of observed galaxies (such as the choice of IMF, stellar population synthesis model and dust extinction) influence the perceived dependence of galaxy clustering on stellar mass. Broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting is carried out to estimate stellar masses for the model galaxies in the same manner as in observational studies. We show clear differences between the clustering signals computed using the true and estimated model stellar masses. As such, we highligh...

  7. The galactocentric radius dependent upper mass limit of young star clusters: stochastic star formation ruled out

    CERN Document Server

    Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the distribution function of the masses of young star clusters is universal and can be purely interpreted as a probability density distribution function with a constant upper mass limit. As a result of this picture the masses of the most-massive objects are exclusively determined by the size of the sample. Here we show, with very high confidence, that the masses of the most-massive young star clusters in M33 decrease with increasing galactocentric radius in contradiction to the expectations from a model of a randomly sampled constant cluster mass function with a constant upper mass limit. Pure stochastic star formation is thereby ruled out. We use this example to elucidate how naive analysis of data can lead to unphysical conclusions.

  8. The High-Mass End of the Black Hole Mass Function: Mass Estimates in Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bontà, E.; Ferrarese, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Miralda-Escudé, J.; Coccato, L.; Sarzi, M.; Pizzella, A.; Beifiori, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging and spectroscopic observations of three Brightest Cluster Galaxies, Abell 1836-BCG, Abell 2052-BCG, and Abell 3565-BCG, obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The data provide detailed information on the structure and mass profile of the stellar component, the dust optical depth, and the spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas within the innermost region of each galaxy. Dynamical models, which account for the observed stellar mass profile and include the contribution of a central supermassive black hole (SBH), are constructed to reproduce the kinematics derived from the Hα and [N II]λλ6548,6583 emission lines. Secure SBH detection with M • = 3.61+0.41 -0.50 × 109 M sun and M • = 1.34+0.21 -0.19 × 109 M sun, respectively, are obtained for Abell 1836-BCG and Abell 3565-BCG, which show regular rotation curves and strong central velocity gradients. In the case of Abell 2052-BCG, the lack of an orderly rotational motion prevents a secure determination, although an upper limit of M • lsim 4.60 × 109 M sun can be placed on the mass of the central SBH. These measurements represent an important step forward in the characterization of the high-mass end of the SBH mass function. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 279.B-5004(A).

  9. The Evolving Contribution of Mass Spectrometry to Integrative Structural Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Marco; Stengel, Florian; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-04-01

    Protein complexes are key catalysts and regulators for the majority of cellular processes. Unveiling their assembly and structure is essential to understanding their function and mechanism of action. Although conventional structural techniques such as X-ray crystallography and NMR have solved the structure of important protein complexes, they cannot consistently deal with dynamic and heterogeneous assemblies, limiting their applications to small scale experiments. A novel methodological paradigm, integrative structural biology, aims at overcoming such limitations by combining complementary data sources into a comprehensive structural model. Recent applications have shown that a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques are able to generate interaction and spatial restraints (cross-linking MS) information on native complexes or to study the stoichiometry and connectivity of entire assemblies (native MS) rapidly, reliably, and from small amounts of substrate. Although these techniques by themselves do not solve structures, they do provide invaluable structural information and are thus ideally suited to contribute to integrative modeling efforts. The group of Brian Chait has made seminal contributions in the use of mass spectrometric techniques to study protein complexes. In this perspective, we honor the contributions of the Chait group and discuss concepts and milestones of integrative structural biology. We also review recent examples of integration of structural MS techniques with an emphasis on cross-linking MS. We then speculate on future MS applications that would unravel the dynamic nature of protein complexes upon diverse cellular states.

  10. The Evolving Contribution of Mass Spectrometry to Integrative Structural Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Marco; Stengel, Florian; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-06-01

    Protein complexes are key catalysts and regulators for the majority of cellular processes. Unveiling their assembly and structure is essential to understanding their function and mechanism of action. Although conventional structural techniques such as X-ray crystallography and NMR have solved the structure of important protein complexes, they cannot consistently deal with dynamic and heterogeneous assemblies, limiting their applications to small scale experiments. A novel methodological paradigm, integrative structural biology, aims at overcoming such limitations by combining complementary data sources into a comprehensive structural model. Recent applications have shown that a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques are able to generate interaction and spatial restraints (cross-linking MS) information on native complexes or to study the stoichiometry and connectivity of entire assemblies (native MS) rapidly, reliably, and from small amounts of substrate. Although these techniques by themselves do not solve structures, they do provide invaluable structural information and are thus ideally suited to contribute to integrative modeling efforts. The group of Brian Chait has made seminal contributions in the use of mass spectrometric techniques to study protein complexes. In this perspective, we honor the contributions of the Chait group and discuss concepts and milestones of integrative structural biology. We also review recent examples of integration of structural MS techniques with an emphasis on cross-linking MS. We then speculate on future MS applications that would unravel the dynamic nature of protein complexes upon diverse cellular states.

  11. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE BUILD-UP OF STELLAR MASS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present deep J- and Ks -band photometry of 20 high redshift galaxy clusters between z = 0.8 and1.5, 19 of which are observed with the MOIRCS instrument on the Subaru telescope. By using near-infrared light as a proxy for stellar mass we find the surprising result that the average stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) has remained constant at ∼9 x 1011 M sun since z ∼ 1.5. We investigate the effect on this result of differing star formation histories generated by three well-known and independent stellar population codes and find it to be robust for reasonable, physically motivated choices of age and metallicity. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we find that the result is unaffected by any correlation between BCG mass and cluster mass in either the observed or model clusters. The large stellar masses imply that the assemblage of these galaxies took place at the same time as the initial burst of star formation. This result leads us to conclude that dry merging has had little effect on the average stellar mass of BCGs over the last 9-10 Gyr in stark contrast to the predictions of semi-analytic models, based on the hierarchical merging of dark matter halos, which predict a more protracted mass build-up over a Hubble time. However, we discuss that there is potential for reconciliation between observation and theory if there is a significant growth of material in the intracluster light over the same period.

  12. A plasma desorption mass spectrometry study of cluster ion formation from group IZA nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, W. R.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Schweikert, E. A.

    1996-05-01

    Cluster ion distributions from the plasma desorption of the Group IIA metal nitrates were examined. Two predominant positive cluster species are observed, (MO) n+H and (MO) nM + (M denotes metal atom). Regular pronounced features are observed in the mass spectra, including enhanced abundances at certain "magic numbers" of n.

  13. Testing the Reliability of Cluster Mass Indicators with a Systematics Limited Dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Juett, Adrienne M; Mushotzky, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We present the mass-X-ray observable scaling relationships for clusters of galaxies using the XMM-Newton cluster catalog of Snowden et al. Our results are roughly consistent with previous observational and theoretical work, with one major exception. We find 2-3 times the scatter around the best fit mass scaling relationships as expected from cluster simulations or seen in other observational studies. We suggest that this is a consequence of using hydrostatic mass, as opposed to virial mass, and is due to the explicit dependence of the hydrostatic mass on the gradients of the temperature and gas density profiles. We find a larger range of slope in the cluster temperature profiles at r_{500} than previous observational studies. Additionally, we find only a weak dependence of the gas mass fraction on cluster mass, consistent with a constant. Our average gas mass fraction results argue for a closer study of the systematic errors due to instrumental calibration and analysis method variations. We suggest that a mor...

  14. Detecting modules in biological networks by edge weight clustering and entropy significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, Paola; Re, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the modular structure of biological networks is of interest to researchers adopting a systems perspective for the analysis of omics data. Computational systems biology has provided a rich array of methods for network clustering. To date, the majority of approaches address this task through a network node classification based on topological or external quantifiable properties of network nodes. Conversely, numerical properties of network edges are underused, even though the information content which can be associated with network edges has augmented due to steady advances in molecular biology technology over the last decade. Properly accounting for network edges in the development of clustering approaches can become crucial to improve quantitative interpretation of omics data, finally resulting in more biologically plausible models. In this study, we present a novel technique for network module detection, named WG-Cluster (Weighted Graph CLUSTERing). WG-Cluster's notable features, compared to current approaches, lie in: (1) the simultaneous exploitation of network node and edge weights to improve the biological interpretability of the connected components detected, (2) the assessment of their statistical significance, and (3) the identification of emerging topological properties in the detected connected components. WG-Cluster utilizes three major steps: (i) an unsupervised version of k-means edge-based algorithm detects sub-graphs with similar edge weights, (ii) a fast-greedy algorithm detects connected components which are then scored and selected according to the statistical significance of their scores, and (iii) an analysis of the convolution between sub-graph mean edge weight and connected component score provides a summarizing view of the connected components. WG-Cluster can be applied to directed and undirected networks of different types of interacting entities and scales up to large omics data sets. Here, we show that WG-Cluster can be

  15. Improved mass resolution and mass accuracy in TOF-SIMS spectra and images using argon gas cluster ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoon, Sohee; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-06-01

    The popularity of argon gas cluster ion beams (Ar-GCIB) as primary ion beams in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has increased because the molecular ions of large organic- and biomolecules can be detected with less damage to the sample surfaces. However, Ar-GCIB is limited by poor mass resolution as well as poor mass accuracy. The inferior quality of the mass resolution in a TOF-SIMS spectrum obtained by using Ar-GCIB compared to the one obtained by a bismuth liquid metal cluster ion beam and others makes it difficult to identify unknown peaks because of the mass interference from the neighboring peaks. However, in this study, the authors demonstrate improved mass resolution in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the delayed extraction of secondary ions, a method typically used in TOF mass spectrometry to increase mass resolution. As for poor mass accuracy, although mass calibration using internal peaks with low mass such as hydrogen and carbon is a common approach in TOF-SIMS, it is unsuited to the present study because of the disappearance of the low-mass peaks in the delayed extraction mode. To resolve this issue, external mass calibration, another regularly used method in TOF-MS, was adapted to enhance mass accuracy in the spectrum and image generated by TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB in the delayed extraction mode. By producing spectra analyses of a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin protein digested with trypsin, along with image analyses of rat brain samples, the authors demonstrate for the first time the enhancement of mass resolution and mass accuracy for the purpose of analyzing large biomolecules in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the use of delayed extraction and external mass calibration. PMID:26861497

  16. Detecting modules in biological networks by edge weight clustering and entropy significance

    OpenAIRE

    Lecca, Paola; Re, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the modular structure of biological networks is of interest to researchers adopting a systems perspective for the analysis of omics data. Computational systems biology has provided a rich array of methods for network clustering. To date, the majority of approaches address this task through a network node classification based on topological or external quantifiable properties of network nodes. Conversely, numerical properties of network edges are underused, even though the informa...

  17. Structuring heterogeneous biological information using fuzzy clustering of k-partite graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theis Fabian J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive and automated data integration in bioinformatics facilitates the construction of large, complex biological networks. However, the challenge lies in the interpretation of these networks. While most research focuses on the unipartite or bipartite case, we address the more general but common situation of k-partite graphs. These graphs contain k different node types and links are only allowed between nodes of different types. In order to reveal their structural organization and describe the contained information in a more coarse-grained fashion, we ask how to detect clusters within each node type. Results Since entities in biological networks regularly have more than one function and hence participate in more than one cluster, we developed a k-partite graph partitioning algorithm that allows for overlapping (fuzzy clusters. It determines for each node a degree of membership to each cluster. Moreover, the algorithm estimates a weighted k-partite graph that connects the extracted clusters. Our method is fast and efficient, mimicking the multiplicative update rules commonly employed in algorithms for non-negative matrix factorization. It facilitates the decomposition of networks on a chosen scale and therefore allows for analysis and interpretation of structures on various resolution levels. Applying our algorithm to a tripartite disease-gene-protein complex network, we were able to structure this graph on a large scale into clusters that are functionally correlated and biologically meaningful. Locally, smaller clusters enabled reclassification or annotation of the clusters' elements. We exemplified this for the transcription factor MECP2. Conclusions In order to cope with the overwhelming amount of information available from biomedical literature, we need to tackle the challenge of finding structures in large networks with nodes of multiple types. To this end, we presented a novel fuzzy k-partite graph partitioning

  18. Minimal mass-size of a stable 3He cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Guardiola Barcena, Rafael; Navarro Faus, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The minimal number of 3He atoms required to form a bound cluster has been estimated by means of a Diffusion Monte Carlo procedure within the fixed-node approximation. Several importance sampling wave functions have been employed in order to consider different shell-model configurations. The resulting upper bound for the minimal number is 32 atoms.

  19. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    temperatures measured with ASCA and masses inferred from weak and strong gravitational lensing. The surface lensing masses are deprojected in accordance with N-body simulations and analytic results. The data are well-fitted by the mass-temperature relation and are consistent with the empirical normalization...... found by Evrard et al. (1996) using gas-dynamic simulations. Thus, there is no discrepancy between lensing and X-ray-derived masses using this approach. The dispersion around the relation is 27 per cent, entirely dominated by observational errors. The next generation of X-ray telescopes combined with...

  20. Mass function study of open star clusters Haffner 11 and Czernik 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, D.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    We analysis VI CCD data of two open clusters Haffner 11 and Czernik 31 in order to determine their luminosity function, mass function and mass-segregation for the first time. The observed luminosity function is corrected for both data incompleteness and field star contamination. Theoretical stellar evolutionary isochrones are used to convert luminosity function into mass function. The Mass function slopes are derived as 1.22 ± 0.42 and 1.55 ± 0.38 for Haffner 11 and Czernik 31 respectively. They agree with the Salpeter value (x = 1.35) within the errors. The effect of mass segregation are observed in both the clusters. The estimated dynamical relaxation time is less than age of the clusters. This indicates that they are dynamically relaxed. The cause of relaxation may be due to the dynamical evolution or imprint of star formation or both.

  1. The shape of the mass distribution in M31 from its globular cluster system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen M.; Huchra, John P.; Stauffer, John

    1989-01-01

    The velocity dispersion and rotation velocity of the M31 globular cluster system depend on the relative division of mass between the flat disk and a spherically symmetric halo. Using the tensor virial theorem, it is shown in detail how the mass ratio can be constrained. Radial velocities have been collected for 149 globular clusters in M31. With no assumptions about the isotropy of the velocity distribution, the globular cluster kinematics are consistent with the mass distribution inferred by the rotation curve but otherwise place no strong constraints on the relative division of the mass. If the velocity distribution is isotropic, models with the disk mass ranging between 1/2 and 1 times its maximum possible value are marginally favored.

  2. The Turn Over of the Odd-even Pattern in Mass Spectra of Carbon Cluster Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Guoquan; LIU Bingchen; ZHAI Huajin

    2000-01-01

    @@ Although investigations by many authorsd on the properties of carbon cluster anions by mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy last more than a decade[1~3], a general conclusion concerning the various features of the carbon clusters generated most commonly in laser vaporization/molecular beam sources has not yet been reached. In this Letter we report that the turn-over of the odd-even patter in relative abundance in the mass spectra of carbon clusters and the "manipulation" of the pattern can be realized in a controlled way by altering the vaporizing laser intensity, the backing pressure and the conductance of carries gas.

  3. Challenges for Precision Cosmology with X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Gas Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, Eric J.; Motl, Patrick M; Burns, Jack O.; Michael L. Norman

    2005-01-01

    We critically analyze the measurement of galaxy cluster gas masses, which is central to cosmological studies that rely on the galaxy cluster gas mass fraction. Using synthetic observations of numerically simulated clusters viewed through their X-ray emission and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE), we reduce the observations to obtain measurements of the cluster gas mass. We are thus able to quantify the possible sources of uncertainty and systematic bias associated with the common simplif...

  4. Revised Mass-to-Light Ratios For Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Yutong; Courteau, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the cluster stellar mass-to-light (M*/L) ratio and cumulative stellar masses, derived on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis, for 12 massive (M500 ~ 10^14 - 10^15 Msun), nearby clusters with available optical imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 and X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our method involves a statistical cluster membership using both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts when available to maximize completeness whilst minimizing contamination effects. We show that different methods of estimating the stellar mass-to-light ratio from observed photometry result in systematic discrepancies in the total stellar masses and average mass-to-light ratios of cluster galaxies. Nonetheless, all conversion methodologies point to a lack of correlation between M*/Li and total cluster mass, even though low-mass groups contain relatively more blue galaxies. We also find no statistically significant correlation between M*/Li and the fraction of blu...

  5. Weak lensing density profiles and mass reconstructions of the galaxy clusters Abell 1351 and Abell 1995

    CERN Document Server

    Holhjem, K; Dahle, H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the overall mass distribution of the galaxy clusters Abell 1351 and Abell 1995 using weak gravitational lensing. These clusters have got a very different mass structure and dynamical state, and are the two extremes from a larger sample of 38 X-ray luminous clusters of similar size and redshift. We measure shear values of faint background galaxies and correct for PSF anisotropies using the KSB+ method. Two-dimensional mass maps of the clusters are created using a finite-field mass reconstruction algorithm, and verified with aperture mass statistics. The masses inferred from the reconstructions are compared to those obtained from fitting spherically symmetric SIS- and NFW-models to the tangential shear profiles. We discuss the NFW concentration parameters in detail. From the mass reconstructions we infer M200-masses of 11.7 +/- 3.1 * 10^14 h_70^-1 Msun and 10.5 +/- 2.7 * 10^14 h_70^-1 Msun for Abell 1351 and Abell 1995, respectively. About 3' north-east of the main mass p...

  6. The XMM Cluster Survey: The Stellar Mass Assembly of Fossil Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Craig D; Richards, Joseph W; Lloyd-Davies, E J; Hoyle, Ben; Romer, A Kathy; Mehrtens, Nicola; Hilton, Matt; Stott, John P; Capozzi, Diego; Collins, Chris A; Deadman, Paul-James; Liddle, Andrew R; Sahlén, Martin; Stanford, S Adam; Viana, Pedro T P

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents both the result of a search for fossil systems within the XMM Cluster Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the results of a study of the stellar mass assembly and stellar populations of their fossil galaxies. In total, 17 groups and clusters are identified at z < 0.25 with large magnitude gaps between the first and fourth brightest galaxies. All the information necessary to classify these systems as fossils is provided. For both groups and clusters, the total and fractional luminosity of the brightest galaxy are positively correlated with the magnitude gap. The brightest galaxies in fossil systems (called fossil galaxies) have stellar populations and star-formation histories which are similar to normal brightest cluster galaxies. However, at fixed group/cluster mass, the stellar masses of the fossil galaxies are larger compared to normal brightest cluster galaxies, a fact that holds true over a wide range of group/cluster masses. Moreover, the fossil galaxies are found to contain...

  7. A good mass proxy for galaxy clusters with XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a sample of 39 galaxy clusters at redshift z < 0.1 observed by XMM-Newton to investigate the relations between X-ray observables and total mass. Based on central cooling time and central temperature drop, the clusters in this sample are divided into two groups: 25 cool core clusters and 14 non-cool core clusters, respectively. We study the scaling relations of L bol-M 500, M 500-T, M 500-M g, and M 500-Y X, and also the influences of cool core on these relations. The results show that the M 500-Y X relation has a slope close to the standard self-similar value, has the smallest scatter and does not vary with the cluster sample. Moreover, the M 500-Y X relation is not affected by the cool core. Thus, the parameter of YX may be the best mass indicator.

  8. Meta-atom cluster acoustic metamaterial with broadband negative effective mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We design a resonant meta-atom cluster, via which a two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterial (AM) with broadband negative effective mass density from 1560 Hz to 5580 Hz is fabricated. Experimental results confirm that there is only weak interaction among the meta-atoms in the cluster. And then the meta-atoms in the cluster independently resonate, resulting in the cluster becoming equivalent to a broadband resonance unit. Extracted effective refractive indices from reflection and transmission measurements of the 2D AM appear to be negative from 1500 Hz to 5480 Hz. The broadband negative refraction has also been demonstrated by our further experiments. We expect that this meta-atom cluster AM will significantly contribute to the design of broadband negative effective mass density AM

  9. The Mass Distribution of the Strong Lensing Cluster SDSS J1531+3414

    CERN Document Server

    Sharon, Keren; Rigby, Jane R; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B; Johnson, Traci L; Florian, Michael; Dahle, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    We present the mass distribution at the core of SDSS J1531+3414, a strong-lensing cluster at z=0.335. We find that the mass distribution is well described by two cluster-scale halos with a contribution from cluster-member galaxies. New HST observations of SDSS J1531+3414 reveal a signature of ongoing star formation associated with the two central galaxies at the core of the cluster, in the form of a chain of star forming regions at the center of the cluster. Using the lens model presented here, we place upper limits on the contribution of a possible lensed image to the flux at the center region, and rule out that this emission is coming from a background source.

  10. Mass modeling of galaxy clusters: quantifying hydrostatic bias and contribution from non-thermal pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Martizzi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy cluster mass determinations achieved using X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich data combined with the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium are generally biased. The bias exists for two main reasons: non-thermal pressure forces are expected to contribute to the overall pressure balance and deviations from spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium can be present. In this paper, we use a sample of zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters to measure the magnitude of hydrostatic bias and the contribution from turbulence to the total pressure. We propose a new empirical model for turbulent pressure based on our simulations that can be applied to observations. We show that our model can be successfully applied to remove most of the bias related to neglection of turbulent pressure, which is usually not included in hydrostatic cluster mass profile reconstructions. The use of this model may significantly improve the calibration of cluster scaling relations that are a key tool for cluster cosmology.

  11. Clustering of DNA words and biological function: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Michael; Rueda, Antonio; Carpena, Pedro; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Barturen, Guillermo; Oliver, José L

    2012-03-21

    Relevant words in literary texts (key words) are known to be clustered, while common words are randomly distributed. Given the clustered distribution of many functional genome elements, we hypothesize that the biological text per excellence, the DNA sequence, might behave in the same way: k-length words (k-mers) with a clear function may be spatially clustered along the one-dimensional chromosome sequence, while less-important, non-functional words may be randomly distributed. To explore this linguistic analogy, we calculate a clustering coefficient for each k-mer (k=2-9bp) in human and mouse chromosome sequences, then checking if clustered words are enriched in the functional part of the genome. First, we found a positive general trend relating clustering level and word enrichment within exons and Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBSs), while a much weaker relation exists for repeats, and no relation at all exists for introns. Second, we found that 38.45% of the 200 top-clustered 8-mers, but only 7.70% of the non-clustered words, are represented in known motif databases. Third, enrichment/depletion experiments show that highly clustered words are significantly enriched in exons and TFBSs, while they are depleted in introns and repetitive DNA. Considering exons and TFBSs together, 1417 (or 72.26%) in human and 1385 (or 72.97%) in mouse of the top-clustered 8-mers showed a statistically significant association to either exons or TFBSs, thus strongly supporting the link between word clustering and biological function. Lastly, we identified a subset of clustered, diagnostic words that are enriched in exons but depleted in introns, and therefore might help to discriminate between these two gene regions. The clustering of DNA words thus appears as a novel principle to detect functionality in genome sequences. As evolutionary conservation is not a prerequisite, the proof of principle described here may open new ways to detect species-specific functional DNA sequences

  12. The High-Mass End of the Black Hole Mass Function: Mass Estimates in Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonta', E Dalla; Corsini, E M; Miralda-Escude', J; Coccato, L; Sarzi, M; Pizzella, A; Beifiori, A

    2008-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging and spectroscopic observations of three Brightest Cluster Galaxies, Abell 1836-BCG, Abell 2052-BCG, and Abell 3565-BCG, obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The data provide detailed information on the structure and mass profile of the stellar component, the dust optical depth, and the spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas within the innermost region of each galaxy. Dynamical models, which account for the observed stellar mass profile and include the contribution of a central supermassive black hole (SBH), are constructed to reproduce the kinematics derived from the Halpha and [N II](lambda 6548,6583) emission lines. Secure SBH detection with M_bh=3.61(+0.41,-0.50)x10^9 M_sun and M_bh=1.34(+0.21,-0.19)x10^9 M_sun, respectively, are obtained for Abell 1836-BCG and Abell 3565-BCG, which show regular rotation curves and strong central velocity gradients. In the ...

  13. The evolution in the stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifon, Cristobal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near infra-red with the ESO NTT, WIYN and WHT telescopes, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range $0.2mass of BCGs stalls. From this sample of 132 clusters, we create a subsample of 102 systems that includes only those clusters that have estimates of the cluster mass. We combine the BCGs in this subsample with BCGs from the literature, and find that the growth in stellar mass of BCGs from 10 billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billi...

  14. The nuclear cluster of the Milky Way: total mass and luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, T. K.; Chatzopoulos, S.; Gerhard, O.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Pfuhl, O.; Tacchella, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Ott, T.

    2014-05-01

    Here we present the fundamental properties of the nuclear cluster of the Milky Way. First, we derive its structural properties by constructing a density map of the central 1000″ using extinction-corrected star counts. We can describe the data with a two-component model built from Sersic profiles. The inner nearly spherical component is the nuclear cluster. The outer, strongly flattened component can be identified with the stellar component of the circumnuclear zone. Second, we enlarge the radius inside which detailed dynamics are available from 1 pc to 4 pc. We use more than 10000 individual proper motions and more than 2700 radial velocities. We determine the cluster mass by means of isotropic spherical Jeans modeling. We get a nuclear cluster mass within 100″ of M100″=(6.11 ± 0.52|fix R 0 ±0.97| R 0 ) × 106 M⊙, which corresponds to a total cluster mass of MNC=(13.08 ± 2.51|fix R 0 ± 2.08| R 0 ) × 106 M⊙. By combination of our mass with the flux we calculate M/L=0.50 ± 0.12 M⊙/L⊙,Ks for the central 100″. That is broadly consistent with a Chabrier IMF. With its mass and a luminosity of M Ks=-15.30±0.26 the nuclear cluster is a bright and massive specimen with a typical size.

  15. Comparison of two cluster analysis methods using single particle mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weixiang; Hopke, Philip K.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    Cluster analysis of aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) data has been an effective tool for the identification of possible sources of ambient aerosols. In this study, the clustering results of two typical methods, adaptive resonance theory-based neural networks-2a (ART-2a) and density-based clustering of application with noise (DBSCAN), on ATOFMS data were investigated by employing a set of benchmark ATOFMS data. The advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are discussed and some feasible remedies proposed for problems encountered in the clustering process. The results of this study will provide promising directions for future work on ambient aerosol cluster analysis, suggesting a more effective and feasible clustering strategy based on the integration of ART-2a and DBSCAN.

  16. Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz

    2000-03-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

  17. The effect of binaries on the dynamical mass determination of star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N

    2007-01-01

    The total mass of distant star clusters is often derived from the virial theorem, using line-of-sight velocity dispersion measurements and half-light radii. Although most stars form in binary systems, this is mostly ignored when interpreting the observations. The components of binary stars exhibit orbital motion, which may increase the measured velocity dispersion, and may therefore result in a dynamical mass overestimation. In this paper we quantify the effect of neglecting the binary population on the derivation of the dynamical mass of a star cluster. We simulate star clusters numerically, and study the dependence of the derived dynamical mass on the properties of the binary population. We find that the presence of binaries plays a crucial role for very sparse clusters with a stellar density comparable to that of the field star population (~0.1 stars/pc3), as the velocity dispersion is fully dominated by the binary orbital motion. For such clusters, the dynamical mass may overestimate the true mass by up t...

  18. The Bottom-Light Present Day Mass Function of the Peculiar Globular Cluster NGC 6535

    CERN Document Server

    Halford, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical mass calculations have suggested that the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 6535 belongs to a population of clusters with high mass-to-light ratios, possibly due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We use published Hubble Space Telescope data to measure the present day stellar mass function of this cluster within its half-light radius and instead find that it is bottom-light, exacerbating the discrepancy between the dynamical measurement and its known stellar content. The cluster's proximity to the Milky Way bulge and its relatively strong velocity anisotropy are both reasons to be suspicious of the dynamical mass measurement, but we find that neither straightforwardly explains the sense and magnitude of the discrepancy. Although there are alternative potential explanations for the high mass-to-light ratio, such as the presence of large numbers of stellar remnants or dark matter, we find this cluster to be sufficiently perplexing that we now exclude it from a discussion of possible variati...

  19. The panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. V. Ages and masses of the year 1 stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present ages and masses for 601 star clusters in M31 from the analysis of the six filter integrated light measurements from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, made as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). We derive the ages and masses using a probabilistic technique, which accounts for the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function. Tests on synthetic data show that this method, in conjunction with the exquisite sensitivity of the PHAT observations and their broad wavelength baseline, provides robust age and mass recovery for clusters ranging from ∼102 to 2 × 106 M ☉. We find that the cluster age distribution is consistent with being uniform over the past 100 Myr, which suggests a weak effect of cluster disruption within M31. The age distribution of older (>100 Myr) clusters falls toward old ages, consistent with a power-law decline of index –1, likely from a combination of fading and disruption of the clusters. We find that the mass distribution of the whole sample can be well described by a single power law with a spectral index of –1.9 ± 0.1 over the range of 103-3 × 105 M ☉. However, if we subdivide the sample by galactocentric radius, we find that the age distributions remain unchanged. However, the mass spectral index varies significantly, showing best-fit values between –2.2 and –1.8, with the shallower slope in the highest star formation intensity regions. We explore the robustness of our study to potential systematics and conclude that the cluster mass function may vary with respect to environment.

  20. Efficiencies of Low-Mass Star and Star Cluster Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Matzner, Christopher D.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2000-01-01

    Using a quantitative model for bipolar outflows driven by hydromagnetic protostellar winds, we calculate the efficiency of star formation assuming that available gas is either converted into stars or ejected in outflows. We estimate the efficiency of a single star formation event in a protostellar core, finding 25%-70% for cores with various possible degrees of flattening. The core mass function and the stellar initial mass function have similar slopes, because the efficiency is not sensitive...

  1. The Morphologies and Alignments of Gas, Mass, and the Central Galaxies of CLASH Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Megan; Rasia, Elena; Sayers, Jack; Zitrin, Adi; Meneghetti, Massimo; Voit, G Mark; Golwala, Sunil; Czakon, Nicole; Yepes, Gustavo; Baldi, Alessandro; Koekemoer, Anton; Postman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be relaxed based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the BCG. Towards a quantitative characterization of this important sample of clusters, we present uniformly estimated X-ray morphological statistics for all 25 CLASH clusters. We compare X-ray morphologies of CLASH clusters with those identically measured for a large sample of simulated clusters from the MUSIC-2 simulations, selected by mass. We confirm a threshold in X-ray surface brightness concentration of C>0.4 for cool-core clusters, where C is the ratio of X-ray emission inside 100 kpc/h70 compared to inside 500 k...

  2. Reference masses for precision mass spectrometry design and implementation of a Pierce geometry to the cluster Ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Lommen, Jonathan

    At the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP carbon clusters ($^{12}$Cn, 1$\\leqslant$n$\\leqslant$25) are provided as reference masses, which are of particular importance in higher mass ranges (m $\\geqslant$ 200u). In this mass range the measurlment uncertainty is increasingly dominated by the difference of the reference mass and the mass of the ion of interest. Using carbon clusters instead of the common $^{133}$Cs ions, this difference decreases. The carbon clusters are produced in a laser ion source which has been improved in the frame of this thesis. The fluctuations of the count rate have been investigated as a function of the laser energy. Furthermore, the energy density at the target has been increased by implementation of a telescope into the laser beam line, which leads to a more narrow energy distribution of the ions. Through the exact adjustment of timing and length of a pulsed cavity an energy range with constant count rate could be selected. In order to provide ideal starting conditions during and after the ...

  3. Medical strategies to handle mass casualties from the use of biological weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Kristi L.; Kahn, C A; Schultz, C H

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the definitions of biological weapons and mass casualties. In addition, it discusses the main operational and logistical issues of import in the medical management of mass casualties from the use of biological weapons. Strategies for medical management of specific biologic agents also are highlighted.

  4. Testing cosmological models using relative mass-redshift abundance of SZ clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shafieloo, Arman

    2011-01-01

    Recent detection of high-redshift, massive clusters through Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations has opened up a new way to test cosmological models. It is known that detection of a single supermassive cluster at a very high redshift can rule out many cosmological models all together. However, since dealing with different observational biases makes it difficult to test the likeliness of the data assuming a cosmological model, most of the cluster data (except those with high mass-redshift) stays untouched in confronting cosmological models with cluster observations. We propose here that one can use the relative abundance of the clusters with different masses at different redshifts to test the likeliness of the data in the context of cosmological models. For this purpose we propose a simple parametric form for the efficiency of observing clusters at different mass-redshift and we test if the standard LCDM model can explain the observed abundance of the clusters using this efficiency parameterization. We argue that o...

  5. Precise strong lensing mass profile of the CLASH galaxy cluster MACS 2129

    CERN Document Server

    Monna, A; Balestra, I; Rosati, P; Grillo, C; Halkola, A; Suyu, S H; Coe, D; Frye, B; Koekemoer, A; Mercurio, A; Postman, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed strong lensing mass reconstruction of the core of the galaxy cluster MACSJ 2129.4-0741 ($\\rm z_{cl}=0.589$) obtained by combining high-resolution HST photometry from the CLASH survey with new spectroscopic observations from the CLASH-VLT survey. A background bright red passive galaxy at $\\rm z_{sp}=1.36$, sextuply lensed in the cluster core, has four radial lensed images located over the three central cluster members. Further 19 background lensed galaxies are spectroscopically confirmed by our VLT survey, including 3 additional multiple systems. A total of 27 multiple images are used in the lensing analysis. This allows us to trace with high precision the total mass profile of the cluster in its very inner region ($\\rm R<100$ kpc). Our final lensing mass model reproduces the multiple images systems identified in the cluster core with high accuracy of $0.4''$. This translates in an high precision mass reconstruction of MACS 2129, which is constrained at level of 3%. The cluster has Ein...

  6. Covariance in the thermal SZ-weak lensing mass scaling relation of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.

    2016-08-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect signal is widely recognized as a robust mass proxy of galaxy clusters with small intrinsic scatter. However, recent observational calibration of the tSZ scaling relation using weak lensing (WL) mass exhibits considerably larger scatter than the intrinsic scatter predicted from numerical simulations. This raises a question as to whether we can realize the full statistical power of ongoing and upcoming tSZ-WL observations of galaxy clusters. In this work, we investigate the origin of observed scatter in the tSZ-WL scaling relation, using mock maps of galaxy clusters extracted from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that the inferred intrinsic scatter from mock tSZ-WL analyses is considerably larger than the intrinsic scatter measured in simulations, and comparable to the scatter in the observed tSZ-WL relation. We show that this enhanced scatter originates from the combination of the projection of correlated structures along the line of sight and the uncertainty in the cluster radius associated with WL mass estimates, causing the amplitude of the scatter to depend on the covariance between tSZ and WL signals. We present a statistical model to recover the unbiased cluster scaling relation and cosmological parameter by taking into account the covariance in the tSZ-WL mass relation from multi-wavelength cluster surveys.

  7. Star cluster life-times: dependence on mass, radius and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gieles, Mark; Baumgardt, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The dissolution time (t_dis) of clusters in a tidal field does not scale with the ``classical'' expression for the relaxation time. First, the scaling with N, and hence cluster mass, is shallower due to the finite escape time of stars. Secondly, the cluster half-mass radius is of little importance. This is due to a balance between the relative tidal field strength and internal relaxation, which have an opposite effect on t_dis, but of similar magnitude. When external perturbations, such as encounters with giant molecular clouds (GMC) are important, t_dis for an individual cluster depends strongly on radius. The mean dissolution time for a population of clusters, however, scales in the same way with mass as for the tidal field, due to the weak dependence of radius on mass. The environmental parameters that determine t_dis are the tidal field strength and the density of molecular gas. We compare the empirically derived t_dis of clusters in six galaxies to theoretical predictions and argue that encounters with G...

  8. Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, C E; Baldry, I K; Collins, C A; Schaye, J; Bird, S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary CMB data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g., X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, ...

  9. Covariance in the thermal SZ-weak lensing mass scaling relation of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.

    2016-08-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect signal is widely recognized as a robust mass proxy of galaxy clusters with small intrinsic scatter. However, recent observational calibration of the tSZ scaling relation using weak lensing (WL) mass exhibits considerably larger scatter than the intrinsic scatter predicted from numerical simulations. This raises a question as to whether we can realize the full statistical power of ongoing and upcoming tSZ-WL observations of galaxy clusters. In this work, we investigate the origin of observed scatter in the tSZ-WL scaling relation, using mock maps of galaxy clusters extracted from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that the inferred intrinsic scatter from mock tSZ-WL analyses is considerably larger than the intrinsic scatter measured in simulations, and comparable to the scatter in the observed tSZ-WL relation. We show that this enhanced scatter originates from the combination of the projection of correlated structures along the line of sight and the uncertainty in the cluster radius associated with WL mass estimates, causing the amplitude of the scatter to depend on the covariance between tSZ and WL signals. We present a statistical model to recover the unbiased cluster scaling relation and cosmological parameter by taking into account the covariance in the tSZ-WL mass relation from multiwavelength cluster surveys.

  10. CO2 Cluster Ion Beam, an Alternative Projectile for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew; Garrison, Barbara J.; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of argon-based gas cluster ion beams for SIMS experiments opens new possibilities for molecular depth profiling and 3D chemical imaging. These beams generally leave less surface chemical damage and yield mass spectra with reduced fragmentation compared with smaller cluster projectiles. For nanoscale bioimaging applications, however, limited sensitivity due to low ionization probability and technical challenges of beam focusing remain problematic. The use of gas cluster ion beams based upon systems other than argon offer an opportunity to resolve these difficulties. Here we report on the prospects of employing CO2 as a simple alternative to argon. Ionization efficiency, chemical damage, sputter rate, and beam focus are investigated on model compounds using a series of CO2 and Ar cluster projectiles (cluster size 1000-5000) with the same mass. The results show that the two projectiles are very similar in each of these aspects. Computer simulations comparing the impact of Ar2000 and (CO2)2000 on an organic target also confirm that the CO2 molecules in the cluster projectile remain intact, acting as a single particle of m/z 44. The imaging resolution employing CO2 cluster projectiles is improved by more than a factor of two. The advantage of CO2 versus Ar is also related to the increased stability which, in addition, facilitates the operation of the gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) system at lower backing pressure.

  11. Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<103 M ☉ clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  12. Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low Mass Clusters of M83

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, J E; Chandar, R; Elmegreen, B G; Kennicutt, R C; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R; Lee, J C; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R W; Whitmore, B

    2014-01-01

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages $\\leq$ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the upper end of the stellar IMF in M83 is consistent with an universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the $\\lessapprox$ 10$^{3}$ Msun clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  13. CO2 Cluster Ion Beam, an Alternative Projectile for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew; Garrison, Barbara J.; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of argon-based gas cluster ion beams for SIMS experiments opens new possibilities for molecular depth profiling and 3D chemical imaging. These beams generally leave less surface chemical damage and yield mass spectra with reduced fragmentation compared with smaller cluster projectiles. For nanoscale bioimaging applications, however, limited sensitivity due to low ionization probability and technical challenges of beam focusing remain problematic. The use of gas cluster ion beams based upon systems other than argon offer an opportunity to resolve these difficulties. Here we report on the prospects of employing CO2 as a simple alternative to argon. Ionization efficiency, chemical damage, sputter rate, and beam focus are investigated on model compounds using a series of CO2 and Ar cluster projectiles (cluster size 1000-5000) with the same mass. The results show that the two projectiles are very similar in each of these aspects. Computer simulations comparing the impact of Ar2000 and (CO2)2000 on an organic target also confirm that the CO2 molecules in the cluster projectile remain intact, acting as a single particle of m/z 44. The imaging resolution employing CO2 cluster projectiles is improved by more than a factor of two. The advantage of CO2 versus Ar is also related to the increased stability which, in addition, facilitates the operation of the gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) system at lower backing pressure.

  14. WEIGHING GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH GAS. I. ON THE METHODS OF COMPUTING HYDROSTATIC MASS BIAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass estimates of galaxy clusters from X-ray and Sunyeav-Zel'dovich observations assume the intracluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with their gravitational potential. However, since galaxy clusters are dynamically active objects whose dynamical states can deviate significantly from the equilibrium configuration, the departure from the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption is one of the largest sources of systematic uncertainties in cluster cosmology. In the literature there have been two methods for computing the hydrostatic mass bias based on the Euler and the modified Jeans equations, respectively, and there has been some confusion about the validity of these two methods. The word 'Jeans' was a misnomer, which incorrectly implies that the gas is collisionless. To avoid further confusion, we instead refer these methods as 'summation' and 'averaging' methods respectively. In this work, we show that these two methods for computing the hydrostatic mass bias are equivalent by demonstrating that the equation used in the second method can be derived from taking spatial averages of the Euler equation. Specifically, we identify the correspondences of individual terms in these two methods mathematically and show that these correspondences are valid to within a few percent level using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. In addition, we compute the mass bias associated with the acceleration of gas and show that its contribution is small in the virialized regions in the interior of galaxy clusters, but becomes non-negligible in the outskirts of massive galaxy clusters. We discuss future prospects of understanding and characterizing biases in the mass estimate of galaxy clusters using both hydrodynamical simulations and observations and their implications for cluster cosmology

  15. X-ray mass proxies from hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters (paper I)

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, D; Rasia, E; Bonafede, A; Dolag, K; Murante, G; Tornatore, L

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed study of scaling relations between total cluster mass and three mass proxies based on X-ray observables: temperature of the intra-cluster medium, gas mass and the product of the two, Y_X. Our analysis is based on two sets of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations performed with the TreePM-SPH GADGET code. The first set includes about 140 clusters with masses above 5x10^13 M_sun/h (30 having mass above 10^15 M_sun/h), that have been simulated with (i) non-radiative physics and including (ii) cooling, star formation, chemical enrichment and the effect of supernova feedback triggering galactic ejecta. This large statistics is used to quantify the robustness of the scaling relations, to determine their redshift evolution and to calibrate their intrinsic scatter and its distribution. We use a smaller set of clusters including 18 halos with masses above 5x10^13 M_sun/h to test the robustness of mass proxies against changing the physical processes included in simulations (thermal conduction...

  16. Dust Production and Mass Loss in the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 362

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Gordon, Karl D; Babler, Brian; Block, Miwa; Bracker, Steve; Engelbracht, Charles; Hora, Joe; Indebetouw, Remy; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Oliveira, Joana M; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Whitney, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dust production and stellar mass loss in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 362. Due to its close proximity to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), NGC 362 was imaged with the IRAC and MIPS cameras onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy program. We detect several cluster members near the tip of the Red Giant Branch that exhibit infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar dust and find that dust is not present in measurable quantities in stars below the tip of the Red Giant Branch. We modeled the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the stars with the strongest IR excess and find a total cluster dust mass-loss rate of 3.0(+2.0/-1.2) x 10^-9 solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 8.6(+5.6/-3.4) x 10^-6 solar masses per year, assuming [Fe/H] = -1.16. This mass loss is in addition to any dust-less mass loss that is certainly occurring within the cluster. The two most extreme stars, variables V2 an...

  17. Central Mass Profiles of the Nearby Cool-core Galaxy Clusters Hydra A and A478

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, N; Tamura, T; Fujita, Y; Takizawa, M; Matsushita, K; Fukazawa, Y; Futamase, T; Kawaharada, M; Miyazaki, S; Mochizuki, Y; Nakazawa, K; Ohashi, T; Ota, N; Sasaki, T; Sato, K; Tam, S I

    2015-01-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A ($z=0.0538$) and A478 ($z=0.0881$), of which brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is well described either by a single Navarro--Frenk--White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of two uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host halo mass is well constrained by data. We perform a joint analysis of weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs.We find that the central mass profile ($r<300$ kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement wi...

  18. Reconciling Planck cluster counts and cosmology? Chandra/XMM instrumental calibration and hydrostatic mass bias

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, H.; Schellenberger, G.; Nevalainen, J.; Massey, R; Reiprich, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    The mass of galaxy clusters can be inferred from the temperature of their X-ray emitting gas, $T_{\\mathrm{X}}$. Their masses may be underestimated if it is assumed that the gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium, by an amount $b^{\\mathrm{hyd}}\\sim(20\\pm10)$ % suggested by simulations. We have previously found consistency between a sample of observed \\textit{Chandra} X-ray masses and independent weak lensing measurements. Unfortunately, uncertainties in the instrumental calibration of {\\em Chandra}...

  19. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Tissue: An Approach for Multicenter Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompp, Andreas; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Heeren, Ronald M.; Laprevote, Olivier; Prideaux, Brendan; Seyer, Alexandre; Spengler, Bernhard; Stoeckli, Markus; Smith, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging has become a popular tool for probing the chemical complexity of biological surfaces. This led to the development of a wide range of instrumentation and preparation protocols. It is thus desirable to evaluate and compare the data output from different methodologies and mass spectrometers. Here, we present an approach for the comparison of mass spectrometry imaging data from different laboratories (often referred to as multicenter studies). This is exemplified by the analysis of mouse brain sections in five laboratories in Europe and the USA. The instrumentation includes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF), MALDI-QTOF, MALDIFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR), atmospheric-pressure (AP)-MALDI-Orbitrap, and cluster TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Experimental parameters such as measurement speed, imaging bin width, and mass spectrometric parameters are discussed. All datasets were converted to the standard data format imzML and displayed in a common open-source software with identical parameters for visualization, which facilitates direct comparison of MS images. The imzML conversion also allowed exchange of fully functional MS imaging datasets between the different laboratories. The experiments ranged from overview measurements of the full mouse brain to detailed analysis of smaller features (depending on spatial resolution settings), but common histological features such as the corpus callosum were visible in all measurements. High spatial resolution measurements of AP-MALDI-Orbitrap and TOF-SIMS showed comparable structures in the low-micrometer range. We discuss general considerations for planning and performing multicenter studies in mass spectrometry imaging. This includes details on the selection, distribution, and preparation of tissue samples as well as on data handling. Such multicenter studies in combination with ongoing activities for reporting guidelines, a common

  20. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2016-02-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. If IMBHs exist, they could explain the rapid growth of supermassive black holes by acting as seeds in the early stage of galaxy formation. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. Our group investigated the presence of intermediate-mass black holes for a sample of 10 Galactic globular clusters. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes in each cluster. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M • - σ) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFUs). We ran N-body simulations of globular clusters containing IMBHs in a tidal field and studied their effects on mass-loss rates and remnant fractions and showed that an IMBH in the center prevents core collapse and ejects massive objects more rapidly. These simulations were further used to simulate IFU data cubes. For the specific case of NGC 6388 we simulated two different IFU techniques and found that velocity dispersion measurements from individual velocities are strongly biased towards lower values due to blends of neighboring stars and background light. In addition, we use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics to simulate the accretion of stellar winds onto a black hole.

  1. Iron-sulphur clusters, their biosynthesis, and biological functions in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Vahab; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Fe-S clusters are ensembles of sulphide-linked di-, tri-, and tetra-iron centres of a variety of metalloproteins that play important roles in reduction and oxidation of mitochondrial electron transport, energy metabolism, regulation of gene expression, cell survival, nitrogen fixation, and numerous other metabolic pathways. The Fe-S clusters are assembled by one of four distinct systems: NIF, SUF, ISC, and CIA machineries. The ISC machinery is a house-keeping system conserved widely from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes, while the other systems are present in a limited range of organisms and play supplementary roles under certain conditions such as stress. Fe-S cluster-containing proteins and the components required for Fe-S cluster biosynthesis are modulated under stress conditions, drug resistance, and developmental stages. It is also known that a defect in Fe-S proteins and Fe-S cluster biogenesis leads to many genetic disorders in humans, which indicates the importance of the systems. In this review, we describe the biological and physiological significance of Fe-S cluster-containing proteins and their biosynthesis in parasitic protozoa including Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Giardia, Trichomonas, Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium, Blastocystis, and microsporidia. We also discuss the roles of Fe-S cluster biosynthesis in proliferation, differentiation, and stress response in protozoan parasites. The heterogeneity of the systems and the compartmentalization of Fe-S cluster biogenesis in the protozoan parasites likely reflect divergent evolution under highly diverse environmental niches, and influence their parasitic lifestyle and pathogenesis. Finally, both Fe-S cluster-containing proteins and their biosynthetic machinery in protozoan parasites are remarkably different from those in their mammalian hosts. Thus, they represent a rational target for the development of novel chemotherapeutic and prophylactic agents against protozoan infections. PMID:23876871

  2. The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150Msolar stellar mass limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul A.; Schnurr, Olivier; Hirschi, Raphael; Yusof, Norhasliza; Parker, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2010-10-01

    Spectroscopic analyses of hydrogen-rich WN5-6 stars within the young star clusters NGC3603 and R136 are presented, using archival Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Telescope spectroscopy, and high spatial resolution near-IR photometry, including Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) imaging of R136. We derive high stellar temperatures for the WN stars in NGC3603 (T* ~ 42 +/- 2kK) and R136 (T* ~ 53 +/- 3kK) plus clumping-corrected mass-loss rates of 2-5 × 10-5Msolaryr-1 which closely agree with theoretical predictions from Vink et al. These stars make a disproportionate contribution to the global ionizing and mechanical wind power budget of their host clusters. Indeed, R136a1 alone supplies ~7 per cent of the ionizing flux of the entire 30Doradus region. Comparisons with stellar models calculated for the main-sequence evolution of 85-500Msolar accounting for rotation suggest ages of ~1.5Myr and initial masses in the range 105-170Msolar for three systems in NGC3603, plus 165-320Msolar for four stars in R136. Our high stellar masses are supported by consistent spectroscopic and dynamical mass determinations for the components of NGC3603A1. We consider the predicted X-ray luminosity of the R136 stars if they were close, colliding wind binaries. R136c is consistent with a colliding wind binary system. However, short period, colliding wind systems are excluded for R136a WN stars if mass ratios are of order unity. Widely separated systems would have been expected to harden owing to early dynamical encounters with other massive stars within such a high-density environment. From simulated star clusters, whose constituents are randomly sampled from the Kroupa initial mass function, both NGC3603 and R136 are consistent with an tentative upper mass limit of ~300Msolar. The Arches cluster is either too old to be used to diagnose the upper mass limit, exhibits a deficiency of very massive stars, or more likely stellar masses have been underestimated - initial

  3. Spectral Energy Distributions and Masses of 304 M31 Old Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zou, Hu; Nie, Jundan; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Jianghua; Du, Cuihua; Yuan, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents CCD multicolor photometry for 304 old star clusters in the nearby spiral galaxy M31. Of which photometry of 55 star clusters is first obtained. The observations were carried out as a part of the Beijing--Arizona--Taiwan--Connecticut (BATC) Multicolor Sky Survey from 1995 February to 2008 March, using 15 intermediate-band filters covering 3000--10000 \\AA. Detailed comparisons show that our photometry is in agreement with previous measurements. Based on the ages and metallicities from Caldwell et al. and the photometric measurements here, we estimated the clusters' masses by comparing their multicolor photometry with stellar population synthesis models. The results show that the sample clusters have masses between $\\sim 3\\times10^4 M_\\odot$ and $\\sim 10^7 M_\\odot$ with the peak of $\\sim 4\\times10^5 M_\\odot$. The masses here are in good agreement with those in previous studies. Combined with the masses of young star clusters of M31 from Wang et al., we find that the peak of mass of old cluste...

  4. Galaxy Cluster Mass Reconstruction Project: I. Methods and first results on galaxy-based techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Old, L; Pearce, F R; Croton, D; Muldrew, S I; Muñoz-Cuartas, J C; Gifford, D; Gray, M E; von der Linden, A; Mamon, G A; Merrifield, M R; Müller, V; Pearson, R J; Ponman, T J; Saro, A; Sepp, T; Sifón, C; Tempel, E; Tundo, E; Wang, Y O; Wojtak, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series in which we perform an extensive comparison of various galaxy-based cluster mass estimation techniques that utilise the positions, velocities and colours of galaxies. Our primary aim is to test the performance of these cluster mass estimation techniques on a diverse set of models that will increase in complexity. We begin by providing participating methods with data from a simple model that delivers idealised clusters, enabling us to quantify the underlying scatter intrinsic to these mass estimation techniques. The mock catalogue is based on a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model that assumes spherical Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) haloes truncated at R_200, with no substructure nor colour segregation, and with isotropic, isothermal Maxwellian velocities. We find that, above 10^14 M_solar, recovered cluster masses are correlated with the true underlying cluster mass with an intrinsic scatter of typically a factor of two. Below 10^14 M_solar, the scatter rises as the nu...

  5. Reconciling Planck cluster counts and cosmology: Chandra/XMM instrumental calibration and hydrostatic mass bias

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, Holger; Nevalainen, Jukka; Massey, Richard; Reiprich, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The temperature of X-ray emitting gas $T_X$ is often used to infer the total mass of galaxy clusters (under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium). Unfortunately, XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories measure inconsistent temperatures for the same gas, due to uncertain instrumental calibration. We translate the relative bias in $T_X$ measurements of Schellenberger et al. (2014) into a bias on inferred mass for a sample of clusters with homogeneous weak lensing (WL) masses, to simultaneously examine the hydrostatic bias and instrument calibration. Israel et al. (2014) found consistent WL and Chandra hydrostatic X-ray masses for a sample of clusters at $z$~0.5 and masses of a few $10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$. We find their XMM-Newton masses to be lower by $b^{xcal}=15$-$20$ % than their Chandra masses. At the massive end ($>5\\cdot 10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$), the XMM-Newton masses are ~35% lower than the WL masses. Assuming that the true hydrostatic bias is 20 %, as indicated by simulations, our results for the massive e...

  6. The mass distribution of the Fornax dSph: constraints from its globular cluster distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.; Dehnen, Walter; Read, Justin I.; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2012-10-01

    Uniquely among the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, Fornax hosts globular clusters. It remains a puzzle as to why dynamical friction has not yet dragged any of Fornax's five globular clusters to the centre, and also why there is no evidence that any similar star cluster has been in the past (for Fornax or any other tidally undisrupted dSph). We set up a suite of 2800 N-body simulations that sample the full range of globular cluster orbits and mass models consistent with all existing observational constraints for Fornax. In agreement with previous work, we find that if Fornax has a large dark matter core, then its globular clusters remain close to their currently observed locations for long times. Furthermore, we find previously unreported behaviour for clusters that start inside the core region. These are pushed out of the core and gain orbital energy, a process we call 'dynamical buoyancy'. Thus, a cored mass distribution in Fornax will naturally lead to a shell-like globular cluster distribution near the core radius, independent of the initial conditions. By contrast, cold dark matter-type cusped mass distributions lead to the rapid infall of at least one cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr, except when picking unlikely initial conditions for the cluster orbits (˜2 per cent probability), and almost all clusters within Δt = 10 Gyr. Alternatively, if Fornax has only a weakly cusped mass distribution, then dynamical friction is much reduced. While over Δt = 10 Gyr this still leads to the infall of one to four clusters from their present orbits, the infall of any cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr is much less likely (with probability 0-70 per cent, depending on Δt and the strength of the cusp). Such a solution to the timing problem requires (in addition to a shallow dark matter cusp) that in the past the globular clusters were somewhat further from Fornax than today; they most likely did not form within Fornax, but were accreted.

  7. The mass-concentration relation in lensing clusters: the role of statistical biases and selection effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sereno, Mauro; Ettori, Stefano; Moscardini, Lauro

    2014-01-01

    The relation between mass and concentration of galaxy clusters traces their formation and evolution. Massive lensing clusters were observed to be over-concentrated and following a steeper scaling in tension with predictions from the standard concordance $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm. We critically revise the relation in the CLASH, the SGAS, the LOCUSS and a high-redshift samples of weak lensing clusters. Measurements of mass and concentration are anti-correlated, which can bias the observed relation towards steeper values. We corrected for this bias and compared the measured relation to theoretical predictions accounting for halo triaxiality, adiabatic contraction of the halo, presence of a dominant BCG and, mostly, selection effects in the observed sample. The normalization, the slope and the scatter of the expected relation are strongly sample-dependent. For the considered samples, the predicted slope is much steeper than that of the underlying relation characterizing dark-matter only clusters. We found that correc...

  8. Correlation of mass fractal dimension and cluster size of silica in styrene butadiene rubber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gerald Johannes; Vollnhals, V; Brandt, K; Roth, S V; Göritz, D

    2010-09-01

    The morphology of the precipitated silica VN3 filled in styrene butadiene rubber was studied as a function of the volume fraction Φ by means of small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The wide q-range of 0.008 nm(-1)silica. The diameter of the primary particles and their surface roughness are independent from the silica concentration. The size of the clusters and the corresponding aggregation number depend on Φ. This observation could be ascribed to external mechanical forces because of the mixing process and to growing cluster-cluster interactions with increasing filler fraction. In contrast the mass fractal dimension does not depend on Φ, and by that means experimentally proving that there is not necessarily a correlation between the mass fractal dimension and the cluster size. PMID:20831333

  9. Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS): Stellar Mass Fraction in IR-Selected Clusters at z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Bandon; Brodwin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe. In addition to being interesting objects to study in their own right, they are excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy evolution. Furthermore, the properties and abundance of galaxy clusters provide important tests for cosmology. Currently the South Pole Telescope (SPT) provides the largest catalog of high-redshift clusters selected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, which measures the pressure of the intracluster medium (ICM). The complementary Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) selects galaxy clusters on their stellar mass by identifying overdensities in the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Data release, which provides a selection independent to that of the SPT. We have followed up the most promising cluster candidates identified from MaDCoWS with Spitzer and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) to get rest-frame H-band luminosities and radio observations of the SZ effect, respectively. Twelve clusters were robustly detected with CARMA with redshifts in the range 0.8 < z < 1.3 and total masses ranging from 2-10x1014 solar masses. Combining CARMA masses measured from the SZ observations with Spitzer/IRAC stellar masses, we determine the stellar mass fraction of the MaDCoWS sample of IR-selected clusters and compare with similar ICM-selected clusters from the SPT.

  10. The LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of Star Clusters in M31. II. Metallicities, Ages, and Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingqiu; Liu, Xiaowei; Xiang, Maosheng; Yuan, Haibo; Huang, Yang; Shi, Jianrong; Fan, Zhou; Huo, Zhiying; Wang, Chun; Ren, Juanjuan; Tian, Zhijia; Zhang, Huawei; Liu, Gaochao; Cao, Zihuang; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-08-01

    We select from Paper I a sample of 306 massive star clusters observed with the Large Sky Area Multi–Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in the vicinity fields of M31 and M33, and determine their metallicities, ages, and masses. Metallicities and ages are estimated by fitting the observed integrated spectra with stellar synthesis population (SSP) models with a pixel–to–pixel spectral fitting technique. Ages for most young clusters are also derived by fitting the multi–band photometric measurements with model spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The estimated cluster ages span a wide range, from several million years to the age of the universe. The numbers of clusters younger and older than 1 Gyr are, respectively, 46 and 260. With ages and metallicities determined, cluster masses are then estimated by comparing the multi–band photometric measurements with SSP model SEDs. The derived masses range from ∼ {10}3 to ∼ {10}7 M ⊙, peaking at ∼ {10}4.3 and ∼ {10}5.7 M ⊙ for young (\\lt 1 Gyr) and old (\\gt 1 Gyr) clusters, respectively. Our estimated metallicities, ages, and masses are in good agreement with available literature values. Old clusters richer than [Fe/H] ∼ ‑0.7 dex have a wide range of ages. Those poorer than [Fe/H] ∼ ‑0.7 dex seem to be composed of two groups, as previously found for Galactic globular clusters—one of the oldest ages with all values of metallicity down to ∼ -2 dex and another with metallicity increasing with decreasing age. The old clusters in the inner disk of M 31 (0–30 kpc) show a clear metallicity gradient measured at ‑0.038 ± 0.023 dex kpc‑1.

  11. STAR CLUSTERS IN M33: UPDATED UBVRI PHOTOMETRY, AGES, METALLICITIES, AND MASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); De Grijs, Richard, E-mail: zfan@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-04-01

    The photometric characterization of M33 star clusters is far from complete. In this paper, we present homogeneous UBVRI photometry of 708 star clusters and cluster candidates in M33 based on archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg{sup 2} along the galaxy's major axis. Our photometry includes 387, 563, 616, 580, and 478 objects in the UBVRI bands, respectively, of which 276, 405, 430, 457, and 363 do not have previously published UBVRI photometry. Our photometry is consistent with previous measurements (where available) in all filters. We adopted Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz photometry for complementary purposes, as well as Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared JHK photometry where available. We fitted the spectral-energy distributions of 671 star clusters and candidates to derive their ages, metallicities, and masses based on the updated PARSEC simple stellar populations synthesis models. The results of our χ{sup 2} minimization routines show that only 205 of the 671 clusters (31%) are older than 2 Gyr, which represents a much smaller fraction of the cluster population than that in M31 (56%), suggesting that M33 is dominated by young star clusters (<1 Gyr). We investigate the mass distributions of the star clusters—both open and globular clusters—in M33, M31, the Milky Way, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. Their mean values are log (M {sub cl}/M {sub ☉}) = 4.25, 5.43, 2.72, and 4.18, respectively. The fraction of open to globular clusters is highest in the Milky Way and lowest in M31. Our comparisons of the cluster ages, masses, and metallicities show that our results are basically in agreement with previous studies (where objects in common are available); differences can be traced back to differences in the models adopted, the fitting methods used, and stochastic sampling effects.

  12. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters III: Mass-to-light Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Erin S; Masjedi, Morad; McKay, Timothy A; Blanton, Michael R; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H; Koester, Ben P; Hansen, Sarah M; Frieman, Joshua A; Annis, James

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the SDSS. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean \\Delta \\rho(r) = \\rho(r) - \\bar{\\rho} for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess ^{0.25}i-band luminosity density \\Delta l(r) = l(r) - \\bar{l}. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce 3D mass and light profiles over scales from 25 kpc/h to 22 Mpc/h. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass \\Delta M(r) and excess light \\Delta L(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where \\rho(r) >> \\bar{\\rho}, the integrated M/L profile may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (\\Delta M/\\Delta L)_{200}, the M/L within r_{200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33+/-0.02. On large scales, where \\rho(r) . We find /b^2_{ml} = 362+/-54 h measured in the ^{0.25}i-bandpass...

  13. A cluster in the making: ALMA reveals the initial conditions for high-mass cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathborne, Jill

    2015-08-01

    Despite their importance, very little is known about the formation of star clusters. An understanding of their formation requires observations of their natal dust and gas well before the onset of star formation. In recent Galactic Plane surveys, one object, G0.253+0.016, stands out as extreme. Identified as a cold, dense, massive molecular clump devoid of prevalent star-formation, it has exactly the properties expected for a clump that may form an Arches-like cluster. Located at a distance of ~8.5 kpc, G0.253+0.016 lies ~100 pc from the Galactic Centre, in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ).In this talk I will showcase our recent ALMA data of the 90 GHz continuum and line emission toward G0.253+0.016. The data are spectacular reveal a complex network of structures: there is emission on all spatial scales, the morphology of which ranges from small, compact regions to extended, filamentary structures that are seen in both emission and absorption. A statistical analysis of the structure within G0.253+0.016 demonstrates the dominance of turbulence. The talk will summarise our recent results and the emerging picture of cluster formation in the extreme, high-pressure environment of the CMZ that is revealed by the new ALMA data.

  14. The Gaia-ESO Survey: membership and initial mass function of the γ Velorum cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisinzano, L.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonito, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Caramazza, M.; Vallenari, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Understanding the properties of young open clusters, such as the initial mass function (IMF), star formation history, and dynamic evolution, is crucial for obtaining reliable theoretical predictions of the mechanisms involved in the star formation process. Aims: We want to obtain a list that is as complete as possible of confirmed members of the young open cluster γ Velorum, with the aim of deriving general cluster properties such as the IMF. Methods: We used all available spectroscopic membership indicators within the Gaia-ESO public archive, together with literature photometry and X-ray data, and for each method, we derived the most complete list of candidate cluster members. Then, we considered photometry, gravity, and radial velocities as necessary conditions for selecting a subsample of candidates whose membership was confirmed by using the lithium and Hα lines and X-rays as youth indicators. Results: We found 242 confirmed and 4 possible cluster members for which we derived masses using very recent stellar evolutionary models. The cluster IMF in the mass range investigated in this study shows a slope of α = 2.6 ± 0.5 for 0.5 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A70

  15. The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, Luminosity and Mass Functions of the Pleiades cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Barrado, D; Moraux, E; Bouvier, J; Cuillandre, J -C; Berihuete, A; Olivares, J; Beletsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 millions unique sources in a region encompassing $\\approx$80deg$^{2}$ centered around the Pleiades cluster. We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades, and measure the mass and luminosity function of the cluster. Using the probabilistic selection method described in Sarro+2014, we identify high probability members in the DANCe ($i\\ge$14mag) and Tycho-2 ($V\\lesssim$12mag) catalogues, and study the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. We find a total of 2109 high probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to $\\approx$0.025M$_{\\odot}$. The size, sensitivity and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Our census supersedes ...

  16. Multiple stellar-mass black holes in globular clusters: theoretical confirmation

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Anna C.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2012-01-01

    While tens or hundreds of stellar-remnant black holes are expected to form in globular star clusters, it is still unclear how many of those will be retained upon formation, and how many will be ejected through subsequent dynamical interactions. No such black holes have been found in any Milky Way globular cluster until the recent discovery of stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656) with now an estimated population of 5-100 black holes. We present a direct N-body model ...

  17. Synthetic extinction maps around intermediate-mass black holes in Galactic globular clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pepe, C.; Pellizza, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, much effort has been devoted to explain the discrepancy between the amount of intracluster medium (ICM) estimated from stellar evolution theories and that emerging from observations in globular clusters (GCs). One possible scenario is the accretion of this medium by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) at the centre of the cluster. In this work, we aim at modelling the cluster colour-excess profile as a tracer of the ICM density, both with and without an IMBH. Compa...

  18. The evolution in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Lidman, Chris; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R.; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z. Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifón, Cristóbal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near-infrared with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope, WIYN telescope and William Herschel Telescope, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range 0.2 theory using mock images, is required if a more detailed comparison between the models and the data is to be made.

  19. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF FOSSIL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents both the result of a search for fossil systems (FSs) within the XMM Cluster Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the results of a study of the stellar mass assembly and stellar populations of their fossil galaxies. In total, 17 groups and clusters are identified at z 200, as much as 85%, compared to the non-fossils, which can have as little as 10%. Our results suggest that FSs formed early and in the highest density regions of the universe and that fossil galaxies represent the end products of galaxy mergers in groups and clusters.

  20. The mass in galaxy clusters from X-ray/SZ observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    The key tool to use galaxy clusters as astrophysical laboratories and cosmological probes is the knowledge of the distribution of the their gravitating and baryonic mass. I'll discuss the current status in reconstructing the gas and total cluster mass profiles from observations via X-rays and the Sunyeav-Zeldovich effect, highlighting the present limitations and biases, in particular in the clusters' outskirts, I'll show how the use of generalized scaling relations can help to reduce the scatter in obtaining the total mass and to constrain the physics responsible for the observed deviations from the self-similar model. I'll elucidate how Athena, the next-generation X-ray observatory and ESA-L2 mission, will address these issues.

  1. Kinematic signature of an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster NGC 6388

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, N; Noyola, E; Jalali, B; de Zeeuw, P T; Gebhardt, K; Baumgardt, H

    2011-01-01

    Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) are of interest in a wide range of astrophysical fields. In particular, the possibility of finding them at the centers of globular clusters has recently drawn attention. IMBHs became detectable since the quality of observational data sets, particularly those obtained with HST and with high resolution ground based spectrographs, advanced to the point where it is possible to measure velocity dispersions at a spatial resolution comparable to the size of the gravitational sphere of influence for plausible IMBH masses. We present results from ground based VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy in combination with HST data for the globular cluster NGC 6388. The aim of this work is to probe whether this massive cluster hosts an intermediate-mass black hole at its center and to compare the results with the expected value predicted by the $M_{\\bullet} - \\sigma$ scaling relation. The spectroscopic data, containing integral field unit measurements, provide kinematic signatures in the center of the...

  2. Probing modified gravity via the mass-temperature relation of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hammami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the mass-temperature relation of galaxy clusters is a prime candidate for testing gravity theories beyond Einstein's general relativity. Using cosmological simulations, we find that in modified gravity the mass-temperature relation varies significantly from the standard gravity prediction $M \\propto T^{1.73}$. To be specific, for symmetron models with a coupling factor of $\\beta = 1$ we find a lower limit to the power law as $M \\propto T^{1.6}$; and for f(R) gravity we compute predictions based on the model parameters. We show that the mass-temperature relation, for screened modified gravities, is significantly different from that of standard gravity for the less massive and colder galaxy clusters, while being indistinguishable from Einstein's gravity at massive, hot galaxy clusters.

  3. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrino...... properties and gravity. I will present the novel statistical framework we employed to self-consistently and simultaneously constrain cosmology and observable-mass scaling relations accounting for survey biases, parameter covariances and systematic uncertainties. Allowing the dark energy equation of state...... and the linear growth index to take any constant values, we find no evidence for departures from the standard cosmological paradigm – General Relativity plus a cosmological constant and cold dark matter. I will review in detail our results and demonstrate the power of X-ray cluster studies to constrain both...

  4. The relation between mass and concentration in X-ray galaxy clusters at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Amodeo, Stefania; Capasso, Raffaella; Sereno, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the most recent, gravitationally-bound products of the hierarchical mass accretion over cosmological scales. How the mass is concentrated is predicted to correlate with the total mass in the cluster's halo, with systems at higher mass being less concentrated at given redshift and for any given mass, systems with lower concentration are found at higher redshifts. Through a spatial and spectral X-ray analysis, we reconstruct the total mass profile of 47 galaxy clusters observed with Chandra in the redshift range $0.40.4$, and is well suited to provide the first constraint on the concentration--mass relation at $z>0.7$ from X-ray analysis. Under the assumptions that the distribution of the X-ray emitting gas is spherically symmetric and in hydrostatic equilibrium, we combine the deprojected gas density and spectral temperature profiles through the hydrostatic equilibrium equation to recover the parameters that describe a NFW total mass distribution. The comparison with results from weak lensi...

  5. The XXL Survey IV. Mass-temperature relation of the bright cluster sample

    CERN Document Server

    Lieu, Maggie; Giles, Paul A; Ziparo, Felicia; Maughan, Ben J; Démoclès, Jessica; Pacaud, Florian; Pierre, Marguerite; Adami, Christophe; Bahé, Yannick M; Clerc, Nicolas; Chiappetti, Lucio; Eckert, Dominique; Ettori, Stefano; Lavoie, Sébastien; Fevre, Jean-Paul Le; McCarthy, Ian G; Kilbinger, Martin; Ponman, Trevor J; Sadibekova, Tatyana; Willis, Jon P

    2015-01-01

    The XXL survey is the largest survey carried out by XMM-Newton. Covering an area of 50deg$^2$, the survey contains $\\sim450$ galaxy clusters out to a redshift $\\sim$2 and to an X-ray flux limit of $\\sim5\\times10^{-15}erg\\,s^{-1}cm^{-2}$. This paper is part of the first release of XXL results focussed on the bright cluster sample. We investigate the scaling relation between weak-lensing mass and X-ray temperature for the brightest clusters in XXL. The scaling relation is used to estimate the mass of all 100 clusters in XXL-100-GC. Based on a subsample of 38 objects that lie within the intersection of the northern XXL field and the publicly available CFHTLenS catalog, we derive the $M_{WL}$ of each system with careful considerations of the systematics. The clusters lie at $0.1clusters from the literature, increasing the range out to 10keV. To date, this is the largest sample of clusters with $M_{WL}$ measurements that has been use...

  6. Mass effect on the lithium abundance evolution of open clusters: Hyades, NGC 752, and M67

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Matthieu; Pace, Giancarlo; Nascimento, José Dias do

    2016-01-01

    Lithium abundances in open clusters provide an effective way of probing mixing processes in the interior of solar-type stars and convection is not the only mixing mechanism at work. To understand which mixing mechanisms are occurring in low-mass stars, we test non-standard models, which were calibrated using the Sun, with observations of three open clusters of different ages, the Hyades, NGC 752, and M67. We collected all available data, and for the open cluster NGC 752, we redetermine the equivalent widths and the lithium abundances. Two sets of evolutionary models were computed, one grid of only standard models with microscopic diffusion and one grid with rotation-induced mixing, at metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.13, 0.0, and 0.01 dex, respectively, using the Toulouse-Geneva evolution code. We compare observations with models in a color-magnitude diagram for each cluster to infer a cluster age and a stellar mass for each cluster member. Then, for each cluster we analyze the lithium abundance of each star as a funct...

  7. Biased total mass of cool core galaxy clusters by Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, A; Comis, B; Lamagna, L; De Gregori, S

    2010-01-01

    The Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is one of the most powerful cosmological tools to investigate the large-scale Universe, in which clusters of galaxies are the most interesting target. The great advantage of the SZ effect of being redshift independent, in contrast with visible and X-ray observations, allows to directly estimate cluster total mass from the integrated comptonization parameter Y, even for faraway clusters. However, the lack of a complete knowledge of the Intra-Cluster gas (ICg) physics can affect the results. Taking into account self-similar temperature and density profiles of the ICg, we study how different ICg morphologies can affect the cluster total mass estimation. Due to the large percentage of cool core (CC) clusters, we analyze this class starting with a limited sample of eight objects, observed by Chandra. We simulate SZ observations of these clusters through X-ray derived information, and re-analyze the mock SZ data with the simplistic assumption for the ICg of an isothermal beta mode...

  8. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate dust production and stellar mass loss in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 362. Due to its close proximity to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), NGC 362 was imaged with the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer cameras onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy program. We detect several cluster members near the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) that exhibit infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar dust and find that dust is not present in measurable quantities in stars below the tip of the RGB. We modeled the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the stars with the strongest IR excess and find a total cluster dust mass-loss rate of 3.0+2.0-1.2 x 10-9 Msun yr-1, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 8.6+5.6-3.4 x 10-6 Msun yr-1, assuming [Fe/H] =-1.16. This mass loss is in addition to any dustless mass loss that is certainly occurring within the cluster. The two most extreme stars, variables V2 and V16, contribute up to 45% of the total cluster dust-traced mass loss. The SEDs of the more moderate stars indicate the presence of silicate dust, as expected for low-mass, low-metallicity stars. Surprisingly, the SED shapes of the stars with the strongest mass-loss rates appear to require the presence of amorphous carbon dust, possibly in combination with silicate dust, despite their oxygen-rich nature. These results corroborate our previous findings in ω Centauri.

  9. Central mass profiles of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters Hydra A and A478

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, N.; Umetsu, K.; Tamura, T.; Fujita, Y.; Takizawa, M.; Matsushita, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Futamase, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Miyazaki, S.; Mochizuki, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ota, N.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, K.; Tam, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A (z = 0.0538) and A478 (z = 0.0881), of which the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host the powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is described well by either a single Navarro-Frenk-White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of 2 uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host-halo mass is constrained well by data. We perform a joint analysis of the weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs. We find that the central mass profile (r < 300 kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement with those from independent measurements, including dynamical masses estimated from the cold gas disc component, X-ray hydrostatic total mass estimates, and the central stellar mass estimated with the Salpeter IMF. The observed dark matter fraction around the BCG for Hydra A is found to be smaller than those predicted by adiabatic contraction models, suggesting the importance of other physical processes, such as AGN feedback and/or dissipationless mergers.

  10. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters with gravitational microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kains, N.; Bramich, D. M.; Sahu, K. C.; Calamida, A.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the potential of the gravitational microlensing method as a unique tool to detect unambiguous signals caused by intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. We select clusters near the line of sight to the Galactic bulge and the Small Magellanic Cloud, estimate the density of background stars for each of them, and carry out simulations in order to estimate the probabilities of detecting the astrometric signatures caused by black hole lensing. We find that for several clusters, the probability of detecting such an event is significant with available archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope. Specifically, we find that M 22 is the cluster with the best chances of yielding an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) detection via astrometric microlensing. If M 22 hosts an IMBH of mass 105 M⊙, then the probability that at least one star will yield a detectable signal over an observational baseline of 20 years is ˜86 per cent, while the probability of a null result is around 14 per cent. For an IMBH of mass 106 M⊙, the detection probability rises to >99 per cent. Future observing facilities will also extend the available time baseline, improving the chance of detections for the clusters we consider.

  11. Mass concentrations associated with extended X-ray sources in the core of the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.

    1994-01-01

    Using a deep (approx. 20,200 s) ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) image we have examined the central region of the Coma cluster. Two extended regions of enhanced X-ray emission are found, centered at the positions of the brightest elliptical galaxies in the cluster: NGC 4874 and NGC 4889. Spectral analysis of the sources reveals no evidence of any difference between the spectra of these sources and that of the surrounding cluster emission. We assume that the enhancement in the X-ray surface brightness results from gas density enhancements and also that the underlying mass concentrations lie either at the cluster center or 1 core radius out of the center (420 kpc). With these assumptions, we derive total masses of 1.2 x 10(exp 13) - 1.6 x 10(exp 13), and 0.9 x 10(exp 13) - 1.8 x 10(exp 13) Solar mass within 2 min (80 kpc) of NGC 4874 and NGC 4889, respectively, assuming a Hubble constant H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc. Corresponding mass-to-light ratios for the galaxies are 30-40 and 25-50 in solar units, increasing at larger radii and approaching the values derived for the entire cluster at distances of more than approximately 150 kpc from the galaxies.

  12. The role of low-mass star clusters in massive star formation. The Orion Case

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Jimenez-Serra, I; Rodriguez-Franco, A

    2013-01-01

    To distinguish between the different theories proposed to explain massive star formation, it is crucial to establish the distribution, the extinction, and the density of low-mass stars in massive star-forming regions. We analyze deep X-ray observations of the Orion massive star-forming region using the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) catalog. We studied the stellar distribution as a function of extinction, with cells of 0.03 pc x 0.03 pc, the typical size of protostellar cores. We derived stellar density maps and calculated cluster stellar densities. We found that low-mass stars cluster toward the three massive star-forming regions: the Trapezium Cluster (TC), the Orion Hot Core (OHC), and OMC1-S. We derived low-mass stellar densities of 10^{5} stars pc^{-3} in the TC and OMC1-S, and of 10^{6} stars pc^{-3} in the OHC. The close association between the low-mass star clusters with massive star cradles supports the role of these clusters in the formation of massive stars. The X-ray observations show for ...

  13. Cluster size statistic and cluster mass statistic: two novel methods for identifying changes in functional connectivity between groups or conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ing

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity has become an increasingly important area of research in recent years. At a typical spatial resolution, approximately 300 million connections link each voxel in the brain with every other. This pattern of connectivity is known as the functional connectome. Connectivity is often compared between experimental groups and conditions. Standard methods used to control the type 1 error rate are likely to be insensitive when comparisons are carried out across the whole connectome, due to the huge number of statistical tests involved. To address this problem, two new cluster based methods--the cluster size statistic (CSS and cluster mass statistic (CMS--are introduced to control the family wise error rate across all connectivity values. These methods operate within a statistical framework similar to the cluster based methods used in conventional task based fMRI. Both methods are data driven, permutation based and require minimal statistical assumptions. Here, the performance of each procedure is evaluated in a receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis, utilising a simulated dataset. The relative sensitivity of each method is also tested on real data: BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent fMRI scans were carried out on twelve subjects under normal conditions and during the hypercapnic state (induced through the inhalation of 6% CO2 in 21% O2 and 73%N2. Both CSS and CMS detected significant changes in connectivity between normal and hypercapnic states. A family wise error correction carried out at the individual connection level exhibited no significant changes in connectivity.

  14. 07131 Abstracts Collection -- Similarity-based Clustering and its Application to Medicine and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Verleysen, Michel; Villmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    From 25.03. to 30.03.2007, the Dagstuhl Seminar 07131 ``Similarity-based Clustering and its Application to Medicine and Biology'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. T...

  15. THE SEMANTIC INFORMATION MODEL FOR CLUSTER "BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN FEEDING AND COSMETICS"

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Velikov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a unified data model for cluster "Biologically active substances in feeding and cosmetics”. The basic information components and their relationship are indicated. The information system provides the data in a structured format thereby realize the concept of interoperability and allows the integration of different systems, storages, processing and re-using of information. The best practices for combining and adapting information resources to support semantic interoperabili...

  16. The Normal Cluster Weak Lensing Survey Mass Profiles and M\\/L Ratios of Eight Clusters at z=0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Tyson, T; Bernstein, G; Fischer, P; Smith, D; Wittman, David; Antonio, Ian Dell'; Tyson, Tony; Bernstein, Gary; Fischer, Philippe; Smith, Deano

    2000-01-01

    We present a survey of mass profiles and mass-to-light ratios of eight typical galaxy clusters at a common redshift (z ~ 0.2). We use weak gravitational lensing as a probe because it is unique in avoiding any assumptions about the dynamical state of the clusters. To avoid bias toward the rare and spectacular clusters that are easy targets for lensing work, we selected an ensemble of much more common clusters with moderate X-ray luminosity. Although the survey is still in progress, two conclusions are emerging: (1) within a cluster, mass follows light very closely on the angular scales that we can measure, $0.2-2h^{-1}$ Mpc, and (2) there is a significant cluster-to-cluster scatter in mass-to-light (M/L) ratios despite uniformity of observing, reduction, and analysis procedures. We also derive an estimate of $\\Omega_{matter}$ based on extrapolation from the mass properties of these typical clusters. Finally, we discuss the discovery of other clusters in our fields through their lensing signal.

  17. Binary black hole mergers from globular clusters: Masses, merger rates, and the impact of stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers

  18. Young and embedded clusters in Cygnus-X: evidence for building up the initial mass function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, F. F. S.; Moraux, E.; Joncour, I.

    2016-05-01

    We provide a new view on the Cygnus-X north complex by accessing for the first time the low mass content of young stellar populations in the region. Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/Wide-Field Infrared Camera was used to perform a deep near-infrared survey of this complex, sampling stellar masses down to ˜0.1 M⊙. Several analysis tools, including a extinction treatment developed in this work, were employed to identify and uniformly characterize a dozen unstudied young star clusters in the area. Investigation of their mass distributions in low-mass domain revealed a relatively uniform log-normal initial mass function (IMF) with a characteristic mass of 0.32 ± 0.08 M⊙ and mass dispersion of 0.40 ± 0.06. In the high-mass regime, their derived slopes showed that while the youngest clusters (age age population. Although possibly evidencing a deviation from an `universal' IMF, these results also supports a scenario where these gas-dominated young clusters gradually `build up' their IMF by accreting low-mass stars formed in their vicinity during their first ˜3 Myr, before the gas expulsion phase, emerging at the age of ˜4 Myr with a fully fledged IMF. Finally, the derived distances to these clusters confirmed the existence of at least three different star-forming regions throughout Cygnus-X north complex, at distances of 500-900 pc, 1.4-1.7 and 3.0 kpc, and revealed evidence of a possible interaction between some of these stellar populations and the Cygnus OB2 association.

  19. Galaxy Cluster Mass Reconstruction Project: II. Quantifying scatter and bias using contrasting mock catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Old, L; Mamon, G A; Skibba, R A; Pearce, F R; Croton, D; Bamford, S; Behroozi, P; de Carvalho, R; Muñoz-Cuartas, J C; Gifford, D; Gray, M E; von der Linden, A; Merrifield, M R; Muldrew, S I; Müller, V; Pearson, R J; Ponman, T J; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E; Saro, A; Sepp, T; Sifón, C; Tempel, E

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second in a series in which we perform an extensive comparison of various galaxy-based cluster mass estimation techniques that utilise the positions, velocities and colours of galaxies. Our aim is to quantify the scatter, systematic bias and completeness of cluster masses derived from a diverse set of 25 galaxy-based methods using two contrasting mock galaxy catalogues based on a sophisticated halo occupation model and a semi-analytic model. Analysing 968 clusters, we find a wide range in the RMS errors in log M200c delivered by the different methods (0.18 to 1.08 dex, i.e., a factor of ~1.5 to 12), with abundance matching and richness methods providing the best results, irrespective of the input model assumptions. In addition, certain methods produce a significant number of catastrophic cases where the mass is under- or over-estimated by a factor greater than 10. Given the steeply falling high-mass end of the cluster mass function, we recommend that richness or abundance matching-based me...

  20. Semi-Analytic Model Predictions of Mass Segregation from Groups to Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Taking advantage of a set of high-resolution simulations coupled with a state-of-art semi-analytic model of galaxy formation we probe the mass segregation of galaxies in groups and clusters, focusing on which physical mechanisms are driving it. We find evidence of mass segregation in groups and clusters up to the virial radius, with a trend that weakens with increasing halo mass. The physical mechanism responsible for that is found to be dynamical friction, a drag-force that brings more massive galaxies faster towards the innermost regions of the halo. We argue that the intrinsic dependence of dynamical friction timescale on halo mass explains the weakening of mass segregation from groups to clusters. At odds with observational results, we do not find the inclusion of low-mass galaxies in the samples, down to stellar mass $M_* = 10^9 \\, M_{\\odot}$, to change the overall trend shown by intermediate and massive galaxies. Moreover, stellar stripping as well as the growth of galaxies after their accretion, do not...

  1. A carbon cluster ion source for mass calibration at TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA-TRAP is a high-precision penning trap mass spectrometer installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz in order to determine the masses of short-lived fission products and - in addition to that - also the masses of actinide elements ranging from uranium up to californium. In order to determine precisely the masses of the nuclides of interest, the superconducting magnet providing the strong magnetic field for the Penning trap has to be calibrated by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with well-known mass, which is, if possible, an isobaric nuclide of the ion of interest. Therefore, the best possible choice for mass calibration is to use carbon clusters as mass references, as demonstrated at the ISOLTRAP facility at ISOLDE/CERN. A laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon clusters has been developed using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The design, current status, and results of the production of carbon cluster ions, using C60 and Sigradure registered samples, as well as other ions are presented

  2. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 Mcircledot, with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 Mcircledot. The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as ∼12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Challenges for Precision Cosmology with X-Ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Gas Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Eric J.; Motl, Patrick M.; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.

    2006-09-01

    We critically analyze the measurement of galaxy cluster gas masses, which is central to cosmological studies that rely on the galaxy cluster gas mass fraction. Using synthetic observations of numerically simulated clusters viewed through their X-ray emission and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE), we reduce the observations to obtain measurements of the cluster gas mass. We quantify the possible sources of uncertainty and systematic bias associated with the common simplifying assumptions used in reducing real cluster observations, including isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that intrinsic variations in clusters limit the precision of observational gas mass estimation to ~10% to 1 σ confidence, excluding instrumental effects. Gas mass estimates show surprisingly little trending in the scatter as a function of cluster redshift. For the full cluster sample, methods that use SZE profiles out to roughly the virial radius are the simplest, most accurate, and unbiased way to estimate cluster mass. X-ray methods are systematically more precise mass estimators than are SZE methods if merger and cool-core systems are removed, but slightly overestimate (5%-10%) the cluster gas mass on average. We find that cool-core clusters in our samples are particularly poor candidates for observational mass estimation, even when excluding emission from the core region. The effects of cooling in the cluster gas alter the radial profile of the X-ray and SZE surface brightness even outside the cool-core region. Finally, we find that methods using a universal temperature profile estimate cluster masses to higher precision than those assuming isothermality.

  4. The low-mass Initial Mass Function in the Orion Nebula cluster based on HST/NICMOS III imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; Robberto, M; Bergeron, L E; Reid, N

    2011-01-01

    We present deep HST/NICMOS Camera 3 F110W and F160W imaging of a 26'x33', corresponding to 3.1pcx3.8pc, non-contiguous field towards the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The main aim is to determine the ratio of low--mass stars to brown dwarfs for the cluster as a function of radius out to a radial distance of 1.5pc. The sensitivity of the data outside the nebulous central region is F160W=21.0 mag, significantly deeper than previous studies of the region over a comparable area. We create an extinction limited sample and determine the ratio of low-mass stars (0.08-1Msun) to brown dwarfs (0.02-0.08Msun and 0.03-0.08Msun) for the cluster as a whole and for several annuli. The ratio found for the cluster within a radius of 1.5pc is R(02)=N(0.08-1Msun)/N(0.02-0.08Msun)=1.7+-0.2, and R(03)=N(0.08-1Msun)/N(0.03-0.08Msun)=2.4+-0.2, after correcting for field stars. The ratio for the central 0.3pcx0.3pc region down to 0.03Msun was previously found to be R(03)=3.3+0.8-0.7, suggesting the low-mass content of the cluster is m...

  5. The SAMI Pilot Survey: The Fundamental and Mass Planes in Three Low-Redshift Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Nicholas; Owers, Matt S; Croom, Scott M; Colless, Matthew; Davies, Roger L; Brough, S; Pracy, Michael B; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Jones, D Heath; Allen, J T; Bryant, Julia J; Cortese, Luca; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andrew W; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S; Lawrence, J S; Richards, Samuel; Sharp, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Using new integral field observations of 106 galaxies in three nearby clusters we investigate how the intrinsic scatter of the Fundamental Plane depends on the way in which the velocity dispersion and effective radius are measured. Our spatially resolved spectroscopy, combined with a cluster sample with negligible relative distance errors allows us to derive a Fundamental Plane with minimal systematic uncertainties. From the apertures we tested, we find that velocity dispersions measured within a circular aperture with radius equal to one effective radius minimises the intrinsic scatter of the Fundamental Plane. Using simple yet powerful Jeans dynamical models we determine dynamical masses for our galaxies. Replacing luminosity in the Fundamental Plane with dynamical mass, we demonstrate that the resulting Mass Plane has further reduced scatter, consistent with zero intrinsic scatter. Using these dynamical models we also find evidence for a possibly non-linear relationship between dynamical mass-to-light rati...

  6. Photodissociation dynamics of ethanethiol in clusters: complementary information from velocity map imaging, mass spectrometry and calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrčková, Pavla; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Poterya, Viktoriya; Slavíček, Petr; Fárník, Michal

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the solvent effects on photodissociation dynamics of the S-H bond in ethanethiol CH3CH2SH (EtSH). The H fragment images are recorded by velocity map imaging (VMI) at 243 nm in various expansion regimes ranging from isolated molecules to clusters of different sizes and compositions. The VMI experiment is accompanied by electron ionization mass spectrometry using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS). The experimental data are interpreted using ab initio calculations. The direct S-H bond fission results in a peak of fast fragments at Ekin(H) ≈ 1.25 eV with a partly resolved structure corresponding to vibrational levels of the CH3CH2S cofragment. Clusters of different nature ranging from dimers to large (EtSH)N, N ≥ 10, clusters and to ethanethiol clusters embedded in larger argon "snowballs" are investigated. In the clusters a sharp peak of near-zero kinetic energy fragments occurs due to the caging. The dynamics of the fragment caging is pictured theoretically, using multi-reference ab initio theory for the ethanethiol dimer. The larger cluster character is revealed by the simultaneous analysis of the VMI and RTOFMS experiments; none of these tools alone can provide the complete picture. PMID:25743944

  7. Mass segregation in rich LMC clusters from modelling of deep HST colour-magnitude diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kerber, L O

    2006-01-01

    We used the deep colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of five rich LMC clusters (NGC1805, 1818, 1831, 1868, and Hodge14) observed with HST/WFPC2 to derive their present day mass function (PDMF) and its variation with position within the cluster. The PDMF was parameterized as a power law in the available main-sequence mass range of each cluster, typically 0.9 <~ m/M_sun <~ 2.5; its slope was determined at different positions spanning from the very centre out to several core radii. The CMDs in the central regions of the clusters were carefully studied earlier, resulting in accurate age, metallicity, distance modulus, and reddening values. The slope alpha (where Salpeter is 2.35) was determined in annuli by following two distinct methods: 1) a power law fit to the PDMF obtained from the systemic luminosity function (LF); 2) a statistical comparison between observed and model CMDs. In all clusters, significant mass segregation is found from the positional dependence of the PDMF slope: alpha <~ 1.8 for R <...

  8. A Precise Cluster Mass Profile Averaged from the Highest-Quality Lensing Data

    CERN Document Server

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Medezinski, Elinor; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We outline our methods for obtaining high precision mass profiles, combining independent weak-lensing distortion, magnification, and strong-lensing measurements. For massive clusters the strong and weak lensing regimes contribute equal logarithmic coverage of the radial profile, permitting a stringent test of theoretical models. The utility of high-quality data is limited by the cosmic noise from large scale structure along the line of sight, producing covariance between radial bins, particularly behind the cluster center, where magnified sources lie at greater distances. This noise is overcome when stacking clusters, as too are the effects of cluster asphericity and substructure, allowing a tighter comparison of the mean profile with theoretical models. We derive a mean radial mass profile of four very similar mass clusters of very high-quality HST and Subaru images, in the range R=40kpc/h to 2800kpc/h, where the inner radial boundary is sufficiently large to avoid smoothing from miscentering effects. The st...

  9. The LAMOST spectroscopic survey of star clusters in M31. II. Metallicities, ages and masses

    CERN Document Server

    Bingqiu, Chen; Maosheng, Xiang; Haibo, Yuan; Yang, Huang; Jianrong, Shi; Zhou, Fan; Zhiying, Huo; Chun, Wang; Juanjuan, Ren; Zhijia, Tian; Huawei, Zhang; Gaochao, Liu; Zihuang, Cao; Yong, Zhang; Yonghui, Hou; Yuefei, Wang

    2016-01-01

    We select from Paper I a sample of 306 massive star clusters observed with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in the vicinity fields of M31 and M33 and determine their metallicities, ages and masses. Metallicities and ages are estimated by fitting the observed integrated spectra with stellar synthesis population (SSP) models with a pixel-to-pixel spectral fitting technique. Ages for most young clusters are also derived by fitting the multi-band photometric measurements with model spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The estimated cluster ages span a wide range, from several million years to the age of the universe. The numbers of clusters younger and older than 1 Gyr are respectively 46 and 260. With ages and metallicities determined, cluster masses are then estimated by comparing the multi-band photometric measurements with SSP model SEDs. The derived masses range from $\\sim 10^{3}$ to $\\sim 10^7$ $M_{\\odot}$, peaking at $\\sim 10^{4.3}$ and $\\sim 10^{5.7}$ $M_{\\odot}$ for...

  10. The XXL Survey . IV. Mass-temperature relation of the bright cluster sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, M.; Smith, G. P.; Giles, P. A.; Ziparo, F.; Maughan, B. J.; Démoclès, J.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Bahé, Y. M.; Clerc, N.; Chiappetti, L.; Eckert, D.; Ettori, S.; Lavoie, S.; Le Fevre, J. P.; McCarthy, I. G.; Kilbinger, M.; Ponman, T. J.; Sadibekova, T.; Willis, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by XMM-Newton. Covering an area of 50 deg2, the survey contains ~450 galaxy clusters out to a redshift ~2 and to an X-ray flux limit of ~ 5 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2. This paper is part of the first release of XXL results focussed on the bright cluster sample. Aims: We investigate the scaling relation between weak-lensing mass and X-ray temperature for the brightest clusters in XXL. The scaling relation discussed in this article is used to estimate the mass of all 100 clusters in XXL-100-GC. Methods: Based on a subsample of 38 objects that lie within the intersection of the northern XXL field and the publicly available CFHTLenS shear catalog, we derive the weak-lensing mass of each system with careful considerations of the systematics. The clusters lie at 0.1 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A2

  11. Structural parameters of 11 faint Galactic globular clusters derived with 2MASS

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C

    2007-01-01

    The determination of structural parameters of 11 faint Galactic globular clusters that, in most cases, had not been previously studied in this context. The clusters are IC1257, Lynga7, Terzan4, Terzan10, BH176, ESO452-SC11, ESO280-SC08, 2MASS-GC01, 2MASS-GC02, GLIMPSE-C01 and AL3, which are projected not far from the central region of the Galaxy. Field-star contamination is significant in the colour-magnitude diagrams. Stellar radial number-density and surface-brightness profiles are built with 2MASS photometry that, for the present clusters, corresponds basically to giant-branch stars. Field-star decontamination is essential for clusters in dense fields. With decontaminated photometry we also compute the total MV of four such globular clusters, using M4 as a template. King-like functions are fitted to the radial profiles, from which the core, half-light, half-star count and tidal radii are derived, together with the concentration parameter. Parameters derived here are compared to the equivalent ones of other...

  12. The stellar mass - halo mass relation from galaxy clustering in VUDS: a high star formation efficiency at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Durkalec, A; de la Torre, S; Pollo, A; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Lemaux, B C; Maccagni, D; Pentericci, L; Tasca, L A M; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Cassara, L P; Castellano, M; Cimatti, A; Cucciati, O; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Grazian, A; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Capak, P; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Cuby, J G; Dunlop, J; Fotopoulou, S; Koekemoer, A; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Pforr, J; Salvato, M; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Wang, P W

    2014-01-01

    The relation between the galaxy stellar mass M_star and the dark matter halo mass M_h gives important information on the efficiency in forming stars and assembling stellar mass in galaxies. We present the stellar mass to halo mass ratio (SMHR) measurements at redshifts 2clustering measurements on ~3000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to derive the dark matter halo mass M_h, and SED fitting over a large set of multi-wavelength data to derive the stellar mass M_star and compute the SMHR=M_star/M_h. We find that the SMHR ranges from 1% to 2.5% for galaxies with M_star=1.3x10^9 M_sun to M_star=7.4x10^9 M_sun in DM halos with M_h=1.3x10^{11} M_sun} to M_h=3x10^{11} M_sun. We derive the integrated star formation efficiency (ISFE) of these galaxies and find that the star formation efficiency is a moderate 6-9% for lower mass galaxies while it is relatively high at 16% for galaxies with the median stell...

  13. The evolution in the stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Lidman, Chris; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R.; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z. Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifón, Cristóbal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near infra-red with the ESO NTT, WIYN and WHT telescopes, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range 0.2 evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billion years. Further work in collecting larger samples, and in better comparing observations with theory using mock images is required if a more detailed comparison between the models and the data is to be made.

  14. Detecting intermediate mass black holes in globular clusters with machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes were recently observed in the gravitational wave window opened by LIGO. This puts the spotlight on dense stellar systems and their ability to create intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) through repeated merging. Unfortunately, attempts at direct and indirect IMBH detection in star clusters in the nearby universe have proven inconclusive as of now. Indirect detection methods attempt to constrain IMBHs through their effect on star cluster photometric and kinematic observables. They are usually based on looking for a specific, physically motivated signature. While this approach is justified, it may be suboptimal in its usage of the available data. Here I present a new indirect detection method, based on machine learning, that is unaffected by these restrictions. I reduce the scientific question whether a star cluster hosts an IMBH to a classification problem in the machine learning framework. I present preliminary results to illustrate how machine learning models are trained ...

  15. HST's hunt for intermediate-mass black holes in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chanamé, Julio; Chandar, Rupali; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Ford, Holland

    2009-01-01

    Establishing or ruling out, either through solid mass measurements or upper limits, the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) at the centers of star clusters would profoundly impact our understanding of problems ranging from the formation and long-term dynamical evolution of stellar systems, to the nature of the seeds and the growth mechanisms of supermassive black holes. While there are sound theoretical arguments both for and against their presence in today's clusters, observational studies have so far not yielded truly conclusive IMBH detections nor upper limits. We argue that the most promising approach to solving this issue is provided by the combination of measurements of the proper motions of stars at the centers of Galactic globular clusters and dynamical models able to take full advantage of this type of data set. We present a program based on HST observations and recently developed tools for dynamical analysis designed to do just that.

  16. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam–1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M☉. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  17. Color-magnitude relations within globular cluster systems of giant elliptical galaxies: The effects of globular cluster mass loss and the stellar initial mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent studies have provided evidence for a 'bottom-heavy' stellar initial mass function (IMF) in massive elliptical galaxies. Here we investigate the influence of the IMF shape on the recently discovered color-magnitude relation (CMR) among globular clusters (GCs) in such galaxies. To this end we use calculations of GC mass loss due to stellar and dynamical evolution to evaluate (1) the shapes of stellar mass functions in GCs after 12 Gyr of evolution as a function of current GC mass along with their effects on integrated-light colors and mass-to-light ratios, and (2) their impact on the effects of GC self-enrichment using the 2009 'reference' model of Bailin and Harris. As to the class of metal-poor GCs, we find the observed shape of the CMR (often referred to as the 'blue tilt') to be very well reproduced by Bailin and Harris's reference self-enrichment model once 12 Gyr of GC mass loss is taken into account. The influence of the IMF on this result is found to be insignificant. However, we find that the observed CMR among the class of metal-rich GCs (the 'red tilt') can only be adequately reproduced if the IMF was bottom-heavy (–3.0 ≲ α ≲ –2.3 in dN/dM∝Mα), which causes the stellar mass function at subsolar masses to depend relatively strongly on GC mass. This constitutes additional evidence that the metal-rich stellar populations in giant elliptical galaxies were formed with a bottom-heavy IMF.

  18. The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, luminosity, and mass functions of the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Sarro, L. M.; Barrado, D.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Berihuete, A.; Olivares, J.; Beletsky, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 million unique sources in a region encompassing ~80 deg2 centered on the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades and measure the mass and luminosity functions of the cluster. Methods: Using the probabilistic selection method previously described, we identified high probability members in the DANCe (i ≥ 14 mag) and Tycho-2 (V ≲ 12 mag) catalogues and studied the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. Results: We find a total of 2109 high-probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to ~0.025 M⊙. The size, sensitivity, and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Conclusions: Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, in terms of both sensitivity and accuracy. Based on service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Table 1 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgDANCe catalogs (Tables 6 and 7) and full Tables 2-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A148

  19. Mass and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, P.; et al.

    2015-05-21

    We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. This pathfinder study is meant to 1) validate the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilize DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modeling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. We find Science Verification data from DECam to be suitable for the lensing analysis described in this paper. The PSF is generally well-behaved, but the modeling is rendered difficult by a flux-dependent PSF width and ellipticity. We employ photometric redshifts to distinguish between foreground and background galaxies, and a red-sequence cluster finder to provide cluster richness estimates and cluster-galaxy distributions. By fitting NFW profiles to the clusters in this study, we determine weak-lensing masses that are in agreement with previous work. For Abell 3261, we provide the first estimates of redshift, weak-lensing mass, and richness. In addition, the cluster-galaxy distributions indicate the presence of filamentary structures attached to 1E 0657-56 and RXC J2248.7-4431, stretching out as far as 1 degree (approximately 20 Mpc), showcasing the potential of DECam and DES for detailed studies of degree-scale features on the sky.

  20. The initial luminosity and mass functions of the Galactic open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piskunov, A E; Schilbach, E; Röser, S; Scholz, R -D; Zinnecker, H

    2008-01-01

    (... abridged) The observed luminosity function can be constructed in a range of absolute integrated magnitudes $I_{M_V}= [-10, -0.5]$ mag, i.e. about 5 magnitudes deeper than in the most nearby galaxies. It increases linearly from the brightest limit to a turnover at about $I_{M_V}\\approx-2.5$. The slope of this linear portion is $a=0.41\\pm0.01$, which agrees perfectly with the slope deduced for star cluster observations in nearby galaxies. (...) We find that the initial mass function of open clusters (CIMF) has a two-segment structure with the slopes $\\alpha=1.66\\pm0.14$ in the range $\\log M_c/M_\\odot=3.37...4.93$ and $\\alpha=0.82\\pm0.14$ in the range $\\log M_c/M_\\odot=1.7...3.37$. The average mass of open clusters at birth is $4.5\\cdot 10^3 M_\\odot$, which should be compared to the average observed mass of about $700 M_\\odot$. The average cluster formation rate derived from the comparison of initial and observed mass functions is $\\bar{\\upsilon}=0.4 \\mathrm{kpc}^{-2}\\mathrm{Myr}^{-1}$. Multiplying by the a...

  1. Galaxy Cluster Gas Mass Fraction and Hubble Parameter versus Redshift Constraints on Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Samushia, Lado; Chen, Gang; Ratra, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy cluster gas mass fraction versus redshift data and Hubble parameter versus redshift data are used to jointly constrain dark energy models. These constraints favor the Einstein cosmological constant limit of dark energy but do not strongly rule out slowly-evolving dark energy.

  2. Evolution of the Blue Luminosity-to-Baryon Mass Ratio of Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shimasaku, K

    2000-01-01

    We derive the ratio of total blue luminosity to total baryon mass, LB/Mb, for massive (Mgas at the Abell radius is \\ge 1 \\times 10^{13} h^{-2.5} \\Msolar) clusters of galaxies up to z \\simeq 1 from the literature. Twenty-two clusters in our sample are at z > 0.1. Assuming that the relative mix of hot gas and galaxies in clusters does not change during cluster evolution, we use LB/Mb to probe the star formation history of the galaxy population as a whole in clusters. We find that LB/Mb of clusters increases with redshift from LB/Mb=0.024 (solar units) at z = 0 to \\simeq 0.06 at z=1, indicating a factor of 2-3 brightening (we assume H0=70 km/s/Mpc). This amount of brightening is almost identical to the brightening of the M/LB ratio of early-type galaxies in clusters at 0.02 \\le z \\le 0.83 reported by van Dokkum et al. (1998). We compare the observed brightening of LB/Mb with luminosity evolution models for the galaxy population as a whole, changing the e-folding time of star formation brightening, while models w...

  3. Evidence of tidal distortions and mass-loss from the old open cluster NGC 6791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Miocchi, P.; Carraro, G.; Jílková, L.; Moitinho, A.

    2015-05-01

    We present the first evidence of clear signatures of tidal distortions in the density distribution of the fascinating open cluster NGC 6791. We used deep and wide-field data obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope covering a 2° × 2° area around the cluster. The 2D density map obtained with the optimal matched filter technique shows a clear elongation and an irregular distribution starting from ˜300 arcsec from the cluster centre. At larger distances, two tails extending in opposite directions beyond the tidal radius are also visible. These features are aligned to both the absolute proper motion and to the Galactic Centre directions. Moreover, other overdensities appear to be stretched in a direction perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Accordingly to the behaviour observed in the density map, we find that both the surface brightness and the star count density profiles reveal a departure from a King model starting from ˜600 arcsec from the centre. These observational evidence suggest that NGC 6791 is currently experiencing mass-loss likely due to gravitational shocking and interactions with the tidal field. We use this evidence to argue that NGC 6791 should have lost a significant fraction of its original mass. A larger initial mass would in fact explain why the cluster survived so long. Using available recipes based on analytic studies and N-body simulations, we derived the expected mass-loss due to stellar evolution and tidal interactions and estimated the initial cluster mass to be Mini = (1.5-4) × 105 M⊙.

  4. The Effect of Halo Mass on the H I Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilsang; Rosenberg, Jessica L.

    2015-10-01

    We combine data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) to study the cold atomic gas content of galaxies in groups and clusters in the local universe. A careful cross-matching of galaxies in the SDSS, ALFALFA, and SDSS group catalogs provides a sample of group galaxies with stellar masses {10}8.4{M}⊙ ≤slant {M}*≤slant {10}10.6{M}⊙ and group halo masses {10}12.5{h}-1{M}⊙ ≤slant {M}h≤slant {10}15.0{h}-1{M}⊙ . Controlling our sample in stellar mass and redshift, we find no significant radial variation in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio for the halo mass range in our sample. However, the fraction of galaxies detected in ALFALFA declines steadily toward the centers of groups, with the effect being most prominent in the most massive halos. In the outskirts of massive halos a hint of a depressed detection fraction for low-mass galaxies suggests pre-processing that decreases the H i in these galaxies before they fall into massive clusters. We interpret the decline in the ALFALFA detection of galaxies in the context of a threshold halo mass for ram pressure stripping for a given galaxy stellar mass. The lack of an observable decrease in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio with the position of galaxies within groups and clusters highlights the difficulty of detecting the impact of environment on the galaxy H i content in a shallow H i survey.

  5. The Effect of Halo Mass on the H I Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilsang; Rosenberg, Jessica L.

    2015-10-01

    We combine data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) to study the cold atomic gas content of galaxies in groups and clusters in the local universe. A careful cross-matching of galaxies in the SDSS, ALFALFA, and SDSS group catalogs provides a sample of group galaxies with stellar masses {10}8.4{M}ȯ ≤slant {M}*≤slant {10}10.6{M}ȯ and group halo masses {10}12.5{h}-1{M}ȯ ≤slant {M}h≤slant {10}15.0{h}-1{M}ȯ . Controlling our sample in stellar mass and redshift, we find no significant radial variation in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio for the halo mass range in our sample. However, the fraction of galaxies detected in ALFALFA declines steadily toward the centers of groups, with the effect being most prominent in the most massive halos. In the outskirts of massive halos a hint of a depressed detection fraction for low-mass galaxies suggests pre-processing that decreases the H i in these galaxies before they fall into massive clusters. We interpret the decline in the ALFALFA detection of galaxies in the context of a threshold halo mass for ram pressure stripping for a given galaxy stellar mass. The lack of an observable decrease in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio with the position of galaxies within groups and clusters highlights the difficulty of detecting the impact of environment on the galaxy H i content in a shallow H i survey.

  6. The XXL Survey . IV. Mass-temperature relation of the bright cluster sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, M.; Smith, G. P.; Giles, P. A.; Ziparo, F.; Maughan, B. J.; Démoclès, J.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Bahé, Y. M.; Clerc, N.; Chiappetti, L.; Eckert, D.; Ettori, S.; Lavoie, S.; Le Fevre, J. P.; McCarthy, I. G.; Kilbinger, M.; Ponman, T. J.; Sadibekova, T.; Willis, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by XMM-Newton. Covering an area of 50 deg2, the survey contains ~450 galaxy clusters out to a redshift ~2 and to an X-ray flux limit of ~ 5 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2. This paper is part of the first release of XXL results focussed on the bright cluster sample. Aims: We investigate the scaling relation between weak-lensing mass and X-ray temperature for the brightest clusters in XXL. The scaling relation discussed in this article is used to estimate the mass of all 100 clusters in XXL-100-GC. Methods: Based on a subsample of 38 objects that lie within the intersection of the northern XXL field and the publicly available CFHTLenS shear catalog, we derive the weak-lensing mass of each system with careful considerations of the systematics. The clusters lie at 0.1 relation. Results: The mass-temperature relation fit (M ∝ Tb) to the XXL clusters returns a slope and intrinsic scatter σlnM|T≃ 0.53; the scatter is dominated by disturbed clusters. The fit to the combined sample of 96 clusters is in tension with self-similarity, b = 1.67 ± 0.12 and σlnM|T ≃ 0.41. Conclusions: Overall our results demonstrate the feasibility of ground-based weak-lensing scaling relation studies down to cool systems of ~1 keV temperature and highlight that the current data and samples are a limit to our statistical precision. As such we are unable to determine whether the validity of hydrostatic equilibrium is a function of halo mass. An enlarged sample of cool systems, deeper weak-lensing data, and robust modelling of the selection function will help to explore these issues further. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA sci- ence mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme 089.A-0666 and LP191.A-0268.The Master catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  7. The Integrated Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect as the Superior Method for Measuring the Mass of Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Motl, P M; Burns, J O; Norman, M L; Motl, Patrick M.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate empirical scaling relations between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) and cluster mass in simulated clusters of galaxies. The simulated clusters have been compiled from four different samples that differ only in their assumed baryonic physics. We show that the strength of the thermal SZE integrated over a significant fraction of the virialized region of the clusters is relatively insensitive to the detailed heating and cooling processes in the cores of clusters by demonstrating that the derived scaling relations are nearly identical between the four cluster samples considered. For our synthetic images, the central Comptonization parameter shows significant boosting during transient merging events, but the integrated SZE appears to be relatively insensitive to these events. Most importantly, the integrated SZE closely tracks the underlying cluster mass. Observations through the thermal SZE allow a strikingly accurate mass estimation from relatively simple measurements that do not requir...

  8. The ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers and the upper mass limit of stars: analysing age dependent stellar mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Fabian R N; de Mink, Selma E; Langer, Norbert; Stolte, Andrea; de Koter, Alex; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Hußmann, Benjamin; Liermann, Adriane; Sana, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters which can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages to 3.5$\\pm$0.7 Myr and 4.8$\\pm$1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e. the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte ...

  9. Indication for an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster NGC 5286 from kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmeier, A; Neumayer, N; Kissler-Patig, M; Gebhardt, K; Baumgardt, H; Noyola, E; de Zeeuw, P T; Jalali, B

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 10^2-10^5 M_sun) fill the gap between stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Simulations have shown that IMBHs may form in dense star clusters, and therefore may still be present in these smaller stellar systems. We investigate the Galactic globular cluster NGC 5286 for indications of a central IMBH using spectroscopic data from VLT/FLAMES, velocity measurements from the Rutgers Fabry Perot at CTIO, and photometric data from HST. We run analytic spherical and axisymmetric Jeans models with different central black-hole masses, anisotropy, mass-to-light ratio, and inclination. Further, we compare the data to a grid of N-body simulations without tidal field. Additionally, we use one N-body simulation to check the results of the spherical Jeans models for the total cluster mass. Both the Jeans models and the N-body simulations favor the presence of a central black hole in NGC 5286 and our detection is at the 1- to 1.5-sigma level. From the spherical Je...

  10. Stellar and total baryon mass fractions in groups and clusters since redshift 1

    CERN Document Server

    Giodini, S; Finoguenov, A; Pratt, G W; Böhringer, H; Leauthaud, A; Guzzo, L; Aussel, H; Bolzonella, M; Capak, P; Elvis, M; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J S; Koekemoer, A M; Lilly, S J; McCracken, H J; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Sasaki, S; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the discrepancy between estimates of the total baryon mass fraction obtained from observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and of galaxy groups/clusters persists when a large sample of groups is considered. To this purpose, 91 candidate X-ray groups/poor clusters at redshift 0.1=5x10^{13} Msun to = 7 x 10^14 Msun. After consideration of a plausible contribution due to intra--cluster light (16% of the total stellar mass), and gas depletion through the hierarchical assembly process (10% of the gas mass), the estimated values of the total baryon mass fraction are still lower than the latest CMB measure of the same quantity (WMAP5), at a significance level of 3.7 sigma for groups of =5x10^13 Msun. The discrepancy decreases towards higher total masses, such that it is 1sigma at = 7x10^{14} Msun. We discuss this result in terms of non-gravitational processes such as feedback and filamentary heating.

  11. Shaping the Globular Cluster Mass Function by Stellar-Dynamical Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, Dean E

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical-evolution models of old globular cluster mass functions (GCMFs), in which the depletion of an initial power-law distribution at low masses is caused predominantly by evaporation driven by internal two-body relaxation, can explain the turnover mass scale M_{TO} and the generic shape of the GCMF at M < M_{TO}. We point out that such models inherently predict that the GCMF should depend on the cluster half-mass density, rho_h, and we show that the Galactic GCMF exhibits precisely the expected variations: M_{TO} increases systematically with rho_h, while the width of the distribution decreases. The quantitative details are consistent with a cluster mass-loss rate, -dM/dt = mu_{ev} ~ rho_h^{1/2} with rho_h approximately constant in time, which we adopt as the simplest description of evaporation. The normalization of mu_{ev} is within a factor of two of standard theoretical expectations. We show that the known, weak dependence of the Milky Way GCMF on Galactocentric position r_{gc} results from its bas...

  12. The Binary Fraction and Mass Segregation in Alpha Persei Open Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikhi, Najmeh; Khalaj, Pouria; Haghi, Hosein; Zonoozi, Akram Hasani; Baumgardt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained membership probabilities of stars within a field of radius $\\sim3^\\circ$ around the centre of the open cluster Alpha Persei using proper motions and photometry from the PPMXL and WISE catalogues. We have identified 810 possible stellar members of Alpha Persei. We derived the global and radial present-day mass function (MF) of the cluster and found that they are well matched by two-stage power-law relations with different slopes at different radii. The global MF of Alpha Persei shows a turnover at $m=0.62\\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ with low and high-mass slopes of $\\alpha_\\mathrm{low}=0.50\\pm0.09$ ($0.1mass slope of the cluster increases from $2.01$ inside $1\\hbox{$.\\!\\!^\\circ$}10$ to $2.63$ outside $2\\hbox{$.\\!\\!^\\circ$}2$, whereas the mean stellar mass decreases from $0.95$ to $0.57\\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ in the same regions, signifying clear evidence of mass seg...

  13. Lensing reconstruction of cluster-mass cross correlation with cosmic microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend our maximum likelihood method for reconstructing the cluster-mass cross correlation from cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies and develop new estimators that utilize six different quadratic combinations of CMB temperature and polarization fields. Our maximum likelihood estimators are constructed with delensed CMB temperature and polarization fields by using an assumed model of the convergence field, and they can be iteratively applied to a set of clusters, approaching the optimal condition for the lensing reconstruction as the assumed initial model is refined. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, we create a catalog of realistic clusters obtainable from the current Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys, and we demonstrate the ability of the maximum likelihood estimators to reconstruct the cluster-mass cross correlation from the massive clusters. The iTT temperature estimator provides a signal-to-noise ratio of a factor of 3 larger than the iEB polarization estimator, unless the detector noise for measuring polarization anisotropies is controlled under 3 μK.

  14. Age and mass studies for young star clusters in M31 from SEDs-fit

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Fan, Zhou; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present photometry for young star clusters in M31, which are selected from Caldwell et al. These star clusters have been observed as part of the Beijing--Arizona--Taiwan--Connecticut (BATC) Multicolor Sky Survey from 1995 February to 2008 March. The BATC images including these star clusters are taken with 15 intermediate-band filters covering 3000--10000 \\AA. Combined with photometry in the {\\sl GALEX} far- and near-ultraviolet, broad-band $UBVRI$, SDSS $ugriz$, and infrared $JHK_{\\rm s}$ of Two Micron All Sky Survey, we obtain their accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from 1538-20000 \\AA. We derive these star clusters' ages and masses by comparing their SEDs with stellar population synthesis models. Our results are in good agreement with previous determinations. The mean value of age and mass of young clusters ($<2$ Gyr) is about 385 Myr and $2\\times 10^4 {M_\\odot}$, respectively. There are two distinct peaks in the age distribution, a highest peak at age $\\sim$ 60 Myr and a se...

  15. The Gaia-ESO Survey: membership and Initial Mass Function of the Gamma Velorum cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Prisinzano, L; Micela, G; Jeffries, R D; Franciosini, E; Sacco, G G; Frasca, A; Klutsch, A; Lanzafame, A; Alfaro, E J; Biazzo, K; Bonito, R; Bragaglia, A; Caramazza, M; Vallenari, A; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Flaccomio, E; Jofre', P; Lardo, C; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Mowlavi, N; Pancino, E; Randich, S; Zaggia, S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of young open clusters, such as the Initial Mass Function (IMF), star formation history and dynamic evolution, is crucial to obtain reliable theoretical predictions of the mechanisms involved in the star formation process. We want to obtain a list, as complete as possible, of confirmed members of the young open cluster Gamma Velorum, with the aim of deriving general cluster properties such as the IMF. We used all available spectroscopic membership indicators within the Gaia-ESO public archive together with literature photometry and X-ray data and, for each method, we derived the most complete list of candidate cluster members. Then, we considered photometry, gravity and radial velocities as necessary conditions to select a subsample of candidates whose membership was confirmed by using the lithium and H$\\alpha$ lines and X-rays as youth indicators. We found 242 confirmed and 4 possible cluster members for which we derived masses using very recent stellar evolutionary models. The c...

  16. LoCuSS: Weak-lensing mass calibration of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    We present weak-lensing mass measurements of 50 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at $0.15\\le z\\le0.3$, based on high quality observations with Suprime-Cam mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru telescope. We pay close attention to possible systematic biases, aiming to control them at the $\\lt4$ per cent level. The dominant source of systematic bias in weak-lensing measurements of the mass of individual galaxy clusters is contamination of background galaxy catalogues by faint cluster and foreground galaxies. We extend our conservative method for selecting background galaxies with $(V-i')$ colours redder than the red sequence of cluster members to use a colour-cut that depends on cluster-centric radius. This allows us to define background galaxy samples that suffer $\\le1$ per cent contamination, and comprise $13$ galaxies per square arcminute. Thanks to the purity of our background galaxy catalogue, the largest systematic in our measurement is a shape measurement bias of $3$ per cent, that we measure using custom-made simul...

  17. The AIMSS Project II: Dynamical-to-Stellar Mass Ratios Across the Star Cluster - Galaxy Divide

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan A; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Pota, Vincenzo; Kannappan, Sheila J; Brodie, Jean P; Huxor, Avon

    2014-01-01

    The previously clear division between small galaxies and massive star clusters is now occupied by objects called ultra compact dwarfs (UCDs) and compact ellipticals (cEs). Here we combine a sample of UCDs and cEs with velocity dispersions from the AIMSS project with literature data to explore their dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios. We confirm that the mass ratios of many UCDs in the stellar mass range 10$^6$ -- 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$ are systematically higher than those for globular clusters which have mass ratios near unity. However, at the very highest masses in our sample, i.e. 10$^9$ -- 10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$, we find that cE galaxies also have mass ratios of close to unity, indicating their central regions are mostly composed of stars. Suggested explanations for the elevated mass ratios of UCDs have included a variable IMF, a central black hole, and the presence of dark matter. Here we present another possible explanation, i.e. tidal stripping. Under various assumptions, we find that the apparent variation in...

  18. Partitioning Biological Networks into Highly Connected Clusters with Maximum Edge Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffner, Falk; Komusiewicz, Christian; Liebtrau, Adrian; Niedermeier, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    A popular clustering algorithm for biological networks which was proposed by Hartuv and Shamir identifies nonoverlapping highly connected components. We extend the approach taken by this algorithm by introducing the combinatorial optimization problem Highly Connected Deletion, which asks for removing as few edges as possible from a graph such that the resulting graph consists of highly connected components. We show that Highly Connected Deletion is NP-hard and provide a fixed-parameter algorithm and a kernelization. We propose exact and heuristic solution strategies, based on polynomial-time data reduction rules and integer linear programming with column generation. The data reduction typically identifies 75 percent of the edges that are deleted for an optimal solution; the column generation method can then optimally solve protein interaction networks with up to 6,000 vertices and 13,500 edges within five hours. Additionally, we present a new heuristic that finds more clusters than the method by Hartuv and Shamir. PMID:26356014

  19. Chemical Abundances of the Highly Obscured Galactic Globular Clusters 2MASS GC02 and Mercer 5

    CERN Document Server

    Penaloza, Francisco; Vasquez, Sergio; Borissova, Jura; Kurtev, Radostin; Zoccali, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We present the first high spectral resolution abundance analysis of two newly discovered Galactic globular clusters, namely Mercer 5 and 2MASS GC02 residing in regions of high interstellar reddening in the direction of the Galactic center. The data were acquired with the Phoenix high-resolution near-infrared echelle spectrograph at Gemini South (R~50000) in the 15500.0 A - 15575.0 A spectral region. Iron, Oxygen, Silicon, Titanium and Nickel abundances were derived for two red giant stars, in each cluster, by comparing the entire observed spectrum with a grid of synthetic spectra generated with MOOG. We found [Fe/H] values of -0.86 +/- 0.12 and -1.08 +/- 0.13 for Mercer 5 and 2MASS GC02 respectively. The [O/Fe], [Si/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] ratios of the measured stars of Mercer 5 follow the general trend of both bulge field and cluster stars at this metallicity, and are enhanced by > +0.3. The 2MASS GC02 stars have relatively lower ratios, but still compatible with other bulge clusters. Based on metallicity and abund...

  20. Weak Lensing Measurement of the Mass--Richness Relation of SDSS redMaPPer Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Simet, Melanie; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Sheldon, Erin; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We perform a measurement of the mass--richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-$z$ biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centering, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We also compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently-produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5,570 clusters from $0.1\\le z\\le 0.33$, the normalization of our power-law mass vs.\\ $\\lambda$ relation is $\\log_{10}[M_{200m}/h^{-1}\\ M_{\\odot}]$ = $14.344 \\pm 0.021$ (statistical) $\\pm 0.023$ (systematic) at a richness $\\lambda=40$, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of $1.33^{+0.09}_{-0.10}$ ($1\\sigma$). The detailed sy...

  1. Analysis of the Quiescent Low-Mass X-ray Binary Population in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Heinke, C O; Lugger, P M; Cohn, H N; Edmonds, P D; Lloyd, D A; Cool, A M

    2003-01-01

    Quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) containing neutron stars have been identified in several globular clusters using Chandra or XMM X-ray observations, using their soft thermal spectra. We report a complete census of the qLMXB population in these clusters, identifying three additional probable qLMXBs in NGC 6440. We conduct several analyses of the qLMXB population, and compare it with the harder, primarily CV, population of low-luminosity X-ray sources with 10^31mass of 1.5^{+0.3}_{-0.2} Msun, consistent with a neutron star and low-mass companion. Spectral analysis reveals that no globular cluster qLMXBs, other than the transient in NGC 6440, require an additional hard power-law component as often observed in field qLMXBs. We identify an empirical lower luminosity limit of 10^32 ergs/s among globular cluster qLMXBs. The bolometric luminosity range of qLMXBs implies (in the deep crustal heating model of Bro...

  2. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters with gravitational microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Kains, N; Sahu, K C; Calamida, A

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the gravitational microlensing method as a unique tool to detect unambiguous signals caused by intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. We select clusters near the line of sight to the Galactic Bulge and the Small Magellanic Cloud, estimate the density of background stars for each of them, and carry out simulations in order to estimate the probabilities of detecting the astrometric signatures caused by black hole lensing. We find that for several clusters, the probability of detecting such an event is significant with available archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope. Specifically, we find that M 22 is the cluster with the best chances of yielding an IMBH detection via astrometric microlensing. If M 22 hosts an IMBH of mass $10^5M_\\odot$, then the probability that at least one star will yield a detectable signal over an observational baseline of 20 years is $\\sim 86\\%$, while the probability of a null result is around $14\\%$. For an IMBH of mass $10^6M_\\odot$, the ...

  3. Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomics and Peptidomics for Systems Biology and Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Robert; Ma, Di; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    The scientific community has shown great interest in the field of mass spectrometry-based proteomics and peptidomics for its applications in biology. Proteomics technologies have evolved to produce large datasets of proteins or peptides involved in various biological and disease progression processes producing testable hypothesis for complex biological questions. This review provides an introduction and insight to relevant topics in proteomics and peptidomics including biological material sel...

  4. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAP by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultra violet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1×106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a dataset to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient dataset. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS ambient dataset where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the underestimation of bacterial aerosol concentration by a factor of 5. We suggest that this likely due to errors arising from misatrribution

  5. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1 × 106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a data set to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient data set. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best-performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study ambient data set, where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results, with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the

  6. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I.; Ruske, S.; Topping, D. O.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1 × 106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a data set to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient data set. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4) where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best-performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) ambient data set, where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results, with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP) where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the underestimation of

  7. Mass and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, P; Huff, E; Hirsch, M; Kacprzak, T; Rykoff, E; Gruen, D; Armstrong, R; Bacon, D; Bechtol, K; Bernstein, G M; Bridle, S; Clampitt, J; Honscheid, K; Jain, B; Jouvel, S; Krause, E; Lin, H; MacCrann, N; Patton, K; Plazas, A; Rowe, B; Vikram, V; Wilcox, H; Young, J; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F; Allam, S S; Banerji, M; Bernstein, J P; Bernstein, R A; Bertin, E; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Castander, F J; da Costa, L N; Cunha, C E; Depoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Fernandez, E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J A; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G R; Jarvis, M; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Marriner, J; Marshall, J L; Merritt, K W; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Mohr, J; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B D; Reil, K; Roe, N A; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B X; Schindler, R; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Sheldon, E; Smith, C; Soares-Santos, M; Swanson, M E C; Sypniewski, A J; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D L; Walker, A; Wechsler, R; Weller, J; Wester, W

    2014-01-01

    We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey with the purpose of 1) validating the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilizing DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modeling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. We find Science Verification data from DECam to be suitable for lensing analyses. The PSF is generally well-behaved, but the modeling is rendered difficult by a flux-dependent PSF width. We employ photometric redshifts to distinguish between foreground and background galaxies, and a red-sequence cluster finder to provide cluster richness estimates and cluster-galaxy distributions. By fitting NFW profiles to the clusters i...

  8. Mass--concentration relation of clusters of galaxies from CFHTLenS

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Wei; Shan, Huanyuan; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Covone, Giovanni; Fu, Liping; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Based on CFHTLenS weak lensing observations, in this paper, we study the mass--concentration ($M$--$c$) relation for $\\sim 200$ redMaPPer clusters in the fields. We extract the $M$--$c$ relation by measuring the density profiles of individual clusters instead of using stacked weak lensing signals. By performing Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that although the signal-to-noise ratio for each individual cluster is low, the unbiased $M$--$c$ relation can still be reliably derived from a large sample of clusters by carefully taking into account the impacts of shape noise, cluster center offset, dilution effect from member or foreground galaxies and the projection effect. Our results show that within error bars, the derived $M$--$c$ relation for redMaPPer clusters is in agreement with simulation predictions. There is a weak deviation that the halo concentrations calibrated by Monte Carlo simulations are somewhat higher than that predicted from ${\\it Planck}$ cosmology.

  9. No evidence for multiple stellar populations in the low-mass Galactic globular cluster E 3

    CERN Document Server

    Salinas, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M~1.4 x 10^4 M_sun) globular cluster E 3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue CN absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multi stellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E 3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found.

  10. Testing the gas mass density profile of galaxy clusters with distance duality relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Biesiada, Marek; Zheng, Xiaogang; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, assuming the validity of distance duality relation, η = DL(z)(1 + z)-2/DA(z) = 1, where DA(z) and DL(z) are the angular and the luminosity distance, respectively, we explore two kinds of gas mass density profiles of clusters: the isothermal β model and the non-isothermal double-β model. In our analysis, performed on 38 massive galaxy clusters observed by Chandra (within the redshift range of 0.14 confidence level (CL). However, current accuracy of the data does not allow to distinguish between the two models for the gas-density distribution at a significant level.

  11. Central energy equipartition in multi-mass models of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Miocchi, P

    2006-01-01

    In the construction of multi-mass King-Michie models of globular clusters, an approximated central energy equipartition between stars of different masses is usually imposed by scaling the velocity parameter of each mass class inversely with the stellar mass, as if the distribution function were isothermal. In this paper, this 'isothermal approximation' (IA) has been checked and its consequences on the model parameters studied by a comparison with models including central energy equipartition correctly. It is found that, under the IA, the 'temperatures' of a pair of components can differ to a non-negligible amount for low concentration distributions. It is also found that, in general, this approximation leads to a significantly reduced mass segregation in comparison with that given under the exact energy equipartition at the centre. As a representative example, an isotropic 3-component model fitting a given projected surface brightness and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles is discussed. In this exampl...

  12. STELLAR FEEDBACK IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MASS FUNCTION OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate how the removal of interstellar material by stellar feedback limits the efficiency of star formation in molecular clouds and how this determines the shape of the mass function of young star clusters. In particular, we derive relations between the power-law exponents of the mass functions of the clouds and clusters in the limiting regimes in which the feedback is energy driven and momentum driven, corresponding to minimum and maximum radiative losses, and likely to bracket all realistic cases. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed exponents, especially for momentum-driven feedback, provided the protoclusters have roughly constant mean surface density, as indicated by observations of the star-forming clumps within molecular clouds. We also consider a variety of specific feedback mechanisms, concluding that H II regions inflated by radiation pressure predominate in massive protoclusters, a momentum-limited process when photons can escape after only a few interactions with dust grains. We show in this case that the star formation efficiency depends on the masses and sizes of the protoclusters only through their mean surface density, thus ensuring consistency between the observed exponents of the mass functions of the clouds and clusters. Our numerical estimate of this efficiency is also consistent with observations.

  13. Dark matter fraction of low-mass cluster members probed by galaxy-scale strong lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, W. G.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Christensen, L.; Lombardi, M.; Caminha, G. B.; Nonino, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Umetsu, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a strong lensing system, composed of four multiple images of a source at z = 2.387, created by two lens galaxies, G1 and G2, belonging to the galaxy cluster MACS J1115.9+0129 at z = 0.353. We use observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble, and its spectroscopic follow-up programme at the Very Large Telescope, to estimate the total mass distributions of the two galaxies and the cluster through strong gravitational lensing models. We find that the total projected mass values within the half-light radii, Re, of the two lens galaxies are MT,G1(energy distributions of G1 and G2, we measure projected luminous over total mass fractions within Re of 0.11 ± 0.03, for G1, and 0.73 ± 0.32, for G2. The fact that the less massive galaxy, G1, is dark matter-dominated in its inner regions raises the question of whether the dark matter fraction in the core of early-type galaxies depends on their mass. Further investigating strong lensing systems will help us understand the influence that dark matter has on the structure and evolution of the inner regions of galaxies.

  14. The Nuclear Cluster of the Milky Way: Total Mass and Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, T. K.; Chatzopoulos, S.; Gerhard, O.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Pfuhl, O.; Tacchella, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Ott, T.

    2016-04-01

    We obtain the basic properties of the nuclear cluster of the Milky Way. First, we investigate the structural properties by constructing a stellar density map of the central 1000″ using extinction-corrected old star counts from VISTA, WFC3/IR, and VLT/NACO data. We describe the data using two components. The inner, slightly flattened (axis ratio of q=0.80+/- 0.04) component is the nuclear cluster, while the outer component corresponds to the stellar component of the circumnuclear zone. For the nuclear cluster, we measure a half-light radius of 178+/- 51\\prime\\prime ≈ 7+/- 2 pc and a luminosity of {M}{Ks}=-16.0+/- 0.5. Second, we measure detailed dynamics out to 4 pc. We obtain 10,351 proper motions from AO data, and 2513 radial velocities from VLT/SINFONI data. We determine the cluster mass by means of isotropic spherical Jeans modeling. We fix the distance to the Galactic Center and the mass of the supermassive black hole. We model the cluster either with a constant M/L or with a power law. For the latter case, we obtain a slope of 1.18 ± 0.06. We get a cluster mass within 100″ of {M}100\\prime\\prime =(6.09+/- 0.53{| }{fix{R}0}+/- 0.97{| }{R0})× {10}6{M}ȯ for both modeling approaches. A model which includes the observed flattening gives a 47% larger mass (see Chatzopoulos et al.). Our results slightly favor a core over a cusp in the mass profile. By minimizing the number of unbound stars within 8″, we obtain a distance of {R}0={8.53}-0.15+0.21 kpc when using an R0 supermassive black hole mass relation from stellar orbits. Combining our results, we obtain M/L=0.51+/- 0.12{M}ȯ /{L}ȯ ,{Ks}, which is roughly consistent with a Chabrier IMF. Based on observations collected at the ESO Paranal Observatory (programs 060.A-9026, 063.N-0204, 70.A-0029, 071.B-0077, 71.B-0078, 072.B-0285, 073.B-0084, 073.B-0085, 073.B-0745, 073.B-0775, 273.B-5023, 075.B-0547 076.B-0259, 077.B-0014, 077.B-0503, 078.B-0520, 078.B-0136, 179.B-0261, 179.B-0932, 179.B-2002, 081.B

  15. Production of intense beams of mass-selected water cluster ions and theoretical study of atom-water interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z P; Reinhard, P -G; Suraud, E; Bruny, G; Montano, C; Feil, S; Eden, S; Abdoul-Carime, H; Farizon, B; Farizon, M; Ouaskit, S; Maerk, T D

    2009-01-01

    The influences of water molecules surrounding biological molecules during irradiation with heavy particles (atoms,ions) are currently a major subject in radiation science on a molecular level. In order to elucidate the underlying complex reaction mechanisms we have initiated a joint experimental and theoretical investigation with the aim to make direct comparisons between experimental and theoretical results. As a first step, studies of collisions of a water molecule with a neutral projectile (C atom) at high velocities (> 0.1 a.u.), and with a charged projectile (proton) at low velocities (< 0.1 a.u.) have been studied within the microscopic framework. In particular, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was applied to the valence electrons and coupled non-adiabatically to Molecular dynamics (MD) for ionic cores. Complementary experimental developments have been carried out to study projectile interactions with accelerated (< 10 keV) and mass-selected cluster ions. The first size distributio...

  16. CLASH-VLT: Testing the Nature of Gravity with Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzuti, L; Borgani, S; Amendola, L; Umetsu, K; Biviano, A; Girardi, M; Rosati, P; Balestra, I; Caminha, G B; Frye, B; Koekemoer, A; Grillo, C; Lombardi, M; Mercurio, A; Nonino, M

    2016-01-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at $z=0.44$ to estimate the value of the ratio $\\eta=\\Psi/\\Phi$ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric.[...] Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only $\\Phi$), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum $\\Phi+\\Psi$). We thus express $\\eta$ as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range $0.5\\,Mpc\\le r\\le r_{200}=1.96\\,Mpc$. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain $...

  17. On one model of stellar clusters with axial symmetry and discrete mass distribution of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of a stationary stellar cluster with axial symmetry and with stellar composition, homogeneous by mass is generalized for the case of a model with stellar composition discretely distributed by mass. From the solution obtained it follows that the summary mass density of stars D, statistic P and dynamic Q of pressure as well as mean circular velocity of stars Vo concide in the both models. However in the second model density distributions of a number of stars nsub(i) (i = 1,2..., k) are different for stellar groups various by mass and do not coincide with a summary density distribution of mass of a star. The latter result gives a possibility to explain a disk structure of SO-galaxies as a Unification of a great number of ring distributions of mean and light stars. Besides that this result allows to explain a bright ring structure, observed in some SO-galaxies, as a prevalence in a general disk structure of one numerous group of mean by mass stars with ring distribution. It is shown also that with some values of parameters a ring structure can form in bipolar clusters

  18. YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS WITH A SCHUSTER MASS DISTRIBUTION. I. STATIONARY WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrodynamic models for spherically symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with a generalized Schuster stellar density profile are explored. For this we use both semi-analytic models and one-dimensional numerical simulations. We determine the properties of quasi-adiabatic and radiative stationary winds and define the radius at which the flow turns from subsonic to supersonic for all stellar density distributions. Strongly radiative winds significantly diminish their terminal speed and thus their mechanical luminosity is strongly reduced. This also reduces their potential negative feedback into their host galaxy interstellar medium. The critical luminosity above which radiative cooling becomes dominant within the clusters, leading to thermal instabilities which make the winds non-stationary, is determined, and its dependence on the star cluster density profile, core radius, and half-mass radius is discussed

  19. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Masses, Merger Rates, and the Impact of Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Expanding upon our previous work (Rodriguez et al., 2015), we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N-body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ...

  20. Young Stellar Clusters with a Schuster Mass Distribution - I: Stationary Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Palous, Jan; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic models for spherically-symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with a generalized Schuster stellar density profile are explored. For this we use both semi-analytic models and 1D numerical simulations. We determine the properties of quasi-adiabatic and radiative stationary winds and define the radius at which the flow turns from subsonic into supersonic for all stellar density distributions. Strongly radiative winds diminish significantly their terminal speed and thus their mechanical luminosity is strongly reduced. This also reduces their potential negative feedback into their host galaxy ISM. The critical luminosity above which radiative cooling becomes dominant within the clusters, leading to thermal instabilities which make the winds non-stationary, is determined, and its dependence on the star cluster density profile, core radius and half mass radius is discussed.

  1. New infrared star clusters in the Northern and Equatorial Milky Way with 2MASS

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Soares, J; Barbuy, B

    2003-01-01

    We carried out a survey of infrared star clusters and stellar groups on the 2MASS J, H and K_s all-sky release Atlas in the Northern and Equatorial Milky Way (350 < l < 360, 0 < l < 230). The search in this zone complements that in the Southern Milky Way (Dutra et al. 2003a). The method concentrates efforts on the directions of known optical and radio nebulae. The present study provides 167 new infrared clusters, stellar groups and candidates. Combining the two studies for the whole Milky Way, 346 infrared clusters, stellar groups and candidates were discovered, whereas 315 objects were previously known. They constitute an important new sample for future detailed studies.

  2. YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS WITH A SCHUSTER MASS DISTRIBUTION. I. STATIONARY WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palous, Jan; Wuensch, Richard; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bocni II 1401-2a, Prague (Czech Republic); Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo, E-mail: palous@ig.cas.cz [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrodynamic models for spherically symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with a generalized Schuster stellar density profile are explored. For this we use both semi-analytic models and one-dimensional numerical simulations. We determine the properties of quasi-adiabatic and radiative stationary winds and define the radius at which the flow turns from subsonic to supersonic for all stellar density distributions. Strongly radiative winds significantly diminish their terminal speed and thus their mechanical luminosity is strongly reduced. This also reduces their potential negative feedback into their host galaxy interstellar medium. The critical luminosity above which radiative cooling becomes dominant within the clusters, leading to thermal instabilities which make the winds non-stationary, is determined, and its dependence on the star cluster density profile, core radius, and half-mass radius is discussed.

  3. Implications of intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors

  4. Implications of the intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors.

  5. The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey I: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Masses of Galaxy Clusters at $z \\sim 1$

    CERN Document Server

    Brodwin, M; Leitch, E M; Stanford, S A; Gonzalez, A H; Gettings, D P; Abdulla, Z; Carlstrom, J E; Decker, B; Eisenhardt, P R; Lin, H W; Mantz, A B; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; Stalder, B; Stern, D; Wylezalek, D

    2014-01-01

    We present CARMA 30 GHz Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations of five high-redshift ($z \\gtrsim 1$), infrared-selected galaxy clusters discovered as part of the all-sky Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The SZ decrements measured toward these clusters demonstrate that the MaDCoWS selection is discovering evolved, massive galaxy clusters with hot intracluster gas. Using the SZ scaling relation calibrated with South Pole Telescope clusters at similar masses and redshifts, we find these MaDCoWS clusters have masses in the range $M_{200} \\approx 2-6 \\times 10^{14}$ $M_\\odot$. Three of these are among the most massive clusters found to date at $z\\gtrsim 1$, demonstrating that MaDCoWS is sensitive to the most massive clusters to at least $z = 1.3$. The added depth of the AllWISE data release will allow all-sky infrared cluster detection to $z \\approx 1.5$ and beyond.

  6. The sensitivity of harassment to orbit: mass loss from early-type dwarfs in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Beasley, M. A.; Candlish, G. N.; Gibson, B. K.; Puzia, T. H.; Janz, J.; Knebe, A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Lisker, T.; Hensler, G.; Fellhauer, M.; Ferrarese, L.; Yi, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    We conduct a comprehensive numerical study of the orbital dependence of harassment on early-type dwarfs consisting of 168 different orbits within a realistic, Virgo-like cluster, varying in eccentricity and pericentre distance. We find harassment is only effective at stripping stars or truncating their stellar discs for orbits that enter deep into the cluster core. Comparing to the orbital distribution in cosmological simulations, we find that the majority of the orbits (more than three quarters) result in no stellar mass loss. We also study the effects on the radial profiles of the globular cluster systems of early-type dwarfs. We find these are significantly altered only if harassment is very strong. This suggests that perhaps most early-type dwarfs in clusters such as Virgo have not suffered any tidal stripping of stars or globular clusters due to harassment, as these components are safely embedded deep within their dark matter halo. We demonstrate that this result is actually consistent with an earlier study of harassment of dwarf galaxies, despite the apparent contradiction. Those few dwarf models that do suffer stellar stripping are found out to the virial radius of the cluster at redshift = 0, which mixes them in with less strongly harassed galaxies. However when placed on phase-space diagrams, strongly harassed galaxies are found offset to lower velocities compared to weakly harassed galaxies. This remains true in a cosmological simulation, even when haloes have a wide range of masses and concentrations. Thus phase-space diagrams may be a useful tool for determining the relative likelihood that galaxies have been strongly or weakly harassed.

  7. Planck intermediate results. III. The relation between galaxy cluster mass and Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borgani, S; Borrill, J; Bourdin, H; Brown, M L; Bucher, M; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; Delabrouille, J; Démoclès, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frommert, M; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jagemann, T; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Khamitov, I; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Liddle, A; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Luzzi, G; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Savini, G; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Weller, J; White, S D M; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relation between the galaxy cluster mass M and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect signal D_A^2 Y for a sample of nineteen objects for which weak lensing (WL) mass measurements obtained from Subaru Telescope data are available in the literature. Hydrostatic X-ray masses (HE) are derived from XMM-Newton archive data and the SZ effect signal is measured from Planck all-sky survey data. We find an M_WL-D_A^2 Y relation that is consistent in slope and normalisation with previous determinations using weak lensing masses; however, there is a normalisation offset with respect to previous measures based on hydrostatic X-ray mass-proxy relations. We verify that our SZ effect measurements are in excellent agreement with previous determinations from Planck data. At odds with expectations, for the present sample, the hydrostatic X-ray masses at R_500 are on average 22 +/- 8 per cent larger than the corresponding weak lensing masses. We show that the mass discrepancy is driven by a difference in mass concentratio...

  8. Clustering Properties and Halo Masses for Central Galaxies in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Li, Cheng; Jing, Y. P.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the clustering and dark matter halo mass for a sample of ˜16,000 central galaxies selected from the SDSS/DR7 group catalog. We select subsamples of central galaxies on three two-dimensional planes, each formed by stellar mass (M{}*) and one other property out of optical color (g - r), surface stellar mass density ({μ }*), and central stellar velocity dispersion ({σ }*). For each subsample we measure both the projected cross-correlation function ({w}p({r}p)) relative to a reference galaxy sample, and an average mass of the host dark matter halos (M{}{{h}}). Both {w}p({r}p) and M{}{{h}} show the strongest dependence on M{}*, and there is no clear dependence on the other properties when M{}* is fixed. This result provides strong support to the previously adopted assumption that, for central galaxies, stellar mass is the best indicator of the host dark halo mass. For comparison we have estimated {w}p({r}p) for the full galaxy population and the population of satellite galaxies. Both populations show similar clustering properties in all cases, but they are similar to the centrals only at high masses (M{}* ≳ {10}11 {M}⊙ ). At lower masses, their {w}p({r}p) depends more strongly on {σ }* and g - r than on M{}*. It is thus necessary to consider central and satellite galaxies separately when studying the link between galaxies and dark matter halos. We discuss the implications of our results for the relative roles of halo mass and galaxy structure in quenching the star formation in central galaxies.

  9. Exploratory Analysis of Biological Networks through Visualization, Clustering, and Functional Annotation in Cytoscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks define how genes, proteins, and other cellular components interact with one another to carry out specific functions, providing a scaffold for understanding cellular organization. Although in-depth network analysis requires advanced mathematical and computational knowledge, a preliminary visual exploration of biological networks is accessible to anyone with basic computer skills. Visualization of biological networks is used primarily to examine network topology, identify functional modules, and predict gene functions based on gene connectivity within the network. Networks are excellent at providing a bird's-eye view of data sets and have the power of illustrating complex ideas in simple and intuitive terms. In addition, they enable exploratory analysis and generation of new hypotheses, which can then be tested using rigorous statistical and experimental tools. This protocol describes a simple procedure for visualizing a biological network using the genetic interaction similarity network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an example. The visualization procedure described here relies on the open-source network visualization software Cytoscape and includes detailed instructions on formatting and loading the data, clustering networks, and overlaying functional annotations. PMID:26988373

  10. Mass functions and structure of the young open cluster NGC\\,6611

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C

    2005-01-01

    We use 2MASS photometry to study colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams, structure and mass distribution in the ionizing open cluster NGC\\,6611. Reddening variation throughout the cluster region is taken into account followed by field-star decontamination of the CMDs. The field-star decontamination showed that the lower limit of the main sequence (MS) occurs at $\\rm\\approx5\\,\\ms$. Based on the fraction of Ks excess stars in the colour-colour diagram we estimate an age of $1.3\\pm0.3$\\,Myr which is consistent with the presence of a large number of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. The radial density distribution including MS and PMS stars is fitted by a King profile with a core radius $0.70\\pm0.08\\,pc$. The cluster density profile merges into the background at a limiting radius $6.5\\pm0.5\\,pc$. In the halo and through the whole cluster the MFs have slopes $\\rm\\chi=1.52\\pm0.13$ and $\\rm\\chi=1.45\\pm0.12$, respectively, thus slightly steeper than Salpeter's IMF. In the core the MF is flat, $\\rm\\chi=0.62\\pm0.16$,...

  11. Stellar Feedback in Molecular Clouds and its Influence on the Mass Function of Young Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fall, S Michael; Matzner, Christopher D

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how the removal of interstellar material by stellar feedback limits the efficiency of star formation in molecular clouds and how this determines the shape of the mass function of young star clusters. In particular, we derive relations between the power-law exponents of the mass functions of the clouds and clusters in the limiting regimes in which the feedback is energy-driven and momentum-driven, corresponding to minimum and maximum radiative losses and likely to bracket all realistic cases. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed exponents, especially for momentum-driven feedback, provided the protoclusters have roughly constant mean surface density, as indicated by observations of the star-forming clumps within molecular clouds. We also consider a variety of specific feedback mechanisms, concluding that HII regions inflated by radiation pressure predominate in massive protoclusters, a momentum-limited process when photons can escape after only a few interactions with dust gr...

  12. Constraints on Scalar-Field Dark Energy from Galaxy Cluster Gas Mass Fraction versus Redshift

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Ratra, Bharat

    2004-01-01

    We use the Allen et al. (2004) Chandra measurements of x-ray gas mass fraction of 26 rich clusters to place constraints on the scalar-field dark energy model with inverse power law potential energy density. The constraints are consistent with, and typically more constraining than, those from other cosmological tests, and mildly favor the Einstein cosmological constant limit of the dark energy model.

  13. EMC-SLAC effect from quark clustering and constituent quark Fermi motion and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A-dependence of the EMC-effect, as recently measured at SLAC, has been calculated from the probability of forming > 3q clusters, by using the space-time wavefunction of valence quarks, and assuming nuclei to be in hexagonal or cubic dense packing. A fair fit to the x-distributions of sigmasub(A)/sigmasub(d) is obtained, investing the valence quark's average Fermi momentum and mass from our previous determinations. (orig.)

  14. The Sensitivity of Harassment to Orbit: Mass Loss from Early-Type Dwarfs in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rory; Beasley, Michael A; Candlish, Graeme N; Gibson, Brad K; Puzia, Thomas H; Janz, Joachim; Knebe, Alexander; Aguerri, J Alfonso L; Lisker, Thorsten; Hensler, Gerhard; Fellhauer, Michael; Ferrarese, Laura; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a comprehensive numerical study of the orbital dependence of harassment on early-type dwarfs consisting of 168 different orbits within a realistic, Virgo-like cluster, varying in eccentricity and pericentre distance. We find harassment is only effective at stripping stars or truncating their stellar disks for orbits that enter deep into the cluster core. Comparing to the orbital distribution in cosmological simulations, we find that the majority of the orbits (more than three quarters) result in no stellar mass loss. We also study the effects on the radial profiles of the globular cluster systems of early-type dwarfs. We find these are significantly altered only if harassment is very strong. This suggests that perhaps most early-type dwarfs in clusters such as Virgo have not suffered any tidal stripping of stars or globular clusters due to harassment, as these components are safely embedded deep within their dark matter halo. We demonstrate that this result is actually consistent with an earlier st...

  15. The search of the stellar clusters in vicinity of YSOs with high and middle masses

    CERN Document Server

    Azatyan, N M

    2015-01-01

    The results of the searching on the bases of GPS UKIDSS survey's data of dense compact stellar clusters in the vicinity of 19 YSOs with high and middle masses are presented. Totally we have revealed clusters in 12 areas. Around 5 objects (IRAS 18151-1208, IRAS 18316-0602, IRAS 19110+1045, IRAS 19213+1723, IRAS 20056+3350) they are newly detected. The clusters associated with IRAS 05168+3634, IRAS 20188+3928, IRAS 19374+2352 and IRAS 19388+2357 sources have been already revealed on the less depth data than GPS UKIDSS survey images. The compact groups of stars located in the vicinity of IRAS 05358+3543, IRAS 18507+0121 and IRAS 20198+3716 sources belong to the more extensive clusters. The radii and stellar density have significant gradient: from 0.2 to 2.7 pc and from 3 to 1000 stars/arcmin^2 respectively. In the vicinity of 7 IRAS sources (IRAS 18174-1612, IRAS 18360-0537, IRAS 18385-0512, IRAS 18517+0437, IRAS 19092+0841, IRAS 19410+2336, IRAS 20126+4104) the stellar clusters were not revealed.

  16. The dynamics and internal mass distribution of rich galaxy cluster cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Chervin Fabien Pierre; White, Simon

    2015-08-01

    It has often been argued that the findings of shallow dark matter density profiles in galaxy clusters may be a source of tension between observations and benign expectations in LCDM. In this talk I will present cosmological N-body resimulations of the assembly of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in rich clusters within LCDM. At z=2, I populate dark matter subhalos with self-gravitating stellar systems whose abundance and structure match observed high-redshift galaxies. I then follow their evolution in the build of the final clusters. By z=0, the dark matter density profiles are shallower than in corresponding dark-matter-only simulations, but their total mass density profiles (stars + dark matter) are quite similar. Differences are found only at radii where the effects of central black holes may be significant. Dark matter density slopes shallower than gamma=1.0 occur for r/r200BCG through mergers. Based on the accretion history in the simulations I will also argue that supermassive black hole mergers could create BCG cores as large as rc~3kpc.Finally I will introduce some new re-simulations which are being currently used to study the evolution of the tidal truncation radii of cluster galaxies and making predictions on the kinematics of BCGs to large radii.

  17. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays clustering, GUT scale and neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z

    2002-01-01

    The clustering of ultra high energy (above 5\\cdot 10^{19} eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. We present a statistical analysis on the source density based on the multiplicities. The propagation of UHECR protons is studied in detail. The UHECR spectrum is consistent with the decay of GUT scale particles and/or with the Z-burst. The predicted GUT mass is m_X=10^b GeV, where b=14.6_{-1.7}^{+1.6}. Our neutrino mass prediction depends on the origin of the power part of the spectrum: m_\

  18. Accuracy studies with carbon clusters at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaer, J.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Smorra, C.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-05-01

    Extensive cross-reference measurements of well-known frequency ratios using various sizes of carbon cluster ions 12Cn + (10≤n≤23) were performed to determine the effects limiting the accuracy of mass measurements at the Penning-trap facility TRIGA-TRAP. Two major contributions to the uncertainty of a mass measurement have been identified. Fluctuations of the magnetic field cause an uncertainty in the frequency ratio due to the required calibration by a reference ion of uf(νref)/νref = 6(2) × 10-11/min × Δt. A mass-dependent systematic shift of the frequency ratio of epsilonm(r)/r = -2.2(2) × 10-9 × (m-mref)/u has been found as well. Finally, the nuclide 197Au was used as a cross-check since its mass is already known with an uncertainty of 0.6 keV.

  19. Weak Lensing Mass Measurements of Substructures in COMA Cluster with Subaru/Suprime-Cam

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    We obtain the projected mass distributions for two Subaru/Suprime-Cam fields in the southwest region (r\\simlt 60') of the Coma cluster (z=0.0236) by weak lensing analysis and detect eight subclump candidates. We quantify the contribution of background large-scale structure (LSS) on the projected mass distributions using SDSS multi-bands and photometric data, under the assumption of mass-to-light ratio for field galaxies. We find that one of eight subclump candidates, which is not associated with any member galaxies, is significantly affected by LSS lensing. The mean projected mass for seven subclumps extracted from the main cluster potential is = (5.06\\pm1.30)10^12h^-1 M_sun after a LSS correction. A tangential distortion profile over an ensemble of subclumps is well described by a truncated singular-isothermal sphere model and a truncated NFW model. A typical truncated radius of subclumps, r_t\\simeq 35 h^-1 kpc, is derived without assuming any relations between mass and light for member galaxies. The radius...

  20. Evidences of tidal distortion and mass loss from the old open cluster NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present the first evidence of clear signatures of tidal distortions in the density distribution of the fascinating open cluster NGC~6791. We find that the 2D density map shows a clear elongation and an irregular distribution starting from $\\sim 300^{\\prime\\prime}$ from the cluster center and two tails extending in opposite directions beyond the tidal radius. These features are aligned to both the absolute proper motion and to the Galactic centre directions. Accordingly we find that both the surface brightness and star count density profiles reveal a departure from a King model starting from $\\sim600^{\\prime\\prime}$. These observational evidences suggest that NGC~6791 is currently undergoing mass-loss likely due to gravitational shocking and interactions with the tidal field of the Milky Way. We derive the expected mass-loss due to stellar evolution and tidal interactions and we estimate the initial cluster mass to be $M_{ini} = (1.5-4.0 ) \\times 10^5 M_{\\odot}$.

  1. Initial mass function of star clusters forming in turbulent molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, M S

    2013-01-01

    We perform smoothed-particles hydrodynamical and direct gravitational $N$-body simulations for the formation process of star clusters. The starting conditions of our simulations are a giant molecular cloud (GMC) with a turbulent velocity field, mass of $4\\times 10^4$--$5\\times 10^6M_{\\odot}$, and density $\\rho \\sim 100$ and $10M_{\\odot}{\\rm pc}^{-3}$. We continue the hydrodynamical simulations for around a free-fall time scale ($t_{\\rm ff} \\simeq 0.83$ and 2.5 Myr), and analyze the resulting structure of the collapsed cloud. We subsequently replace a density-selected subset of SPH particles adopting a local star-formation efficiency $\\propto \\rho^{1/2}$ with point masses and continue the dynamical evolution using a collisional $N$-body method by accounting for stellar collisions and the mass loss from the stars. We analyze the resulting data at 2 and 10 Myr after the initiation of the gravitational dynamics. The clustered environment drives the growth of a massive cluster by the hierarchical merging of smalle...

  2. Constancy of the Cluster Gas Mass Fraction in the R_h=ct Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Melia, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of baryonic to dark matter densities is assumed to have remained constant throughout the formation of structure. With this, simulations show that the fraction f_gas(z) of baryonic mass to total mass in galaxy clusters should be nearly constant with redshift z. However, the measurement of these quantities depends on the angular distance to the source, which evolves with z according to the assumed background cosmology. An accurate determination of f_gas(z) for a large sample of hot (kT_e > 5 keV), dynamically relaxed clusters could therefore be used as a probe of the cosmological expansion up to z < 2. The fraction f_gas(z) would remain constant only when the "correct" cosmology is used to fit the data. In this paper, we compare the predicted gas mass fractions for both LCDM and the R_h=ct Universe and test them against the 3 largest cluster samples. We show that R_h=ct is consistent with a constant f_gas in the redshift range z < 2, as was previously shown for the reference LCDM model (with par...

  3. MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF STARS AND CORES IN YOUNG GROUPS AND CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relation of the stellar initial mass function and the dense core mass function (CMF), using stellar masses and positions in 14 well-studied young groups. Initial column density maps are computed by replacing each star with a model initial core having the same star formation efficiency (SFE). For each group the SFE, core model, and observational resolution are varied to produce a realistic range of initial maps. A clump-finding algorithm parses each initial map into derived cores, derived core masses, and a derived CMF. The main result is that projected blending of initial cores causes derived cores to be too few and too massive. The number of derived cores is fewer than the number of initial cores by a mean factor of 1.4 in sparse groups and 5 in crowded groups. The mass at the peak of the derived CMF exceeds the mass at the peak of the initial CMF by a mean factor of 1.0 in sparse groups and 12.1 in crowded groups. These results imply that in crowded young groups and clusters, the mass distribution of observed cores may not reliably predict the mass distribution of protostars that will form in those cores.

  4. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 5 papers are interesting for the INIS database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  5. Halo mass function: baryon impact, fitting formulae, and implications for cluster cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Sebastian; Saro, Alex; Dolag, Klaus; Mohr, Joseph J.

    2016-03-01

    We use a set of hydrodynamical and dark matter-only (DMonly) simulations to calibrate the halo mass function (HMF). We explore the impact of baryons, propose an improved parametrization for spherical overdensity masses, and identify differences between our DMonly HMF and previously published HMFs. We use the Magneticum simulations, which are well suited because of their accurate treatment of baryons, high resolution, and large cosmological volumes of up to (3818 Mpc)3. Baryonic effects globally decrease the masses of galaxy clusters, which, at a given mass, results in a decrease of their number density. This effect vanishes at high redshift z ˜ 2 and for high masses M200 m ≳ 1014 M⊙. We perform cosmological analyses of three idealized approximations to the cluster surveys by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Planck, and eROSITA. We pursue two main questions. (1) What is the impact of baryons? - for the SPT-like and the Planck-like samples, the impact of baryons on cosmological results is negligible. In the eROSITA-like case, however, neglecting the baryonic impact leads to an underestimate of Ωm by about 0.01, which is comparable to the expected uncertainty from eROSITA. (2) How does our DMonly HMF compare with previous work? - for the Planck-like sample, results obtained using our DMonly HMF are shifted by Δ(σ8) ≃ Δ(σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.3) ≃ 0.02 with respect to results obtained using the Tinker et al. fit. This suggests that using our HMF would shift results from Planck clusters towards better agreement with cosmic-microwave-background anisotropy measurements. Finally, we discuss biases that can be introduced through inadequate HMF parametrizations that introduce false cosmological sensitivity.

  6. Cosmology with massive neutrinos III: the halo mass function and an application to galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a suite of N-body simulations that incorporate massive neutrinos as an extra-set of particles to investigate their effect on the halo mass function. We show that for cosmologies with massive neutrinos the mass function of dark matter haloes selected using the spherical overdensity (SO) criterion is well reproduced by the fitting formula of Tinker et al. (2008) once the cold dark matter power spectrum is considered instead of the total matter power, as it is usually done. The differences between the two implementations, i.e. using Pcdm(k) instead of Pm(k), are more pronounced for large values of the neutrino masses and in the high end of the halo mass function: in particular, the number of massive haloes is higher when Pcdm(k) is considered rather than Pm(k). As a quantitative application of our findings we consider a Planck-like SZ-clusters survey and show that the differences in predicted number counts can be as large as 30% for ∑mν = 0.4 eV. Finally, we use the Planck-SZ clusters sample, with an approximate likelihood calculation, to derive Planck-like constraints on cosmological parameters. We find that, in a massive neutrino cosmology, our correction to the halo mass function produces a shift in the σ8(Ωm/0.27)γ relation which can be quantified as Δγ ∼ 0.05 and Δγ ∼ 0.14 assuming one (Nν = 1) or three (Nν = 3) degenerate massive neutrino, respectively. The shift results in a lower mean value of σ8 with Δσ8 = 0.01 for Nν = 1 and Δσ8 = 0.02 for Nν = 3, respectively. Such difference, in a cosmology with massive neutrinos, would increase the tension between cluster abundance and Planck CMB measurements

  7. Synthetic extinction maps around intermediate-mass black holes in Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, C.; Pellizza, L. J.

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades, much effort has been devoted to explain the discrepancy between the amount of intracluster medium (ICM) estimated from stellar evolution theories and that emerging from observations in globular clusters (GCs). One possible scenario is the accretion of this medium by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) at the centre of the cluster. In this work, we aim at modelling the cluster colour-excess profile as a tracer of the ICM density, both with and without an IMBH. Comparing the profiles with observations allows us to test the existence of IMBHs and their possible role in the cleansing of the ICM. We derive the intracluster density profiles from hydrodynamical models of accretion on to a central IMBH in a GC and we determine the corresponding dust density. This model is applied to a list of 25 Galactic GCs. We find that central IMBHs decrease the ICM by several orders of magnitude. In a subset of nine clusters, the absence of the black hole combined with a low-ICM temperature would be at odds with present gas mass content estimations. As a result, we conclude that IMBHs are an effective cleansing mechanism of the ICM of GCs. We construct synthetic extinction maps for M 62 and ωCen, two clusters in the small subset of nine with observed 2D extinction maps. We find that under reasonable assumptions regarding the model parameters, if the gas temperature in M 62 is close to 8000 K, an IMBH needs to be invoked. Further ICM observations regarding both the gas and dust in GCs could help to settle this issue.

  8. Novel biological approaches for testing the contributions of single-DSBs and DSB-clusters to the biological effects of high-LET-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika eMladenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR are commonly attributed to the generation of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs. IR-induced DSBs are generated by clusters of ionizations, bear damaged terminal nucleotides and frequently comprise base damages and single strand breaks in the vicinity generating a unique DNA damage-clustering effect that increases DSB complexity. The number of ionizations in clusters of different radiation modalities increases with increasing linear-energy-transfer (LET, and is thought to determine the long-known LET-dependence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE. Multiple ionizations may also lead to the formation of DSB-clusters comprising two or more DSBs that destabilize chromatin further and compromise overall processing. DSB complexity and DSB-cluster formation are increasingly considered in the development of mathematical models of radiation action, which are then tested by fitting available experimental data. Despite a plethora of such mathematical models the ultimate goal, i.e. the a-priori prediction of the radiation effect, has not yet been achieved. The difficulty partly arises from unsurmountable difficulties in testing the fundamental assumptions of such mathematical models in defined biological model systems capable of providing conclusive answers. Recently, revolutionary advances in methods allowing the generation of enzymatic DSBs at random or in well-defined locations in the genome, generate unique testing opportunities for several key assumptions frequently fed into mathematical modeling – including the role of DSB-clusters in the overall effect. Here, we review the problematic of DSB-cluster formation in radiation action and present novel biological technologies that promise to revolutionize the way we address the biological consequences of such lesions. We describe new ways of exploiting the I-SceI endonuclease to generate DSB-clusters at random locations in the genome and

  9. Investigations of the Circumstellar Disk Fraction as a Function of Mass in Young Embedded Clusters in Orion B

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Furio, Matthew; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Marinas, Naibi

    2016-01-01

    In the current paradigm of star formation, all stars form with circumstellar disks. However, recent studies of the young NGC 2264 clusters (age ~ 2Myr, Marinas et al 2013; 2015) have unexpectedly revealed that stars with masses less than 0.3 solar masses exhibit a lower circumstellar disk fraction than more massive stars in the clusters. Is it possible that a significant number of very low mass stars form without a disk? To answer this, we are studying three very young embedded clusters (ageOrion B Molecular Cloud. For these clusters, we are determining the disk fraction as a function of spectral type and inferred mass. Since the clusters are very young, the disk fractions should represent the initial frequency distribution of disks in these clusters. We are using FLAMINGOS NIR spectroscopy (Levine PhD UF 2006) and photometry to estimate the masses of the stars and FLAMINGOS JHK and Spitzer photometry to estimate the disk frequency of our spectroscopic sample. Our work should provide valuable insights toward understanding the formation and early evolution of circumstellar disks around low mass stars in embedded clusters.

  10. Evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies: the influence of morphology, stellar mass and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Dongyao; Conselice, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of 425 nearby Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) from von der Linden et al. (2007), we study the relationship between their internal properties (stellar masses, structural parameters and morphologies) and their environment. More massive BCGs tend to inhabit denser regions and more massive clusters than lower mass BCGs. Furthermore, cDs, which are BCGs with particularly extended envelopes, seem to prefer marginally denser regions and tend to be hosted by more massive halos than elliptical BCGs. cD and elliptical BCGs show parallel positive correlations between their stellar masses and environmental densities. However, at a fixed environmental density, cDs are, on average, ~40% more massive. Our results, together with the findings of previous studies, suggest an evolutionary link between elliptical and cD BCGs. We suggest that most present-day cDs started their life as ellipticals, which subsequently grew in stellar mass and size due to mergers. In this process, the cD envelope developed. The larg...

  11. The realm of the Galactic globular clusters and the mass of their primordial clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Cassisi, Santi; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    By adopting the empirical constraints related to the estimates of Helium enhancement ($\\Delta Y$), present mass ratio between first and second stellar generations ($M_{1G}/M_{2G}$) and the actual mass of Galactic globular clusters ($M_{GC}$), we envisage a possible scenario for the formation of these stellar systems. Our approach allows for the possible loss of stars through evaporation or tidal interactions and different star formation efficiencies. In our approach the star formation efficiency of the first generation ($\\epsilon_{1G}$) is the central factor that links the stellar generations as it not only defines both the mass in stars of the first generation and the remaining mass available for further star formation, but it also fixes the amount of matter required to contaminate the second stellar generation. In this way, $\\epsilon_{1G}$ is fully defined by the He enhancement between successive generations in a GC. We also show that globular clusters fit well within a $\\Delta Y$ {\\it vs} $M_{1G}/M_{2G}$ d...

  12. The stellar and substellar mass function in central region of the old open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the mass function of open clusters of different ages allow us to study the efficiency with which brown dwarfs are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in relatively old clusters (age ≳100 Myr do not suffer from problems found in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in brown dwarf models. In this paper, we present the results of a photometric survey to study the mass function of the old open cluster Praesepe (age of ~590 Myr and distance of ~190 pc, down to the substellar regime. We have performed optical (riz and Y-band photometric survey of Praesepe with the Large Binocular Telescope Camera, for a spatial coverage of 0.61 deg2 from ~90 MJ down to a 5σ detection limit at 40 MJ.

  13. Enhanced production of barium in low-mass stars: evidence from open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Randich, Sofia; Galli, Daniele; Busso, Maurizio; Sestito, Paola

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a trend of increasing barium abundance with decreasing age for a large sample of Galactic open clusters. The observed pattern of [Ba/Fe] vs. age can be reproduced with a Galactic chemical evolution model only assuming a higher Ba yield from the $s$-process in low-mass stars than the average one suggested by parametrized models of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis. We show that this is possible in a scenario where the efficiency of the extra-mixing processes producing the neutron source $^{13}$C is anti-correlated with the initial mass, with a larger efficiency for lower masses. This is similar to the known trend of extended mixing episodes acting in H-rich layers and might suggest a common physical mechanism.

  14. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust production among post-main-sequence stars is investigated in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) based on infrared photometry and spectroscopy. We identify metallic iron grains as the probable dominant opacity source in these winds. Typical evolutionary timescales of asymptotic giant branch stars suggest the mass-loss rates we report are too high. We suggest that this is because the iron grains are small or elongated and/or that iron condenses more efficiently than at solar metallicity. Comparison to other works suggests metallic iron is observed to be more prevalent toward lower metallicities. The reasons for this are explored, but remain unclear. Meanwhile, the luminosity at which dusty mass loss begins is largely invariant with metallicity, but its presence correlates strongly with long-period variability. This suggests that the winds of low-mass stars have a significant driver that is not radiation pressure, but may be acoustic driving by pulsations.

  15. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF BARIUM IN LOW-MASS STARS: EVIDENCE FROM OPEN CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a trend of increasing barium abundance with decreasing age for a large sample of Galactic open clusters. The observed pattern of [Ba/Fe] versus age can be reproduced with a Galactic chemical evolution model only assuming a higher Ba yield from the s-process in low-mass stars than the average one suggested by parameterized models of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis. We show that this is possible in a scenario where the efficiency of the extra-mixing processes producing the neutron source 13C is anticorrelated with the initial mass, with a larger efficiency for lower masses. This is similar to the known trend of extended mixing episodes acting in H-rich layers and might suggest a common physical mechanism.

  16. THE BLACK HOLE MASS IN THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY NGC 6086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first direct measurement of the central black hole mass, M., in NGC 6086, the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) in A2162. Our investigation demonstrates for the first time that stellar-dynamical measurements of M. in BCGs are possible beyond the nearest few galaxy clusters. We observed NGC 6086 with laser guide star adaptive optics and the integral-field spectrograph (IFS) OSIRIS at the W. M. Keck Observatory and with the seeing-limited IFS GMOS-N at Gemini Observatory North. We combined the IFS data sets with existing major-axis kinematics and used axisymmetric stellar orbit models to determine M. and the R-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M*/LR . We find M. = 3.6+1.7-1.1 x 109 Msun and M*/LR = 4.6+0.3-0.7 Msun Lsun-1 (68% confidence) from models using the most massive dark matter halo allowed within the gravitational potential of the host cluster. Models fitting only IFS data confirm M. ∼ 3 x 109 Msun and M*/LR ∼ 4 Msun Lsun-1, with weak dependence on the assumed dark matter halo structure. When data out to 19 kpc are included, the unrealistic omission of dark matter causes the best-fit black hole mass to decrease dramatically, to 0.6 x 109 Msun, and the best-fit stellar mass-to-light ratio to increase to 6.7 Msun L -1sun,R. The latter value is at further odds with stellar population studies favoring M*/LR ∼ 2 Msun L -1sun. Biases from dark matter omission could extend to dynamical models of other galaxies with stellar cores, and revised measurements of M. could steepen the empirical scaling relationships between black holes and their host galaxies.

  17. Dark matter fraction of low-mass cluster members probed by galaxy-scale strong lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Parry, W G; Mercurio, A; Balestra, I; Rosati, P; Christensen, L; Lombardi, M; Caminha, G B; Nonino, M; Koekemoer, A M; Umetsu, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a strong lensing system, composed of 4 multiple images of a source at z = 2.387, created by two lens galaxies, G1 and G2, belonging to the galaxy cluster MACS J1115.9+0129 at z = 0.353. We use observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble, CLASH, and its spectroscopic follow-up programme at the Very Large Telescope, CLASH-VLT, to estimate the total mass distributions of the two galaxies and the cluster through strong gravitational lensing models. We find that the total projected mass values within the half-light radii, R_{e}, of the two lens galaxies are M_{T,G1}(< R_{e,G1}) = (3.6 +/- 0.4) x 10^{10}M_{Sun} and M_{T,G2}(< R_{e,G2}) = (4.2 +/- 1.6) x 10^{10}M_{Sun}. The effective velocity dispersion values of G1 and G2 are (122 +/- 7) km/s and (137 +/- 27) km/s, respectively. We remark that these values are relatively low when compared to those of ~200-300 km/s, typical of lens galaxies found in the field by previous surveys. By fitting the spectral energy ...

  18. Mass motions and chromospheres of RGB stars in the globular cluster NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, C; Rossetti, E; Pecci, F F; Mulas, G; Carretta, E; Gratton, R G; Momany, Y; Pasquini, L

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of the first observations, taken with FLAMES during Science Verification, of red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster NGC 2808. A total of 137 stars was observed, of which 20 at high resolution (R=47,000) with UVES and the others at lower resolution (R=19,000-29,000) with GIRAFFE in MEDUSA mode, monitoring ~ 3 mag down from the RGB tip. Spectra were taken of the Halpha, Na I D and Ca II H and K lines. This is by far the largest and most complete collection of such data in globular cluster giants, both for the number of stars observed within one cluster, and for monitoring all the most important optical diagnostics of chromospheric activity/mass motions.Evidence of mass motions in the atmospheres was searched from asymmetry in the profiles and coreshifts of the Halpha, Na I D and Ca II K lines, as well as from Halpha emission wings. We have set the detection thresholds for the onset of Halpha emission, negative Na D_2 coreshifts and negative K_3 coreshifts at log L/Lsun ~ 2.5...

  19. Covariance in the Thermal SZ-Weak Lensing Mass Scaling Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T

    2016-01-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect signal is widely recognized as a robust mass proxy of galaxy clusters with small intrinsic scatter. However, recent observational calibration of the tSZ scaling relation using weak lensing (WL) mass exhibits considerably larger scatter than the intrinsic scatter predicted from numerical simulations. This raises a question as to whether we can realize the full statistical power of ongoing and upcoming tSZ-WL observations of galaxy clusters. In this work, we investigate the origin of observed scatter in the tSZ-WL scaling relation, using mock maps of galaxy clusters extracted from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that the inferred intrinsic scatter from mock tSZ-WL analyses is considerably larger than the intrinsic scatter measured in simulations, and comparable to the scatter in the observed tSZ-WL relation. We show that this enhanced scatter originates from the combination of the projection of correlated structures along the line of sight and the uncer...

  20. Synthetic extinction maps around intermediate-mass black holes in Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, C

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, much effort has been devoted to explain the discrepancy between the amount of intracluster medium (ICM) estimated from stellar evolution theories and that emerging from observations in globular clusters (GCs). One possible scenario is the accretion of this medium by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) at the centre of the cluster. In this work, we aim at modelling the cluster colour-excess profile as a tracer of the ICM density, both with and without an IMBH. Comparing the profiles with observations allows us to test the existence of IMBHs and their possible role in the cleansing of the ICM. We derive the intracluster density profiles from hydrodynamical models of accretion onto a central IMBH in a GC and we determine the corresponding dust density. This model is applied to a list of 25 Galactic GCs. We find that central IMBHs decrease the ICM by several orders of magnitude. In a subset of 9 clusters, the absence of the black hole combined with a low intracluster medium temperature...

  1. Pb 4f photoelectron spectroscopy on mass-selected anionic lead clusters at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4f core level photoelectron spectroscopy has been performed on negatively charged lead clusters, in the size range of 10-90 atoms. We deploy 4.7 nm radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH, yielding sufficiently high photon flux to investigate mass-selected systems in a beam. A new photoelectron detection system based on a hemispherical spectrometer and a time-resolving delayline detector makes it possible to assign electron signals to each micro-pulse of FLASH. The resulting 4f binding energies show good agreement with the metallic sphere model, giving evidence for a fast screening of the 4f core holes. By comparing the present work with previous 5d and valence region data, the paper presents a comprehensive overview of the energetics of lead clusters, from atoms to bulk. Special care is taken to discuss the differences of the valence- and core-level anion cluster photoionizations. Whereas in the valence case the escaping photoelectron interacts with a neutral system near its ground state, core-level ionization leads to transiently highly excited neutral clusters. Thus, the photoelectron signal might carry information on the relaxation dynamics. (paper)

  2. Giants in the globular cluster omega Centauri: dust production, mass loss and distance

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Iain; Decin, Leen; Boyer, Martha L; Dupree, Andrea K; Evans, Aneurin; Gehrz, Robert D; Woodward, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    We present spectral energy distribution modelling of 6875 stars in omega Centauri, obtaining stellar luminosities and temperatures by fitting literature photometry to state-of-the-art MARCS stellar models. By comparison to four different sets of isochrones, we provide a new distance estimate to the cluster of 4850 +/- 200 (random) +/- 120 (systematic error) pc, a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.08 +/- 0.02 +/- 0.02 mag and a differential reddening of Delta[E(B-V)] 1.2 (+0.6/-0.5) x 10^-6 Msun/yr. Half of the cluster's dust production and 30% of its gas production comes from the two most extreme stars - V6 and V42 - for which we present new Gemini/T-ReCS mid-infrared spectroscopy, possibly showing that V42 has carbon-rich dust. The cluster's dust temperatures are found to be typically >~550 K. Mass loss apparently does not vary significantly with metallicity within the cluster, but shows some correlation with barium enhancement, which appears to occur in cooler stars, and especially on the anomalous RGB. Limits to ou...

  3. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology. PMID:27128910

  4. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Aretz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  5. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology. PMID:27128910

  6. Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DBSCAN is a well-known density-based clustering algorithm which offers advantages for finding clusters of arbitrary shapes compared to partitioning and hierarchical clustering methods. However, there are few papers studying the DBSCAN algorithm under the privacy preserving distributed data mining model, in which the data is distributed between two or more parties, and the parties cooperate to obtain the clustering results without revealing the data at the individual parties. In this paper, we address the problem of two-party privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering. We first propose two protocols for privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering over horizontally and vertically partitioned data respectively and then extend them to arbitrarily partitioned data. We also provide performance analysis and privacy proof of our solution..

  7. Photoemission and reaction study of mass-selected Pt clusters on TiO2(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Noritake; Watanabe, Yoshihide

    2008-03-01

    Metal cluster has been speculated to have strong size dependence in catalytic activity. The clusters on surfaces would give further specificity because of the interaction between the clusters and the surface. Catalytic properties of mass-selected metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces have been investigated using the new ultra high vacuum cluster deposition apparatus. In this study, we have examined catalytic and electronic properties of platinum clusters used as a composition of automotive exhaust catalysts, and used titanium dioxide as the support. Pt cluster ions were produced by a DC magnetron-sputter cluster ion source [1] with an ion funnel [2], mass-selected by a quadrupole mass filter, and then deposited on TiO2(110) single crystal surfaces. The catalytic oxidation of CO on Ptn/TiO2 (nHaberland et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3266 (1992). [2] S.A. Shaffer el al., Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 11, 1813 (1997).

  8. Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the low Galactic latitude globular cluster 2MASS-GC03

    CERN Document Server

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A; Borissova, J; Smith, L C; Kurtev, R; Lucas, P W; Bidin, Ch Moni; Alonso-Garcia, J; Minniti, D; Palma, T; Dekany, I; Medina, N; Moyano, M; Villanueva, V; Kuhn, M A

    2016-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the globular cluster 2MASS-GC03 projected in the Galactic disk using MMIRS on the Clay telescope (Las Campanas Observatory) and VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea survey (VVV) data. Most probable cluster member candidates were identified from near-infrared photometry. Out of ten candidates that were followed-up spectroscopically, five have properties of cluster members, from which we calculate = -0.9 +- 0.2 and a radial velocity of v_r > = -78 +- 12km/s. A distance of 10.8kpc is estimated from 3 likely RRLyrae members. Given that the cluster is currently at a distance of 4.2kpc from the Galactic center, the cluster's long survival time of an estimated 11.3 +- 1.2Gyr strengthens the case for its globular-cluster nature. The cluster has a hint of elongation in the direction of the Galactic center.

  9. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density-based clustering: application to biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debarka; Aich, Indranil; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2015-10-01

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is proposed, using maximum information compression index as the dissimilarity measure and the well-known density-based cluster identification technique DBSCAN for identifying the largest natural group of dissimilar features. The algorithm is fast and less sensitive to the user-supplied parameters. Moreover, the method automatically determines the required number of features and identifies them. We used the proposed method for reducing dimensionality of a number of benchmark data sets of varying sizes. Its performance was also extensively compared with some other well-known feature selection methods. PMID:26564974

  10. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density-based clustering: Application to biological data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debarka Sengupta; Indranil Aich; Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay

    2015-10-01

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is proposed, using maximum information compression index as the dissimilarity measure and the well-known density-based cluster identification technique DBSCAN for identifying the largest natural group of dissimilar features. The algorithm is fast and less sensitive to the user-supplied parameters. Moreover, the method automatically determines the required number of features and identifies them. We used the proposed method for reducing dimensionality of a number of benchmark data sets of varying sizes. Its performance was also extensively compared with some other well-known feature selection methods.

  11. MAGNUM OPUS: CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS BIOLOGY AND PROKARYOTIC GENE SILENCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Saran Tirumalai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene Silencing was a technology that was established in eukaryotic system a decade ago and is being used as a research tool widely. However, prokaryotic gene silencing was not workable, till recently a team of researchers from the University of Georgia have proved it possible. Where they have shown that short motif sequences determines the targets of the prokaryotic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR defence system is regulated by RNA guided Cas protein complex. Thus role of CRISPR system in microbial defense against foreign genetic material (Plasmid or Phages is an important milestone in the field of microbial molecular biology/biotechnology. These findings will make it easier to understand the significance of a gene, metabolically or physiologically. The revelation by this novel finding by core group of researcher is indeed, Mangum opus. This article is a commentary, to bring to light, prokaryotic gene silencing as one of the latest advances in prokaryotic science.

  12. Mass spectrometry in structural biology and biophysics architecture, dynamics, and interaction of biomolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltashov, Igor A; Desiderio, Dominic M; Nibbering, Nico M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive guide to mass spectrometry techniques in biology and biophysics The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to study the architecture and dynamics of proteins is increasingly common within the biophysical community, and Mass Spectrometry in Structural Biology and Biophysics: Architecture, Dynamics, and Interaction of Biomolecules, Second Edition provides readers with detailed, systematic coverage of the current state of the art. Offering an unrivalled overview of modern MS-based armamentarium that can be used to solve the most challenging problems in biophysics, structural biol

  13. On the formation of compact, massive subsystems in stellar clusters and its relation with intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Sedda, M.

    2016-01-01

    During their evolution, star clusters undergo mass segregation, by which the orbits of the most massive stars shrink, while the lighter stars move outwards from the cluster centre. In this context, recent observations and dynamical modelling of several galactic and extragalactic globular clusters (GCs) suggest that most of them show, close to their centre, an overabundance of mass whose nature is still matter of debate. For instance, many works show that orbitally segregated stars may collide with each other in a runaway fashion, leading to the formation of a very massive star or an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) with a mass comparable to the observed mass excess. On the other hand, segregated stars can form a dense system if the IMBH formation fails. In this paper we study the early formation phase of a dense, massive subsystem (MSS) in several GCs models using a recently developed semi-analytical treatment of the mass segregation process. In order to investigate how the MSS properties depend on the host cluster properties, we varied initial mass function (IMF), total mass, spatial distribution and metallicity of our models. Our results show how the IMF contributes to determine the final mass of the MSS, while the metallicity and the spatial distribution play a minor role. The method presented in this paper allowed us to provide scaling relations that connect the MSS mass and the host cluster mass in agreement with the observed correlation. In order to follow the early formation stage of the MSSs and improve our statistical results, we performed several N-body simulations of stellar clusters with masses between 103 and 2 × 105 M⊙.

  14. Comparing Masses in Literature (CoMaLit)-I. Bias and scatter in weak lensing and X-ray mass estimates of clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sereno, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The first building block for using galaxy clusters in astrophysics and cosmology is an accurate determination of their mass, which can be estimated with weak lensing (WL) determinations or X-ray analyses assuming hydrostatic equilibrium (HE). By comparing the two mass proxies in well observed samples of rich clusters, we determined the intrinsic scatters, sigma_{WL}~15 per cent for WL masses and sigma_{HE}~25 per cent for HE masses. The certain assessment of the bias is hampered by differences as large as ~40 per cent in either WL or HE mass estimates reported by different groups. If the scatter in the mass proxy is not considered, the slope of any scaling relation `mass--observable' is biased towards shallower values, whereas the intrinsic scatter of the scaling is over-estimated.

  15. 2nd International Symposium "Atomic Cluster Collisions : Structure and Dynamics from the Nuclear to the Biological Scale"

    CERN Document Server

    Solov'yov, Andrey; ISACC 2007; Latest advances in atomic cluster collisions

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a 'snapshot' of the most recent and significant advances in the field of cluster physics. It is a comprehensive review based on contributions by the participants of the 2nd International Symposium on Atomic Cluster Collisions (ISACC 2007) held in July 19-23, 2007 at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The purpose of the Symposium is to promote the growth and exchange of scientific information on the structure and properties of nuclear, atomic, molecular, biological and complex cluster systems studied by means of photonic, electronic, heavy particle and atomic collisions. Particular attention is devoted to dynamic phenomena, many-body effects taking place in cluster systems of a different nature - these include problems of fusion and fission, fragmentation, collective electron excitations, phase transitions, etc.Both the experimental and theoretical aspects of cluster physics, uniquely placed between nuclear physics on the one hand and atomic, molecular and solid state physics on the other, are discuss...

  16. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  17. The Effect of Halo Mass on the HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Ilsang

    2015-01-01

    We combine data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) to study the cold atomic gas content of galaxies in groups and clusters in local universe. A careful cross-matching of galaxies in the SDSS, ALFALFA and SDSS group catalogs provides a sample of group galaxies with stellar masses $10^{8.4} M_{\\odot} \\le M_{*} \\le 10^{10.6} M_{\\odot}$ and group halo masses $10^{12.5} h^{-1} M_{\\odot} \\le M_h \\le 10^{15.0} h^{-1} M_{\\odot}$. Controlling our sample in stellar mass and redshift, we find no significant radial variation in the galaxy \\hi\\ gas-to-stellar mass ratio for the halo mass range in our sample. However, the fraction of galaxies detected in ALFALFA declines steadily towards the centers of groups with the effect being most prominent in the most massive halos. In the outskirts of massive halos a hint of a depressed detection fraction for low mass galaxies suggests pre-processing that decreases the \\hi\\ in these galaxies before they fall into massive cluste...

  18. Cluster mass profile reconstruction with size and flux magnification on the HST STAGES survey

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Christopher A J; Heavens, Alan F; Joachimi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We present the first measurement of individual cluster mass estimates using weak lensing size and flux magnification. Using data from the HST-STAGES survey of the A901/902 supercluster we detect the four known groups in the supercluster at high significance using magnification alone. We discuss the application of a fully Bayesian inference analysis, and investigate a broad range of potential systematics in the application of the method. We compare our results to a previous weak lensing shear analysis of the same field finding the recovered signal-to-noise of our magnification-only analysis to range from 45% to 110% of the signal-to-noise in the shear-only analysis. On a case-by-case basis we find consistent magnification and shear constraints on cluster virial radius, and finding that for the full sample, magnification constraints to be a factor $0.77 \\pm 0.18$ lower than the shear measurements.

  19. Mass spectrometry based proteomics in cell biology and signaling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proteomics is one of the most powerful post-genomics technologies. Recently accomplishments include large scale protein-protein interaction mapping, large scale mapping of phosphorylation sites and the cloning of key signaling molecules. In this talk, current state of the art of the technology will be reviewed. Applications of proteomics to the mapping of multiprotein complexes will be illustrated with recent work on the spliceosome and the nucleolus. More than 300 proteins have been mapped to each of these complexes. Quantitative techniques are becoming more and more essential in proteomics. They are usually performed by the incorporation of stable isotopes - a light form in cell state 'A' and a heavy form in cell state 'E' - and subsequent comparison of mass spectrometric peak heights. A new technique called, SILAC for Stable isotope Incorporation by Amino acids in Cell culture, has been applied to studying cell differentiation and mapping secreted proteins from adipocytes. A number of known and novel proteins important in adipocyte differentiation have been identified by this technique. Some of these proved to be upregulated at the 1 mRNA level, too, whereas others appear to be regulated post-translationally. We have also applied the SILAC method to protein-protein interaction mapping. For example, we compared immunoprecipitates from stimulated and non-stimulated cells to find binding partners recruited to the bait due to the stimulus. Several novel substrates in the EGF pathway were found in this way. An important application of proteomics in the signaling field is the mapping of post-translational modifications. In particular, there are a number of techniques for phosphotyrosine phosphorylation mapping which have proven very useful. Making use of the mass deficiency of the phosphogroup, 'parent ion scans' con be performed, which selectively reveal phosphotyrosine peptides from complex peptides mixtures. This technique has been used to clone several

  20. Testing light-traces-mass in Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS-J0416.1-2403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, Kevin; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Mohammed, Irshad; Saha, Prasenjit; Liesenborgs, Jori

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the projected mass distribution of a massive merging Hubble Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0416 using the genetic algorithm based free-form technique called Grale. The reconstructions are constrained by 149 lensed images identified by Jauzac et al. using HFF data. No information about cluster galaxies or light is used, which makes our reconstruction unique in this regard. Using visual inspection of the maps, as well as galaxy-mass correlation functions we conclude that overall light does follow mass. Furthermore, the fact that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered with mass is an important confirmation of the standard biasing scenario in galaxy clusters. On the smallest scales, approximately less than a few arcseconds, the resolution afforded by 149 images is still not sufficient to confirm or rule out galaxy-mass offsets of the kind observed in ACO 3827. We also compare the mass maps of MACSJ0416 obtained by three different groups: Grale, and two parametric Lenstool reconstructions from the CATS and Sharon/Johnson teams. Overall, the three agree well; one interesting discrepancy between Grale and Lenstool galaxy-mass correlation functions occurs on scales of tens of kpc and may suggest that cluster galaxies are more biased tracers of mass than parametric methods generally assume.

  1. Subaru Weak-Lensing Survey of Dark Matter Subhalos in Coma Cluster : Subahlo Mass Function and Statistical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kuroshima, Risa

    2013-01-01

    We present 4 square degree weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the nearby Coma cluster using Subaru/Suprime-Cam. Thanks to large apparent size of cluster subhalos, we detected in a model-independent way 32 subhalos down to the order of 10^{-3} of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurement of shear-selected subhalos allows us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities, for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by Navarro Frenk & White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected by the tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/d \\ln M_{sub}, in the range of two orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.11^{+0...

  2. Weak-Lensing Mass Measurements of Five Galaxy Clusters in the South Pole Telescope Survey Using Magellan/Megacam

    CERN Document Server

    High, F W; Leethochawalit, N; de Haan, T; Abramson, L; Aird, K A; Armstrong, R; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Bazin, G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Conroy, M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Nurgaliev, D; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Schrabback, T; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Suhada, R; Tokarz, S; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2012-01-01

    We use weak gravitational lensing to measure the masses of five galaxy clusters selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey, with the primary goal of comparing these with the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray based mass estimates. The clusters span redshifts 0.28 2x10^14 h^-1 M_sun, and three of the five clusters were discovered by the SPT survey. We observed the clusters in the gri passbands with the Megacam imager on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope. We measure a mean ratio of weak lensing aperture masses to inferred aperture masses from the SZ data, both within an aperture of R_500,SZ derived from the SZ mass, of 1.12 +/- 0.15. We measure a mean ratio of spherical weak lensing masses evaluated at R_500,SZ to spherical SZ masses of 1.06 +/- 0.18, and a mean ratio of spherical weak lensing masses evaluated at R_500,WL to spherical SZ masses of 1.09 +/- 0.23. We verify in mock catalogs based on N-body simulations that all three mass ratio tests are unbiased to the 2% level under simple assumption...

  3. Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters VII: The substellar mass function revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks; Clark, Paul; Jayawardhana, Ray; Muzic, Koraljka

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of brown dwarfs (BDs) in young clusters is a diagnostic of star formation theory. Here we revisit the issue of determining the substellar initial mass function (IMF), based on a comparison between NGC1333 and IC348, two clusters in the Perseus star-forming region. We derive their mass distributions for a range of model isochrones, varying distances, extinction laws and ages, with comprehensive assessments of the uncertainties. We find that the choice of isochrone and other parameters have significant effects on the results, thus we caution against comparing IMFs obtained using different approaches. For NGC1333, we find that the star/BD ratio R is between 1.9 and 2.4, for all plausible scenarios, consistent with our previous work. For IC348, R is between 2.9 and 4.0, suggesting that previous studies have overestimated this value. Thus, the star forming process generates about 2.5-5 substellar objects per 10 stars. The derived star/BD ratios correspond to a slope of the power-law mass function of ...

  4. The Contribution of Halos with Different Mass Ratios to the Overall Growth of Cluster-Sized Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Lemze, Doron; Genel, Shy; Ford, Holland C; Balestra, Italo; Donahue, Megan; Kelson, Daniel; Nonino, Mario; Mercurio, Amata; Biviano, Andrea; Rosati, Piero; Umetsu, Keiichi; Sand, David; Koekemoer, Anton; Meneghetti, Massimo; Melchior, Peter; Newman, Andrew B; Bhatti, Waqas A; Voit, G Mark; Medezinski, Elinor; Zitrin, Adi; Zheng, Wei; Broadhurst, Tom; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Graves, Genevieve; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jimenez-Teja, Yolanda; Jouvel, Stephanie; Lahav, Ofer; Maoz, Dan; Merten, Julian; Molino, Alberto; Moustakas, John; Moustakas, Leonidas; Ogaz, Sara; Scodeggio, Marco; Seitz, Stella

    2013-01-01

    We provide a new observational test for a key prediction of the \\Lambda CDM cosmological model: the contributions of mergers with different halo-to-main-cluster mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. We perform this test by dynamically analyzing seven galaxy clusters, spanning the redshift range $0.13 < z_c < 0.45$ and caustic mass range $0.4-1.5$ $10^{15} h_{0.73}^{-1}$ M$_{\\odot}$, with an average of 293 spectroscopically-confirmed bound galaxies to each cluster. The large radial coverage (a few virial radii), which covers the whole infall region, with a high number of spectroscopically identified galaxies enables this new study. For each cluster, we identify bound galaxies. Out of these galaxies, we identify infalling and accreted halos and estimate their masses and their dynamical states. Using the estimated masses, we derive the contribution of different mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. For mass ratios between ~0.2 and ~0.7, we find a ~1 $\\sigma$ agreement with \\Lambda CDM expectations ...

  5. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study inner Galactic globular clusters (GCs) using their variable stars. These GCs have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RR Lyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the questions raised by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic GC system. In a series of papers we plan to explore variable stars in the GCs falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper, we search for and study the variables present in two highly reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic GCs: 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR Lyrae stars in both GCs. We use near-infrared period–luminosity relations to determine the color excess of each RR Lyrae star, from which we obtain both accurate distances to the GCs and the ratios of the selective-to-total extinction in their directions. We find the extinction toward both clusters to be elevated, non-standard, and highly differential. We also find both clusters to be closer to the Galactic center than previously thought, with Terzan 10 being on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Finally, we discuss their Oosterhoff properties, and conclude that both clusters stand out from the dichotomy followed by most Galactic GCs.

  6. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-García, Javier; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Gran, Felipe; Leyton, Paul; Minniti, Dante [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Amigo, Pía, E-mail: jalonso@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: idekany@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: rcontrer@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: fgran@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: pia.amigo@uv.cl, E-mail: pleyton@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: dante@astrofisica.cl [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-03-01

    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study inner Galactic globular clusters (GCs) using their variable stars. These GCs have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RR Lyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the questions raised by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic GC system. In a series of papers we plan to explore variable stars in the GCs falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper, we search for and study the variables present in two highly reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic GCs: 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR Lyrae stars in both GCs. We use near-infrared period–luminosity relations to determine the color excess of each RR Lyrae star, from which we obtain both accurate distances to the GCs and the ratios of the selective-to-total extinction in their directions. We find the extinction toward both clusters to be elevated, non-standard, and highly differential. We also find both clusters to be closer to the Galactic center than previously thought, with Terzan 10 being on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Finally, we discuss their Oosterhoff properties, and conclude that both clusters stand out from the dichotomy followed by most Galactic GCs.

  7. Possible smoking-gun evidence for initial mass segregation in re-virialized post-gas expulsion globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Hosein; Zonoozi, Akram Hasani; Kroupa, Pavel; Banerjee, Sambaran; Baumgardt, Holger

    2015-12-01

    We perform a series of direct N-body calculations to investigate the effect of residual gas expulsion from the gas-embedded progenitors of present-day globular clusters (GCs) on the stellar mass function (MF). Our models start either tidally filling or underfilling, and either with or without primordial mass segregation. We cover 100 Myr of the evolution of modelled clusters and show that the expulsion of residual gas from initially mass-segregated clusters leads to a significantly shallower slope of the stellar MF in the low- (m ≤ 0.50 M⊙) and intermediate-mass (≃ 0.50-0.85 M⊙) regime. Therefore, the imprint of residual gas expulsion and primordial mass segregation might be visible in the present-day MF. We find that the strength of the external tidal field, as an essential parameter, influences the degree of flattening, such that a primordially mass-segregated tidally filling cluster with rh/rt ≥ 0.1 shows a strongly depleted MF in the intermediate stellar mass range. Therefore, the shape of the present-day stellar MF in this mass range probes the birth place of clusters in the Galactic environment. We furthermore find that this flattening agrees with the observed correlation between the concentration of a cluster and its MF slope, as found by de Marchi et al.. We show that if the expansion through the residual gas expulsion in primordial mass segregated clusters is the reason for this correlation then GCs most probably formed in strongly fluctuating local tidal fields in the early proto-Milky Way potential, supporting the recent conclusion by Marks & Kroupa.

  8. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies: scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Brok, Mark den; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200 early-type dwarf galaxies in the magnitude range $16.0 < m_{F814W} < 22.6 $ mag, corresponding to $-19.0 < M_{F814W} < -12.4 $ mag. Nuclear star clusters are detected in 80% of the galaxies, thus doubling the sample of HST-observed early-type dwarf galaxies with nuclear star clusters. \\changed{We confirm that the} nuclear star cluster detection fraction decreases strongly toward faint magnitudes. The luminosities of nuclear star clusters do not scale linearly with host galaxy luminosity. A linear fit yields L$_{nuc} \\sim $L$_{gal}^{0.57\\pm0.05}$. The nuclear star cluster-host galaxy luminosity scaling relation for low-mass early-type dwarf galaxies is consistent with formation by globular cluster accre...

  9. Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Corbin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vapourization with an Aerodyne High-Resolution Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS. The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 °C thermal vapourizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial Fullerene-enriched Soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cxn+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (xxn+ distribution. For Fullerene Soot, fuel-rich-flame particles and spark-generated particles, significant Cxn+ clusters at x≫6 were present, with significant contributions from multiply-charged ions (n>1. In all six cases, the ions C1+ and C3+ contributed over 60% to the total C1x+ intensity. Furthermore, the ratio of these major ions C1+/C3+ could be used to predict whether significant Cxn+ signals with x>5 were present. When such signals were present, C1+/C3+ was close to 1. When absent, C1+/C3+ was Significant refractory oxygenated ions such as CO+ and CO2+ were also observed for all samples. We discuss these signals in detail for Regal Black, and describe their formation via decomposition of oxygenated moieties incorporated into the refractory carbon structure. These species may be of importance in atmospheric processes such as water uptake, aging and heterogeneous chemistry.

  10. HST/WFC3 Observations of Low-Mass Globular Clusters AM 4 and Palomar 13: Physical Properties and Implications for Mass Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hamren, Katherine M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Grillmair, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the loss of low-mass stars in two of the faintest globular clusters known, AM 4 and Palomar 13 (Pal 13), using HST/WFC3 F606W and F814W photometry. To determine the physical properties of each cluster --- age, mass, metallicity, extinction, present day mass function (MF) --- we use the maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting program MATCH and the Dartmouth, Padova and BaSTI stellar evolution models. For AM 4, the Dartmouth models provide the best match to the C...

  11. Subaru weak-lensing survey of dark matter subhalos in the Coma cluster: Subhalo mass function and statistical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Futamase, Toshifumi; Kuroshima, Risa [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kajisawa, Masaru, E-mail: nobuhiro.okabe@ipmu.jp [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    We present a 4 deg{sup 2} weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10{sup –3} of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M {sub sub}, in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09{sub −0.32}{sup +0.42} for the former model and 0.99{sub −0.23}{sup +0.34} for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ∼0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h {sup –1} Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ∼ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster.

  12. Low-Mass X-ray Binaries and Globular Clusters in Centaurus A

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Andres; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; McLaughlin, Dean E.; Blakeslee, John P; Evans, Daniel A.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Peng, Eric W.; Cote, Patrick; Croston, Judith H.; Juett, Adrienne M.; Minniti, Dante; Raychaudhury, Somak; Sarazin, Craig L.; Worrall, Diana M.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of globular clusters (GCs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the central regions of Centaurus A. Out of 440 GC candidates we find that 41 host X-ray point sources that are most likely LMXBs. We fit King models to our GC candidates in order to measure their structural parameters. We find that GCs that host LMXBs are denser and more compact, and have higher encounter rates and concentrations than the GC...

  13. Gamma ray emitting globular clusters: Possible contribution from relativistic jets of intermediate mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrovich, Mikhail; Gnedin, Yuri; Silant'ev, Nikolai; Natsvlishvili, Tinatin; Buliga, Stanislava

    2016-05-01

    We developed a method that allows us to estimate the high energy gamma ray luminosity of intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) located in the central regions of globular clusters. Our calculations are based on the relation between the relativistic jet kinetic power and the luminosity of the gamma ray radiation that is produced by the jet itself. The power of a relativistic jet is determined via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism. Our calculations show that the contribution of the central IMBH in gamma ray luminosity is comparable with the contribution of the population of millisecond pulsars.

  14. Enhanced production of barium in low-mass stars: evidence from open clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina D'OraziDipartimento di Astronomia Universita' di Firenze, Italy; Laura Magrini(INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy); Sofia Randich(INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy); Daniele Galli; Maurizio Busso(Dipartimento di Fisica Universita' di Perugia, Italy); Paola Sestito(INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy)

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a trend of increasing barium abundance with decreasing age for a large sample of Galactic open clusters. The observed pattern of [Ba/Fe] vs. age can be reproduced with a Galactic chemical evolution model only assuming a higher Ba yield from the $s$-process in low-mass stars than the average one suggested by parametrized models of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis. We show that this is possible in a scenario where the efficiency of the extra-mixing processes producing ...

  15. Aluminum-26 as a biological tracer using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarend, Richard Edward

    1997-06-01

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided a practical method of detection for the only isotope of aluminum suitable as a tracer, 26Al. The use of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum has made possible the study of aluminum metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of aluminum-containing drugs at physiological levels. An overview of the various advantages of using 26Al as a tracer for aluminum and a general description of the AMS technique as applied to bio-medical applications is given. To illustrate the versatility of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum, 26Al studies of the past several years are discussed briefly. In addition, Two novel investigations dealing with 26Al-labeled drugs will be presented in more detail. In one of these studies, it was found that 26Al from aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvants appeared in the blood just one hour after intramuscular injection. This is a surprising result since the currently held theory of how adjuvants work assumes that adjuvants remain insoluble and hold the antigen at the injection site for a long period of time. In another project, 26Al-labeled antiperspirants are being characterized by combining AMS with traditional analytical and chromatographic techniques. Future directions for this and other possible studies are discussed.

  16. The application of Guided Ion Beam Tandem Mass Spectrometer; Bond dissociation energies of bare and ligated copper group cluster anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threshold energies, fragmentation patterns, and integral cross sections for the reactions of collision induced dissociations of bare and ligated copper group cluster anions are determined using a Guided Ion Beam Tandem Mass Spectrometer (GIB-MS). The bond breaking patterns for the copper cluster anions show dramatic even/odd tendencies, e.g., all copper group anions generate as the predominant reaction product, Carbon monoxide is weakly bound to copper group cluster anions. Cohesive energies of the bare copper and silver cluster anions are determined and exhibit a good correspondence with estimate cohesive energies by the model of Miedema.

  17. Masses and Scaling Relations for Nuclear Star Clusters, and their Coexistence with Central Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Iskren Y; Leigh, Natan; Lützgendorf, Nora; Neumayer, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Galactic nuclei typically host either a Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC, prevalent in galaxies with masses $\\lesssim 10^{10}M_\\odot$) or a Massive Black Hole (MBH, common in galaxies with masses $\\gtrsim 10^{12}M_\\odot$). In the intermediate mass range, some nuclei host both a NSC and a MBH. In this paper, we explore scaling relations between NSC mass (${\\cal M}_{\\rm NSC}$) and host galaxy total stellar mass (${\\cal M}_{\\star,\\rm gal}$) using a large sample of NSCs in late- and early-type galaxies, including a number of NSCs harboring a MBH. Such scaling relations reflect the underlying physical mechanisms driving the formation and (co)evolution of these central massive objects. We find $\\sim\\!1.5\\sigma$ significant differences between NSCs in late- and early-type galaxies in the slopes and offsets of the relations $r_{\\rm eff,NSC}$--${\\cal M}_{\\rm NSC}$, $r_{\\rm eff, NSC}$--${\\cal M}_{\\star,\\rm gal}$ and ${\\cal M}_{\\rm NSC}$--${\\cal M}_{\\star,\\rm gal}$, in the sense that $i)$ NSCs in late-types are more compact at...

  18. Mass Accretion and its Effects on the Self-Similarity of Gas Profiles in the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Erwin T; Avestruz, Camille; Nelson, Kaylea; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy clusters exhibit remarkable self-similar behavior which allows us to establish simple scaling relationships between observable quantities and cluster masses, making galaxy clusters useful cosmological probes. Recent X-ray observations suggest that self-similarity may be broken in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. In this work, we analyze a mass-limited sample of massive galaxy clusters from the Omega500 cosmological hydrodynamic simulation to investigate the self-similarity of the diffuse X-ray emitting intracluster medium (ICM) in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. We find that the self-similarity of the outer ICM profiles is better preserved if they are normalized with respect to the mean density of the universe, while the inner profiles are more self-similar when normalized using the critical density. However, the outer ICM profiles as well as the location of accretion shock around clusters are sensitive to their mass accretion rate, which causes the apparent breaking of self-similarity in cluster ou...

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical Masses for 44 SZ-Selected Galaxy Clusters over 755 Square Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Battaglia, Nick; Hasselfield, Matthew; Menanteau, Felipe; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunner, Rolando; Hilton, Matt; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We present galaxy velocity dispersions and dynamical mass estimates for 44 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Dynamical masses for 18 clusters are reported here for the first time. Using N-body simulations, we model the different observing strategies used to measure the velocity dispersions and account for systematic effects resulting from these strategies. We find that the galaxy velocity distributions may be treated as isotropic, and that an aperture correction of up to 7 per cent in the velocity dispersion is required if the spectroscopic galaxy sample is sufficiently concentrated towards the cluster centre. Accounting for the radial profile of the velocity dispersion in simulations enables consistent dynamical mass estimates regardless of the observing strategy. Cluster masses M200 are in the range (1 - 15) times 10 (sup 14) Solar Masses. Comparing with masses estimated from the SZ distortion assuming a gas pressure profile derived from X-ray observations gives a mean SZ-to-dynamical mass ratio of 1:10 plus or minus 0:13, but there is an additional 0.14 systematic uncertainty due to the unknown velocity bias; the statistical uncertainty is dominated by the scatter in the mass-velocity dispersion scaling relation. This ratio is consistent with previous determinations at these mass scales.

  20. CLASH-VLT: CONSTRAINTS ON THE DARK MATTER EQUATION OF STATE FROM ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS OF GALAXY CLUSTER MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoris, Barbara; Borgani, Stefano; Girardi, Marisa [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Biviano, Andrea; Balestra, Italo; Nonino, Mario [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, Piero [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Universita' di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Umetsu, Keiichi; Czakon, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bartelmann, Matthias [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, ITA, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grillo, Claudio [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lemze, Doron; Medezinski, Elinor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mercurio, Amata [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Melchior, Peter, E-mail: sartoris@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2014-03-01

    A pressureless scenario for the dark matter (DM) fluid is a widely adopted hypothesis, despite the absence of direct observational evidence. According to general relativity, the total mass-energy content of a system shapes the gravitational potential well, but different test particles perceive this potential in different ways depending on their properties. Cluster galaxy velocities, being <cluster mass. We exploit this phenomenon to constrain the equation of state (EoS) parameter of the fluid, primarily DM, contained in galaxy clusters. We use complementary information provided by the kinematic and lensing mass profiles of the galaxy cluster MACS 1206.2–0847 at z = 0.44, as obtained in an extensive imaging and spectroscopic campaign within the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. The unprecedented high quality of our data set and the properties of this cluster are well suited to determine the EoS parameter of the cluster fluid. Since baryons contribute at most 15% to the total mass in clusters and their pressure is negligible, the EoS parameter we derive describes the behavior of the DM fluid. We obtain the most stringent constraint on the DM EoS parameter to date, w = (p{sub r} + 2 p{sub t} )/(3 c {sup 2}ρ) = 0.00 ± 0.15 (stat) ± 0.08 (syst), averaged over the radial range 0.5 Mpc ≤ r ≤ r {sub 200}, where p{sub r} and p{sub t} are the radial and tangential pressure, and ρ is the density. We plan to further improve our constraint by applying the same procedure to all clusters from the ongoing Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble-Very Large Telescope program.

  1. Clustering, GUT scale and neutrino masses in Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z

    2002-01-01

    We determine the probability that an ultrahigh energy (above 5\\cdot 10^{19} eV) proton created at a distance r with energy E arrives at earth above a threshold E_c. The clustering of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. We present a statistical analysis on the source density based on the multiplicities. The ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum is consistent with the decay of GUT scale particles. By using a maximum likelihood analysis we determine the mass of these GUT scale particles. We consider the possibility that a large fraction of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons which were produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. Based on this scenario we determine the required mass of the heaviest relic neutrino as well as the necessary ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux via a maximum likelihood analysis.

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of star clusters - II. Tidally limited, multi-mass systems with stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, M

    2000-01-01

    A revision of Stod\\{'o}{\\l}kiewicz's Monte Carlo code is used to simulate evolution of large star clusters. A survey of the evolution of N-body systems influenced by the tidal field of a parent galaxy and by stellar evolution is presented. The results presented are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the results of other methods (Fokker-Planck, Monte Carlo and N-body). The initial rapid mass loss, due to stellar evolution of the most massive stars, causes expansion of the whole cluster and eventually leads to the disruption of less bound systems ($W_0=3$). Models with larger $W_0$ survive this phase of evolution and then undergo core collapse and subsequent post-collapse expansion, like isolated models. The expansion phase is eventually reversed when tidal limitation becomes important. The results presented are the first major step in the direction of simulating evolution of real globular clusters by means of the Monte Carlo method.

  3. Searching for galaxy clusters using the aperture mass statistics in 50 VLT fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hetterscheidt, M; Schneider, P; Maoli, R; Van Waerbeke, L; Mellier, Y

    2005-01-01

    Application of the aperture mass (Map-) statistics provides a weak lensing method for the detection of cluster-sized dark matter halos. We present a new aperture filter function and maximise the effectiveness of the Map-statistics to detect cluster-sized halos using analytical models. We then use weak lensing mock catalogues generated from ray-tracing through N-body simulations, to analyse the effect of PSF correction on the expected number density of halos. Using the Map-statistics, the aperture radius is typically several arcminutes, hence the aperture often lies partly outside a data field, consequently the signal-to-noise ratio of a halo detection decreases. We study these border effects analytically and by using mock catalogues. We find that the expected number density of halos decreases by a factor of two if the size of a field is comparable to the diameter of the aperture used. We finally report on the results of a weak lensing cluster search applying the Map-statistics to 50 randomly selected fields w...

  4. Four and one more: The formation history and total mass of globular clusters in the Fornax dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Fraser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the detailed star formation history and total mass of the globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal using archival HST WFPC2 data. Colour-magnitude diagrams were constructed in the F555W and F814W bands and corrected for the effect of Fornax field star contamination, after which we used the routine Talos to derive the quantitative star formation history as a function of age and metallicity. The star formation history of the Fornax globular clusters shows that Fornax 1, 2, 3, and 5 are all dominated by ancient (>10 Gyr) populations. Clusters Fornax 1, 2, and 3 display metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -2.5, while Fornax 5 is slightly more metal-rich at [Fe/H] = -1.8, consistent with resolved and unresolved metallicity tracers. Conversely, Fornax 4 is dominated by a more metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -1.2) and younger population at 10 Gyr, inconsistent with the other clusters. A lack of stellar populations overlapping with the main body of Fornax argues against the nucleus cluster scenario for Fornax 4. The combined stellar mass in globular clusters as derived from the SFH is (9.57 ± 0.93) × 105 M⊙, which corresponds to 2.5 ± 0.2 percent of the total stellar mass in Fornax. The mass of the four most metal-poor clusters can also be compared to the metal-poor Fornax field to yield a mass fraction of 19.6 ± 3.1 percent. Therefore, the SFH results provide separate supporting evidence for the unusually high mass fraction of the globular clusters compared to the Fornax field population.

  5. MUSE observations of the lensing cluster SMACSJ2031.8-4036: new constraints on the mass distribution in the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Johan; Patricio, Vera; Martinez, Johany; Bacon, Roland; Clément, Benjamin; Weilbacher, Peter; Soto, Kurt; Wisotzki, Lutz; Vernet, Joël; Pello, Roser; Schaye, Joop; Turner, Monica; Martinsson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present new observations of the lensing cluster SMACSJ2031.8-4036 obtained with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph as part of its commissioning on the Very Large Telescope. By providing medium-resolution spectroscopy over the full 4750-9350 Å domain and a 1 × 1 arcmin2 field of view, MUSE is ideally suited for identifying lensed galaxies in the cluster core, in particular multiple-imaged systems. We perform a redshift analysis of all sources in the data cube and identify a total of 12 systems ranging from z = 1.46 to 6.4, with all images of each system confirmed by a spectroscopic redshift. This allows us to accurately constrain the cluster mass profile in this region. We foresee that future MUSE observations of cluster cores should help us discover very faint Lyman α emitters thanks to the strong magnification and the high sensitivity of this instrument.

  6. MUSE observations of the lensing cluster SMACSJ2031.8-4036: new constraints on the mass distribution in the cluster core

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, J; Martinez, J; Bacon, R; Clement, B; Weilbacher, P; Soto, K; Wisotzki, L; Vernet, J; Pello, R; Schaye, J; Turner, M; Martinsson, T

    2014-01-01

    We present new observations of the lensing cluster SMACSJ2031.8-4036 obtained with the MUSE integral field spectrograph as part of its commissioning on the Very Large Telescope. By providing medium-resolution spectroscopy over the full 4750-9350 Angstroms domain and a 1x1 arcmin2 field of view, MUSE is ideally suited for identifying lensed galaxies in the cluster core, in particular multiple-imaged systems. We perform a redshift analysis of all sources in the datacube and identify a total of 12 systems ranging from $z=1.46$ to $z=6.4$, with all images of each system confirmed by a spectroscopic redshift. This allows us to accurately constrain the cluster mass profile in this region. We foresee that future MUSE observations of cluster cores should help us discover very faint Lyman-alpha emitters thanks to the strong magnification and the high sensitivity of this instrument.

  7. Luminosity and mass functions of the three main sequences of the globular cluster NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; Bedin, L R; Cassisi, S; Anderson, J; Marino, A F; Pietrinferni, A; Aparicio, A

    2011-01-01

    High-precision HST photometry has recently revealed that the globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 hosts a triple main sequence (MS) corresponding to three stellar populations with different helium abundances. We carried out photometry on ACS/WFC HST images of NGC 2808 with the main purpose of measuring the luminosity function (LF) of stars in the three different MSs, and the binary fraction in the cluster. We used isochrones to transform the observed LFs into mass functions (MFs). We estimated that the fraction of binary systems in NGC 2808 is f_bin ~0.05, and find that the three MSs have very similar LFs. The slopes of the corresponding MFs are alpha=-1.2+/-0.3 for the red MS, alpha =-0.9+/-0.3 for the middle MS, and alpha = -0.9+/-0.4 for the blue one, the same, to within the errors. There is marginal evidence of a MF flattening for masses M<~0.6 M_SUN for the the reddest (primordial) MS. These results represent the first direct measurement of the present day MF and LF in distinct stellar populations of a GC, ...

  8. GU Mon, a high-mass eclipsing overcontact binary in the young open cluster Dolidze 25

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, J; Vilardell, F; Simón-Díaz, S; Pastor, P; Majuelos, M Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Context. The eclipsing binary GU Mon is located in the star-forming cluster Dolidze 25, which has the lowest metallicity measured in a Milky Way young cluster. Aims. GU Mon has been identified as a short-period eclipsing binary with two early B-type components. We set out to derive its orbital and stellar parameters. Methods. We present a comprehensive analysis, including B and V light curves and 11 high-resolution spectra, to verify the orbital period and determine parameters. We use the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND to obtain stellar parameters and create templates for cross-correlation. We obtain a model to fit the light and radial-velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney code iteratively and simultaneously. Results. The two components of GU Mon are identical stars of spectral type B1 V, with the same mass and temperature. The lightcurves are typical of an EW-type binary. The spectroscopic and photometric analyses agree on a period of 0.896640 +- 0.000007 d. We determine a mass of 9.0 +- 0.6 Msun for e...

  9. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  10. Membership, binarity and accretion among very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs of the σ Orionis cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Naylor, Tim; Oliveira, J. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.

    2005-01-01

    Intermediate-resolution (R~ 7000) spectroscopy is presented for 76 photometrically selected very low-mass (0.04 consistent with the cluster mean. Photometric selection alone therefore appears to be very effective in identifying cluster members in this mass range. Only six objects appear to be certain non-members; however, a substantial subset of 13 candidates have ambiguous or contradictory indications of membership and lack Li absorption. Together with an observed spread in the equivalent width of the Li absorption feature in the cooler stars of our sample, this indicates that there may be deficiencies in our understanding of the formation of this line in cool, low-gravity objects. Four candidate binary cluster members are identified. Consideration of sampling and radial velocity measurement precision leads us to conclude that either the fraction of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in small separation (a < 1 au) binary systems is larger than in field M-dwarfs, or the distribution of separations is much less skewed towards large separations. This conclusion hinges critically on the correct identification of the small number of binary candidates, although it remains significant even when only the candidate members displaying Li absorption are considered. Broadened Hα emission, indicative of circum(sub)stellar accretion discs is found in five or six of the candidate cluster members, three of which probably have substellar masses. The fraction of accretors (10 +/- 5 per cent) is similar to that found in stars of higher mass in the σ Ori cluster using Hα emission as a diagnostic, but much lower than found for very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs of younger clusters. The time-scale for accretion rates to drop to <~10-11 Msolar yr-1 is hence less than the age of the σ Ori cluster (3-7 Myr) for most low-mass objects.

  11. Kicking massive black holes off clusters: Intermediate-mass ratio inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinidis, Symeon; Kokkotas, Kostas D

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to supermassive and stellar-mass black holes (SBHs), the existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ranging between 100 and 10,000 Msun has not yet been confirmed. The main problem in the detection is that the innermost stellar kinematics of globular clusters (GCs), the natural loci to IMBHs, are very difficult to resolve. However, if IMBHs reside in the center of GCs, a possibility is that they interact dynamically with their enviroment. A binary formed with the IMBH and a compact object of the GC would naturally lead to a prominent source of gravitational radiation, detectable with future observatories. We run for the first time direct-summation integrations of GCs with an IMBH including the dynamical evolution of the IMBH with the stellar system and relativistic effects, such as energy loss in gravitational waves (GWs) and periapsis shift, and gravitational recoil. We find in one of our models an intermediate-mass ratio inspiral (IMRI), which leads to a merger with a recoiling ...

  12. A cosmological view of extreme mass-ratio inspirals in nuclear star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, M; Vecchio, A; Graham, Alister W; Gualandris, A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many galaxies host both a nuclear star cluster (NC) and a super-massive black hole (SMBH). Their coexistence is particularly prevalent in spheroids with stellar mass 10^8-10^10 solar masses. We study the possibility that a stellar-mass black hole (BH) hosted by a NC inspirals and merges with the central SMBH. Due to the high stellar density in NCs, extreme mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of BHs onto SMBHs in NCs may be important sources of gravitational waves (GWs). We consider sensitivity curves for three different space-based GW laser interferometric mission concepts: the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO) and the DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO). We predict that, under the most optimistic assumptions, LISA and DECIGO will detect up to thousands of EMRIs in NCs per year, while NGO will observe up to tens of EMRIs per year. We explore how a number of factors may affect the predicted rates. In ...

  13. $N-$body dynamics of Intermediate mass-ratio inspirals in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Haster, Carl-Johan; Kalogera, Vicky; Mandel, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate mass-ratio inspiral of a stellar compact remnant into an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) can produce a gravitational wave (GW) signal that is potentially detectable by current ground-based GW detectors (e.g., Advanced LIGO) as well as by planned space-based interferometers (e.g., eLISA). Here, we present results from a direct integration of the post-Newtonian $N$-body equations of motion describing stellar clusters containing an IMBH and a population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and solar mass stars. We take particular care to simulate the dynamics closest to the IMBH, including post-Newtonian effects up to order $2.5$. Our simulations show that the IMBH readily forms a binary with a BH companion. This binary is gradually hardened by transient 3-body or 4-body encounters, leading to frequent substitutions of the BH companion, while the binary's eccentricity experiences large amplitude oscillations due to the Lidov-Kozai resonance. We also demonstrate suppression of these resonances b...

  14. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ☉ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ☉ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ☉ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ☉.

  15. A model of electrostatically actuated MEMS and carbon nanotubes resonators for biological mass detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of electrically actuated Micro and Nano (Carbon nanotube (CNT)) cantilever beams implemented as resonant sensors for mass detection of biological elements. The beams are modeled using an Euler-Bernoulli beam theory including the nonlinear electrostatic forces and the added biological elements, which are modeled as a discrete point mass. A multi-mode Galerkin procedure is utilized to derive a reduced-order model, which is used for the dynamic simulations. The frequency shifts due to added mass of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) are calculated for the primary and higher order modes of vibrations. Also, analytical expressions of the natural frequency shift under dc voltage and added mass have been developed. We found that using higher-order modes of vibration of MEMS beams or miniaturizing the size of the beam to Nano scale leads to significant improved sensitivity. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  16. A Chandra X-ray study of the young star cluster NGC 6231: low-mass population and initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, F; Sciortino, S

    2016-01-01

    NGC6231 is a massive young star cluster, near the center of the Sco OB1 association. While its OB members are well studied, its low-mass population has received little attention. We present high-spatial resolution Chandra ACIS-I X-ray data, where we detect 1613 point X-ray sources. Our main aim is to clarify global properties of NGC6231 down to low masses through a detailed membership assessment, and to study the cluster stars' spatial distribution, the origin of their X-ray emission, the cluster age and formation history, and initial mass function. We use X-ray data, complemented by optical/IR data, to establish cluster membership. The spatial distribution of different stellar subgroups also provides highly significant constraints on cluster membership, as does the distribution of X-ray hardness. We perform spectral modeling of group-stacked X-ray source spectra. We find a large cluster population down to ~0.3 Msun (complete to ~1 Msun), with minimal non-member contamination, with a definite age spread (1-8 ...

  17. Matrix Assisted Ionization Vacuum (MAIV), a New Ionization Method for Biological Materials Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry*

    OpenAIRE

    Inutan, Ellen D.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for the mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and proteins had a dramatic impact on biological science. We now report that a wide variety of compounds, including peptides, proteins, and protein complexes, are transported directly from a solid-state small molecule matrix to gas-phase ions when placed into the vacuum of a mass spectrometer without the use of high voltage, a laser, or adde...

  18. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJimpsey, E L; Steele, P T; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M; Tobias, H J; Lebrilla, C

    2006-03-16

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  19. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described

  20. LoCuSS: Calibrating Mass-Observables Scaling Relations for Cluster Cosmology with Subaru Weak Lensing Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Finoguenov, Alexis; Takada, Masahiro; Smith, Graham P; Umetsu, Keiichi; Futamase, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a joint weak-lensing/X-ray study of galaxy cluster mass-observable scaling relations, motivated by the critical importance of accurate calibration of mass proxies for future X-ray missions, including eROSITA. We use a sample of 12 clusters at z\\simeq0.2 that we have observed with Subaru and XMM-Newton to construct relationships between the weak-lensing mass (M), and three X-ray observables: gas temperature (T), gas mass (Mgas), and quasi-integrated gas pressure (Yx) at overdensities of \\Delta=2500, 1000, and 500 with respect to the critical density. We find that Mgas at \\Delta\\le1000 appears to be the most promising mass proxy of the three, because it has the lowest intrinsic scatter in mass at fixed observable: \\sigma _lnM\\simeq0.1, independent of cluster dynamical state. The scatter in mass at fixed T and Yx is a factor of \\sim2-3 larger than at fixed Mgas, which are indicative of the structural segregation that we find in the M-T and M-Yx relationships. Undisturbed clusters are found ...

  1. Possible smoking-gun evidence for initial mass segregation in re-virialized post-gas expulsion globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Haghi, Hosein; Kroupa, Pavel; Banerjee, Sambaran; Baumgardt, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We perform a series of direct $N$-body calculations to investigate the effect of residual gas expulsion from the gas-embedded progenitors of present-day globular clusters (GCs) on the stellar mass function (MF). Our models start either tidally filling or underfilling, and either with or without primordial mass segregation. We cover 100 Myr of the evolution of modeled clusters and show that the expulsion of residual gas from initially mass-segregated clusters leads to a significantly shallower slope of the stellar MF in the low- ($m\\leq 0.50 M_\\odot$) and intermediate-mass ($\\simeq 0.50-0.85 M_\\odot$) regime. Therefore, the imprint of residual gas expulsion and primordial mass segregation might be visible in the present-day MF. We find that the strength of the external tidal field, as an essential parameter, influences the degree of flattening, such that a primordially mass-segregated tidally-filling cluster with $r_h/r_t\\geq 0.1$ shows a strongly depleted MF in the intermediate stellar mass range. Therefore, ...

  2. Evidence for Significant Growth in the Stellar Mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies over the Past 10 Billion Years

    CERN Document Server

    Lidman, C; Muzzin, A; Wilson, G; Demarco, R; Brough, S; Rettura, A; Cox, J; DeGroot, A; Yee, H K C; Gilbank, D; Hoekstra, H; Balogh, M; Ellingson, E; Hicks, A; Nantais, J; Noble, A; Lacy, M; Surace, J; Webb, T

    2012-01-01

    Using new and published data, we construct a sample of 160 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) spanning the redshift interval 0.03 < z < 1.63. We use this sample, which covers 70% of the history of the universe, to measure the growth in the stellar mass of BCGs after correcting for the correlation between the stellar mass of the BCG and the mass of the cluster in which it lives. We find that the stellar mass of BCGs increase by a factor of 1.8 between z=0.9 and z=0.2. Compared to earlier works, our result is closer to the predictions of semi-analytic models. However, BCGs at z=0.9, relative to BCGs at z=0.2, are still a factor of 1.5 more massive than the predictions of these models. Star formation rates in BCGs at z~1 are generally to low to result in significant amounts of mass. Instead, it is likely that most of the mass build up occurs through mainly dry mergers in which perhaps half of the mass is lost to the intra-cluster medium of the cluster.

  3. Clustering, Anisotropy, Spectra of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray: Finger-prints of Relic Neutrinos Masses in Dark Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, Daniele; Grossi, Marco; Lucentini, P. G. De Sanctis; Di Troia, C

    2001-01-01

    The Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray UHECR, by UHE neutrino-relic neutrino Z showering in Hot Dark Halos HDM, should exhibits an energy spectra and an anisotropy reflecting (also) the relic neutrino masses and their hierarchical HDM halo clustering. A twin light neutrino mass splitting may reflect to twin Z resonance and into a complex UHECR spectra modulation, a twin bump, at the edge at highest GZK energy cut-off. Each possible neutrino mass associates a characteristic dark halo size (galactic,...

  4. Chandra Measurements of a Complete Sample of X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters: The Luminosity-Mass Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, P A; Dahle, H; Bonamente, M; Landry, D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Murray, S S; van der Pyl, N

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of work involving a statistically complete sample of 34 galaxy clusters, in the redshift range 0.15$\\le$z$\\le$0.3 observed with Chandra. We present the calibration of the Mass-Temperature (MT) relation using hydrostatic mass estimates for the most dynamically relaxed clusters, and use this relation as a mass proxy for the full cluster sample. We find that the slope of the MT relation follows the self-similar expectation, and is consistent with previously published relations. We investigate the luminosity-Mass (LM) relation for the cluster sample, utilising a method to fully account for selection biases. We find that the difference in normalisation of the LM relation with and without accounting for selection effects is $\\approx$2. For a cluster of luminosity 10$^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$, we find that the mass estimated from the LM relation when we account for selection effects is $\\approx$40% higher compared to the sample LM relation (not accounting for selection effects).

  5. A Detailed Study of the Mass Distribution of the Galaxy Cluster RXC J2248.7-4431

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, G. B.; Rosati, P.; Grillo, C.; the CLASH-VLT Team

    2016-02-01

    In this work we use strong gravitational lensing techniques to constrain the total mass distribution of the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4432 (RXC J2248, zlens = 0.348), also known as Abell S1063, observed within the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Thanks to its strong lensing efficiency and exceptional data quality from the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) and Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope, we can build a parametric model for the total mass distribution. Using the positions of the multiple images generated by 7 multiply-lensed background sources with measured spectroscopic redshifs, we find that the best-fit parametrisation for the cluster total mass distribution is composed of an elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distribution with a significant core for the overall cluster halo, and of truncated pseudo-isothermal mass profiles for the cluster galaxies. This model is capable to predict the positions of the multiple images with an unprecedented precision of ≈ 0”.3. We also show that varying freely the cosmological parameters of the ΛCDM model, our strong lensing model can constrain the underlying geometry of the universe via the angular diameter distances between the lens and the sources and the observer and the sources.

  6. The substellar mass function in the central region of the open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W; Goldman, B; Henning, Th; Caballero, J A; Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the mass function (MF) of open clusters of different ages allow us to probe the efficiency with which brown dwarfs (BDs) are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in old clusters (age > 100 Myr) do not suffer so severely from several problems encountered in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in BD models. Here we present the results of a deep photometric survey to study the MF of the old open cluster Praesepe (age 590 Myr and distance 190 pc), down to a 5 sigma detection limit at i~25.6 mag (~40M_Jup). We identify 62 cluster member candidates, of which 40 are substellar, from comparison with predictions from a dusty atmosphere model. The MF rises from the substellar boundary until ~60M_Jup and then declines. This is quite different from the form inferred for other open clusters older than 50 Myr, but seems to be similar to those found in very young open cluster, whose MFs peak at ~10M_Jup. Either Praesepe really does have a different MF from o...

  7. Stellar Populations and Mass-Loss in M15: A Spitzer Detection of Dust in the Intra-Cluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, M L; Van Loon, J T; Gordon, K D; Evans, A; Gehrz, R D; Helton, L A; Polomski, E F; Boyer, Martha L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Gordon, Karl D.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Polomski, Elisha F.

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of the galactic globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078), one of the most metal-poor clusters with a [Fe/H] = -2.4. Our Spitzer images reveal a population of dusty red giants near the cluster center, a previously detected planetary nebula (PN) designated K648, and a possible detection of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) arising from mass loss episodes from the evolved stellar population. Our analysis suggests 9 (+/-2) x 10^-4 solar masses of dust is present in the core of M15, and this material has accumulated over a period of approximately 10^6 years, a timescale ten times shorter than the last galactic plane crossing event. We also present Spitzer IRS follow up observations of K648, including the detection of the [NeII] 12.81 micron line, and discuss abundances derived from infrared fine structure lines.

  8. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  9. Narrow Band X-ray Photometry as a Tool for Studying Galaxy and Cluster Mass Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    We explore the utility of narrow band X-ray surface photometry as a tool for making fully Bayesian, hydrostatic mass measurements of clusters of galaxies, groups and early-type galaxies. We demonstrate that it is sufficient to measure the surface photometry with the Chandra X-ray observatory in only three (rest frame) bands (0.5--0.9 keV, 0.9--2.0 keV and 2.0--7.0 keV) in order to constrain the temperature, density and abundance of the hot interstellar medium (ISM). Adopting parametrized models for the mass distribution and radial entropy profile and assuming spherical symmetry, we show that the constraints on the mass and thermodynamic properties of the ISM that are obtained by fitting data from all three bands simultaneously are comparable to those obtained by fitting similar models to the temperature and density profiles derived from spatially resolved spectroscopy, as is typically done. We demonstrate that the constraints can be significantly tightened when exploiting a recently derived, empirical relatio...

  10. The clustering of radio galaxies: biasing and evolution versus stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Nusser, Adi

    2015-01-01

    We study the angular clustering of $\\sim 6\\times 10^5$ NVSS sources on scales $\\gtrsim 50 h^{-1}$ Mpc in the context of the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario. The analysis partially relies on the redshift distribution of 131 radio galaxies, inferred from the Hercules and CENSORS survey, and an empirical fit to the stellar to halo mass (SHM) relation. For redshifts $z\\lesssim 0.7$, the fraction of radio activity versus stellar mass evolves as $f_{_{\\rm RL}}\\sim M_*^{\\alpha_0+\\alpha_1 z}$ where $\\alpha_0=2.529{\\pm0.184}$ and $\\alpha_1=1.854^{+0.708}_{-0.761}$. The estimate on $\\alpha_0$ is largely driven by the results of Best et al. (2005), while the constraint on $\\alpha_1$ is new. We derive a biasing factor $b(z=0.5)=2.093^{+0.164}_{-0.109}$ between radio galaxies and the underlying mass.The function $b(z)=0.33z^2+0.85 z +1.6$ fits well the redshift dependence. We also provide convenient parametric forms for the redshift dependent radio luminosity function, which are consistent with the redshift distribution and the NVS...

  11. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Mass Loss and Dust Production by Evolved Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Matsuura, M; Zijlstra, A A; Kraemer, K E; Wood, P R; Nieusma, J; Bernard-Salas, J; Devost, D; Houck, J R

    2010-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 35 long-period variables and four Cepheid variables in the vicinity of 23 Galactic globular clusters using the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The long-period variables in the sample cover a range of metallicities from near solar to about 1/40th solar. The dust mass-loss rate from the stars increases with pulsation period and bolometric luminosity. Higher mass-loss rates are associated with greater contributions from silicate grains. The dust mass-loss rate also depends on metallicity. The dependence is most clear when segregating the sample by dust composition, less clear when segregating by bolometric magnitude, and absent when segregating by period. The spectra are rich in solid-state and molecular features. Emission from alumina dust is apparent across the range of metallicities. Spectra with a 13-um dust emission feature, as well as an associated feature at 20 um, also appear at most metallicities. Molecular features in the spectra include H_2O bands at ...

  12. Cluster abundance in chameleon $f(R)$ gravity I: toward an accurate halo mass function prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Cataneo, Matteo; Lombriser, Lucas; Li, Baojiu

    2016-01-01

    We refine the mass and environment dependent spherical collapse model of chameleon $f(R)$ gravity by calibrating a phenomenological correction inspired by the parameterized post-Friedmann framework against high-resolution $N$-body simulations. We employ our method to predict the corresponding modified halo mass function, and provide fitting formulas to calculate the fractional enhancement of the $f(R)$ halo abundance with respect to that of General Relativity (GR) within a precision of $\\lesssim 5\\%$ from the results obtained in the simulations. Similar accuracy can be achieved for the full $f(R)$ mass function on the condition that the modeling of the reference GR abundance of halos is accurate at the percent level. We use our fits to forecast constraints on the additional scalar degree of freedom of the theory, finding that upper bounds competitive with current Solar System tests are within reach of cluster number count analyses from ongoing and upcoming surveys at much larger scales. Importantly, the flexi...

  13. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Zentner, A R

    2006-01-01

    I review the excursion set theory (EST) of dark matter halo formation and clustering. I recount the Press-Schechter argument for the mass function of bound objects and review the derivation of the Press-Schechter mass function in EST. The EST formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous problems. I review the EST of halo bias and the properties of void regions. I spend considerable time reviewing halo growth in the EST. This section culminates with descriptions of two Monte Carlo methods for generating halo mass accretion histories. In the final section, I emphasize that the standard EST approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and a more versatile formalism. One such assumption is the constant height of the barrier for nonlinear collapse. I review implementations of the excursion set approach with arbitrary barrier shapes. An application of this is the now well-known improvement to standard EST that follows from the el...

  14. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range MHI ≈ 108.5-1010.5 M☉. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies

  15. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    OpenAIRE

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the $\\Lambda$ CDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should ...

  16. Quantitation of vitamin B6 in biological samples by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of vitamin B6 forms in biological samples by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using deuterated forms of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxic acid. The biological fluid or tissue sample was homogenized and then treated with a cocktail containing appropriate amounts of each deuterated vitamer, as well as the deuterated, phosphorylated vitamer forms. The individual vitamers were isolated from the homogenate by a complex high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure that provided separate fractions for each of the six vitamers found in biological samples. Aldehydic B6 vitamers were reduced to the alcohol form prior to acetylation and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The three resulting vitamers were analyzed by electron ionization GC/MS using a silicone capillary column. The methods have been applied to analysis of vitamin B6 in liver, milk, urine, and feces at levels as low as 0.02 nmol/ml

  17. Quantitation of vitamin B6 in biological samples by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachey, D.L.; Coburn, S.P.; Brown, L.T.; Erbelding, W.F.; DeMark, B.; Klein, P.D.

    1985-11-15

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of vitamin B6 forms in biological samples by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using deuterated forms of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxic acid. The biological fluid or tissue sample was homogenized and then treated with a cocktail containing appropriate amounts of each deuterated vitamer, as well as the deuterated, phosphorylated vitamer forms. The individual vitamers were isolated from the homogenate by a complex high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure that provided separate fractions for each of the six vitamers found in biological samples. Aldehydic B6 vitamers were reduced to the alcohol form prior to acetylation and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The three resulting vitamers were analyzed by electron ionization GC/MS using a silicone capillary column. The methods have been applied to analysis of vitamin B6 in liver, milk, urine, and feces at levels as low as 0.02 nmol/ml.

  18. Mass determination based on electron scattering in electron probe X-ray microanalysis of thin biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the development of a method for mass determination of thin biological objects by quantitative electron microscopy. The practical realization of the mass determination consists of photographical recording with subsequent densitometry. (Auth.)

  19. The mass-ratio and eccentricity distributions of red giants in open clusters, barium and S stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, Mathieu; Jorissen, Alain; Van Eck, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify diagnostics distinguishing between pre- and post-mass-transfer systems, the mass-ratio distribution and period - eccentricity (P - e) diagram of barium and S stars are compared to those of the sample of binary red giants in open clusters from Mermilliod et al. (2007). From the analysis of the mass-ratio distribution for the cluster binary giants, we find an excess of systems with companion masses between 0.58 and 0.87 Msun, typical for white dwarfs. They represent 22% of the sample, which are thus candidate post-mass-transfer systems. Among these candidates which occupy the same locus as the barium and S stars in the (P-e) diagram, only 33% (= 4/12) show a chemical signature of mass transfer in the form of s-process overabundances (from rather moderate -- about 0.3 dex -- to more extreme -- about 1 dex). These s-process-enriched cluster stars show a clear tendency to be in the clusters with the lowest metallicity in the sample, confirming the classical prediction that the s-process nucleo...

  20. Testing light-traces-mass in Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS-J0416.1-2403

    CERN Document Server

    Sebesta, Kevin; Mohammed, Irshad; Saha, Prasenjit; Liesenborgs, Jori

    2015-01-01

    We reconstruct the projected mass distribution of a massive merging Hubble Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0416 using the genetic algorithm based free-form technique called Grale. The reconstructions are constrained by 149 lensed images identified by Jauzac et al. using HFF data. No information about cluster galaxies or light is used, which makes our reconstruction unique in this regard. Using visual inspection of the maps, as well as galaxy-mass correlation functions we conclude that overall light does follow mass. Furthermore, the fact that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered with mass is an important confirmation of the standard biasing scenario in galaxy clusters. On the smallest scales, approximately less than a few arcseconds the resolution afforded by 149 images is still not sufficient to confirm or rule out galaxy-mass offsets of the kind observed in ACO 3827. We also compare the mass maps of MACSJ0416 obtained by three different groups: Grale, and two parametric Lenstool reconstructions from t...

  1. An efficient method to identify galaxy clusters by using SuperCOSMOS, 2MASS and WISE data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WeiWei; WEN ZhongLue; HAN JinLin

    2014-01-01

    The survey data of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) provide an opportunity for the identification of galaxy clusters.We present an efficient method for detecting galaxy clusters by combining the WISE data with SuperCOSMOS and 2MASS data.After performing star-galaxy separation,we calculate the number of companion galaxies around the galaxies with photometric redshifts previously estimated by the SuperCOSMOS,2MASS and WISE data.A scaled richness Rscal ≥ 30 is set as a criterion to identify clusters.From a sky area of 275 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 region,we identify 302 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 0.35,247 (82%) of which are previously known SDSS clusters.The results suggest that our method is efficient for identifying galaxy clusters by using the all sky data of the SuperCOSMOS,2MASS and WISE.

  2. Constraints on the Richness-Mass Relation and the Optical-SZE Positional Offset Distribution for SZE-Selected Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Saro, A; Rozo, E; Benson, B A; Mohr, J; Rykoff, E S; Soares-Santos, M; Bleem, L; Dodelson, S; Melchior, P; Sobreira, F; Upadhyay, V; Weller, J; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Armstrong, R; Banerji, M; Bauer, A H; Bayliss, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brodwin, M; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Carlstrom, J E; Capasso, R; Capozzi, D; Carnero Rosell, A; Carrasco Kind, M; Chiu, I; Covarrubias, R; Crawford, T M; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; de Haan, T; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Cunha, C E; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Fausti Neto, A; Fernandez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gangkofner, C; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gupta, N; Hennig, C; Holzapfel, W L; Honscheid, K; Jain, B; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Lin, H; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, Paul; McDonald, M; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Reichardt, C L; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Stalder, B; Stark, A A; Strazzullo, V; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Vikram, V; von der Linden, A; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Wester, W; Zenteno, A; Ziegler, K E

    2015-01-01

    We cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg$^2$ of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between $0.1\\lesssim z\\lesssim 0.8$ in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness $\\lambda$-mass relation with the following function $\\langle\\ln\\lambda|M_{500}\\rangle\\propto B_\\lambda\\ln M_{500}+C_\\lambda\\ln E(z)$ and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses $\\lambda$ to constrain the parameters. We find $B_\\lambda= 1.14^{+0.21}_{-0.18}$ and $C_\\lambda=0.73^{+0.77}_{-0.75}$. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is $\\sigma_{\\ln M|\\lambda} = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ at a characteristic richness $\\lambda=70$. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the ma...

  3. Two Types of Mass Abundance Distributions for Anionic Carbon Clusters Investigated by Laser Vaporization and Pulsed Molecular Beam Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hua-Jin; LIU Bing-Chen; NI Guo-Quan; XUZhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    Two types of mass spectra for anionic carbon clusters Cn- have been revealed using laser vaporization and pulsed molecular beam techniques. The less structured mass spectrum characteristic of the magic-numbers at n = 5, 8,11, 15, and 17 is established at the early stage of the cluster formation process, namely, in the laser vaporization process. The more structured one is featured for a regular odd-even alternation and the magic numbers at n =10, 12, 16, 18, 22, and 28, and has been developed only after extensive clustering and qnenching processes, where low-energy electron attachment plays a vital role. Transition between these two types of mass spectra can be realized by controlling either the strength of the pulsed gas flow or the synchronism between the gas flow and the laser vaporization.

  4. Searching in the dark: the dark mass content of the Milky Way globular clusters NGC288 and NGC6218

    CERN Document Server

    Sollima, A; Lovisi, L; Contenta, F; Vesperini, E; Origlia, L; Lapenna, E; Lanzoni, B; Mucciarelli, A; Dalessandro, E; Pallanca, C

    2016-01-01

    We present an observational estimate of the fraction and distribution of dark mass in the innermost region of the two Galactic globular clusters NGC 6218 (M12) and NGC 288. Such an assessment has been made by comparing the dynamical and luminous mass profiles derived from an accurate analysis of the most extensive spectroscopic and photometric surveys performed on these stellar systems. We find that non-luminous matter constitutes more than 60% of the total mass in the region probed by our data (R<1.6 arcmin~r_h) in both clusters. We have carefully analyzed the effects of binaries and tidal heating on our estimate and ruled out the possibility that our result is a spurious consequence of these effects. The dark component appears to be more concentrated than the most massive stars suggesting that it is likely composed of dark remnants segregated in the cluster core.

  5. Search and characterization of T-type planetary mass candidates in the sigma Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez, K Peña; Béjar, V J S; Rebolo, R; Bihain, G

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) We aim to: i) confirm the presence of methane absorption in S Ori 73 (a T-type member candidate of the sig Orionis cluster, 3 Myr, 352 pc) through methane imaging; ii) study S Ori 70 and 73 cluster membership via photometric colors and accurate proper motion analysis; iii) perform a new search to identify additional T-type sig Orionis member candidates with likely masses below 7 Mjup. We obtained HAWK-I (VLT) J, H, and CH4off photometry of an area of 119.15 sq. arcmin in sig Orionis down to Jcomp = 21.7 and Hcomp = 21 mag. Near-infrared data were complemented with optical photometry using images acquired with OSIRIS (GTC) and VISTA as part of the VISTA Orion survey. We derived proper motions by comparison of the new HAWK-I and VISTA images with published near-infrared data taken 3.4 - 7.9 yr ago. S Ori 73 has a red H-CH4off color indicating methane absorption in the H-band and a spectral type of T4 +/- 1. S Ori 70 displays a redder methane color than S Ori 73 in agreement with its latter spectral c...

  6. Were most Low Mass X ray Binaries born in Globular Clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    D'Antona, F; Ventura, P; Antona, Francesca D'; Teodorescu, Anamaria; Ventura, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the status of art of the secular evolution of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and take a close look at the orbital period distribution of LMXBs and of binary millisecond pulsars (MSP), in the hypothesis that this latter results from the LMXB evolution. The deficiency of systems below the period gap, which in cataclysmic binaries occurs between ~ 2 and 3 hr, points to a very different secular evolution of LMXBs with respect to their counterparts containing a white dwarf compact object. The presence of several ultrashort period LMXBs (some of which are also X-ray millisecond pulsars), the important fraction of binary MSPs at periods between 0.1 and 1 day, the periods (26 and 32hr) of two ``interacting'' MSPs in Globular Clusters are other pieces of the puzzle in the period distribution. We consider the possible explanations for these peculiarities, and point out that Grindlay's old proposal that all (most of) LMXBs in the field were originally born in globular clusters must be carefully reconsidere...

  7. Stellar mass function of cluster galaxies at z $\\sim$ 1.5: evidence for reduced quenching efficiency at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Nantais, Julie B; Lidman, Chris; Demarco, Ricardo; Noble, Allison; Wilson, Gillian; Muzzin, Adam; Foltz, Ryan; DeGroot, Andrew; Cooper, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We present the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of passive and star-forming galaxies with a limiting mass of 10$^{10.1}$ M$_{\\odot}$ in four spectroscopically confirmed Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS) galaxy clusters at 1.37 $<$ z $<$ 1.63. The clusters have 113 spectroscopically confirmed members combined, with 8-45 confirmed members each. We construct $Ks$-band-selected photometric catalogs for each cluster with an average of 11 photometric bands ranging from $u$ to 8 $\\mu$m. We compare our cluster galaxies to a field sample derived from a similar $Ks$-band-selected catalog in the UltraVISTA/COSMOS field. The SMFs resemble those of the field, but with signs of environmental quenching. We find that 30 $\\pm$ 20\\% of galaxies that would normally be forming stars in the field are quenched in the clusters. The environmental quenching efficiency shows little dependence on projected cluster-centric distance out to $\\sim$ 4 Mpc, providing tentative evidence of pre-processing and/or...

  8. Cluster analysis of the organic peaks in bulk mass spectra obtained during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter most probably originating from both, anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent as much as 5 µg/m3 organic aerosol mass – 17% of the total organic mass – that can be attributed to biogenic sources. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  9. Probing The Lower Mass Limit for Supernova Progenitors and the High-Mass End of the Initial-Final Mass Relation from White Dwarfs in the Open Cluster M35 (NGC 2168)

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kurtis A; Koester, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the white dwarf population of the populous, intermediate-age open cluster M35 (NGC 2168); this study expands upon our previous study of the white dwarfs in this cluster. We spectroscopically confirm 14 white dwarfs in the field of the cluster: 12 DAs, 1 hot DQ, and 1 DB star. For each DA, we determine the white dwarf mass and cooling age, from which we derive the each star's progenitor mass. These data are then added to the empirical initial-final mass relation (IFMR), where the M35 WDs contribute significantly to the high-mass end of the relation. The resulting points are consistent with previously-published linear fits to the IFMR, modulo moderate systematics introduced by the uncertainty in the star cluster age. Based on this cluster alone, the observational lower limit on the maximum mass of white dwarf progenitors is found to be ~5.1-5.2 solar masses at the 95% confidence level; including data from other young open clusters raises this limit as high as ...

  10. The use of coincidence counting mass spectrometry to study the emission and metastable dissociation of cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Schweikert, E. A.

    1996-05-01

    Coincidence counting and time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to study the coincidental emission of ions from single fission fragment, impacts from an inorganic solid. Removal of interfering peaks is possible by observing those ions in coincidence with a mass peak unambiguously representative of the sample of interest. The use of coincidence also allows a direct study of the correlation of ions and neutrals formed due to the metastable dissociation of ions while in the drift region of the spectrometer. Such studies allow insight into the structure of cluster ions, which can aid in relating the cluster ion composition and structure back to that of the original solid.

  11. The substellar mass function in the central region of the open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Goldman, Bertrand; Henning, Thomas; Caballero, Jose A; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A L

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the mass function (MF) of open clusters of different ages allow us to probe the efficiency with which brown dwarfs evaporate from clusters to populate the field. Surveys of older clusters (age >100 Myr) are not affected so severely by several problems encountered in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in brown dwarf models. We present the results of a deep photometric survey to study the MF of the central region of the old open cluster Praesepe (age~590$^{+150}_{-120}$ Myr, distance ~190$^{+6.0}_{-5.8}$ pc), down to the substellar regime. We performed an optical ($riz$ and $Y$-band) photometric survey of Praesepe using the Large Binocular Telescope Camera covering an area of ~0.59 deg$^2$ in the cluster centre from $i$~19.0 mag (~100 M_Jup) down to a 5$\\sigma$ detection limit at $i$~25.6mag (~40 M_Jup). The survey is approximately 95% complete at $i=23.8$ mag and $z=22.0$ mag (~55 M_Jup). We identify 59 cluster member candidates, of which 37 are substellar, by c...

  12. Method development for mass spectrometry based molecular characterization of fossil fuels and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Rajendra K.

    In an analytical (chemical) method development process, the sample preparation step usually determines the throughput and overall success of the analysis. Both targeted and non-targeted methods were developed for the mass spectrometry (MS) based analyses of fossil fuels (coal) and lipidomic analyses of a unique micro-organism, Gemmata obscuriglobus. In the non-targeted coal analysis using GC-MS, a microwave-assisted pressurized sample extraction method was compared with the traditional extraction method, such as Soxhlet. On the other hand, methods were developed to establish a comprehensive lipidomic profile and to confirm the presence of endotoxins (a.k.a. lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in Gemmata.. The performance of pressurized heating techniques employing hot-air oven and microwave irradiation were compared with that of Soxhlet method in terms of percentage extraction efficiency and extracted analyte profiles (via GC-MS). Sub-bituminous (Powder River Range, Wyoming, USA) and bituminous (Fruitland formation, Colorado, USA) coal samples were tested. Overall 30-40% higher extraction efficiencies (by weight) were obtained with a 4 hour hot-air oven and a 20 min microwave-heating extraction in a pressurized container when compared to a 72 hour Soxhlet extraction. The pressurized methods are 25 times more economic in terms of solvent/sample amount used and are 216 times faster in term of time invested for the extraction process. Additionally, same sets of compounds were identified by GC-MS for all the extraction methods used: n-alkanes and diterpanes in the sub-bituminous sample, and n-alkanes and alkyl aromatic compounds in the bituminous coal sample. G. obscuriglobus, a nucleated bacterium, is a micro-organism of high significances from evolutionary, cell and environmental biology standpoints. Although lipidomics is an essential tool in microbiological systematics and chemotaxonomy, complete lipid profile of this bacterium is still lacking. In addition, the presence of

  13. Cosmological constraints from the evolution of the cluster baryon mass function at z similar to 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Voevodkin, A.; Mullis, C.R.; VanSpeybroeck, L.; Quintana, H.; McNamara, B.R.; Gioia, I.; Hornstrup, Allan; Henry, J.P.; Forman, W.R.; Jones, C.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new method for deriving cosmological constraints based on the evolution of the baryon mass function of galaxy clusters and implement it using 17 distant clusters from our 160 deg(2) ROSAT survey. The method uses the cluster baryon mass as a proxy for the total mass, thereby avoiding...... the large uncertainties of the M-tot-T or M-tot-L-X relations used in all previous studies. Instead, we rely on a well-founded assumption that the M-b/M-tot ratio is a universal quantity, which should result in a much smaller systematic uncertainty. Taking advantage of direct and accurate Chandra...... measurements of the gas masses for distant clusters, we find strong evolution of the baryon mass function between z > 0.4 and the present. The observed evolution defines a narrow band in the Omega(m)-Lambda plane, Omega(m) + 0.23Lambda = 0.41 +/- 0.10 at 68% confidence, which intersects with constraints from...

  14. Faint open clusters with 2MASS: BH 63, Lyng\\aa 2, Lyng\\aa 12 and King 20

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Blumberg, R; Bica, Eduardo; Bonatto, Charles; Blumberg, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Structural and dynamical parameters of faint open clusters are probed with quality 2MASS-photometry and analytical procedures developed for bright clusters. We derive fundamental parameters of the faint open clusters Lynga2, BH63, Lyng12 and King20, the last three of which have no prior determinations. We also focus on the structure and dynamical state of these clusters. 2MASS photometry with errors smaller than 0.2mag are used to build CMDs, RDPs, CMDs, luminosity and mass functions. Colour-magnitude filters are used to isolate probable member stars. Field-star decontamination is applied to Lynga2, Lynga12 and King20. Reddening values are in the range 0.22-1.9, with BH63 the most reddened object. Ages of Lynga2, King20, Lynga12 and BH63 are ~90, ~200, ~560 and 700Myr, respectively. The RDPs of Lynga12 and King20 are well-represented by King profiles. Total stellar masses (extrapolating the MFs to stars with 0.08Mo) range from ~340Mo (BH63) to ~2300Mo (Lynga12). Observed masses are \\~1/4$ of these values. In ...

  15. Evidence for the inside-out growth of the stellar mass distribution in galaxy clusters since z~1

    CERN Document Server

    van der Burg, Remco F J; Muzzin, Adam; Sifón, Cristóbal; Balogh, Michael L; McGee, Sean L

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial number density and stellar mass density distributions of satellite galaxies in a sample of 60 massive clusters at 0.04Cluster Survey (MENeaCS) and the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project (CCCP). In addition to ~10,000 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies, we use deep ugri-band imaging to estimate photometric redshifts and stellar masses, and then statistically subtract fore-, and background sources using data from the COSMOS survey. We measure the galaxy number density and stellar mass density distributions in logarithmically spaced bins over 2 orders of magnitude in radial distance from the BCGs. For projected distances in the range 0.1mass distribution is well-described by an NFW profile with a concentration of c=2.03+/-0.20. However, at smaller radii we measure a significant excess in the stellar mass in satellite galaxies of about $10^{11}$ Msun per cluster, compared to these NFW profi...

  16. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical masses for 44 SZ-selected galaxy clusters over 755 square degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Menanteau, Felipe; Hasselfield, Matthew; Barrientos, L Felipe; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marsden, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Trac, Hy; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    We present galaxy velocity dispersions and dynamical mass estimates for 44 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Dynamical masses for 18 clusters are reported here for the first time. Using N-body simulations, we model the different observing strategies used to measure the velocity dispersions and account for systematic effects resulting from these strategies. We find that the galaxy velocity distributions may be treated as isotropic, and that an aperture correction of up to 7 per cent in the velocity dispersion is required if the spectroscopic galaxy sample is sufficiently concentrated towards the cluster centre. Accounting for the radial profile of the velocity dispersion in simulations enables consistent dynamical mass estimates regardless of the observing strategy. Cluster masses $M_{200}$ are in the range $(1-15)\\times10^{14}M_\\odot$. Comparing with masses estimated from the SZ distortion assuming a gas pressure profile derived from X-ray obse...

  17. Prediction of the Rock Mass Diggability Index by Using Fuzzy Clustering-Based, ANN and Multiple Regression Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Omid; Torabi, Seyed Rahman; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Rock mass classification systems are one of the most common ways of determining rock mass excavatability and related equipment assessment. However, the strength and weak points of such rating-based classifications have always been questionable. Such classification systems assign quantifiable values to predefined classified geotechnical parameters of rock mass. This causes particular ambiguities, leading to the misuse of such classifications in practical applications. Recently, intelligence system approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and neuro-fuzzy methods, along with multiple regression models, have been used successfully to overcome such uncertainties. The purpose of the present study is the construction of several models by using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method with two data clustering approaches, including fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and subtractive clustering, an ANN and non-linear multiple regression to estimate the basic rock mass diggability index. A set of data from several case studies was used to obtain the real rock mass diggability index and compared to the predicted values by the constructed models. In conclusion, it was observed that ANFIS based on the FCM model shows higher accuracy and correlation with actual data compared to that of the ANN and multiple regression. As a result, one can use the assimilation of ANNs with fuzzy clustering-based models to construct such rigorous predictor tools.

  18. A SEARCH FOR AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE IN THE CORE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bernard J.; Harrison, Thomas E. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Baumgardt, Holger [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4068 (Australia); Khalaj, Pouria, E-mail: bmcnamar@nmsu.edu, E-mail: tharriso@nmsu.edu, E-mail: h.baumgardt@uq.edu.au, E-mail: pooria_khalaj@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    It has long been thought that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) might be located in the cores of globular clusters. However, studies attempting to confirm this possibility have been inconclusive. To refine the search for these objects, Baumgardt et al. completed a series of N-body simulations to determine the observational properties that a host globular cluster should possess. Keys to revealing the presence of an IMBH were found to be the shape of the cluster's core proper motion dispersion profile and its surface density profile. Among the possible host clusters identified by Baumgardt et al., NGC 6266 was found to be the most suitable object to search. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images with an epoch difference of eight years were, therefore, used to measure this cluster's internal proper motion dispersion profile from 0.8 arcsec to 17 arcsec from the cluster center. This profile and the surface density profiles obtained by Noyola and Gebhardt and Trager et al. were then compared to those produced by N-body simulations of NGC 6266 with and without an IMBH. We find that a centrally located IMBH is not required to match these profiles, but that an IMBH with a 1{sigma} upper limit mass of less than a few thousand M{sub Sun} cannot be excluded. To establish the existence of this object, the exact location of the density center and more precise velocity measurements within the inner 1 arcsec of this center are required. Our best-fitting model of NGC 6266 without an IMBH yields a cluster mass of M = 8.22 {+-} 0.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, leading to a mass-to-light ratio of M/L{sub V} = 2.05 {+-} 0.04.

  19. Cluster Analysis of the Organic Peaks in Bulk Mass Spectra Obtained During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel R. H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  20. The influence of stellar-dynamical ejections and collisions on the relation between the maximum-star and star-cluster-mass

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seungkyung; Kroupa, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    We perform the largest currently available set of direct N-body calculations of young star cluster models to study the dynamical influence, especially through the ejections of the most massive star in the cluster, on the current relation between the maximum-stellar-mass and the star-cluster-mass. We vary several initial parameters such as the initial half-mass radius of the cluster, the initial binary fraction, and the degree of initial mass segregation. Two different pairing methods are used...

  1. Low-mass X-ray binaries and globular clusters streamers and arcs in NGC 4278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, N. J. [Center for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We report significant inhomogeneities in the projected two-dimensional spatial distributions of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and globular clusters (GCs) of the intermediate mass elliptical galaxy NGC 4278. In the inner region of NGC 4278, a significant arc-like excess of LMXBs extending south of the center at ∼50'' in the western side of the galaxy can be associated with a similar overdensity of the spatial distribution of red GCs from Brassington et al. Using a recent catalog of GCs produced by Usher et al. and covering the whole field of the NGC 4278 galaxy, we have discovered two other significant density structures outside the D {sub 25} isophote to the W and E of the center of NGC 4278, associated with an overdensity and an underdensity, respectively. We discuss the nature of these structures in the context of the similar spatial inhomogeneities discovered in the LMXBs and GCs populations of NGC 4649 and NGC 4261, respectively. These features suggest streamers from disrupted and accreted dwarf companions.

  2. Low-Mass X-ray Binaries and Globular Clusters Streamers and Arcs in NGC4278

    CERN Document Server

    D'Abrusco, R; Brassington, N J

    2014-01-01

    We report significant inhomogeneities in the projected two-dimensional (2D) spatial distributions of Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) and Globular Clusters (GCs) of the intermediate mass elliptical galaxy NGC4278. In the inner region of NGC4278, a significant arc-like excess of LMXBs extending south of the center at ~50" in the western side of the galaxy can be associated to a similar over-density of the spatial distribution of red GCs from~Brassington et al. (2009). Using a recent catalog of GCs produced by Usher et al.(2013) and covering the whole field of the NGC4278 galaxy, we have discovered two other significant density structures outside the D25 isophote to the W and E of the center of NGC4278, associated to an over-density and an under-density respectively. We discuss the nature of these structures in the context of the similar spatial inhomogeneities discovered in the LMXBs and GCs populations of NGC4649 and NGC4261, respectively. These features suggest streamers from disrupted and accreted dwarf comp...

  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption of biological molecules in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D.M.; Goeringer, D.E.; McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD), which has been proven to be an effective ionization technique for biological molecules, has been implemented on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). In the instrumental configuration used for this work both the sample probe and the laser beam are brought through holes in the ring electrode, thereby enabling MALD-generated ions to expand directly into the ion trap cavity. This approach for directly introducing MALD-generated ions compliments the capabilities of the ITMS to obtain low detection limits and to perform tandem mass spectrometric analysis. For example, detection limits in the single-unit femtomole regime have been achieved for small polypeptides such as leucine enkephalin, bradykinin, and neuromedin U-8. Furthermore, structural information has been acquired via multiple stages of mass spectrometry. One limitation that currently exists is an unanticipated drop in sensitivity and resolution as the mass/charge ratio for ions exceeds 3000. 42 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The clustering of ALFALFA galaxies: dependence on HI mass, relationship to optical samples & clues on host halo properties

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Jones, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    We use a sample of ~6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21cm survey, to measure the clustering properties of HI-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on the galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) mass, over the range M_HI ~ 10^{8.5} - 10^{10.5} M_sun. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low-HI mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that HI-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of HI-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than HI-selected gala...

  5. Unveiling the three-dimensional structure of galaxy clusters: resolving the discrepancy between X-ray and lensing masses

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, A; Limousin, M

    2009-01-01

    [Abridged] We present the first determination of the intrinsic shapes and the physical parameters of both dark matter (DM) and intra-cluster medium (ICM) in a triaxial galaxy cluster. While most previous studies rely on the standard spherical modeling, our approach allows to infer the properties of the non-spherical intra-cluster gas distribution sitting in hydrostatic equilibrium within triaxial DM halos by combining X-ray, weak and strong lensing observations. We present an application of our method to the galaxy cluster MACS J1423.8+2404. This source is an example of a well relaxed object with a unimodal mass distribution and we infer shape and physical properties of the ICM and the DM for this source. We found that this is a triaxial galaxy cluster with DM halo axial ratios 1.53\\pm 0.15 and 1.44\\pm 0.07 on the plane of the sky and along the line of sight, respectively. We show that accounting for the three-dimensional geometry allows to solve the long-standing discrepancy between galaxy cluster masses det...

  6. Precise Strong Lensing Mass Modeling of Four Hubble Frontier Field Clusters and a Sample of Magnified High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Ryota; Oguri, Masamune; Ishigaki, Masafumi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami

    2016-03-01

    We conduct precise strong lensing mass modeling of four Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) clusters, Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1149.6+2223, for which HFF imaging observations are completed. We construct a refined sample of more than 100 multiple images for each cluster by taking advantage of the full-depth HFF images, and conduct mass modeling using the glafic software, which assumes simply parametrized mass distributions. Our mass modeling also exploits a magnification constraint from the lensed SN Ia HFF14Tom for Abell 2744 and positional constraints from the multiple images S1-S4 of the lensed supernova SN Refsdal for MACS J1149.6+2223. We find that our best-fitting mass models reproduce the observed image positions with rms errors of ˜0.″4, which are smaller than rms errors in previous mass modeling that adopted similar numbers of multiple images. Our model predicts a new image of SN Refsdal with a relative time delay and magnification that are fully consistent with a recent detection of reappearance. We then construct catalogs of z ˜ 6-9 dropout galaxies behind the four clusters and estimate magnification factors for these dropout galaxies with our best-fitting mass models. The dropout sample from the four cluster fields contains ˜120 galaxies at z ≳ 6, about 20 of which are predicted to be magnified by a factor of more than 10. Some of the high-redshift galaxies detected in the HFF have lensing-corrected magnitudes of MUV ˜ -15 to -14. Our analysis demonstrates that the HFF data indeed offer an ideal opportunity to study faint high-redshift galaxies. All lensing maps produced from our mass modeling will be made available on the Space Telescope Science Institute website (https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/frontier/lensmodels/).

  7. The lower mass function of the young open cluster Blanco 1: from 30 MJup to 3 M⊙

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Stauffer, J. R.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Cuillandre, J.-C.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We performed a deep wide field optical survey of the young (~ 100-150 Myr) open cluster Blanco 1 to study its low mass population well down into the brown dwarf regime and estimate its mass function over the whole cluster mass range. Methods: The survey covers 2.3 square degrees in the I and z-bands down to I≃ z≃ 24 with the CFH12K camera. Considering two different cluster ages (100 and 150 Myr), we selected cluster member candidates on the basis of their location in the (I,I-z) CMD relative to the isochrones, and estimated the contamination by foreground late-type field dwarfs using statistical arguments, infrared photometry and low-resolution optical spectroscopy. Results: We find that our survey should contain about 57% of the cluster members in the 0.03-0.6~M⊙ mass range, including 30-40 brown dwarfs. The candidate's radial distribution presents evidence that mass segregation has already occured in the cluster. We took it into account to estimate the cluster mass function across the stellar/substellar boundary. We find that, between 0.03~M⊙ and 0.6~M⊙, the cluster mass distribution does not depend much on its exact age, and is well represented by a single power-law, with an index α=0.69± 0.15. Over the whole mass domain, from 0.03 M⊙ to 3 M⊙, the mass function is better fitted by a log-normal function with m0=0.36± 0.07~M⊙ and σ=0.58±0.06. Conclusions: Comparison between the Blanco 1 mass function, other young open clusters' MF, and the galactic disc MF suggests that the IMF, from the substellar domain to the higher mass part, does not depend much on initial conditions. We discuss the implications of this result on theories developed to date to explain the origin of the mass distribution. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France

  8. Investigating the Synthesis of Ligated Metal Clusters in Solution Using a Flow Reactor and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Astrid M.; Laskin, Julia; Johnson, Grant E.

    2014-09-18

    The scalable synthesis of subnanometer metal clusters containing an exact number of atoms is of interest due to the highly size-dependent catalytic, electronic and optical properties of these species. While significant research has been conducted on the batch preparation of clusters through reduction synthesis in solution, the processes of metal complex reduction as well as cluster nucleation, growth and post-reduction etching are still not well understood. Herein, we demonstrate a temperature-controlled flow reactor for studying cluster formation in solution at well-defined conditions. Employing this technique methanol solutions of a chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold precursor, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane capping ligand and borane-tert-butylamine reducing agent were combined in a mixing tee and introduced into a heated capillary with an adjustable length. In this manner, the temperature dependence of the relative abundance of different ionic reactants, intermediates and products synthesized in real time was characterized using online mass spectrometry. A wide distribution of doubly and triply charged cationic gold clusters was observed as well as smaller singly charged metal-ligand complexes. The results demonstrate that temperature plays a crucial role in determining the relative population of cationic gold clusters and, in general, that higher temperature promotes the formation of doubly charged clusters and singly charged metal-ligand complexes while hindering the growth of triply charged clusters. Moreover, the distribution of clusters observed at elevated temperatures is found to be consistent with that obtained at longer reaction times at room temperature, thereby demonstrating that heating may be used to access cluster distributions characteristic of different stages of reduction synthesis in solution.

  9. Performance of biological hydrogen production process from synthesis gas, mass transfer in batch and continuous bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic bacterium, rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in batch and continuous bioreactors using synthesis gas(Co) as substrate. The systems were operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Correlations available in the literature were used to estimate the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (KLa) in batch reactor. Based on experimental results for the continuous reactor, new correlation was generated. The results showed that the agitation. gas flow rate and dilution rate were greatly influenced the hydrogen production as well as on KLa. It was found that the KLa of continuous bioreactor was 180 times higher than the mass transfer coefficient reported in batch reactor. It can be considered that the estimation of KLa for the continuous bioreactor may be successful for the large-scale biological hydrogen production

  10. Triaxial strong-lensing analysis of the z > 0.5 MACS clusters: the mass-concentration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Sereno, M

    2011-01-01

    The high concentrations derived for several strong-lensing clusters present a major inconsistency between theoretical LambdaCDM expectations and measurements. Triaxiality and orientation biases might be at the origin of this disagreement, as clusters elongated along the line-of-sight would have a relatively higher projected mass density, boosting the resulting lensing properties. Analyses of statistical samples can probe further these effects and crucially reduce biases. In this work we perform a fully triaxial strong-lensing analysis of the 12 MACS clusters at z > 0.5, a complete X-ray selected sample, and fully account for the impact of the intrinsic 3D shapes on their strong lensing properties. We first construct strong-lensing mass models for each cluster based on multiple-images, and fit projected ellipsoidal Navarro-Frenk-White halos with arbitrary orientations to each mass distribution. We then invert the measured surface mass densities using Bayesian statistics. Although the Einstein radii of this sam...

  11. The Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP): From Molecular Clouds to Massive Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter

    2015-08-01

    I review the major science outcomes to date of the Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars, and also report the latest observational results on this unbiased, uniform sample of massive, cluster-forming molecular clumps, based on new mm-wave and IR data. These clouds represent the vast, subthermally-excited population of clumps predicted by Narayanan et al (2008) to dominate the molecular mass of disk galaxies. Besides confirming their existence, we have presented evidence that these massive clumps probably spend a large fraction (90-95%) of their long lives (possibly up to 100 Myr) in a mostly quiescent, low star formation rate (SFR) state, which is likely ended when a density or internal pressure threshold is crossed, after which vigorous, massive cluster formation consumes the densest gas with a high SFR, dispersing the embedding envelope. New results presented in two posters at this Symposium include (1) the first analysis of HCN emission from the dense gas using a full LTE solution for the column density from the hyperfine line ratios (Schap et al), which identifies low-luminosity but high-column areas that significantly increase the clumps' mass estimates, and (2) the first deep photometry of clusters in this sample based on NIR AAT and CTIO data and MIR Warm Spitzer IRAC data (Dallilar et al), which gives basic cluster parameters such as mass and luminosity as well as the associated star formation efficiency (SFE).

  12. Tracing Embedded Stellar Populations in Clusters and Galaxies using Molecular Emission: Methanol as a Signature of the Low-Mass End of the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensen, L E

    2015-01-01

    Most low-mass protostars form in clusters, in particular high-mass clusters; however, how low-mass stars form in high-mass clusters and what the mass distribution is, are still open questions both in our own Galaxy and elsewhere. To access the population of forming embedded low-mass protostars observationally, we propose to use molecular outflows as tracers. Because the outflow emission scales with mass, the effective contrast between low-mass protostars and their high-mass cousins is greatly lowered. In particular, maps of methanol emission at 338.4 GHz (J=7_0 - 6_0 A+) in low-mass clusters illustrate that this transition is an excellent probe of the low-mass population. We here present a model of a forming cluster where methanol emission is assigned to every embedded low-mass protostar. The resulting model image of methanol emission is compared to recent ALMA observations toward a high-mass cluster and the similarity is striking: the toy model reproduces observations to better than a factor of two and sugge...

  13. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Stephen J.; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  14. Mass Spectrometric Developments and a Study of Lithium Doped Silicon and Germanium Clusters.

    OpenAIRE

    Haeck, Jorg de

    2011-01-01

    Clusters, consisting of a few up to several thousands of atoms, exhibit size-dependent physical and chemical properties linking the nanoscale to bulk matter in a non-trivial way. The careful design of clusters of two different elements (binary clusters) allows the synthesis of particularly stable species with tailored properties that eventually could be used as building blocks for novel nanomaterials. However, the continuation of our experimental research of binary clusters in the gas phase o...

  15. GU Monocerotis: A high-mass eclipsing overcontact binary in the young open cluster Dolidze 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Vilardell, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Pastor, P.; Méndez Majuelos, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The eclipsing binary GU Mon is located in the star-forming cluster Dolidze 25, which has the lowest metallicity measured in a Milky Way young cluster. Aims: GU Mon has been identified as a short-period eclipsing binary with two early B-type components. We set out to derive its orbital and stellar parameters. Methods: We present a comprehensive analysis, including B and V light curves and 11 high-resolution spectra, to verify the orbital period and determine parameters. We used the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND to obtain stellar parameters and create templates for cross-correlation. We obtained a model to fit the light and radial-velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney code iteratively and simultaneously. Results: The two components of GU Mon are identical stars of spectral type B1 V with the same mass and temperature. The light curves are typical of an EW-type binary. The spectroscopic and photometric analyses agree on a period of 0.896640 ± 0.000007 d. We determine a mass of 9.0 ± 0.6 M⊙ for each component and for temperatures of 28 000 ± 2000 K. Both values are consistent with the spectral type. The two stars are overfilling their respective Roche lobes, sharing a common envelope and, therefore the orbit is synchronised and circularised. Conclusions: The GU Mon system has a fill-out factor above 0.8, containing two dwarf B-type stars on the main sequence. The two stars are in a very advanced stage of interaction, with their extreme physical similarity likely due to the common envelope. The expected evolution of such a system very probably leads to a merger while still on the main sequence. Photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A45

  16. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE W3 GMC: CLUES TO THE FORMATION OF CLUSTERS OF HIGH-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Ingraham, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Martin, P. G.; Luong, Q. Nguyen; Roy, A. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Polychroni, D. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Hennemann, M.; Men' shchikov, A.; Andre, Ph.; Arzoumanian, D.; Hill, T.; Minier, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU-CNRS/INSU-Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bontemps, S. [Universite Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Bernard, J.-Ph. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Avenue colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Di Francesco, J.; Fallscheer, C. [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Elia, D.; Pezzuto, S. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Li, J. Z. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); and others

    2013-04-01

    The W3 GMC is a prime target for the study of the early stages of high-mass star formation. We have used Herschel data from the HOBYS key program to produce and analyze column density and temperature maps. Two preliminary catalogs were produced by extracting sources from the column density map and from Herschel maps convolved to 500 {mu}m resolution. Herschel reveals that among the compact sources (FWHM < 0.45 pc), W3 East, W3 West, and W3 (OH) are the most massive and luminous and have the highest column density. Considering the unique properties of W3 East and W3 West, the only clumps with ongoing high-mass star formation, we suggest a 'convergent constructive feedback' scenario to account for the formation of a cluster with decreasing age and increasing system/source mass toward the innermost regions. This process, which relies on feedback by high-mass stars to ensure the availability of material during cluster formation, could also lead to the creation of an environment suitable for the formation of Trapezium-like systems. In common with other scenarios proposed in other HOBYS studies, our results indicate that an active/dynamic process aiding in the accumulation, compression, and confinement of material is a critical feature of the high-mass star/cluster formation, distinguishing it from classical low-mass star formation. The environmental conditions and availability of triggers determine the form in which this process occurs, implying that high-mass star/cluster formation could arise from a range of scenarios: from large-scale convergence of turbulent flows to convergent constructive feedback or mergers of filaments.

  17. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE W3 GMC: CLUES TO THE FORMATION OF CLUSTERS OF HIGH-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The W3 GMC is a prime target for the study of the early stages of high-mass star formation. We have used Herschel data from the HOBYS key program to produce and analyze column density and temperature maps. Two preliminary catalogs were produced by extracting sources from the column density map and from Herschel maps convolved to 500 μm resolution. Herschel reveals that among the compact sources (FWHM < 0.45 pc), W3 East, W3 West, and W3 (OH) are the most massive and luminous and have the highest column density. Considering the unique properties of W3 East and W3 West, the only clumps with ongoing high-mass star formation, we suggest a 'convergent constructive feedback' scenario to account for the formation of a cluster with decreasing age and increasing system/source mass toward the innermost regions. This process, which relies on feedback by high-mass stars to ensure the availability of material during cluster formation, could also lead to the creation of an environment suitable for the formation of Trapezium-like systems. In common with other scenarios proposed in other HOBYS studies, our results indicate that an active/dynamic process aiding in the accumulation, compression, and confinement of material is a critical feature of the high-mass star/cluster formation, distinguishing it from classical low-mass star formation. The environmental conditions and availability of triggers determine the form in which this process occurs, implying that high-mass star/cluster formation could arise from a range of scenarios: from large-scale convergence of turbulent flows to convergent constructive feedback or mergers of filaments.

  18. Searching in the dark: the dark mass content of the Milky Way globular clusters NGC288 and NGC6218

    OpenAIRE

    Sollima, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lovisi, L.; Contenta, F.; Vesperini, E.; Origlia, L.; Lapenna, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; C. Pallanca(University of Bologna)

    2016-01-01

    We present an observational estimate of the fraction and distribution of dark mass in the innermost region of the two Galactic globular clusters NGC 6218 (M12) and NGC 288. Such an assessment has been made by comparing the dynamical and luminous mass profiles derived from an accurate analysis of the most extensive spectroscopic and photometric surveys performed on these stellar systems. We find that non-luminous matter constitutes more than 60% of the total mass in the region probed by our da...

  19. Constraints from Galaxy-AGN Clustering on the Correlation between Galaxy and Black Hole Mass at Redshifts 2

    CERN Document Server

    Adelberger, K L

    2005-01-01

    We use the clustering of galaxies around distant active-galactic nuclei to derive an estimate of the relationship between galaxy and black hole mass that obtained during the ancient quasar epoch, at redshifts 2 <~ z <~ 3, when giant black holes accreted much of their mass. Neither the mean relationship nor its scatter differs significantly from what is observed in the local universe, at least over the ranges of apparent magnitude (16 <~ G_AB <~ 26) and black-hole mass (10^6 <~ M_BH/M_sun <~ 10^10.5) that we are able to probe.

  20. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history