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Sample records for biological activity similar

  1. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  2. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  3. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  4. A new approach to predict the biological activity of molecules based on similarity of their interaction fields and the logP and logD values: application to auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertosa, Branimir; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Wade, Rebecca C; Ramek, Michael; Piperaki, Stavroula; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Tomić, Sanja

    2003-01-01

    The activity of a biological compound is dependent both on specific binding to a target receptor and its ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion) properties. A challenge to predict biological activity is to consider both contributions simultaneously in deriving quantitative models. We present a novel approach to derive QSAR models combining similarity analysis of molecular interaction fields (MIFs) with prediction of logP and/or logD. This new classification method is applied to a set of about 100 compounds related to the auxin plant hormone. The classification based on similarity of their interaction fields is more successful for the indole than the phenoxy compounds. The classification of the phenoxy compounds is however improved by taking into account the influence of the logP and/or the logD values on biological activity. With the new combined method, the majority (8 out of 10) of the previously misclassified derivatives of phenoxy acetic acid are classified in accord with their bioassays. The recently determined crystal structure of the auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) enabled validation of our approach. The results of docking a few auxin related compounds with different biological activity to ABP1 correlate well with the classification based on similarity of MIFs only. Biological activity is, however, better predicted by a combined similarity of MIFs + logP/logD approach.

  5. A literature-based similarity metric for biological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagoyen Monica

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses in systems biology pursue the discovery of functional modules within the cell. Recognition of such modules requires the integrative analysis of genome-wide experimental data together with available functional schemes. In this line, methods to bridge the gap between the abstract definitions of cellular processes in current schemes and the interlinked nature of biological networks are required. Results This work explores the use of the scientific literature to establish potential relationships among cellular processes. To this end we haveused a document based similarity method to compute pair-wise similarities of the biological processes described in the Gene Ontology (GO. The method has been applied to the biological processes annotated for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We compared our results with similarities obtained with two ontology-based metrics, as well as with gene product annotation relationships. We show that the literature-based metric conserves most direct ontological relationships, while reveals biologically sounded similarities that are not obtained using ontology-based metrics and/or genome annotation. Conclusion The scientific literature is a valuable source of information from which to compute similarities among biological processes. The associations discovered by literature analysis are a valuable complement to those encoded in existing functional schemes, and those that arise by genome annotation. These similarities can be used to conveniently map the interlinked structure of cellular processes in a particular organism.

  6. Ontology- and graph-based similarity assessment in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2010-10-15

    A standard systems-based approach to biomarker and drug target discovery consists of placing putative biomarkers in the context of a network of biological interactions, followed by different 'guilt-by-association' analyses. The latter is typically done based on network structural features. Here, an alternative analysis approach in which the networks are analyzed on a 'semantic similarity' space is reported. Such information is extracted from ontology-based functional annotations. We present SimTrek, a Cytoscape plugin for ontology-based similarity assessment in biological networks. http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/SimTrek.html francisco.azuaje@crp-sante.lu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Melodic Similarity and Applications Using Biologically-Inspired Techniques

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    Dimitrios Bountouridis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Music similarity is a complex concept that manifests itself in areas such as Music Information Retrieval (MIR, musicological analysis and music cognition. Modelling the similarity of two music items is key for a number of music-related applications, such as cover song detection and query-by-humming. Typically, similarity models are based on intuition, heuristics or small-scale cognitive experiments; thus, applicability to broader contexts cannot be guaranteed. We argue that data-driven tools and analysis methods, applied to songs known to be related, can potentially provide us with information regarding the fine-grained nature of music similarity. Interestingly, music and biological sequences share a number of parallel concepts; from the natural sequence-representation, to their mechanisms of generating variations, i.e., oral transmission and evolution respectively. As such, there is a great potential for applying scientific methods and tools from bioinformatics to music. Stripped-down from biological heuristics, certain bioinformatics approaches can be generalized to any type of sequence. Consequently, reliable and unbiased data-driven solutions to problems such as biological sequence similarity and conservation analysis can be applied to music similarity and stability analysis. Our paper relies on such an approach to tackle a number of tasks and more notably to model global melodic similarity.

  8. Mosaic, self-similarity logic, and biological attraction principles: three explanatory instruments in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi F; Baluska, Frantisek; Barlow, Peter W; Guidolin, Diego

    2009-11-01

    From a structural standpoint, living organisms are organized like a nest of Russian matryoshka dolls, in which structures are buried within one another. From a temporal point of view, this type of organization is the result of a history comprised of a set of time backcloths which have accompanied the passage of living matter from its origins up to the present day. The aim of the present paper is to indicate a possible course of this 'passage through time, and suggest how today's complexity has been reached by living organisms. This investigation will employ three conceptual tools, namely the Mosaic, Self-Similarity Logic, and the Biological Attraction principles. Self-Similarity Logic indicates the self-consistency by which elements of a living system interact, irrespective of the spatiotemporal level under consideration. The term Mosaic indicates how, from the same set of elements assembled according to different patterns, it is possible to arrive at completely different constructions: hence, each system becomes endowed with different emergent properties. The Biological Attraction principle states that there is an inherent drive for association and merging of compatible elements at all levels of biological complexity. By analogy with the gravitation law in physics, biological attraction is based on the evidence that each living organism creates an attractive field around itself. This field acts as a sphere of influence that actively attracts similar fields of other biological systems, thereby modifying salient features of the interacting organisms. Three specific organizational levels of living matter, namely the molecular, cellular, and supracellular levels, have been considered in order to analyse and illustrate the interpretative as well as the predictive roles of each of these three explanatory principles.

  9. Evaluation of Biological and Enzymatic Activity of Soil in a Tropical Dry Forest: Desierto de la Tatacoa (Colombia) with Potential in Mars Terraforming and Other Similar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Moreno, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Desierto de la Tatacoa has been determined to be a tropical dry forest bioma, which is located at 3° 13" N 75° 13" W. It has a hot thermal floor with 440 msnm of altitude; it has a daily average of 28° C, and a maximum of 40° C, Its annual rainfall total can be upwards of 1250 mm. Its solar sheen has a daily average of 5.8 hours and its relative humidity is between 60% and 65%. Therefore, the life forms presents are very scant, and in certain places, almost void. It was realized a completely random sampling of soil from its surface down to 6 inches deep, of zones without vegetation and with soils highly loaded by oxides of iron in order to determine the number of microorganisms per gram and its subsequent identification. It was measured the soil basal respiration. Besides, it was determined enzymatic activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease). Starting with the obtained results, it is developes an alternative towards the study of soil genesis in Mars in particular, and recommendations for same process in other planets. Although the information found in the experiments already realized in Martian soil they demonstrate that doesnt exist any enzymatic activity, the knowledge of the same topic in the soil is proposed as an alternative to problems like carbonic fixing of the dense Martian atmosphere of CO2, the degradation of inorganic compounds amongst other in order to prepare the substratum for later colonization by some life form.

  10. Melodic Similarity and Applications Using Biologically-Inspired Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bountouridis, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411292412; Brown, Dan; Wiering, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141928034; Veltkamp, R.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984

    2017-01-01

    Music similarity is a complex concept that manifests itself in areas such as Music Information Retrieval (MIR), musicological analysis and music cognition. Modelling the similarity of two music items is key for a number of music-related applications, such as cover song detection and

  11. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

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    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  12. Brassinosteroids: synthesis and biological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oklešťková, Jana; Rárová, Lucie; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2015), s. 1053-1072 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brassinosteroids * Chemical synthesis * Plant biological activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2015

  13. Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment

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    Manzini Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. It is currently primarily handled using alignments. However, the alignment methods seem inadequate for post-genomic studies since they do not scale well with data set size and they seem to be confined only to genomic and proteomic sequences. Therefore, alignment-free similarity measures are actively pursued. Among those, USM (Universal Similarity Metric has gained prominence. It is based on the deep theory of Kolmogorov Complexity and universality is its most novel striking feature. Since it can only be approximated via data compression, USM is a methodology rather than a formula quantifying the similarity of two strings. Three approximations of USM are available, namely UCD (Universal Compression Dissimilarity, NCD (Normalized Compression Dissimilarity and CD (Compression Dissimilarity. Their applicability and robustness is tested on various data sets yielding a first massive quantitative estimate that the USM methodology and its approximations are of value. Despite the rich theory developed around USM, its experimental assessment has limitations: only a few data compressors have been tested in conjunction with USM and mostly at a qualitative level, no comparison among UCD, NCD and CD is available and no comparison of USM with existing methods, both based on alignments and not, seems to be available. Results We experimentally test the USM methodology by using 25 compressors, all three of its known approximations and six data sets of relevance to Molecular Biology. This offers the first systematic and quantitative experimental assessment of this methodology, that naturally complements the many theoretical and the preliminary experimental results available. Moreover, we compare the USM methodology both with methods based on alignments and not. We may group our experiments into two sets. The first one, performed via ROC

  14. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference.

  15. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

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    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  16. Semantic similarity analysis of protein data: assessment with biological features and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Pietro H; Mina, Marco; Guerra, Concettina; Cannataro, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The integration of proteomics data with biological knowledge is a recent trend in bioinformatics. A lot of biological information is available and is spread on different sources and encoded in different ontologies (e.g. Gene Ontology). Annotating existing protein data with biological information may enable the use (and the development) of algorithms that use biological ontologies as framework to mine annotated data. Recently many methodologies and algorithms that use ontologies to extract knowledge from data, as well as to analyse ontologies themselves have been proposed and applied to other fields. Conversely, the use of such annotations for the analysis of protein data is a relatively novel research area that is currently becoming more and more central in research. Existing approaches span from the definition of the similarity among genes and proteins on the basis of the annotating terms, to the definition of novel algorithms that use such similarities for mining protein data on a proteome-wide scale. This work, after the definition of main concept of such analysis, presents a systematic discussion and comparison of main approaches. Finally, remaining challenges, as well as possible future directions of research are presented.

  17. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  18. Similarity criterion analysis of dose-response curves in biological assay and radioimmunoassay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristakou, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    The difficulties involved in the control of biological and radioimmunological assay systems, and in the maintenance of standard, as well as, the usual heterogeneity of assayed samples require some evidence of similarity between the dose-response curves obtained with the standard and the sample. Nowadays the parallelism test is used to provide such evidence. However, some indications of non-normal errors distribution, such as the presence of out layers, render the parallelism test both conceptually implausible and statistically inefficient. In such a manner we suggest the non-parametric 'frequencial' test as a more sounding option. (author)

  19. Unbounded growth patterns of reproducing, competing polymers—similarities to biological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor Worst, Emanuel; Zimmer, Philipp; Wollrab, Eva; Kruse, Karsten; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-10-01

    Since the origin of life the interplay between reproduction, variation, and selection has been driving the emergence of new species. The evolution of the Earth’s biosphere appears to innovate unceasingly instead of coming to a stall. Here, we introduce a model system of linear molecules where new polymers appear by spontaneous ligation. The polymers proliferate following a template-based mechanism. Our combined experimental and theoretical study shows that for sufficiently rapid autocatalysis the reproduction process selects particular lengths—while ever longer polymers emerge. We suggest similarities to biological evolution.

  20. Ethnobotanical and biological activities of Leptadenia pyrotechnica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This review includes the substance of different ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and exclusive capability of this plant in the field of anti-microbial and human disease activities. Key words: Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Biological activities, Desert plant, Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical activity, phytochemistry.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Benzimidazoles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated using NMR and elemental analysis. The biological activity of these compounds as fungicides was tested against three commercially known fungicides (C. albicans, patient isolate C. glabrata and C. krusei).The biological activity of two compounds was found to be ...

  2. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

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    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  3. Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D: Shape Similarity Profile Based on PDB Ligands as Molecular Descriptors

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    Ben Hu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystallized ligands in the Protein Data Bank (PDB can be treated as the inverse shapes of the active sites of corresponding proteins. Therefore, the shape similarity between a molecule and PDB ligands indicated the possibility of the molecule to bind with the targets. In this paper, we proposed a shape similarity profile that can be used as a molecular descriptor for ligand-based virtual screening. First, through three-dimensional (3D structural clustering, 300 diverse ligands were extracted from the druggable protein–ligand database, sc-PDB. Then, each of the molecules under scrutiny was flexibly superimposed onto the 300 ligands. Superimpositions were scored by shape overlap and property similarity, producing a 300 dimensional similarity array termed the “Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D”. Finally, quantitative or discriminant models were developed with the 300 dimensional descriptor using machine learning methods (support vector machine. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated using 42 benchmark data sets from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR ligand library and the GPCR decoy database (GLL/GDD. We compared the performance of BRS-3D with other 2D and 3D state-of-the-art molecular descriptors. The results showed that models built with BRS-3D performed best for most GLL/GDD data sets. We also applied BRS-3D in histone deacetylase 1 inhibitors screening and GPCR subtype selectivity prediction. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed.

  4. Unexpected functional similarities between gatekeeper tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes revealed by systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Epstein, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    Familial tumor suppressor genes comprise two subgroups: caretaker genes (CTs) that repair DNA, and gatekeeper genes (GKs) that trigger cell death. Since GKs may also induce cell cycle delay and thus enhance cell survival by facilitating DNA repair, we hypothesized that the prosurvival phenotype of GKs could be selected during cancer progression, and we used a multivariable systems biology approach to test this. We performed multidimensional data analysis, non-negative matrix factorization and logistic regression to compare the features of GKs with those of their putative antagonists, the proto-oncogenes (POs), as well as with control groups of CTs and functionally unrelated congenital heart disease genes (HDs). GKs and POs closely resemble each other, but not CTs or HDs, in terms of gene structure (Pexpression level and breadth (Pimplied suggest a common functional attribute that is strongly negatively selected-that is, a shared phenotype that enhances cell survival. The counterintuitive finding of similar evolutionary pressures affecting GKs and POs raises an intriguing possibility: namely, that cancer microevolution is accelerated by an epistatic cascade in which upstream suppressor gene defects subvert the normal bifunctionality of wild-type GKs by constitutively shifting the phenotype away from apoptosis towards survival. If correct, this interpretation would explain the hitherto unexplained phenomenon of frequent wild-type GK (for example, p53) overexpression in tumors.

  5. Climate change and physical disturbance cause similar community shifts in biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—communities of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface—are fundamental components of drylands worldwide, and destruction of biocrusts dramatically alters biogeochemical processes, hydrology, surface energy balance, and vegetation cover. While there has been long-standing concern over impacts of 5 physical disturbances on biocrusts (e.g., trampling by livestock, damage from vehicles), there is also increasing concern over the potential for climate change to alter biocrust community structure. Using long-term data from the Colorado Plateau, USA, we examined the effects of 10 years of experimental warming and altered precipitation (in full-factorial design) on biocrust communities, and compared the effects of altered climate with those of long-term physical 10 disturbance (>10 years of replicated human trampling). Surprisingly, altered climate and physical disturbance treatments had similar effects on biocrust community structure. Warming, altered precipitation frequency [an increase of small (1.2 mm) summer rainfall events], and physical disturbance from trampling all promoted early successional community states marked by dramatic declines in moss cover and increased cyanobacteria cover, with more variable effects 15 on lichens. While the pace of community change varied significantly among treatments, our results suggest that multiple aspects of climate change will affect biocrusts to the same degree as physical disturbance. This is particularly disconcerting in the context of warming, as temperatures for drylands are projected to increase beyond those imposed by the climate treatments used in our study.

  6. Physical activity for health: examining similarities and differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the face of a rising diabetes epidemic, a target population for prevention programme is the children of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study examined physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes and that of their adult children, and characterized the factors associated with physical inactivity among the participants.

  7. Benzimidazoles: A biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of commercially available benzimidazole involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-riosyldimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as a axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. The benzimidazole and its derivatives play a very important role as a therapeutic agent e.g. antiulcer and anthelmintic drugs. Apart from this the benzimidazole derivatives exhibit pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to know about the chemistry as well as pharmacological activities.

  8. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  9. Elsholtzia: phytochemistry and biological activities

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    Guo Zhiqin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants of the genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae have a long history of medicinal use in folk. The phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Abundant volatile components are also identified. Pure compounds, volatile constituents and crude extracts from the genus exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities. The aims of this review hopefully provide comprehensive information on the distribution, phytochemistry, volatile components, and pharmacological research of Elsholtzia for exploring the potential and advance researches.

  10. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  11. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

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    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  12. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide ...

  13. Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active Recombinant Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4/CD26/ADAbp) Comprising the Extracellular Domain in the Yeast, Pichia ... Purpose: To investigate Pichia pastoris expression system for producing clinically usable, high-quality dipeptidyl peptidase 4 recombinant protein.

  14. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  15. Biological activity screening of seven Plectranthus species

    OpenAIRE

    Epole Ntungwe N; Joana Marçalo; Catarina Garcia; Catarina Reis; Catarina Teodósio; Carolina Oliveira; Cláudia Oliveira; Amílcar Roberto; Patrícia Rijo

    2017-01-01

    Natural products from Plectranthus spp. plants have an ethnopharmacological use, inspiring several scientific investigations. As such, this work aims to perform a biological activity screening in order to scientifically validate the use of these plants. Assays on in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activity and Artemia salina lethality were performed on seven Plectranthus spp. extracts (P. swynnertonii, P. welwischii, P. woodii, P. cylindraceus,...

  16. Biological activity of SV40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the biological activity of SV40 DNA. The transforming activity of SV40 DNA and DNA fragments is investigated in order to define as precisely as possible the area of the viral genome that is involved in the transformation. The infectivity of SV40 DNA is used to study the defective repair mechanisms of radiation damages of human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (C.F.)

  17. UV biological dosimetry and ozone correlations for sites with similar latitudes at North and South Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Rampelotto, Pabulo; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Zanandrea, Ademilson; Barcellos da Rosa, Marcelo; Makita, Kazuo

    As consequence of the increase interest in the monitoring of the UV radiation due a reduction of ozone, efforts have been made to compare data from different physical instruments to follow the solar radiation at different sites around the Earth's surface. However, the UV monitoring still have a lack of a global standardization. To complement such data from physical dosimeters, various biosensors have been developed. The spore dosimetry, based in the inactivation of spores of Bacillus subtilis TKJ6312 (SID, Spore Inactivation Dose) fulfill the criterions stabilized to its utilization as a biosensor. Furthermore, as it has the most global coverage, being the same method used in all sites, it's an adequate tool for the global monitoring of the UV solar radiation. These values reflect indirectly the ozone levels, because the biosensor translate the activity of UV-levels on life systems, which is the exponential decay of the Bacillus subtilis TKJ6312 as a function of the UV-levels and consequently anti-correlated with atmospheric ozone concentrations. In this work, SID data from four sites: Punta Arenas - Chile (53.2° S), Santa Maria - Brazil (29.5° S), Tokyo - Japan (35.7° N) and Brussels - Belgium (50.9° N), covering middle and high latitudes in both hemispheres, were compared with ozone data from TOMS, for the period 1999-2004. For a best visualization of the correlations between the spores dosimetry data with ozone data, wavelets analysis were used as mathematical tool. Seasonal variations of SID have been observed and present higher values for the summers: 1,031±113 for Punta Arenas - Chile and 4,798±1,723 for São Martinho da Serra - Brazil, as well 1,280±336 and a 2,270±563 for Brussels - Belgium and Tokyo - Japan, respectively. The lower values of SID were observed for the winters: 42.5±13, 401±171, 44±21 and 156±49 for Punta Arenas, Santa Maria, Brussels and Tokyo, respectively. The maximal seasonal ratio between SID(max) and SID(min) was obtained

  18. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  19. A Systems Biology Approach for Identifying Hepatotoxicant Groups Based on Similarity in Mechanisms of Action and Chemical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; Rasche, Axel; Herwig, Ralf; van Westen, Gerard J P; Jennen, Danyel G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating compound similarity, addressing multiple sources of information to reach conclusions about common pharmaceutical and/or toxicological mechanisms of action is a crucial strategy. In this chapter, we describe a systems biology approach that incorporates analyses of hepatotoxicant data for 33 compounds from three different sources: a chemical structure similarity analysis based on the 3D Tanimoto coefficient, a chemical structure-based protein target prediction analysis, and a cross-study/cross-platform meta-analysis of in vitro and in vivo human and rat transcriptomics data derived from public resources (i.e., the diXa data warehouse). Hierarchical clustering of the outcome scores of the separate analyses did not result in a satisfactory grouping of compounds considering their known toxic mechanism as described in literature. However, a combined analysis of multiple data types may hypothetically compensate for missing or unreliable information in any of the single data types. We therefore performed an integrated clustering analysis of all three data sets using the R-based tool iClusterPlus. This indeed improved the grouping results. The compound clusters that were formed by means of iClusterPlus represent groups that show similar gene expression while simultaneously integrating a similarity in structure and protein targets, which corresponds much better with the known mechanism of action of these toxicants. Using an integrative systems biology approach may thus overcome the limitations of the separate analyses when grouping liver toxicants sharing a similar mechanism of toxicity.

  20. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  1. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  2. Exploring the biological activities of Echeveria leucotricha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ruiz, María G; Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Juárez, Zaida N; Hernández, Luis R; Bach, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Echeveria leucotricha J. A. Purpus (Crassulaceae) was evaluated for its potential antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Aerial parts were extracted with hexane, methanol and chloroform, and fractionated accordingly. Biological activity was assessed in vitro against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, four human pathogenic fungi and the protozoan Leishmania donovani. Extracts and fractions showing bioactivities were further investigated for their cytotoxic activities on macrophages. Results show that several extracts and fractions exhibited significant antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities, but no anti-inflammatory activity was recorded. Here, we report for the first time, and to the best of our knowledge, these bioactivities, which suggest that this plant can be used in the traditional Mexican medicine.

  3. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  4. Fluid dynamics in biological active nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda; Hirst, Linda

    We use biological materials to form a self-mixing active system that consists of microtubules driven by kinesin clusters. Microtubules are rigid biopolymers that are a part of the cytoskeleton. Kinesin motors are molecular motors that walk along microtubules to transport cellular cargo. In this system, microtubules are bundled together, and as the kinesin clusters walk along the filaments, the microtubule bundles move relative to each other. As microtubules shear against each other, they extend, bend, buckle and fracture. When confined in a 2D water-oil interface, the system becomes an active nematic that self-mixes due to the buckling and fracturing. To quantify this self-mixing, we attached beads to the microtubules, and tracked their motion. We quantify the quality of mixing using the bead trajectories. This new active material has potential applications as a self-mixing solvent. CCBM NSF-CREST, UC Merced Health Science Research Institute.

  5. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo CAC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  6. Polysulfides as biologically active ingredients of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberg, Ute; Anwar, Awais; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Jacob, Claus

    2007-05-21

    Garlic has long been considered as a natural remedy against a range of human illnesses, including various bacterial, viral and fungal infections. This kind of antibiotic activity of garlic has mostly been associated with the thiosulfinate allicin. Even so, recent studies have pointed towards a significant biological activity of trisulfides and tetrasulfides found in various Allium species, including a wide range of antibiotic properties and the ability of polysulfides to cause the death of certain cancer cells. The chemistry underlying the biological activity of these polysulfides is currently emerging. It seems to include a combination of several distinct transformations, such as oxidation reactions, superoxide radical and peroxide generation, decomposition with release of highly electrophilic S(x) species, inhibition of metalloenzymes, disturbance of metal homeostasis and membrane integrity and interference with different cellular signalling pathways. Further research in this area is required to provide a better understanding of polysulfide reactions within a biochemical context. This knowledge may ultimately form the basis for the development of 'green' antibiotics, fungicides and possibly anticancer agents with dramatically reduced side effects in humans.

  7. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  8. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  9. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  11. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  12. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  13. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  14. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences. PMID:26339647

  15. Biological activity screening of seven Plectranthus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epole Ntungwe N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural products from Plectranthus spp. plants have an ethnopharmacological use, inspiring several scientific investigations. As such, this work aims to perform a biological activity screening in order to scientifically validate the use of these plants. Assays on in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activity and Artemia salina lethality were performed on seven Plectranthus spp. extracts (P. swynnertonii, P. welwischii, P. woodii, P. cylindraceus, P. spicatus, P. ramosior and P. petiolaris. Acetonic extracts were obtained by sonication (10% w/v, where P. ramosior had the highest yield of dry extract (13.49% w/w. In the AChE inhibition assay, only P. cylindraceus extract decreased enzymatic activity (30.2 ± 3.78%. The antimicrobial activity was screened using the well diffusion method, against Gram positive and negative bacteria and yeast. P. ramosior extract showed not only an inhibition zone against S. aureus and C. albicans (15 and 11 mm, respectively, but also the highest scavenging activity (DPPH method, 36.4 ± 0.04%. On the lethality test in A. salina, P. swynnertonnii extract was the most toxic (LC50 = 0.036 mg/L. These preliminary results showed that P. cylindraceus, P. ramosior and P. swynnertonnii are potential bioactive extracts for further isolation and antimicrobial and cytotoxic studies.

  16. From phosphatases to vanadium peroxidases: a similar architecture of the active site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemrika, W.; Renirie, R.; Dekker, H. L.; Barnett, P.; Wever, R.

    1997-01-01

    We show here that the amino acid residues contributing to the active sites of the vanadate containing haloperoxidases are conserved within three families of acid phosphatases; this suggests that the active sites of these enzymes are very similar. This is confirmed by activity measurements showing

  17. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  18. A comparison of the biological activities of four prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. W.; Main, I. H. M.

    1963-01-01

    The biological activities of prostaglandins E1, E2, E3 and F1α have been compared. Prostaglandins E1, E2, E3 were qualitatively similar; E1 and E2 were about equiactive, but E3 was less active on all preparations. Prostaglandin F1α was a less potent vasodilator than E1 on the cat gastrocnemius muscle blood flow and skin blood flow and a less potent depressor drug on rabbit blood pressure. On the rabbit isolated jejunum F1α was twice as active as E1 but on the guinea-pig isolated ileum E1 was about forty times more active than F1α. One qualitative difference between these prostaglandins was observed; on the rabbit fallopian tube in vivo prostaglandins of the E series decreased both the tone and the peristalsis of the tube whereas prostaglandin F1α increased tubal tone. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:14066143

  19. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    is not suitable for their unambiguous identification, especially not in solution. We attempted to increase the sensitivity by applying UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques. The UV-Raman spectra of the three compounds in ethanol/water 50 : 50 showed only very......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...

  20. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  1. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  2. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptual similarity of visual patterns predicts dynamic neural activation patterns measured with MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Susan G; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Grootswagers, Tijl; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Carlson, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    Perceptual similarity is a cognitive judgment that represents the end-stage of a complex cascade of hierarchical processing throughout visual cortex. Previous studies have shown a correspondence between the similarity of coarse-scale fMRI activation patterns and the perceived similarity of visual stimuli, suggesting that visual objects that appear similar also share similar underlying patterns of neural activation. Here we explore the temporal relationship between the human brain's time-varying representation of visual patterns and behavioral judgments of perceptual similarity. The visual stimuli were abstract patterns constructed from identical perceptual units (oriented Gabor patches) so that each pattern had a unique global form or perceptual 'Gestalt'. The visual stimuli were decodable from evoked neural activation patterns measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG), however, stimuli differed in the similarity of their neural representation as estimated by differences in decodability. Early after stimulus onset (from 50ms), a model based on retinotopic organization predicted the representational similarity of the visual stimuli. Following the peak correlation between the retinotopic model and neural data at 80ms, the neural representations quickly evolved so that retinotopy no longer provided a sufficient account of the brain's time-varying representation of the stimuli. Overall the strongest predictor of the brain's representation was a model based on human judgments of perceptual similarity, which reached the limits of the maximum correlation with the neural data defined by the 'noise ceiling'. Our results show that large-scale brain activation patterns contain a neural signature for the perceptual Gestalt of composite visual features, and demonstrate a strong correspondence between perception and complex patterns of brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 52087 - Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...-AD30 Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography Activities AGENCY: National Park... still photography activities. DATES: The rule is effective September 23, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... other factors. Authorizes commercial filming and still photography permits subject to statutory criteria...

  5. Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oku T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine.Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and

  6. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  7. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  8. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  9. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  10. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagui, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN ( 1 H, 13 C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity

  11. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 3,6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 3,6-DISUBSTITUTED-1,2,4-. TRIAZOLO-1,3 ... Thus, many chemists reported synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some 1,2,4-triazolothiadiazole derivatives in ..... N.H. Synthesis and biological activity of oxadiazole and triazolothiadiazole derivatives as tyrosinase inhibitors.

  12. From phosphatases to vanadium peroxidases: a similar architecture of the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemrika, W; Renirie, R; Dekker, H L; Barnett, P; Wever, R

    1997-03-18

    We show here that the amino acid residues contributing to the active sites of the vanadate containing haloperoxidases are conserved within three families of acid phosphatases; this suggests that the active sites of these enzymes are very similar. This is confirmed by activity measurements showing that apochloroperoxidase exhibits phosphatase activity. These observations not only reveal interesting evolutionary relationships between these groups of enzymes but may also have important implications for the research on acid phosphatases, especially glucose-6-phosphatase-the enzyme affected in von Gierke disease-of which the predicted membrane topology may have to be reconsidered.

  13. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  14. Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach geospatial technology activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO) in Reston, Virginia, and its Center for Biological Informatics (CBI) in Denver, Colorado, provide leadership in the development and use of geospatial technologies to advance the Nation's biological science activities.

  15. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    , although weaker zinc ligands than the hydroxamic acids, generally lead to bioactive molecules and pos- sess higher stability in biological environments. In this respect we prepared both hydroxamic acids and benzamide versions of the target ...

  16. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  17. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  18. Females and males are highly similar in language performance and cortical activation patterns during verb generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorfer, Jane B; Lindsell, Christopher J; Siegel, Miriam; Banks, Christi L; Vannest, Jennifer; Holland, Scott K; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2012-10-01

    To test the existence of sex differences in cortical activation during verb generation when performance is controlled for. Twenty male and 20 female healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a covert block-design verb generation task (BD-VGT) and its event-related version (ER-VGT) that allowed for intra-scanner recordings of overt responses. Task-specific activations were determined using the following contrasts: BD-VGT covert generation>finger-tapping; ER-VGT overt generation>repetition; ER-VGT overt>covert generation. Lateral cortical regions activated during each contrast were used for calculating language lateralization index scores. Voxelwise regressions were used to determine sex differences in activation, with and without controlling for performance. Each brain region showing male/female activation differences for ER-VGT overt generation>repetition (isolating noun-verb association) was defined as a region of interest (ROI). For each subject, the signal change in each ROI was extracted, and the association between ER-VGT activation related to noun-verb association and performance was assessed separately for each sex. Males and females performed similarly on language assessments, had similar patterns of language lateralization, and exhibited similar activation patterns for each fMRI task contrast. Regression analysis controlling for overt intra-scanner performance either abolished (BD-VGT) or reduced (ER-VGT) the observed differences in activation between sexes. The main difference between sexes occurred during ER-VGT processing of noun-verb associations, where males showed greater activation than females in the right middle/superior frontal gyrus (MFG/SFG) and the right caudate/anterior cingulate gyrus (aCG) after controlling for performance. Better verb generation performance was associated with increased right caudate/aCG activation in males and with increased right MFG/SFG activation in females. Males and females exhibit

  19. When the World Changes in Your Hands: Similarity Ratings of Objects Morphing during Active Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haemy Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available View-based theories of object recognition posit that coherent object representations are formed by linking together successive views of an actively explored object. This linking process relies on the assumption that the object does not change during exploration. Here, we test how object representations might be influenced when the shape of the object changes slowly during exploration. In our experiment, participants rated the similarity of two novel, 3D objects, whose shape was parametrically defined. Seventeen participants explored each object for 10 sec on an iPad which afforded natural and efficient interaction. The experiment contained a baseline condition, in which two objects of varying parameter-differences were presented, and a morphing condition, in which the first of the two objects slowly morphed during active exploration, making the objects more similar. Interestingly, no participant was aware of this morphing manipulation. Comparing baseline and morph trials, however, we found significantly higher similarity ratings during morphing [F(1,16 = 84.79, p < .001]. Furthermore, correlations between similarity ratings and differences in object parameters were high for the baseline condition (r = −.64, with smaller parameter differences being perceived as more similar. Interestingly, in the morphing condition correlations were lower for parameter differences after the morph (r = −.22, but remained high for differences before (r = −.47 and during morphing (r = −.50. In conclusion, similarity ratings in the baseline condition captured the complex parameter space well. Although participants did not notice the changing shape, morphing did systematically bias the ratings. Interestingly, similarity judgments correlated better in the initial exploration phase, suggesting a capacity limit for view integration of complex shapes.

  20. Molecular biology of the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzic Zoran

    2011-01-01

    differences in their expression between the two barriers. Also, many blood-borne molecules and xenobiotics can diffuse into brain ISF and then into neuronal membranes due to their physicochemical properties. Entry of these compounds could be detrimental for neural transmission and signalling. Thus, BBB and BCSFB express transport proteins that actively restrict entry of lipophilic and amphipathic substances from blood and/or remove those molecules from the brain extracellular fluids. The third part of this review concentrates on the molecular biology of ATP-binding cassette (ABC-transporters and those SLC transporters that are involved in efflux transport of xenobiotics, their expression at the BBB and BCSFB and differences in expression in the two major blood-brain interfaces. In addition, transport and diffusion of ions by the BBB and CP epithelium are involved in the formation of fluid, the ISF and CSF, respectively, so the last part of this review discusses molecular biology of ion transporters/exchangers and ion channels in the brain endothelial and CP epithelial cells.

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The elemental compositions of 18 biological reference materials have been processed, for 14 stepped combinations of irradiation/decay/counting times, by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program. The 18 materials studied include 11 plant materials, 5 animal materials, and 2 other biological materials. Of these 18 materials, 14 are NBS Standard Reference Materials and four are IAEA reference materials. Overall, the results show that a mean of 52% of the input elements can be determined to a relative standard deviation of ±10% or better by reactor flux (thermal plus epithermal) INAA

  2. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions, with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  4. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanotechnology is interdisciplinary which includes physics, chemistry, biology, material science and medicine. Nanotechnology is a universal term for the creation, manip ... range of medical devices including bone cement, surgical instruments, surgical masks, etc. Synthesis of noble metal na- noparticles, in particular, silver ...

  5. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Jensen-Otsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E. 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01. There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09–2.90, but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  6. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J J; Paul, W E

    1995-08-15

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 and IL-13 to activate these signaling molecules in the human multifactor-dependent cell line TF-1. In this report we demonstrate that both IL-4 and IL-13 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS and JAK1. Interestingly, although IL-4 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3, we did not detect JAK3 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. These data suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 signal in similar ways via the activation of JAK1 and 4PS. However, our data further indicate that there are significant differences because IL-13 does not activate JAK3.

  7. Egg yolk proteins and peptides with biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins of food reveal biological activity. In the sequence of these proteins also numerous biologically active peptides are encrypted. These peptides are released during proteolysis naturally occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, food fermentation or during designed enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro. Biopeptides may exert multiple activities, affecting the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems. An especially rich source of bioactive proteins and biopeptides is egg. Bioactive peptides released from egg white proteins have been well described, whereas egg yolk proteins as precursors of biopeptides are less well characterized. This manuscript describes biologically active proteins and peptides originating from egg yolk and presents their potential therapeutic role.

  8. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  9. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity. Keywords. Trichostatic acid; HDAC; inhibitor. 1. Introduction. Reversible chemical modifications of DNA and his- tones are important cellular events that promote activation or repression of DNA ...

  10. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  11. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds may not be spent on employment generating activities, economic development, and other similar...; (3) WIA staff participation on economic development boards and commissions, and work with economic... about community job training needs, and (iii) Promote the use of first source hiring agreements and...

  12. Isoflavone profile and biological activity of soy bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Chu; Albrecht, Daniel; Bomser, Joshua; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2003-12-17

    The present study examines the ability of isoflavone extracts from whole soy bread and two soy bread fractions, crumb and crust, to modulate the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Total isoflavone content in the two fractions of soy bread were similar (3.17 micromol/g dry basis). However, their conjugate patterns were altered. Both fractions of soy bread contained a similar level of isoflavone aglycones ( approximately 24%). Low concentrations of soy bread extracts increased PC-3 cell proliferation as much as 47% compared to untreated control. This proliferative effect in cell growth was reduced at higher extract concentration. Soy bread crust extract (10 mg/mL) reduced PC-3 cell proliferation by 15% compared to untreated control. Interestingly, wheat bread extracts increased cell proliferation at all concentrations tested. Although extracts from both breads possessed biological activity, only soy bread crust extract reduced PC-3 cell proliferation. This observation may be related to the presence of soy in this bread.

  13. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    El Mokhtar Essassi; R. Bouhfid; Y. Kandri Rodi; S. Ferfra; H. Benzeid; Y. Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  14. Exploiting object constancy: effects of active exploration and shape morphing on similarity judgments of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haemy; Wallraven, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Humans are experts at shape processing. This expertise has been learned and fine tuned by actively manipulating and perceiving thousands of objects during development. Therefore, shape processing possesses an active component and a perceptual component. Here, we investigate both components in six experiments in which participants view and/or interact with novel, parametrically defined 3D objects using a touch-screen interface. For probing shape processing, we use a similarity rating task. In Experiments 1-3, we show that active manipulation leads to a better perceptual reconstruction of the physical parameter space than judging rotating objects, or passively viewing someone else's exploration pattern. In Experiment 4, we exploit object constancy-the fact that the visual system assumes that objects do not change their identity during manipulation. We show that slow morphing of an object during active manipulation systematically biases similarity ratings-despite the participants being unaware of the morphing. Experiments 5 and 6 investigate the time course of integrating shape information by restricting the morphing to the first and second half of the trial only. Interestingly, the results indicate that participants do not seem to integrate shape information beyond 5 s of exploration time. Finally, Experiment 7 uses a secondary task that suggests that the previous results are not simply due to lack of attention during the later parts of the trial. In summary, our results demonstrate the advantage of active manipulation for shape processing and indicate a continued, perceptual integration of complex shape information within a time window of a few seconds during object interactions.

  15. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum.

  16. Synthesis and biological activities of substituted N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... The present study describes the synthesis, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of substituted N'- benzoylhydrazone derivatives, to ... addition, the dramatically rising prevalence of multidrug- resistant microbial infections has ...... extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes.

  17. Biological activities of Castela coccinea Griseb. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, María Noel; Ratti, María Soledad; Sciara, Mariela; García Vescovi, Eleonora; Gattuso, Martha; Martínez, María Laura

    2011-01-01

    Infusions of leaf and bark of Castela coccinea Griseb. (Simaroubaceae) were traditionally used against dysentery. In this work, anti-bacterial and antioxidant activity were studied in C. coccinea extracts. The higest DPPH scavenging activity was detected in ethanolic leaf extracts with an IC50= 0.015 mg/ml. Bark ethanolic extracts showed inhibition of lipoperoxidation and free radical scavenging. However, a previous work evidenced that this extract is toxic at a concentration needed ...

  18. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oee-Sook Park

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  19. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A.; Felczykowska, A.; Hohlfeld, N.; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    Cyanobacteria are effective producers of bioactive metabolites, including both acute toxins and potential pharmaceuticals. In the current work, the biological activity of 27 strains of Baltic cyanobacteria representing different taxonomic groups...

  20. Biologically active substances from Zanthoxylum capense(thumb.) Harv.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, PS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation into the composition of Zanthoxylum capense yielded several biologically active compounds, including pellitorine. A convenient HPLC method was developed to determine the presence of pellitorine in crude extracts from plants...

  1. Triazoles: a valuable insight into recent developments and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagdish K; Ganguly, Swastika; Kaushik, Atul

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, heterocyclic compounds, analogs, and derivatives have attracted strong interest due to their useful biological and pharmacological properties. The small and simple triazole nucleus is present in compounds aimed at evaluating new entities that possess anti-microbial, anti-tumor, antitubercular, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Triazoles display a broad range of biological activities and are found in many potent, biologically active compounds, such as trazodone (antidepressant drug), rizatriptan (antimigrane drug), hexaconazole (antifungal drug) and alprazolam (hyptonic, sedative and tranquilizer drug). So far, modifications of the triazole ring have proven highly effective with improved potency and lesser toxicity. The present review highlights the recently synthesized triazoles possessing important biological activities. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  3. Biological activity of Herissantia crispa (L. Brizicky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available The crude methanol extract (EMeOH of the aerial parts of Herissantia crispa (L. Brizicky, plant riches in flavonoids and without pharmacological studies, was tested to value its activity under the behaviour parameters and to determine the lethal dose (LD50 in mice; antimicrobial and antiulcerogenic activities. The EMeOH (5,000 mg/kg, v.o. or 2,000 mg/kg i.p. did not alter the behaviour parameters and there were not mice deaths. The extract inhibited the bacterial growth. The EMeOH (750 mg/kg showed anti-diarroeal activity. The EMeOH (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg decreased the gastric lesions induced by 0.3 M HCl/ethanol 60% in mice. In conclusion, the EMeOH presents anti-ulcerogenic activity;, however it is necessary to value the antiulcerogenic activity in more specific models and to study the action mechanism by which the vegetable sample protects the gastric mucosa.

  4. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver ...

  5. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  6. Raman Optical Activity of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Barron, Laurence D.

    Now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure, Raman optical activity (ROA) measures a small difference in Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized light. As ROA spectra measure vibrational optical activity, they contain highly informative band structures sensitive to the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses and carbohydrates as well as the absolute configurations of small molecules. In this review we present a survey of recent studies on biomolecular structure and dynamics using ROA and also a discussion of future applications of this powerful new technique in biomedical research.

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    3 H and 14 C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with 3 H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled [29- 3 H]-[24- 14 C] fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the 3 H/ 14 C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of 3 H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The [29- 3 H] phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation

  9. Biologically active compounds of semi-metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Semi-metals (boron, silicon, arsenic and selenium) form organo-metal compounds, some of which are found in nature and affect the physiology of living organisms. They include, e.g., the boron-containing antibiotics aplasmomycin, borophycin, boromycin, and tartrolon or the silicon compounds present in "silicate" bacteria, relatives of the genus Bacillus, which release silicon from aluminosilicates through the secretion of organic acids. Arsenic is incorporated into arsenosugars and arsenobetaines by marine algae and invertebrates, and fungi and bacteria can produce volatile methylated arsenic compounds. Some prokaryotes can use arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor while others can utilize arsenite as an electron donor to generate energy. Selenium is incorporated into selenocysteine that is found in some proteins. Biomethylation of selenide produces methylselenide and dimethylselenide. Selenium analogues of amino acids, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-infective drugs are often used as analogues of important pharmacological sulfur compounds. Other metalloids, i.e. the rare and toxic tellurium and the radioactive short-lived astatine, have no biological significance.

  10. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  11. "Seed-Milarity" confers to hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-147b similar functional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bertero

    Full Text Available Specificity of interaction between a microRNA (miRNA and its targets crucially depends on the seed region located in its 5'-end. It is often implicitly considered that two miRNAs sharing the same biological activity should display similarity beyond the strict six nucleotide region that forms the seed, in order to form specific complexes with the same mRNA targets. We have found that expression of hsa-miR-147b and hsa-miR-210, though triggered by different stimuli (i.e. lipopolysaccharides and hypoxia, respectively, induce very similar cellular effects in term of proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Hsa-miR-147b only shares a "minimal" 6-nucleotides seed sequence with hsa-miR-210, but is identical with hsa-miR-147a over 20 nucleotides, except for one base located in the seed region. Phenotypic changes induced after heterologous expression of miR-147a strikingly differ from those induced by miR-147b or miR-210. In particular, miR-147a behaves as a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation and migration. These data fit well with the gene expression profiles observed for miR-147b and miR-210, which are very similar, and the gene expression profile of miR-147a, which is distinct from the two others. Bioinformatics analysis of all human miRNA sequences indicates multiple cases of miRNAs from distinct families exhibiting the same kind of similarity that would need to be further characterized in terms of putative functional redundancy. Besides, it implies that functional impact of some miRNAs can be masked by robust expression of miRNAs belonging to distinct families.

  12. p21-activated kinase has substrate specificity similar to Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain kinase and activates Acanthamoeba myosin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeska, H; Knaus, U G; Wang, Z Y; Bokoch, G M; Korn, E D

    1997-02-18

    Acanthamoeba class I myosins are unconventional, single-headed myosins that express actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase and in vitro motility activities only when a single serine or threonine in the heavy chain is phosphorylated by myosin I heavy chain kinase (MIHCK). Some other, but not most, class I myosins have the same consensus phosphorylation site sequence, and the two known class VI myosins have a phosphorylatable residue in the homologous position, where most myosins have an aspartate or glutamate residue. Recently, we found that the catalytic domain of Acanthamoeba MIHCK has extensive sequence similarity to the p21-activated kinase (PAK)/STE20 family of kinases from mammals and yeast, which are activated by small GTP-binding proteins. The physiological substrates of the PAK/STE20 kinases are not well characterized. In this paper we show that PAK1 has similar substrate specificity as MIHCK when assayed against synthetic substrates and that PAK1 phosphorylates the heavy chain (1 mol of P(i) per mol) and activates Acanthamoeba myosin I as MIHCK does. These results, together with the known involvement of Acanthamoeba myosin I, yeast myosin I, STE20, PAK, and small GTP-binding proteins in membrane- and cytoskeleton-associated morphogenetic transformations and activities, suggest that myosins may be physiological substrates for the PAK/STE20 family and thus mediators of these events.

  13. Adults With Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed at Youth Experience Similar Physical Activity and Fracture Rate as Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarbakerli, Elias; Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Gerdhem, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectional. To describe physical activity level and fracture rates in adults with idiopathic scoliosis, diagnosed before maturity, and to compare with a control group. A previous study found a lower level of sporting activities in adults treated for idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. Other studies have shown a lower bone mass in adults with idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. One thousand two hundred seventy-eight adults (aged 18-71 yr) with idiopathic scoliosis and 214 controls (aged 18-70 yr) were included and answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and questions about previous fractures. The three scoliosis treatment groups (untreated n = 360, brace n = 460, and surgically treated n = 458) were compared. Furthermore, a comparison based on onset (juvenile n = 169 or adolescent n = 976) was performed. Achieved weekly moderate activity level and metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes/week were assessed for patients and controls. Statistical comparisons were made with analysis of covariance with adjustments for age, body mass index, and sex. The proportion achieving weekly moderate activity level was 962 out of 1278 for individuals with idiopathic scoliosis (75%) and 157 out of 214 (73%) for controls (P = 0.40). The scoliosis patients reported 2016 MET-minutes/week (median value) and the controls 2456 (P = 0.06). Fracture rates did not differ (P = 0.72). Fewer surgically treated individuals achieved moderate activity level (P = 0.046) compared with the untreated and the previously braced individuals. No difference was seen regarding MET-minutes/week (P = 0.86). No differences were seen between individuals with a juvenile onset compared with individuals with an adolescent onset (all P ≥ 0.05). Adults with idiopathic scoliosis have similar physical activity level and do not sustain more fractures compared with controls. Adults with surgically treated

  14. Copper Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyvaldiev, A. S.; Zhasnakunov, Z. K.; Omurzak, E.; Doolotkeldieva, T. D.; Bobusheva, S. T.; Orozmatova, G. T.; Kelgenbaeva, Z.

    2018-01-01

    By means of XRD and FESEM analysis, it is established that copper nanoparticles with sizes less than 10 nm are formed during the chemical reduction, which form aggregates mainly with spherical shape. Presence of gelatin during the chemical reduction of copper induced formation of smaller size distribution nanoparticles than that of nanoparticles synthesized without gelatin and it can be related to formation of protective layer. Synthesized Cu nano-powders have sufficiently high activity against the Erwinia amylovora bacterium, and the bacterial growth inhibition depends on the Cu nanoparticles concentration. At a concentration of 5 mg / ml of Cu nanoparticles, the exciter growth inhibition zone reaches a maximum value within 72 hours and the lysis zone is 20 mm, and at a concentration of 1 mg / ml this value is 16 mm, which also indicates the significant antibacterial activity of this sample.

  15. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ical scavenging activity was measured by the salicylic acid method [16]. The synthesized AgNPs solution at different concentrations (10 to 80 μg ml. −1. ) was dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water. One millilitre of AgNPs mixed with 1 ml of. 9 mM salicylic acid, 1 ml of 9 mM ferrous sulphate and 1ml of 9 mM hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... CD4+ T cells to enhance the ability of secreting antibody and also enhance the function of CD8+ T cells. (Papatriantafyllou, 2011; Tovey and Lallemand, 2010). GM-CSF also is a key regulator of IL-1beta production. Furthermore, It was reported that GM-CSF play a key role in the activation of Th1 and Th17 ...

  17. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  18. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  19. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  20. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  1. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2001-01-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  2. [Oregano: properties, composition and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila-Lozano, Cynthia Cristina; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Lecona-Uribe, Salvador; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2004-03-01

    The oregano spice includes various plant species. The most common are the genus Origanum, native of Europe, and the Lippia, native of Mexico. Among the species of Origanum. their most important components are the limonene, gamma-cariofilene, rho-cymenene, canfor, linalol, alpha-pinene, carvacrol and thymol. In the genus Lippia, the same compounds can be found. The oregano composition depends on the specie, climate, altitude, time of recollection and the stage of growth. Some of the properties of this plant's extracts are being currently studied due to the growing interest for substituting synthetic additives commonly found in foods. Oregano has a good antioxidant capacity and also presents antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, among others. These are all characteristics of interest for the food industry because they may enhance the safety and stability of foods. There are also some reports regarding the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effect of oregano; representing an alternative for the potential treatment and/or prevention of certain chronic ailments, like cancer.

  3. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  4. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  5. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    2017-01-01

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is…

  6. Multifunctional biomaterial coatings: synthetic challenges and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Mareen; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2017-01-01

    A controlled interaction of materials with their surrounding biological environment is of great interest in many fields. Multifunctional coatings aim to provide simultaneous modulation of several biological signals. They can consist of various combinations of bioactive, and bioinert components as well as of reporter molecules to improve cell-material contacts, prevent infections or to analyze biochemical events on the surface. However, specific immobilization and particular assembly of various active molecules are challenging. Herein, an overview of multifunctional coatings for biomaterials is given, focusing on synthetic strategies and the biological benefits by displaying several motifs.

  7. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mokhtar Essassi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  8. Energy intake adaptations to acute isoenergetic active video games and exercise are similar in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J P; Schwartz, C; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Tremblay, A; Thivel, D

    2015-11-01

    Although the impact of passive video games (PVGs) on energy intake has been previously explored in lean adolescents, data are missing on the nutritional adaptations to passive and active video games (AVGs) in obese adolescents. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic AVGs and exercise (EX) differently affect food consumption in youth. Nineteen obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-hour sessions in a crossover manner: control (CON; sitting on a chair), PVG (boxing game on Xbox 360), AVG (boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and EX (cycling). The EX was calibrated to generate the same energy expenditure as the AVG session. Energy expenditure was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake (buffet-style meal) and appetite sensations (visual analogue scales) were assessed after the sessions. As expected, mean energy expenditure was similar between AVG (370±4 kcal) and EX (358±3 kcal), both of which were significantly higher than PVG (125±7 kcal) and CON (98±5 kcal) (P<0.001). However, ad libitum food intake after the sessions was not significantly different between CON (1174±282 kcal), PVG (1124±281 kcal), AVG (1098±265 kcal) and EX (1091±290 kcal). Likewise, the energy derived from fat, carbohydrate and protein was not significantly different between sessions, and appetite sensations were not affected. Energy intake and food preferences after an hour of AVG or PVG playing remain unchanged, and isoenergetic sessions of AVG and EX at moderate intensity induce similar nutritional responses in obese adolescent boys.

  9. Biological activity of antitumoural MGBG: the structural variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M P M; Gil, F P S C; Calheiros, R; Battaglia, V; Brunati, A M; Agostinelli, E; Toninello, A

    2008-05-01

    The present study aims at determining the structure-activity relationships (SAR's) ruling the biological function of MGBG (methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)), a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase displaying anticancer activity, involved in the biosynthesis of the naturally occurring polyamines spermidine and spermine. In order to properly understand its biochemical activity, MGBG's structural preferences at physiological conditions were ascertained, by quantum mechanical (DFT) calculations.

  10. LASSO-ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  11. LASSO—ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S.; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-06-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  12. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  13. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  14. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  15. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  16. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Momordica charantia L. ( M. charantia ), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia .

  17. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia.

  18. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  19. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Cotula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotula cinerea contains a wide range of phytochemical compounds such as saponins, essential oils, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids. This paper reviews information pertaining its traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, herbicidal, anti-diarrheal and ...

  20. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  1. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  2. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  3. A Review on Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review is aimed to deliver some updates on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of Beilschmiedia species in order to throw more light on their therapeutic potentials and future research priorities. Phytochemical studies on Beilschmiedia genus yielded essential oils, endiandric acid ...

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Isothiosemicarbazones with Antimycobacterial Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, E.; Waisser, K.; Kuneš, J.; Palát, K.; Skálová, L.; Szotáková, B.; Buchta, V.; Stolaříková, J.; Ulmann, V.; Pávová, Marcela; Weber, Jan; Komrsková, J.; Hašková, P.; Vokřál, I.; Wsól, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e1700020. ISSN 0365-6233 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological activity * cytotoxicity * isocitrate lyase * isothiosemicarbazone * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2016

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  6. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE 2-BENZOYL PACLITAXEL ANALOGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GEORG, GI; ALI, SM; BOGE, TC

    1995-01-01

    The influence of aromatic substitution at the 2-benzoyl moiety of paclitaxel on biological activity was investigated, following the Topliss Operational Scheme. Twelve paclitaxel derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in a microtubule assembly assay and for cytotoxicity against B16 melanoma ce...

  7. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  8. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  9. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Cotula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Asteraceae, Cotula cinerea, Traditional uses, Phytochemistry, Biological activities. This is an Open .... desert conditions with an average annual rainfall .... Desert area between. Cairo and. Ismailia. (Egypt). Not stated. [33]. The essential oil of C. cinerea has also been subjected to many studies. The essential oil.

  10. Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of Pituranthos scoparius (Coss and ... mg/mL. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the essential oil of P.scoparius has a potential for use as a preservative and flavorant in ..... Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n=3). Key: control (♢), BHT (□) ...

  11. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  12. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129 ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  13. The Biological Activities of Moltkia aurea; an Endemic Species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neslihan BALPINAR

    inclination that studies on medicinal plants, which are basis for the development of new biologically active molecules for pharmaceuticals, have rapidly increased. Recent studies associated with medicinal plants make possible to better understand their properties, safety and efficiency. In this study, Moltkia aurea Boiss.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Shakeel Ahmad Khan1*, Sammia Shahid1, Waqas Bashir1, Sadia Kanwal2 and. Ahsan Iqbal3. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, Lahore-54000, ...

  15. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  16. Biological activities of some Fluoroquinolones-metal complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metal ions play a vital role in the design of more biologically active drugs. Aim: The paper reviewed the antimicrobial, toxicological and DNA cleavage studies of some synthesized metal complexes of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Literature searches were done using scientific databases.

  17. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Petrelli; Giuseppe Orsomando; Leonardo Sorci; Filippo Maggi; Farahnaz Ranjbarian; Prosper C. Biapa Nya; Dezemona Petrelli; Luca A. Vitali; Giulio Lupidi; Luana Quassinti; Massimo Bramucci; Anders Hofer; Loredana Cappellacci

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucle...

  18. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  19. Secondary metabolites from Inula britannica L. and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Hamayun, Muhammad; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Ahmad, Shabir; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-03-10

    Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids) and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  20. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  1. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  2. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  3. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  4. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Keast

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  5. Should Soil Testing Services Measure Soil Biological Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic matter accumulation. Total soil organic matter changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil testing services via the flush of CO during 1 to 3 d following rewetting of dried soil. The flush of CO is related to soil microbial biomass C and has repeatedly been shown strongly related to net N mineralization during standard aerobic incubations. New research is documenting the close association with plant N uptake in semicontrolled greenhouse conditions ( = 0.77, = 36. Field calibrations are underway to relate the flush of CO to the need for in-season N requirement in a variety of crops. An index of soil biological activity can and should be determined to help predict soil health and soil N availability.

  6. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, and tridecadepsipeptides have been isolated from fungi. These metabolites are mainly reported from the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Fusarium, Isaria, Metarhizium, Penicillium, and Rosellina. They are known to exhibit various biological activities such as cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumoral and enzyme-inhibitory activities. Some CDPs (i.e., PF1022A, enniatins and destruxins have been applied as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

  7. Physical activity in adults from two Brazilian areas: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Douglas R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of comparability has been a major limitation in studies on physical activity, due to the utilization of different methodological instruments and inconsistent cut-off points. This study aims to compare the levels of physical activity in adults from two Brazilian areas: (a São Paulo, the richest State in the country; (b Pelotas, a medium-sized southern Brazilian city. Both sites used cross-sectional population-based designs, with multiple-stage sampling strategies. Level of physical activity was assessed with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was three times higher in Pelotas than in São Paulo. On the other hand, the proportion of very active subjects was significantly higher in Pelotas. The proportion of insufficiently active individuals (sedentary + irregularly active was almost identical between the sites. Socioeconomic status was inversely related to level of physical activity in both sites. Among the insufficiently active subjects, those living in São Paulo are at least engaged in a limited amount of activity. On the other hand, among sufficiently active people, those living in Pelotas are more active.

  8. Indonesian propolis: chemical composition, biological activity and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusheva, Boryana; Popova, Milena; Koendhori, Eko Budi; Tsvetkova, Iva; Naydenski, Christo; Bankova, Vassya

    2011-03-01

    From a biologically active extract of Indonesian propolis from East Java, 11 compounds were isolated and identified: four alk(en)ylresorcinols (obtained as an inseparable mixture) (1-4) were isolated for the first time from propolis, along with four prenylflavanones (6-9) and three cycloartane-type triterpenes (5, 10 and 11). The structures of the components were elucidated based on their spectral properties. All prenylflavanones demonstrated significant radical scavenging activity against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radicals, and compound 6 showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. For the first time Macaranga tanarius L. and Mangifera indica L. are shown as plant sources of Indonesian propolis.

  9. Vicinity analysis: a methodology for the identification of similar protein active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGready, A; Stevens, A; Lipkin, M; Hudson, B D; Whitley, D C; Ford, M G

    2009-05-01

    Vicinity analysis (VA) is a new methodology developed to identify similarities between protein binding sites based on their three-dimensional structure and the chemical similarity of matching residues. The major objective is to enable searching of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for similar sub-pockets, especially in proteins from different structural and biochemical series. Inspection of the ligands bound in these pockets should allow ligand functionality to be identified, thus suggesting novel monomers for use in library synthesis. VA has been developed initially using the ATP binding site in kinases, an important class of protein targets involved in cell signalling and growth regulation. This paper defines the VA procedure and describes matches to the phosphate binding sub-pocket of cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2 that were found by searching a small test database that has also been used to parameterise the methodology.

  10. QSAR Study of the Biologically Active Organosulfurs in Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr M. Abu-Awwad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of two sets of a total of 30 different polysulfides were investigated using QSAR. The semiempirical AM1 in Gaussian 2003 for windows was used to optimize the structures whereas a subsequent calculation of hundreds of various types of descriptors at the density functional (B3LYP/6-31G* using CODESSA package was employed. The known 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity data (IC50 of 19 polysulfides out of the whole data set were correlated in a multiple linear regression procedures with the computed descriptors. Statistically, the most significant overall correlations were five- and four- parameter equations with good statistical parameters; R2= 0.9981, R2CV = 0.9970 and R2=9967, R2CV = 0.9933 respectively. The models concluded that biological activity of polysulfides is mainly attributed to quantum-chemical, geometrical and topological descriptors with neither electrostatic contribution nor chief role of sulfur atoms. Also sulfur related descriptors were not the most significant contributors in the concluded models. The obtained models were efficiently employed to estimate the biological activities of the other 11 polysulfides available in natural products such as garlic and mushroom.

  11. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-05-13

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  12. Biological Activity and Photostability of Biflorin Micellar Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. B. Santana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9% and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures’ photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  13. Neighborhood behavior of in silico structural spaces with respect to in vitro activity spaces--a benchmark for neighborhood behavior assessment of different in silico similarity metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Dragos; Jeandenans, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    In a previous work, we have introduced Neighborhood Behavior (NB) criteria for calculated molecular similarity metrics, based on the analysis of in vitro activity spaces that simultaneously monitor the responses of a compound with respect to an entire panel of biologically relevant receptors and enzymes. Now, these novel NB criteria will be used as a benchmark for the comparison of different in silico molecular similarity metrics, addressing the following topics: (1) the relative performance of 2D vs 3D descriptors, (2) the importance of the similarity scoring function for a given descriptor set, and (3) binary or Fuzzy Pharmacophore Fingerprints-can they capture the similarity of the spatial distribution of pharmacophoric groups despite different molecular connectivity? It was found that fuzzy pharmacophore descriptors (FBPA) displayed an optimal NB and, unlike their binary counterparts, were successful in evidencing pharmacophore pattern similarity independently of topological similarity. Topological FBPA, identical to the former except for the use of topological instead of 3D atom pair distances, display a somehow weaker, but significant NB. Metrics based on "classical" global 2D and 3D molecular descriptors and a Dice scoring function also performed well. The choice of the similarity scoring function is therefore as important as the choice of the appropriate molecular descriptors.

  14. Combination of 2D/3D ligand-based similarity search in rapid virtual screening from multimillion compound repositories. Selection and biological evaluation of potential PDE4 and PDE5 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krisztina; Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Fabó, Gabriella; Szaszkó, Mária; Bognár, Melinda; Magyar, Csaba; Simon, István; Szisz, Dániel; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2014-05-28

    Rapid in silico selection of target focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases but the generated library requires further focusing by various 2D/3D chemoinformatics tools. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with a ligand-based 3D method (Screen3D) which applies flexible matching to align reference and target compounds in a dynamic manner and thus to assess their structural and conformational similarity. In the first case study we compared the 2D and 3D similarity scores on an existing dataset derived from the biological evaluation of a PDE5 focused library. Based on the obtained similarity metrices a fusion score was proposed. The fusion score was applied to refine the 2D similarity search in a second case study where we aimed at selecting and evaluating a PDE4B focused library. The application of this fused 2D/3D similarity measure led to an increase of the hit rate from 8.5% (1st round, 47% inhibition at 10 µM) to 28.5% (2nd round at 50% inhibition at 10 µM) and the best two hits had 53 nM inhibitory activities.

  15. Gender Similarities and Differences in Factors Associated with Adolescent Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Janz, Kathleen F; Levy, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors conceptualized within the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAP) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescent males and females. Specifically, self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity; family support, peer support, perceived school climate, neighborhood safety and access to physical activity were examined. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Actigraph 7164 were used to obtain three different measures of MVPA in 205 adolescents (102 males, 103 females). Family support emerged as the most significant and consistent factor associated with the MVPA of both adolescent males and females. This relationship was noted even when different methods of measuring MVPA were employed. These findings should increase the confidence of public health officials that family support has the potential to positively alter the physical activity behavior of adolescents. PMID:19827453

  16. Characterization of biologically active substances from Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecka, Petra; Lipov, Jan; Thumova, Kamila; Macurkova, Anna

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this work was to compare water and organic extracts, infusions and tinctures from flowers and leaves of Calendula officinalis in terms of their biological activity and composition. The purpose of work was investigation whether the leaves and stems are really the waste or they contain interesting substances which could be utilized. Antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were studied. Then the ability to inhibit collagenase was studied as well. Cytotoxicity was tested for all the samples on mammalian cell lines. To determine the composition of extracts, infusions and tinctures phytochemical analysis (the set of colour reactions for detection of groups of biologically active compounds) was carried out and shown that samples from flowers and leaves contain the same groups of biologically active substances (proteins and amino acids, reducing sugars, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides). The antimicrobial activity of tested samples was proved, where the most sensitive bacterium was Micrococcus luteus and the most sensitive yeast was Geotrichum candidum. The study of anti - collagenase activity has shown that the enzymatic reaction of collagenase was affected by all tested samples and their effect was concentration dependent. Cytotoxicity of water and methanol extracts at cell lines HEK 293T and HepG2 was observed. Cells HepG2 were more sensitive than cells HEK 293T. Using cell line RAW 264.7 anti-inflammatory activity of all samples was observed. Tincture of leaves was the most effective. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  19. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  20. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  1. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  2. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  3. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K

    2011-10-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  4. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  5. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, V; Rao, E Upender; P, Srinivas

    2012-07-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  6. GIRK channel activation via adenosine or muscarinic receptors has similar effects on rat atrial electrophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liang, Bo; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK) are important in the regulation of heart rate and atrial electrophysiology. GIRK channels are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M2 receptors and adenosine A1 receptors. The aim of this study was to characterize....... The coapplication of TTQ reversed the CPA and ACh-induced effects. When TTQ was applied without exogenous receptor activator, both APD90 and ERP were prolonged and RMP was depolarized, confirming a basal activity of the GIRK current. The results reveal that activation of A1 and M2 receptors has a profound and equal...... effect on the electrophysiology in rat atrium. This effect is to a major extent mediated through GIRK channels. Furthermore, these results support the notion that atrial GIRK currents from healthy hearts have a basal component and additional activation can be mediated via at least 2 different receptor...

  7. Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bankova, Vassya; Popova, Milena; Trusheva, Boryana

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived...

  8. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Tava

    2007-01-01

    In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers), but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to th...

  9. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P.

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR).

  10. Polymer application for separation/filtration of biological active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, B.; Tsibranska, I.

    2017-06-01

    Membrane technology is an important part of the engineer's toolbox. This is especially true for industries that process food and other products with their primary source from nature. This review is focused on ongoing development work using membrane technologies for concentration and separation of biologically active compounds, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. We provide the readers not only with the last results achieve in this field but also, we deliver detailed information about the membrane types and polymers used for their preparation.

  11. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  12. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been report...

  13. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohan Wang; Xiao Gong; Peng Li; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cycli...

  14. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  15. Chemical composition and biological activities of the Agaricus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Munkhgerel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Agaricus mushroom grown in Mongolia were analyzed for their element content. Biological activity and chemical components study of Agaricus, grown in the Mongolian flora has been investigated for the first time. The ethanol extracts of dried Agaricus sp. mushrooms were analyzed for antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and interferon-like activity. The ethanol extracts from Agaricus arvensis showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. The IC50 of A. silvaticus and A. arvensis were 216 and 17.75 g/ml respectively. Among the twenty three mushroom extracts, the extracts from A. silvatisus and A. arvensis have shown the interferon-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.197Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p41-45

  16. Biological activities of the antiviral protein BE27 from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Rosario; Citores, Lucía; Di Maro, Antimo; Ferreras, José M

    2015-02-01

    The ribosome inactivating protein BE27 displays several biological activities in vitro that could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens. Beetin 27 (BE27), a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, is an antiviral protein induced by virus and signaling compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid. Its role as a defense protein has been attributed to its RNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity. Here we tested other putative activities of BE27 that could have a defensive role against pathogens finding that BE27 displays rRNA N-glycosidase activity against yeast and Agrobacterium tumefaciens ribosomes, DNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity against herring sperm DNA, and magnesium-dependent endonuclease activity against the supercoiled plasmid PUC19 (nicking activity). The nicking activity could be a consequence of an unusual conformation of the BE27 active site, similar to that of PD-L1, a RIP from Phytolacca dioica L. leaves. Additionally, BE27 possesses superoxide dismutase activity, thus being able to produce the signal compound hydrogen peroxide. BE27 is also toxic to COLO 320 cells, inducing apoptosis in these cells by either activating the caspase pathways and/or inhibiting protein synthesis. The combined effect of these biological activities could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens such as virus, bacteria, fungi or insects.

  17. Identification of Active Molecular Sites Using Quantum-Self-Similarity Measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amat, L.; Besalú, E.; Carbó-Dorca, R.; Ponec, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2001), s. 978-991 ISSN 0095-2338 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D9.20 Grant - others:CICYT(XE) SAF2000-223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : QSAR model * quantum similarity measures * human globulin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.009, year: 2001

  18. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL -1 and 0.6-0.7 ng mL -1 , respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Biologically active and biomimetic dual gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, P; Pedraz, J L; Orive, G

    2017-05-01

    We have designed, developed and optimized Genipin cross-linked 3D gelatin scaffolds that were biologically active and biomimetic, show a dual activity both for growth factor and cell delivery. Type B gelatin powder was dissolved in DI water. 100mg of genipin was dissolved in 10ml of DI water. Three genipin concentrations were prepared: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% (w/v). Solutions were mixed at 40°C and under stirring and then left crosslinking for 72h. Scaffolds were obtained by punching 8 mm-cylinders into ethanol 70% solution for 10min and then freeze-drying. Scaffolds were biologically, biomechanically and morphologically evaluated. Cell adhesion and morphology of D1-Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and L-929 fibroblast was studied. Vascular endothelial grwoth factor (VEGF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) were used as model proteins. Swelling ratio increased and younǵs module decreased along with the concentration of genipin. All scaffolds were biocompatible according to the toxicity test. MSC and L-929 cell adhesion improved in 0.2% of genipin, obtaining better results with MSCs. VEGF and SHH were released from the gels. This preliminary study suggest that the biologically active and dual gelatin scaffolds may be used for tissue engineering approaches like bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human laminin isolated in a nearly intact, biologically active form from placenta by limited proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Manthorpe, M

    1983-01-01

    fragments cross-reacted with rat laminin in immunodiffusion and enzyme immunoassay, and a polyclonal antiserum against the fragments reacted with basement membranes in tissues in a manner identical with the 4E10 antibody. Electron microscopic images of the human peptic fragments showed structures similar...... to the cross-shaped images of murine laminins, although the short arms were truncated to various degrees or even absent. The isolated peptic fragments also displayed biological activity similar to that of murine laminins in that the outgrowth of neurites by neuronal cells was promoted on plates coated...... with the fragments....

  2. Trophic gradients of two minnow species with similar eco-type and their relations to water chemistry and multimetric biological integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyun Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine tolerance ranges and trophic gradients of two fish populations of Zacco koreanus (Zk and Zacco platypus (Zp in relation to chemical water quality and ecological stream health, based on the biological integrity metric (BIM model. Seventy-six streams and rivers were sampled for the analysis. The population of Zk had a narrow chemical tolerance with a low phosphorus limit (< 300 μg/L as total phosphorus, whereas the Zp population occurred within a high limit (up to 1,100 μg/L. Similar patterns in the two populations were shown in nitrogen, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, and other parameters. The population of Zp had significantly (t=5.25, p<0.001 greater chemical tolerance than the population of Zk. The population of Zk had a positive functional relation (R2=0.43, p<0.001 with insectivore species, but the Zp population had negative linear function (R2=0.50, p<0.001, indicating a trophic difference in the food chain of two populations. Application of the biological integrity model indicated that the values of BIM, as an index of ecological health, were significantly greater (t=13.67, p<0.001 in the population of Zk than the population of Zp.

  3. Entrepreneurial Perceptions and Activity – Differences and Similarities in Four Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes NAGY

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reflect upon the differences between entrepreneurial perceptions, attitudes and activity in Croatia, Hungary, Romania and Serbia in 2007-2008 period using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey database.

  4. Inflammasome priming is similar for francisella species that differentially induce inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G Ghonime

    Full Text Available Inflammasome activation is a two-step process where step one, priming, prepares the inflammasome for its subsequent activation, by step two. Classically step one can be induced by LPS priming followed by step two, high dose ATP. Furthermore, when IL-18 processing is used as the inflammasome readout, priming occurs before new protein synthesis. In this context, how intracellular pathogens such as Francisella activate the inflammasome is incompletely understood, particularly regarding the relative importance of priming versus activation steps. To better understand these events we compared Francisella strains that differ in virulence and ability to induce inflammasome activation for their relative effects on step one vs. step two. When using the rapid priming model, i.e., 30 min priming by live or heat killed Francisella strains (step 1, followed by ATP (step 2, we found no difference in IL-18 release, p20 caspase-1 release and ASC oligomerization between Francisella strains (F. novicida, F. holarctica -LVS and F. tularensis Schu S4. This priming is fast, independent of bacteria viability, internalization and phagosome escape, but requires TLR2-mediated ERK phosphorylation. In contrast to their efficient priming capacity, Francisella strains LVS and Schu S4 were impaired in inflammasome triggering compared to F. novicida. Thus, observed differences in inflammasome activation by F. novicida, LVS and Schu S4 depend not on differences in priming but rather on their propensity to trigger the primed inflammasome.

  5. Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Biologically Activated Brown Coal Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Praščáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of cooper (II and zinc (II ions from aqueous solutions on a biologically activated brown coal sludge was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from the brown coal sludge bya microorganism’s activity. There were used microscopic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. Prepared sorbents were capable of removing Cu (II and Zn (II. The sorption isotherm has been constructed and the specific metal uptake and the maximum capacity of the adsorbent have been determined.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  7. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoids may play an important role in the decreased risk of chronic diseases associated with a diet rich in plant-derived foods. Flavonoids are also common constituents of plants used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this article is to summarize the distribution and biological activities of one of the most common flavonoids: luteolin. This flavonoid and its glycosides are widely distributed in the plant kingdom; they are present in many plant families and have been identified in Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. Dietary sources of luteolin include, for instance, carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. Preclinical studies have shown that this flavone possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The ability of luteolin to inhibit angiogenesis, to induce apoptosis, to prevent carcinogenesis in animal models, to reduce tumor growth in vivo and to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of some anticancer drugs suggests that this flavonoid has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Modulation of ROS levels, inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity, stabilization of p53, and inhibition of PI3K, STAT3, IGF1R and HER2 are possible mechanisms involved in the biological activities of luteolin.

  8. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  9. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  10. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  11. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  12. Similar activation of signal transduction pathways by the herpesvirus-encoded chemokine receptors US28 and ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Katherine A; Holst, Peter J; Martini, Lene

    2004-01-01

    The virally encoded chemokine receptors US28 from human cytomegalovirus and ORF74 from human herpesvirus 8 are both constitutively active. We show that both receptors constitutively activate the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and cAMP response element binding...... viral gene expression similarly. As ORF74 is a known inducer of neoplasia, these findings may have important implications for cytomegalovirus-associated pathogenicity....

  13. Biological activities of triazine derivatives. Combining DFT and QSAR results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Larif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between activities and structures, a 3D-QSAR study is applied to a set of 43 molecules based on triazines. This study was conducted using the principal component analysis (PCA method, the multiple linear regression method (MLR and the artificial neural network (ANN. The predicted values of activities are in good agreement with the experimental results. The artificial neural network (ANN techniques, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with an 8-3-1 ANN model which is a good result. As a result of quantitative structure–activity relationships, we found that the model proposed in this study is constituted of major descriptors used to describe these molecules. The obtained results suggested that the proposed combination of several calculated parameters could be useful to predict the biological activity of triazine derivatives.

  14. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  15. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  16. False memory for context and true memory for context similarly activate the parahippocampal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories. However, in previous studies, contextual details were also greater for true memories than false memories. Thus, such differential activity in the parahippocampal cortex may have reflected differences in contextual processing, which would challenge the visual-spatial processing view. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a source memory paradigm to investigate the functional role of the parahippocampal cortex during true memory and false memory for contextual information to distinguish between the visual-spatial processing view and the general contextual processing view. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants indicated whether each shape was previously on the "left" or "right" followed by an "unsure", "sure", or "very sure" confidence rating. The conjunction of confident true memories for context and confident false memories for context produced activity in the parahippocampal cortex, which indicates that this region is associated with contextual processing. Furthermore, the direct contrast of true memory and false memory produced activity in the visual cortex but did not produce activity in the parahippocampal cortex. The present

  17. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  18. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  19. Development of pharmacophore similarity-based quantitative activity hypothesis and its applicability domain: applied on a diverse data-set of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Mehta, Vijay P; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative pharmacophore hypothesis combines the 3D spatial arrangement of pharmacophore features with biological activities of the ligand data-set and predicts the activities of geometrically and/or pharmacophoric similar ligands. Most pharmacophore discovery programs face difficulties in conformational flexibility, molecular alignment, pharmacophore features sampling, and feature selection to score models if the data-set constitutes diverse ligands. Towards this focus, we describe a ligand-based computational procedure to introduce flexibility in aligning the small molecules and generating a pharmacophore hypothesis without geometrical constraints to define pharmacophore space, enriched with chemical features necessary to elucidate common pharmacophore hypotheses (CPHs). Maximal common substructure (MCS)-based alignment method was adopted to guide the alignment of carbon molecules, deciphered the MCS atom connectivity to cluster molecules in bins and subsequently, calculated the pharmacophore similarity matrix with the bin-specific reference molecules. After alignment, the carbon molecules were enriched with original atoms in their respective positions and conventional pharmacophore features were perceived. Distance-based pharmacophoric descriptors were enumerated by computing the interdistance between perceived features and MCS-aligned 'centroid' position. The descriptor set and biological activities were used to develop support vector machine models to predict the activities of the external test set. Finally, fitness score was estimated based on pharmacophore similarity with its bin-specific reference molecules to recognize the best and poor alignments and, also with each reference molecule to predict outliers of the quantitative hypothesis model. We applied this procedure to a diverse data-set of 40 HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and discussed its effectiveness with the reported CPH model.

  20. Investigating Biological Activity Spectrum for Novel Styrylquinazoline Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Polanski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, series of ring-substituted 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H-one and 4-chloro-2-styrylquinazoline derivatives were prepared. The syntheses of the discussed compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial strains and against eight fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than that of the standard isoniazid. It was found that the electronic properties of the R substituent, and not the total lipophilicity of the compound, were decisive for the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of tested compounds.

  1. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  2. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

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    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  3. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

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    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  4. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocerino N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nunzia Nocerino,1 Andrea Fulgione,1 Marco Iannaccone,1 Laura Tomasetta,1 Flora Ianniello,1 Francesca Martora,1 Marco Lelli,2 Norberto Roveri,2 Federico Capuano,3 Rosanna Capparelli1 1Department of Agriculture Special Biotechnology Center Federico II, CeBIOTEC Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Chemistry, G Ciamician, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3Department of Food Inspection IZS ME, Naples, Italy Abstract: The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA. We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. Keywords: lactoferrin, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, biomimetism, biological activity, drug delivery

  5. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

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    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  6. Cold modalities with different thermodynamic properties have similar effects on muscular performance and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Oliveira, A B; Costa, J R; Herrera, E; Salvini, T F

    2013-10-01

    Although tissue cooling is widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries there is still controversy about its effects on muscular performance. The combination of cooling and exercise justifies the study of this topic. The aim was to compare the effects of ice pack and cold-water immersion on the muscular performance parameters of plantar flexors and muscular activation of the triceps surae. 41 healthy men (mean age: 22.1 years, SD: 2.9) were randomly assigned to cooling with either ice pack (n=20) or cold-water immersion (n=21). Independent variables were cold modality (ice pack or cold-water immersion) and pre- and post-cooling measurement time. Dependent variables were muscular performance (measured during isometric and concentric contractions of plantar flexors) and electromyography parameters of the triceps surae (median frequency and root mean square amplitude). Dependent-samples t-tests were used to compare pre- and post-cooling data and independent-samples t-tests were used to compare the difference (pre- and post-cooling) between groups. Ice pack increased isometric peak torque (mean: 9.00 Nm, P=0.01) and both cold modalities reduced muscular activation in triceps surae (Pimmersion and ice pack reduced peak torque and total work during dynamic isokinetic contraction at both velocities (mean: -11,00 Nm, Pimmersion decrease concentric muscular performance. These results indicate that these cooling methods should be chosen with caution, considering the type of task required during training or rehabilitation. New studies investigating other muscle groups and joints are necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

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    Petunin AI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs to various targets in vivo.

  8. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mailcar F; Lemos, Telma G; de Mattos, Marcos C; Segundo, Taciana A; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2002-06-01

    A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol) and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  9. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MAILCAR F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  10. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

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    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  11. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of several alloys to dilute biologically active solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria/fungi detected in hygiene waters increased the corrosion rate in aluminum alloy. Biologically active media enhanced the formation of pits on metal coupons. Direct observation of gas evolved at the corrosion sample, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of the corrosion products indicates that the corrosion rate is increased because the presence of bacteria favor the reduction of hydrogen as the cathodic reaction through the reaction of oxygen and water. SEM verifies the presence of microbes in a biofilm on the surface of corroding samples. The bacterial consortia are associated with anodic sites on the metal surface, aggressive pitting occurs adjacent to biofilms. Many pits are associated with triple points and inclusions in the aluminum alloy microstructure. Similar bacterial colonization was found on the stainless steel samples. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carbonyl groups in pitted areas of samples exposed to biologically active waters.

  12. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  13. Novel Triazole Hybrids of Betulin: Synthesis and Biological Activity Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bębenek, Ewa; Jastrzębska, Maria; Kadela-Tomanek, Monika; Chrobak, Elwira; Orzechowska, Beata; Zwolińska, Katarzyna; Latocha, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Czuba, Zenon; Boryczka, Stanisław

    2017-11-01

    Betulin derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring possess a wide spectrum of biological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, and antibacterial activity. A series of novel triazoles were prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the alkyne derivatives of betulin and organic azides. The chemical structures of the obtained compounds were defined by ¹H and 13 C NMR, IR, and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) analysis. The target triazoles were screened for their antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses. The cytotoxic activity of the obtained compounds 5a - k and 6a - h was determined using five human cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SNB-19, Colo-829, and C-32) by a WST-1 assay. The bistriazole 6b displayed a promising IC 50 value (0.05 μM) against the human ductal carcinoma T47D (500-fold higher potency than cisplatin). The microdilution method was applied for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of all of the compounds. The triazole 5e containing a 3'-deoxythymidine-5'-yl moiety exhibited antibacterial activity against two gram-negative bacteria vz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.95-1.95 μM).

  14. Novel Triazole Hybrids of Betulin: Synthesis and Biological Activity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Bębenek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Betulin derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring possess a wide spectrum of biological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, and antibacterial activity. A series of novel triazoles were prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the alkyne derivatives of betulin and organic azides. The chemical structures of the obtained compounds were defined by 1H and 13C NMR, IR, and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS analysis. The target triazoles were screened for their antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses. The cytotoxic activity of the obtained compounds 5a–k and 6a–h was determined using five human cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SNB-19, Colo-829, and C-32 by a WST-1 assay. The bistriazole 6b displayed a promising IC50 value (0.05 μM against the human ductal carcinoma T47D (500-fold higher potency than cisplatin. The microdilution method was applied for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of all of the compounds. The triazole 5e containing a 3′-deoxythymidine-5′-yl moiety exhibited antibacterial activity against two gram-negative bacteria vz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC range of 0.95–1.95 μM.

  15. Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae: Alkaloid Profiling, Biological Activities and Molecular Docking

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    Luciana R. Tallini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family has proven to be a rich source of active compounds, which are characterized by unique skeleton arrangements and a broad spectrum of biological activities. The aim of this work was to perform the first detailed study of the alkaloid constituents of Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae and to determine the anti-parasitological and cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of the epimers (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine. Twelve alkaloids were identified in H. reticulatum: eight known alkaloids by GC-MS and four unknown (6α-hydroxymaritidine, 6β-hydroxymaritidine, reticulinine and isoreticulinine by NMR. The epimer mixture (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine showed low activity against all protozoan parasites tested and weak AChE-inhibitory activity. Finally, a molecular docking analysis of AChE and BuChE proteins showed that isoreticulinine may be classified as a potential inhibitory molecule since it can be stabilized in the active site through hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions.

  16. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications.

  17. Facile Chemical Access to Biologically Active Norcantharidin Derivatives from Biomass

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    Konstantin I. Galkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reductive amination of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF was used to implement the transition from bio-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF to pharmaceuticals. The synthesized bis(aminomethylfurans were utilized as building blocks for the construction of new derivatives with structural cores of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. Using the one-pot procedure, which included the Diels–Alder reaction followed by hydrogenation of the double bond, bio-derived analogues of the anticancer drug norcantharidin were obtained. The cyclization process was diastereoselective, and resulted in the formation of tricyclic products with the endo configuration. Analysis of cytotoxycity for the resulting tricyclic amine-containing compounds showed an increase of anticancer activity as compared with the unsubstituted norcantharimide.

  18. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

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    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs, are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry.

  19. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  20. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides

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    Nataša Župančić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach to reversed nucleosides which enables their synthesis in gram quantities is described. N-1′-Pyrimidine reversed nucleosides were prepared by treating of the sodium salt of pyrimidine bases with protected 5-tosyl ribose. Additionally, N-1′,N-3′-disubstituted reversed nucleosides were isolated in the condensation reactions with the 5-halogen pyrimidines. Using the Sonogashira coupling of 5′-iodouracil reversed nucleoside with ethynyltrimethyl silane gave 5′-ethynyl derivative which was further transformed into 5′-acetyl reversed nucleoside. Biological activity of deprotected reversed nucleosides was validated on the panel of six human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa, MIAPaCa2, Hep2, NCI-H358, CaCo-2, and HT-29. 5′-Iodouracil derivative displayed moderate growth inhibition activity against human colon carcinoma (CaCo-2 cells.

  2. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  3. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  4. Template Synthesis of Tubular Nanostructures for Loading Biologically Active Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Aysegul; Algan, Aslıhan Hilal

    2017-01-01

    The template synthesis is a low cost, simple and versatile nanofabrication method to produce cylindrical/tubular nanostructures with controllable dimensions such as length, diameter and aspect ratio. This method utilizes nanoporous membranes such as anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) or polycarbonate (PC) as templates which have nanosized specific, cylindrical and uniform inner pores to be coated with the desired material. Template synthesized nanotubular structures have been produced from variety of materials including ceramics, polymers and proteins for loading biologically active molecules. Available procedures of material deposition into the template nanopores consist of several techniques like wetting (melt or solution wetting), layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and sol-gel chemistry. Template synthesis enables not only control of the geometry of the resulting nanostructures but also provides nanovehicles having separated inner and outer surfaces which can be variously functionalized. Tubular nanostructures fabricated by this method have numerous potential applications including delivery of biologically active molecules such as drugs, gene, enzymes and proteins. In this review we aimed to present up-to-date works on the template based synthesis which has greatly facilitated the fabrication of polymer and protein tubular nanostructures, principally. The strategies regarding the synthesis and designing of these promising tubular nanostructures together with recent approaches relevant of drug delivery was also presented. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Conformational similarity in the activation of caspase-3 and -7 revealed by the unliganded and inhibited structures of caspase-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agniswamy, Johnson; Fang, Bin; Weber, Irene T.; (GSU)

    2009-09-08

    Caspase-mediated apoptosis has important roles in normal cell differentiation and aging and in many diseases including cancer, neuromuscular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, modulation of caspase activity and conformational states is of therapeutic importance. We report crystal structures of a new unliganded conformation of caspase-7 and the inhibited caspase-7 with the tetrapeptide Ac-YVAD-Cho. Different conformational states and mechanisms for substrate recognition have been proposed based on unliganded structures of the redundant apoptotic executioner caspase-3 and -7. The current study shows that the executioner caspase-3 and -7 have similar conformations for the unliganded active site as well as the inhibitor-bound active site. The new unliganded caspase-7 structure exhibits the tyrosine flipping mechanism in which the Tyr230 has rotated to block entry to the S2 binding site similar to the active site conformation of unliganded caspase-3. The inhibited structure of caspase-7/YVAD shows that the P4 Tyr binds the S4 region specific to polar residues at the expense of a main chain hydrogen bond between the P4 amide and carbonyl oxygen of caspase-7 Gln 276, which is similar to the caspase-3 complex. This new knowledge of the structures and conformational states of unliganded and inhibited caspases will be important for the design of drugs to modulate caspase activity and apoptosis.

  6. Phytochemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Salvia suffruticosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rustaie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Salvia suffruticosa is a perennial plant from Lamiaceae family. Many Salvia species have been employed as medicinal plants; despite the medicinal potentials of S. suffruticosa, there is limited studies regarding its phytochemical profile or biological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of the plant and evaluate its biological activities. Methods: Essential oil from the aerial parts of the plant was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Isolation of compounds from methanol and petroleum ether fractions was achieved by using column chromatography with different stationary phases. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR techniques. Cytotoxicity potentials were evaluated using MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH method. Results: Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes were identified as the predominant components of the oil, with β-caryophyllene (27.35%, bicyclogermacrene (22.15%, germacrene-D (9.49% and β-farnesene (9.08% as the major constituents. Phytochemical analysis of the extract resulted in isolation of lupeol (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, caffeic acid (4 and 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (5. Among the tested samples, lupeol demonstrated the most potent inhibitory activity toward breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values equal to 33.38±2.6, 36.70±3.1 and 23.66±1.4 μg/mL, respectively; caffeic acid with IC50 value of 12.1±1.2 μg/mL showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested S. suffruticosa as a promising source of bioactive compounds useful in prevention and treatment of cancer.

  7. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, K; Buckiová, D; Kren, V; Peknicová, J; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2006-03-01

    The biological activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from dehydrated hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae, vernacular name "maca"), was studied on rat hepatocytes and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity in hepatocyte primary cultures up to 10 mg/ml as measured by the MTT viability test, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage. Moreover, after 72 h, extracts inhibited LDH and AST leakage from the hepatocytes. When hepatocytes were intoxicated by t-butyl hydroperoxide, neither extract prevented oxidative damage. Both extracts showed weak antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging test with IC(50) values of 3.46 +/- 0.16 and 0.71 +/- 0.10 mg/ml, for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Thus, the observed effect on spontaneous enzyme leakage is probably mediated through mechanisms other than antioxidant activity. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts have shown estrogenic activity comparable with that of silymarin in MCF-7 cell line. Maca estrogenicity was exhibited in the range from 100 to 200 mug of extract per ml. The findings in the present study show that maca does not display in vitro hepatotoxicity. In contrast, a slight cytoprotective effect, probably not mediated by antioxidant capacity, was noted. Maca extracts exhibited estrogenic activity comparably to the effect of silymarin in MCF-7 cells.

  8. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  9. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  10. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  11. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators.

  12. Target-similarity search using Plasmodium falciparum proteome identifies approved drugs with anti-malarial activity and their possible targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagan M Mogire

    Full Text Available Malaria causes about half a million deaths annually, with Plasmodium falciparum being responsible for 90% of all the cases. Recent reports on artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia warrant urgent discovery of novel drugs for the treatment of malaria. However, most bioactive compounds fail to progress to treatments due to safety concerns. Drug repositioning offers an alternative strategy where drugs that have already been approved as safe for other diseases could be used to treat malaria. This study screened approved drugs for antimalarial activity using an in silico chemogenomics approach prior to in vitro verification. All the P. falciparum proteins sequences available in NCBI RefSeq were mined and used to perform a similarity search against DrugBank, TTD and STITCH databases to identify similar putative drug targets. Druggability indices of the potential P. falciparum drug targets were obtained from TDR targets database. Functional amino acid residues of the drug targets were determined using ConSurf server which was used to fine tune the similarity search. This study predicted 133 approved drugs that could target 34 P. falciparum proteins. A literature search done at PubMed and Google Scholar showed 105 out of the 133 drugs to have been previously tested against malaria, with most showing activity. For further validation, drug susceptibility assays using SYBR Green I method were done on a representative group of 10 predicted drugs, eight of which did show activity against P. falciparum 3D7 clone. Seven had IC50 values ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM. This study also suggests drug-target association and hence possible mechanisms of action of drugs that did show antiplasmodial activity. The study results validate the use of proteome-wide target similarity approach in identifying approved drugs with activity against P. falciparum and could be adapted for other pathogens.

  13. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  14. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  15. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  16. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  17. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  19. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  20. Biological regeneration of para-nitrophenol loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.; Martin, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Biological regeneration is one of several methods that may be used to restore the adsorptive capacity of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC). This study deals with in-situ biological regeneration on a pilot scale. The principal objective of this research was to ascertain whether biological regeneration of GAC could occur under conditions typical of water treatment. The important parameters which may have the greatest impact on bio regeneration of a given adsorbate were studied. The research investigated the extent of bio regeneration for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in the total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in he total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated with a mixed culture of bacteria, and lastly the carbon was re-saturated. In the totally exhausted GAC system, the bio regeneration was enhanced by increasing the during of regeneration for a fixed initial biomass content of the bioreactor. The bio regeneration efficiency of the totally exhausted (with PNP) GAC the empty bed contact time (EBCT) and the initial concentration of the substrate had a profound effect on the bio regeneration efficiency. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. (author)

  1. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF THE LAURUS NOBILIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nasukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 12-15 m high. The plant’s name is devoted to an Ancient Greek God of Sun Apollo and is a symbol of peace and victory. It was used in making up wreaths for emperors, generals, and poets. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries with high level of annual precipitation. It is actively cultivated as a decorative plant in Europe, Russia, USA and other countries. It is cultivated in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Russia, and Mexico. The aim of the study is the review of available literature about isolation, identification, quantitative determination of biologically active compounds of the Laurus nobilis leaves in the established species and their pharmacological activity. Materialsand methods. The study was carried out using searching (PubMed, CiteSeer, arXiv, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninka, and ResearchGate free social network. Results and discussion. We have established that Laurus nobilis leaves have components of essential oil, phenolic compounds, and sesquiterpenic lactones as the principal active substances. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of these compound groups in these raw materials varies depending on the ecological and geographical, edaphic, climatic factors, phase of the plant growth, cultivation technology, drying method etc. The results of the pharmacological studies of the extracts, summary fractions, and individual compounds of Laurus nobilis leaves characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for a more profound study. Conclusion. As the available open review data showed, the essential oil components, phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc, sesquiterpenic lactones of Laurus nobilis exhibit a diverse spectrum of pharmacological activity. Antimicrobial (widely, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cytoxic (anticancer activities, established in extracts

  2. Zoanthid mucus as new source of useful biologically active proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Míriam Camargo; de Albuquerque Modesto, Jeanne Claíne; Pérez, Carlos Daniel; Ottaiano, Tatiana Fontes; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Campos, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use. The enzymatic (proteolytic and phospholipase A 2 ), inhibitory (metallo, cysteine and serine proteases), and hemagglutinating (human erythrocyte) activities were determined. The results showed high levels of cysteine and metallo proteases, intermediate levels of phosholipase A 2 , low levels of trypsin, and no elastase and chymotrypsin like activities. The mucus showed potent inhibitory activity on snake venom metalloproteases and cysteine proteinase papain. In addition, it showed agglutinating activity towards O + , B + , and A + erythrocyte types. The hemostatic results showed that the mucus prolongs the aPTT and PT, and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, ADP, and thrombin. The antimicrobial activity was tested on 15 strains of bacteria and fungi through the radial diffusion assay in agar, and no activity was observed. Compounds in P. caribaeorum mucus were analyzed for the first time in this study, and our results show potential pharmacological activities in these compounds, which are relevant for use in physiopathological investigations. However, the demonstration of these activities indicates caution in the use of crude mucus in folk medicine. Furthermore, the present or absent activities identified in this mucus suggest that the studied P. caribaeorum colonies were in thermal stress conditions at the time of sample collection; these conditions may precede the bleaching

  3. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  4. Relationships between the stereochemistry and biological activity of fungal phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi assume great importance because of their involvement in several plant diseases. Although such pathogens are known to have seriously damaged crops, forest, and environmental resources, they represent a very important tool to develop new environmentally friendly herbicides and fungicides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for major forest plants and for damaging weeds and their stereochemistry. In particular, the methods used to determine their relative and/or absolute configuration will be illustrated. These include the application of Mosher's and Murata's methods, X-ray diffractometric analysis, circular dichroism, and the use of computational methods to determine the theoretical optical rotatory power as well as the CD spectrum. The importance of determining the absolute configuration to achieve the total synthesis of some phytotoxins, interesting for their potential practical application, is also discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  6. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  7. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  8. Structure and Biological Activity of Pathogen-like Synthetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R.; Somogyi, Eszter; Horkay, Ferenc; Chandran, Preethi; Douglas, Jack F.; Szebeni, János; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2011-01-01

    Here we characterize the structure, stability and intracellular mode-of-action of DermaVir nanomedicine that is under clinical development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This nanomedicine is comprised of pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles (NPs) having the structure and function resembling spherical viruses that naturally evolved to deliver nucleic acids to the cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated spherical 100–200nm NPs with a smooth polymer surface protecting the pDNA in the core. Optical-absorption determined both the NP structural stability and biological activity relevant to their ability to escape from the endosome and release the pDNA at the nucleus. Salt, pH and temperature influence the nanomedicine shelf-life and intracellular stability. This approach facilitates the development of diverse polyplex nanomedicines where the delivered pDNA-expressed antigens induce immune responses to kill infected cells. PMID:21839051

  9. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  10. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  11. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: focus on post-translational modifications and NF-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinian, Margret; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Hajj, Hiba; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients resulting in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 post-translational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein–protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax-2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-κB activation, and protein–protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23966989

  12. The parietal memory network activates similarly for true and associative false recognition elicited via the DRM procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen B; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; Watson, Jason M; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2017-02-01

    Neuroimaging investigations of human memory encoding and retrieval have revealed that multiple regions of parietal cortex contribute to memory. Recently, a sparse network of regions within parietal cortex has been identified using resting state functional connectivity (MRI techniques). The regions within this network exhibit consistent task-related responses during memory formation and retrieval, leading to its being called the parietal memory network (PMN). Among its signature patterns are: deactivation during initial experience with an item (e.g., encoding); activation during subsequent repetitions (e.g., at retrieval); greater activation for successfully retrieved familiar words than novel words (e.g., hits relative to correctly-rejected lures). The question of interest here is whether novel words that are subjectively experienced as having been recently studied would elicit PMN activation similar to that of hits. That is, we compared old items correctly recognized to two types of novel items on a recognition test: those correctly identified as new and those incorrectly labeled as old due to their strong associative relation to the studied words (in the DRM false memory protocol). Subjective oldness plays a strong role in driving activation, as hits and false alarms activated similarly (and greater than correctly-rejected lures). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological activities of undescribed North American lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeash, Erik A; Letwin, Lyndon; Malek, Lada; Suntres, Zacharias; Knudsen, Kerry; Christopher, Lew P

    2017-11-01

    Lichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The results from this study demonstrated the following: (i) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities, which were concentration dependent; (ii) acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 µg mL -1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 µg mL -1 against Enterococcus faecalis; (iii) acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 87 µg mL -1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase, whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited. New lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  15. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  16. Combination of Pharmacophore Matching, 2D Similarity Search, and In Vitro Biological Assays in the Selection of Potential 5-HT6 Antagonists from Large Commercial Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krisztina; Flachner, Beáta; Pukáncsik, Mária; Máthé, Enikő; Bognár, Melinda; Szaszkó, Mária; Magyar, Csaba; Hajdú, István; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Simon, István; Fülöp, Ferenc; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2015-10-01

    Rapid in silico selection of target-focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost-effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available, rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases, but the generated library requires further focusing. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with pharmacophore matching which was used for selecting 5-HT6 antagonists. In the first screening round, 12 compounds showed >85% antagonist efficacy of the 91 screened. For the second-round (hit validation) screening phase, pharmacophore models were built, applied, and compared with the routine 2D similarity search. Three pharmacophore models were created based on the structure of the reference compounds and the first-round hit compounds. The pharmacophore search resulted in a high hit rate (40%) and led to novel chemotypes, while 2D similarity search had slightly better hit rate (51%), but lacking the novelty. To demonstrate the power of the virtual screening cascade, ligand efficiency indices were also calculated and their steady improvement was confirmed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

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    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  18. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical and Biological activities on Russelia juncea Zucc

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    Maryam Bibi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To probe the ethnomedicinal claims of Russelia juncea Zucc. (Plantaginaceae as prescribed traditionally in the folklore history of medicines. Methods: The dichloromethane and methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots were examined for antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiglycation, insecticidal, leishmanicidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Different phytochemical tests were also performed to confirm the presence of various groups of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Results: Phytochemical screening of this plant confirmed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Antibacterial activity was only shown by RJRD with 80% inhibition at the concentration of 150µg/ml against Shigella flexneri. Among the tested samples, RJAM and RJRM displayed significant radical scavenging activity up to 93% and 89% with IC50 values of 184.75 ± 4.05µM and 263.01 ± 9.36µM. The significant antiglycation potential was exhibited by RJAD, RJAM and RJRM with 55.35%, 62.25% and 59.22% inhibition and IC50 values of 0.84 ± 0.08mg/ml, 1.37 ± 0.15mg/ml and 1.52 ± 0.10mg/ml respectively. Moderate leishmanicidal activity was exposed by RJAD and RJRM with IC50 values of 73.04 ± 1.05µg/ml and 77.66 ± 0.23µg/ml while RJAM was found to be more potent and exposed significant leishmanicidal activity having IC50 of 48 ± 0.39µg/ml. However, prominent cytotoxic activity was displayed by RJRM with 66.08% inhibition and IC50 of 31.20 ± 3µg/ml. Non-significant antifungal, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities were demonstrated by all the tested samples. Conclusion: All the above contributions give serious attentiveness to scientists to isolate and purify the biologically active phytoconstituents by using advanced scientific methodologies that serve as lead compounds in the synthesis of new therapeutic agents of desired interest in the world of drug discovery.

  20. Phenolic compounds characterization and biological activities of Citrus aurantium bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Hendra, Rudi; Oskoueian, Armin; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-30

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP). The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to appreciable

  1. Role of Muramyl Dipeptide in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Biological Activity and Osteoclast Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kitaura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an endotoxin and bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing inflammation and immunological activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is another inflammation-inducing molecule that is ubiquitously expressed by bacteria. Several studies have shown that inflammation-related biological activities were synergistically induced by interactions between LPS and MDP. MDP synergistically enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines that are induced by LPS exposure. Injection of MDP induces lethal shock in mice challenged with LPS. LPS also induces osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption; MDP enhances LPS induction of both processes. Furthermore, MDP enhances the LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, MDP enhances LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in stromal cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that MDP plays an important role in LPS-induced biological activities. This review discusses the role of MDP in LPS-mediated biological activities, primarily in relation to osteoclastogenesis.

  2. Physical therapy activities in stroke, knee arthroplasty, and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: their variation, similarities, and association with functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Gerben; Hsieh, Ching-Hui; Putman, Koen; Smout, Randall J; Horn, Susan D; Tian, Wenqiang

    2011-12-01

    The mix of physical therapy services is thought to be different with different impairment groups. However, it is not clear how much variation there is across impairment groups. Furthermore, the extent to which the same physical therapy activities are associated with functional outcomes across different types of patients is unknown. The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine similarities and differences in the mix of physical therapy activities used in rehabilitation among patients from different impairment groups and (2) to examine whether the same physical therapy activities are associated with functional improvement across impairment groups. This was a prospective observational cohort study. The study was conducted in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. The participants were 433 patients with stroke, 429 patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and 207 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Measures used in this study included: (1) the Comprehensive Severity Index to measure the severity of each patient's medical condition, (2) the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) to measure function, and (3) point-of-care instruments to measure time spent in specific physical therapy activities. All 3 groups had similar admission motor FIM scores but varying cognitive FIM scores. Patients with TKA spent more time on exercise than the other 2 groups (average=31.7 versus 6.2 minutes per day). Patients with TKA received the most physical therapy (average=65.3 minutes per day), whereas the TBI group received the least physical therapy (average=38.3 minutes per day). Multivariate analysis showed that only 2 physical therapy activities (gait training and community mobility) were both positively associated with discharge motor FIM outcomes across all 3 groups. Three physical therapy activities (assessment time, bed mobility, and transfers) were negatively associated with discharge motor FIM outcome. The study focused primarily on physical therapy without

  3. Amazonian palm Oenocarpus bataua ("patawa"): chemical and biological antioxidant activity--phytochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaire, A; Robinson, J-C; Bereau, D; Verbaere, A; Sommerer, N; Khan, M K; Durand, P; Prost, E; Fils-Lycaon, B

    2014-04-15

    In French Guiana, "diversity" within the Palm family is obvious since more than 75 species have been identified. Oenocarpus bataua Mart., called "patawa" is well known for its culinary uses whereas literature on its phytochemical composition and biological properties remains poor. This work deals with determining the antioxidant activity of this palm fruit and its polyphenol composition; Euterpe oleracea (açai) used as a reference. It turned out that patawa had a stronger antioxidant activity than açai in TEAC and FRAP tests. A similar activity was observed by DPPH assay whereas in ORAC and KRL tests, that açai showed an antioxidant activity respectively 2.6 and 1.5 fold higher than patawa. Polyphenolic composition, determined by UPLC/MS(n), would imply the presence of anthocyanins, condensed tannins, stilbenes and phenolic acids, well known for their biological activities. These results present patawa fruit as a new amazonian resource for cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  5. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  6. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  7. Modeling large scale cohesive sediment transport affected by small scale biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Bastiaan Wijnand; de Vries, Mindert; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; de Boer, Gerben J.

    2008-01-01

    Biological activity on the bottom of the seabed is known to have significant influence on the dynamics of cohesive sediment on a small spatial and temporal scale. In this study, we aim to understand the large-scale effects of small-scale biological activity. Hereto, effects of biology are

  8. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  9. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-07-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles.

  10. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sreeja; Sithul, Hima; Muraleedharan, Parvathy; Azeez, Juberiya Mohammed; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231), and endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc) were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds. PMID:24818149

  11. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  12. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  13. Isolation, Biological Activities and Synthesis of Indoloquinoline Alkaloids: Cryptolepine, Isocryptolepine and Neocryptolepine

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, P.T.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    of biological properties. This review describes the isolation, brief biological activities and various synthetic methodologies developed during recent years for the preparation of this important class of alkaloids, with special emphasis on preparation...

  14. Analysis of up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter technology in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoming; Liu, Jincui; Li, Shaowen; Biney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Problems have been found in the traditional post-positioned down-flow biological activated carbon filter (DBACF), such as microorganism leakage and low biodegradability. A pilot test was carried out to place a BACF between the sediment tank and the sand filter; a new technology of dual media up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter (UBACF) was developed. Results showed that in terms of the new process, the up-flow mode was better than the down-flow. Compared with the DBACF, the problem of microorganism leakage could be well resolved with the UBACF process by adding disinfectant before the sand filtration, and a similar adsorption effect could be obtained. For the tested raw water, the COD(Mn) and NH3-N removal rate was 54.6% and 85.0%, respectively, similar to the waterworks with the DBACF process. The UBACF greatly enhanced oxygen supply capability and mass transfer rate via aeration, and the NH3-N removal ability was significantly improved from 1.5 mg/L to more than 3 mg/L. Influent to the UBACF with higher turbidity could be coped with through the primary filtration of the ceramisite layer combined with fluid-bed technology, which gave the carbon bed a low-turbidity environment of less than 1.0 NTU. The backwashing parameters and carbon abrasion rate of the two processes were almost the same.

  15. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  16. Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Models for Pharmacophores’ 3D-Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within medicinal chemistry nowadays, the so-called pharmaco-dynamics seeks for qualitative (for understanding and quantitative (for predicting mechanisms/models by which given chemical structure or series of congeners actively act on biological sites either by focused interaction/therapy or by diffuse/hazardous influence. To this aim, the present review exposes three of the fertile directions in approaching the biological activity by chemical structural causes: the special computing trace of the algebraic structure-activity relationship (SPECTRAL-SAR offering the full analytical counterpart for multi-variate computational regression, the minimal topological difference (MTD as the revived precursor for comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA; all of these methods and algorithms were presented, discussed and exemplified on relevant chemical medicinal systems as proton pump inhibitors belonging to the 4-indolyl,2-guanidinothiazole class of derivatives blocking the acid secretion from parietal cells in the stomach, the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl]-6-(phenylthiothymine congeners’ (HEPT ligands antiviral activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus of first type (HIV-1 and new pharmacophores in treating severe genetic disorders (like depression and psychosis, respectively, all involving 3D pharmacophore interactions.

  17. MOLECULAR CLONING, SEQUENCING, EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) INTERFERON-GAMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Bao-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Fu; Wu, Xu-Jin; Ma, Qing-Yi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-29

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and indigenous to China. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is the only member of type □ IFN and is vital for the regulation of host adapted immunity and inflammatory response. Little is known aboutthe FN-γ gene and its roles in giant panda.In this study, IFN-γ gene of Qinling giant panda was amplified from total blood RNA by RT-CPR, cloned, sequenced and analysed. The open reading frame (ORF) of Qinling giant panda IFN-γ encodes 152 amino acidsand is highly similar to Sichuan giant panda with an identity of 99.3% in cDNA sequence. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence was ligated to the pET32a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells. Expression of recombinant IFN-γ protein of Qinling giant panda in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Biological activity assay indicated that the recombinant IFN-γ protein at the concentration of 4-10 µg/ml activated the giant panda peripheral blood lymphocytes,while at 12 µg/mlinhibited. the activation of the lymphocytes.These findings provide insights into the evolution of giant panda IFN-γ and information regarding amino acid residues essential for their biological activity.

  18. A Survey of Biology Teachers Use of Activity-Oriented, Laboratory Practical Exercises to Promote Functional Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Mgboyibo Osuafor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of science education is fostering students’ intellectual competencies such as independent learning, problem-solving, decision-making and critical thinking. This goal can only be achieved when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process through activity-based, practical-oriented instructional methods involving the use of laboratories. This study therefore, investigated the extent to which the biology teachers employ activity-oriented, laboratory/practical instructional methods in order to improve the learning outcome of their students. The descriptive survey involved 73 Biology teachers randomly selected from all the six education zones of Anambra state, Nigeria. Four research questions were posed and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the study. A 32-item structured questionnaire which has reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-tests. Results show that Biology teachers adopt practical-oriented strategies in teaching biology, conduct practical activities to a high extent, and perceive practical exercises as essential to effective teaching and learning of the subject. Provision of adequate number of laboratory materials, employment of adequate number of biology teachers, making provision for well designed laboratory activities in the curriculum and training of teachers on how to effectively combine theory with practical are some of the strategies that will encourage biology teachers to conduct practical lessons. There was no significant difference between male and female biology teachers in their responses to the different aspects investigated. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made that include that curriculum designers should incorporate guides for practical activities that go with each topic in the curriculum so as to encourage the teachers to teach theory with practical as a unified whole to

  19. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bruno L; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  20. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Giordano

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  1. The Production and Perception of Emotionally Expressive Walking Sounds: Similarities between Musical Performance and Everyday Motor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions. PMID:25551392

  2. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  3. Nonoxidized, biologically active parathyroid hormone determines mortality in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Grön, Hans Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was shown that nonoxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is bioactive, whereas the oxidation of PTH results in a loss of biological activity. Methods: In this study we analyzed the association of n-oxPTH on mortality in hemodialysis patients using a recently developed assay system. Results......: Hemodialysis patients (224 men, 116 women) had a median age of 66 years. One hundred seventy patients (50%) died during the follow-up period of 5 years. Median n-oxPTH levels were higher in survivors (7.2 ng/L) compared with deceased patients (5.0 ng/L; P = .002). Survival analysis showed an increased survival...... in the highest n-oxPTH tertile compared with the lowest n-oxPTH tertile (χ(2), 14.3; P = .0008). Median survival was 1702 days in the highest n-oxPTH tertile, whereas it was only 453 days in the lowest n-oxPTH tertile. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression showed that higher age increased odds for death, whereas...

  4. Synthesis of Combretastatin A-4 Analogs and their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Agnieszka; Gensicka, Monika; Cholewinski, Grzegorz; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a natural product, which consists of two phenyl rings, linked by an ethylene bridge. CA-4, inhibitor of polymerization of tubulin to microtubules, possesses a strong antitumor and anti-vascular properties both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies showed that disodium phosphate salt of CA-4, a water-soluble prodrug is well tolerated at therapeutically useful doses. However, it should be noted that the cis-configuration of the double bond and the 3,4,5-trimethoxy group on ring A is necessary for the biological activity of CA-4. Structure of CA-4 renders the compound readily susceptible to isomerization, which reduces the potency and bioavailability. To circumvent this problem, a lot of scientists in the world synthesized a series of cis-restricted CA-4 analogs, where the double bond has been replaced by introduction of non-heterocyclic groups or heterocyclic groups like β -lactam and oxadiazole. This paper reviews the most important approaches in analogs of combretastatin synthesis and presents structure-reactivity relationships for these compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  6. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  7. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  8. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Lampson, M. A.; Greathouse, D. V.; Koeppe, R. E., II; Andersen, O. S.

    2006-07-01

    Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)—Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly—alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.

  10. Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: similar activity but difference in subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lemeng; Miettinen, Karel; Goedbloed, Miriam; Verstappen, Francel W A; Voster, Alessandra; Jongsma, Maarten A; Memelink, Johan; van der Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2013-11-01

    Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32 µM and 51 µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and sub-cellular localization of VoGES and LdGES were characterized in stable transformed tobacco and using transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Transgenic tobacco expressing VoGES or LdGES accumulate geraniol, oxidized geraniol compounds like geranial, geranic acid and hexose conjugates of these compounds to similar levels. Geraniol emission of leaves was lower than that of flowers, which could be related to higher levels of competing geraniol-conjugating activities in leaves. GFP-fusions of the two GES proteins show that VoGES resides (as expected) predominantly in the plastids, while LdGES import into to the plastid is clearly impaired compared to that of VoGES, resulting in both cytosolic and plastidic localization. Geraniol production by VoGES and LdGES in N. benthamiana was nonetheless very similar. Expression of a truncated version of VoGES or LdGES (cytosolic targeting) resulted in the accumulation of 30% less geraniol glycosides than with the plastid targeted VoGES and LdGES, suggesting that the substrate geranyl diphosphate is readily available, both in the plastids as well as in the cytosol. The potential role of GES in the engineering of the TIA pathway in heterologous hosts is discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity and fitness of young men in aspect of biological maturity described by electroforetic motility of nuclei method (EMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Wieczorek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the study of physical activity it is usually accepted a priori that the group similar in terms of the calendar age satisfies the uniformity assumption. This fact should be verified using methods which allow to establish objectively the degree of biological maturity. One of them is a determinant of biological age which also allows for an assessment of the biological value of a system, irrespective of the traindness level, sport or limitations of physical activity. The aim of the study is to show differences in the level of physical fitness of young men uniform in terms of biological maturity and different in terms of calendar age. The study covered 189 young men aged 19 to 24. Their motor fitness was determining by using Eurofit test. The subjects’ preferred form of physical activity as well as its level was established in interviews. Their EMN indicators were established on the basis of the degree of electroforetical mobility of cell nuclei by the ratio of cells with motile nuclei to all observed cells meeting the selection criterion. The biological material was the oral epithelium.The subjects varied in terms of calendar age did not differ significantly in terms of their biological maturity. The differences in some tests of can be linked to the level of physical fitness more than to the preferred forms. motor fitness.

  12. Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Allison A; Wang, Yuanyuan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Yi, Henry Y; Li, Rui; Bjeldanes, Leonard; Ye, Chuangxing; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-08-01

    Purine compounds, such as caffeine, have many health-promoting properties and have proven to be beneficial in treating a number of different conditions. Theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine and abundantly present in Camellia kucha, has recently become of interest as a potential therapeutic compound. In the present study, theacrine was tested using a rodent behavioral model to investigate the effects of the drug on locomotor activity. Long Evans rats were injected with theacrine (24 or 48 mg/kg, i.p.) and activity levels were measured. Results showed that the highest dose of theacrine (48 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased locomotor activity compared to control animals and activity remained elevated throughout the duration of the session. To test for the involvement of adenosine receptors underlying theacrine's motor-activating properties, rats were administered a cocktail of the adenosine A₁ agonist, N⁶-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680; 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with theacrine significantly attenuated the motor depression induced by the adenosine receptor agonists, indicating that theacrine is likely acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Next, we examined the role of DA D₁ and D₂ receptor antagonism on theacrine-induced hyperlocomotion. Both antagonists, D₁R SCH23390 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) and D₂R eticlopride (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly reduced theacrine-stimulated activity indicating that this behavioral response, at least in part, is mediated by DA receptors. In order to investigate the brain region where theacrine may be acting, the drug (10 or 20 μg) was infused bilaterally into nucleus accumbens (NAc). Theacrine enhanced activity levels in a dose-dependent manner, implicating a role of the NAc in modulating theacrine's effects on locomotion. In addition, theacrine did not induce locomotor

  13. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.N.I.; Ashley, G.W.; Stubbe, J.

    1987-01-01

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with [1- 14 C]iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of 14 C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I

  14. Production of biologically active recombinant human factor H in Physcomitrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Parsons, Juliana; Jérôme, Hanna; Hartmann, Andrea; Lamer, Stephanie; Schaaf, Andreas; Schlosser, Andreas; Zipfel, Peter F; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L

    2011-04-01

    The human complement regulatory serum protein factor H (FH) is a promising future biopharmaceutical. Defects in the gene encoding FH are associated with human diseases like severe kidney and retinal disorders in the form of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis II (MPGN II) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is a current need to apply intact full-length FH for the therapy of patients with congenital or acquired defects of this protein. Application of purified or recombinant FH (rFH) to these patients is an important and promising approach for the treatment of these diseases. However, neither protein purified from plasma of healthy individuals nor recombinant protein is currently available on the market. Here, we report the first stable expression of the full-length human FH cDNA and the subsequent production of this glycoprotein in a plant system. The moss Physcomitrella patens perfectly suits the requirements for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals as this eukaryotic system not only offers an outstanding genetical accessibility, but moreover, proteins can be produced safely in scalable photobioreactors without the need for animal-derived medium compounds. Transgenic moss lines were created, which express the human FH cDNA and target the recombinant protein to the culture supernatant via a moss-derived secretion signal. Correct processing of the signal peptide and integrity of the moss-produced rFH were verified via peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we show that the rFH displays complement regulatory activity comparable to FH purified from plasma. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    -rich environment differentially alters gene expression in these cells. In addition, Ingenuity pathway analysis of the specific biological pathways that differentiate DC-derived cells from carpal tunnel-derived cells has identified the potential involvement of microRNAs in this fibroproliferative disorder. Conclusions These data show that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected palmar fascia in DC patients are highly similar, and differ significantly from the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. PMID:22559715

  16. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Latha

    2012-05-01

    a collagen-rich environment differentially alters gene expression in these cells. In addition, Ingenuity pathway analysis of the specific biological pathways that differentiate DC-derived cells from carpal tunnel-derived cells has identified the potential involvement of microRNAs in this fibroproliferative disorder. Conclusions These data show that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected palmar fascia in DC patients are highly similar, and differ significantly from the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release.

  17. Molecular Similarity Concepts for Informatics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of small molecule similarity is a central task in chemoinformatics and medicinal chemistry. A variety of molecular representations and metrics are applied to computationally evaluate and quantify molecular similarity. A critically important aspect of molecular similarity analysis in chemoinformatics and pharmaceutical research is that one is typically not interested in quantifying the degree of structural or chemical similarity between compounds per se, but rather in extrapolating from molecular similarity to property similarity. In other words, one assumes that there is a correlation between calculated similarity and specific properties of small molecules including, first and foremost, biological activities. Although similarity is a priori a subjective concept, and difficult to quantify, it must computationally be assessed in a formally consistent manner. Otherwise, there is little utility of similarity calculations. Consistent treatment requires approximations to be made and the consideration of alternative computational similarity concepts, as discussed herein.

  18. Characterization of biological macromolecules by electrophoresis and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Hancock, D.; Zeisler, R.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with INAA and autoradiography was developed to study biological macromolecules and their associated trace elements. Results from the application of this method to several metalloproteins are presented. (author)

  19. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  20. Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; MacNeil, R Gavin; Clough, Launa G; Dirain, Marvin; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-06-01

    Repair of skeletal muscle after injury is a key aspect of maintaining proper musculoskeletal function. Studies have suggested that regenerative processes, including myogenesis and angiogenesis, are impaired during advanced age, but evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to compare active muscle regeneration between healthy young and older adults. We evaluated changes in clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical indices of muscle regeneration at precisely 2 (T2) and 7 (T3) days following acute muscle injury. Men and women, aged 18-30 and ≥70 years, matched for gender and body mass index, performed 150 unilateral, eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 110% of one repetition maximum. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, adjusted for gender, habitual physical activity, and baseline level of the outcome. A total of 30 young (n = 15; 22.5 ± 3.7 yr) and older (n = 15; 75.8 ± 5.0 yr) adults completed the study. Following muscle injury, force production declined 16% and 14% in young and older adults, respectively, by T2 and in each group, returned to 93% of baseline strength by T3. Despite modest differences in the pattern of response, postinjury changes in intramuscular concentrations of myogenic growth factors and number of myonuclear (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole+ and paired box 7+) cells were largely similar between groups. Likewise, postinjury changes in serum and intramuscular indices of inflammation (e.g., TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF and kinase insert domain receptor) did not differ significantly between groups. These findings suggest that declines in physical activity and increased co-morbidity may contribute to age-related impairments in active muscle regeneration rather than aging per se. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Pulmonary parenchyma segmentation in thin CT image sequences with spectral clustering and geodesic active contour model based on similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nana; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhao, Huilan; Qiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    While the popular thin layer scanning technology of spiral CT has helped to improve diagnoses of lung diseases, the large volumes of scanning images produced by the technology also dramatically increase the load of physicians in lesion detection. Computer-aided diagnosis techniques like lesions segmentation in thin CT sequences have been developed to address this issue, but it remains a challenge to achieve high segmentation efficiency and accuracy without much involvement of human manual intervention. In this paper, we present our research on automated segmentation of lung parenchyma with an improved geodesic active contour model that is geodesic active contour model based on similarity (GACBS). Combining spectral clustering algorithm based on Nystrom (SCN) with GACBS, this algorithm first extracts key image slices, then uses these slices to generate an initial contour of pulmonary parenchyma of un-segmented slices with an interpolation algorithm, and finally segments lung parenchyma of un-segmented slices. Experimental results show that the segmentation results generated by our method are close to what manual segmentation can produce, with an average volume overlap ratio of 91.48%.

  2. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  3. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  4. Metabolic activities of five botryticides against Botrytis cinerea examined using the Biolog FF MicroPlate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hancheng; Wang, Jin; Li, Licui; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Maosheng; Shang, Shenghua; Yu, Zhihe

    2016-08-05

    Tobacco grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important fungal disease worldwide. Boscalid, carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and propiconazole are representative botryticides for grey mold management. This research investigated the sensitivities of B. cinerea from tobacco to these chemicals using the Biolog FF Microplate. All five chemicals showed inhibitory activity, with average EC50 values of 0.94, 0.05, 0.50, 0.61 and 0.31 μg ml(-1), respectively. B. cinerea metabolized 96.8% of tested carbon sources, including 29 effectively and 33 moderately, but the metabolic fingerprints differed under pressures imposed by these botryticides. For boscalid, B. cinerea was unable to metabolize many substrates related to tricarboxylic acid cycle. For carbendazim, carbon sources related to glycolysis were not metabolized. For iprodione, use of most carbon substrates was weakly inhibited, and the metabolic profile was similar to that of the control. For propiconazole, no carbon substrates were metabolized and the physiological and biochemical functions of the pathogen were totally inhibited. These findings provide useful information on metabolic activities of these botryticides, and may lead to future applications of the Biolog FF Microplate for examining metabolic effects of other fungicides on other fungi, as well as providing a metabolic fingerprint of B. cinerea that could be useful for identification.

  5. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  7. Screening of some marine plants from the Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Solimabi; Kamat, S.Y.; De; Reddy, C.V.G.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Dhawan, B

    Extracts of twenty five seaweeds from Indian coast have been put through a broad biological screen which includes tests for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antifertility activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities...

  8. Determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols in various objects by chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, M V; Semenistaya, E N; Larionov, Oleg G; Revina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques for determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols are considered. Various methods for sample preparation and detection are compared. The advantages of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection for determination of antioxidants are demonstrated. Data on determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols published in the period from 1995 to 2005 are analysed.

  9. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...... developments in the synthesis of macrocycles, with an emphasis on chemistry developed to generate libraries of putative biologically active compounds....

  10. Biological activities of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana butters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf M. Al-Enazi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities; antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer, of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana were determined. The total ethanol, lipoidal matters, chloroform, n-butanol, aqueous extracts and powder of both algae showed and bacterial and antifungal activities. However, the chloroform extract of Galaxaura rugosa showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 mm, 0.15 mg/ml higher than gentamycin (23 mm, 0.49 mg/ml. Moreover, the total ethanol, lipoidal matter and chloroform extracts showed antifungal activity (21, 22 and 25 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml similar to the antibiotic Ketoconazole activity (23, 24 and 27 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and Candida trobicalis, respectively. A good antioxidant activity (80.96%, IC50 = 27.8 µg/ml was provided by Galaxaura rugosa. The anticancer activity results revealed that the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana possessed antitumor activity (IC50 = 15 ± 1.7 and 21.2 ± 1.6, respectively against lung carcinoma (A-549 better than vinblastine sulfate (IC50 = 24.6 ± 0.7. Although, the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana antitumor activity against cervical carcinoma (HeLa and intestinal carcinoma (CACO-2 (IC50 = 10.2 ± 0.6 and 12.2 ± 0.6, respectively preferable than vinblastine sulfate (IC50 = 59.7 ± 2.1 and 30.3 ± 1.4, respectively.

  11. Biological activities of the red algaeGalaxaura rugosaandLiagora hawaiianabutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enazi, Nouf M; Awaad, Amani S; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Alwethairi, Metab F

    2018-01-01

    The biological activities; antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer, of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana were determined. The total ethanol, lipoidal matters, chloroform, n-butanol, aqueous extracts and powder of both algae showed and bacterial and antifungal activities. However, the chloroform extract of Galaxaura rugosa showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 mm, 0.15 mg/ml) higher than gentamycin (23 mm, 0.49 mg/ml). Moreover, the total ethanol, lipoidal matter and chloroform extracts showed antifungal activity (21, 22 and 25 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml) similar to the antibiotic Ketoconazole activity (23, 24 and 27 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml) against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. niger and Candida trobicalis , respectively. A good antioxidant activity (80.96%, IC 50  = 27.8 µg/ml) was provided by Galaxaura rugosa . The anticancer activity results revealed that the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana possessed antitumor activity (IC 50  = 15 ± 1.7 and 21.2 ± 1.6, respectively) against lung carcinoma (A-549) better than vinblastine sulfate (IC 50  = 24.6 ± 0.7). Although, the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana antitumor activity against cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and intestinal carcinoma (CACO-2) (IC 50  = 10.2 ± 0.6 and 12.2 ± 0.6, respectively) preferable than vinblastine sulfate (IC 50  = 59.7 ± 2.1 and 30.3 ± 1.4, respectively).

  12. Synthesis and reactions of some biologically active 2-(2'-thienyl)benzoxazinone and quinazolinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Khamry, A M; el-Nagdy, S; Habashy, M M; el-Bassiouny, F A

    1989-05-01

    Different amines were found to attack the hitherto unknown 6,8-dibromo-2-(2'-thienyl)-3,1-benzoxazin-4(H)-one (2) entirely at position-4, producing the corresponding benzamide derivatives 3a-i. Compound 2 reacted with hydrazoic acid affording the tetrazole 5, beside the benzimidazole derivative 6. Similarly carbon nucleophiles, such as ethyl acetoacetate attack 2 to give 7. 6,8-Dibromo-2(2'-thienyl)-4(3H)-quinazoline and its 3-substituted derivatives 8 a-g were also synthesized. Theoretical calculations for the benzoxazinone 2 and others, based on the simple HMO-method were performed. Close accordance between the theoretically predicted reactivities and the experimental findings was obtained. Biological activities of some of the compounds obtained were also tested.

  13. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adam K MacMillan,1 Francis V Lamberti,1 Julia N Moulton,2 Benjamin M Geilich,2 Thomas J Webster2,3 1RTI Surgical, Alachua, FL, USA; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]. This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL] are normal (ie, non-diseased on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of new homolupanes and homolupane saponins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidoryk, K.; Korda, A.; Rárová, Lucie; Oklešťková, Jana; Strnad, Miroslav; Cmoch, P.; Pakulski, Z.; Gwardiak, K.; Karczewski, R.; Luboradzki, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 13 (2015), s. 2004-2012 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Homobetulin * Homobetulinic acid * Glycosylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  15. Biological activities of Peganum harmala leaves | Hayet | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activity was evaluated using ammonium thiocyanate method. Among tested extracts, methanol and chloroform extracts displayed a higher antibacterial activity against gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. The methanol extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity and good antiviral activity ...

  16. Chemical characterisation of Nigerian red propolis and its biological activity against Trypanosoma Brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ruwida M K; Igoli, John; Gray, Alexander I; Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Clements, Carol; Fearnley, James; Ebel, Ru Angeli Edrada; Zhang, Tong; De Koning, Harry P; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    A previous study showed the unique character of Nigerian red propolis from Rivers State, Nigeria (RSN), with regards to chemical composition and activity against Trypanosoma brucei in comparison with other African propolis. To carry out fractionation and biological testing of Nigerian propolis in order to isolate compounds with anti-trypanosomal activity. To compare the composition of the RSN propolis with the composition of Brazilian red propolis. Profiling was carried out using HPLC-UV-ELSD and HPLC-Orbitrap-FTMS on extracts of two samples collected from RSN with data extraction using MZmine software. Isolation was carried out by normal phase and reversed phase MPLC. Elucidation of the compounds with a purity > 95% was performed by 1D/2D NMR HRMS and HRLC-MS(n) . Ten phenolic compounds were isolated or in the case of liquiritigenin partially purified. Data for nine of these correlated with literature reports of known compounds i.e. one isoflavanone, calycosin (1); two flavanones, liquiritigenin (2) and pinocembrin (5); an isoflavan, vestitol (3); a pterocarpan, medicarpin (4); two prenylflavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (7) and 6-prenylnaringenin (8); and two geranyl flavonoids, propolin D (9) and macarangin (10). The tenth was elucidated as a previously undescribed dihydrobenzofuran (6). The isolated compounds were tested against Trypanosoma brucei and displayed moderate to high activity. Some of the compounds tested had similar activity against wild type T. brucei and two strains displaying pentamidine resistance. Nigerian propolis from RSN has some similarities with Brazilian red propolis. The propolis displayed anti-trypanosomal activity at a potentially useful level. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Genetic Aspects of Three Ocotea Species from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kelly da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea species present economic importance and biological activities attributed to their essential oils (EOs and extracts. For this reason, various strategies have been developed for their conservation. The chemical compositions of the essential oils and matK DNA sequences of O. caudata, O. cujumary, and O. caniculata were subjected to comparison with data from O. floribunda, O. veraguensis, and O. whitei, previously reported. The multivariate analysis of chemical composition classified the EOs into two main clusters. Group I was characterized by the presence of α-pinene (9.8–22.5% and β-pinene (9.7–21.3% and it includes O. caudata, O. whitei, and O. floribunda. In group II, the oils of O. cujumary and O. caniculata showed high similarity due amounts of β-caryophyllene (22.2% and 18.9%, respectively. The EO of O. veraguensis, rich in p-cymene (19.8%, showed minor similarity among all samples. The oils displayed promising antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC < 19.5 µg·mL−1 and MCF-7 cells (median inhibitory concentration (IC50 ≅ 65.0 µg·mL−1, respectively. The analysis of matK gene displayed a good correlation with the main class of chemical compounds present in the EOs. However, the matK gene data did not show correlation with specific compounds.

  18. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Huaiyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD, Entity Relationship (ER and Activity Flow (AF, allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail.

  19. Synthesis, biological activities, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel camptothecin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Liu, Ying-Qian; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Liu, Huan-Xiang; Chen, An-Liang

    2015-05-13

    In continuation of our program aimed at the development of natural product-based pesticidal agents, three series of novel camptothecin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their biological activities against T. Cinnabarinus, B. brassicae, and B. xylophilus. All of the derivatives showed good-to-excellent activity against three insect species tested, with LC50 values ranging from 0.00761 to 0.35496 mmol/L. Remarkably, all of the compounds were more potent than CPT against T. Cinnabarinus, and compounds 4d and 4c displayed superior activity (LC50 0.00761 mmol/L and 0.00942 mmol/L, respectively) compared with CPT (LC50 0.19719 mmol/L) against T. Cinnabarinus. Based on the observed bioactivities, preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were also discussed. Furthermore, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was built. The model gave statistically significant results with the cross-validated q2 values of 0.580 and correlation coefficient r2 of 0.991 and  of 0.993. The QSAR analysis indicated that the size of the substituents play an important in the activity of 7-modified camptothecin derivatives. These findings will pave the way for further design, structural optimization, and development of camptothecin-derived compounds as pesticidal agents.

  20. Pharmacological and biological activities of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Rozina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlants have been used for health care and medical purposes for several thousands of years. The number of higher plant species on earth is about 250000. It is estimated that 35000 to 70000 species have, at one time or another, been used in some cultures for medicinal purposes. One of these is Mirabilis jalapa L. which is traditionally used as Purgative and emetic, for treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders, including dysentery, diarrhea, muscle pain and abdominal colic. Besides this it also exhibits certain useful activities like Antiviral activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antimalarial activity, Anthelmintic activity, Antioxidant activity, Aytotoxic activity Anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity, Antinociceptive activity, Antifungal activity, Anti-corrosion activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anti-inflammatory activity and many others. Pharmacologically active compounds include active alcoholic extract, ether compound-3,3’-Methylenebis (4- hydroxycoumarin N-D-alpha-Phenylyglycinelaminaribiitol-3-(4-(dimethylamino cinnamoyl 4hydroxycoumarin. The purpose of my review is to find out the areas of scope and to give the detail of the work done on Mirabilis Jalapa L. for future research work.

  1. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  2. FINASOL OSR 52 active components biodegradation by using the biologic activator Biolen IG 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J. R.; Luengo, M. C.; Socias, S.; Perez, F.; Laseca, D.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Morales, N.

    1997-01-01

    Degradation of the active ingredients in the FINASOL OSR 52, a commonly used dispersant in the treatment of marine oil spills, was studied. BIOLEN IG 30, comprising a mixture of bacteria, specially selected for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds, was used as the biodegrading agent. The kinetic coefficients of the degradation process were determined at different conditions, at ambient temperature, and at controlled 20 degrees C. BIOLEN IC 10 biologic activator was found to be adequate for total ionic and anionic dispersant degradation of the FINASOL OSR 52 at room temperature and at controlled 20 degrees C. Weekly addition of one gram of BIOLEN IG 30 was observed to improve biodegradation percentages for both ionic and anionic dispersants at controlled 20 degrees C. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Telomere Lengths and Telomerase Activity in Dog Tissues: A Potential Model System to Study Human Telomere and Telomerase Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Nasir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on telomere and telomerase biology are fundamental to the understanding of aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. However, human studies have been hindered by differences in telomere biology between humans and the classical murine animal model system. In this paper, we describe basic studies of telomere length and telomerase activity in canine normal and neoplastic tissues and propose the dog as an alternative model system. Briefly, telomere lengths were measured in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, a range of normal canine tissues, and in a panel of naturally occurring soft tissue tumours by terminal restriction fragment (TRF analysis. Further, telomerase activity was measured in canine cell lines and multiple canine tissues using a combined polymerase chain reaction/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. TRF analysis in canine PBMCs and tissues demonstrated mean TRF lengths to range between 12 and 23 kbp with heterogeneity in telomere lengths being observed in a range of normal somatic tissues. In soft tissue sarcomas, two subgroups were identified with mean TRFs of 22.2 and 18.2 kbp. Telomerase activity in canine tissue was present in tumour tissue and testis with little or no activity in normal somatic tissues. These results suggest that the dog telomere biology is similar to that in humans and may represent an alternative model system for studying telomere biology and telomerase-targeted anticancer therapies.

  4. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  5. Comparative Study of Biological Activities of Venom from Colubrid Snakes Rhabdophis tigrinus (Yamakagashi and Rhabdophis lateralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Komori

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdophis lateralis, a colubrid snake distributed throughout the continent of Asia, has recently undergone taxonomic revisions. Previously, Rhabdophis lateralis was classified as a subspecies of R. tigrinus (Yamakagashi until 2012, when several genetic differences were discovered which classified this snake as its own species. To elucidate the toxicity of venom from this poorly studied colubrid, various biological activities were compared between the venom from the two snake species. The components of their venom were compared by the elution profiles of reversed-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE, and gel filtrated fractions were tested for effects on blood coagulation. Proteolytic activities of these fractions were also assayed by using synthetic substrates, fibrinogen, and matrix proteins. Similar to the R. tigrinus venom, the higher molecular weight fraction of R. lateralis venom contained a prothrombin activator. Both prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT of human plasma were shortened by the addition of R. lateralis and R. tigrinus venom. The thrombin formation was estimated by the uses of SDS-PAGE and chromogenic substrates. These venom fractions also possessed very specific proteinase activity on human fibrinogen, but the substrates for matrix metalloproteinase, such as collagen and laminin, were not hydrolyzed. However, there were some notable differences in reactivity to synthetic substrates for matrix metalloproteinase, and R. tigrinus venom possessed relatively higher activity. Our chemical investigation indicates that the components included in both venoms resemble each other closely. However, the ratio of components and proteolytic activity of some ingredients are slightly different, indicating differences between two closely-related snakes.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Creatinine Amides and Creatinine Schiff Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Amara; Zahoor, Fareeha; Zaib, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Azhar H; Saeed, Aamer; Waseem, Amir; Khan, Afsar; Hussain, Izhar; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-01-30

    In spite of substantial progress in scientific cognizance and medical technology, still infectious diseases are among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Creatinine and Schiff bases are well known for their diverse range of biological activities and thought to be emerging and useful therapeutic target for the treatment of several diseases. The present work was aimed to illustrate the influence of substitution of amides and Schiff bases on creatinine and their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-urease effectiveness was determined. Creatinine substituted amides (1-2) and creatinine Schiff bases (3-7) were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectral data in combination with elemental analysis. All the compounds (1-7) were investigated on Jack bean urease for their urease inhibitory potential. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds was made by the agar dilution method. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to determine their antioxidant potential. Molecular docking studies were also carried out to elucidate their relationship with the binding pockets of the enzyme. The compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of urease. The synthesized derivatives exhibited significant inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, as compared to standard, ciprofloxacin. Creatinine based derivatives exhibited potential antifungal activity when tested on infectious and pathogenic fungal strains. Similarly, most of the compounds exhibited good antioxidant activity. These derivatives may serve as a source of potential antioxidants and also help to retard microbial growth in food industry. Similarly, the studies provide a basis for further research to develop more potent urease inhibitory compounds of medicinal /agricultural interest. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. MDMA (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) and its stereoisomers: Similarities and differences in behavioral effects in an automated activity apparatus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard; Glennon, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Racemic MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), S(+)-MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), R(-)-MDMA (0.3-50 mg/kg) and saline vehicle (10 ml/kg) were comprehensively evaluated in fully automated and computer-integrated activity chambers, which were designed for mice, and provided a detailed analysis of the frequency, location, and/or duration of 18 different activities. The results indicated that MDMA and its isomers produced stimulation of motor actions, with S(+)-MDMA and (+/-)-MDMA usually being more potent than R(-)-MDMA in measures such as movement (time, distance, velocity), margin distance, rotation (clockwise and counterclockwise), and retraced activities. Interestingly, racemic MDMA appeared to exert a greater than expected potency and/or an enhanced effect on measures such as movement episodes, center actions (entries and distance), clockwise rotations, and jumps; actions that might be explained by additive or synergistic (i.e. potentiation) effects of the stereoisomers. In other measures, the enantiomers displayed different effects: S(+)-MDMA produced a preference to induce counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations, and each isomer exerted a different profile of effect on vertical activities and jumps. Furthermore, each isomer of MDMA appeared to attenuate the effect of its opposite enantiomer on some behaviors; antagonism effects that were surmised from a lack of expected activities by racemic MDMA. S(+)-MDMA (but not R(-)-MDMA), for example, produced an increase in vertical entries (rearing) and a preference to increase counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations; (+/-)-MDMA also should have induced such effects but did not. Apparently, R(-)-MDMA, when combined with S(+)-MDMA to form (+/-)-MDMA, prevented the appearance of those increases (from control) in activities. Similarly, R(-)-MDMA (but not S(+)-MDMA) produced increases in episodes (i.e. jumps) and vertical distance that racemic MDMA also should have, but were not, exhibited. Evidently, the presence of S(+)-MDMA in the

  8. Biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-08-13

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  9. Triple Therapy Versus Biologic Therapy for Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Sun, Huiying; O'Dell, James R; Brophy, Mary; Keystone, Edward C; Leatherman, Sarah; Mikuls, Ted R; Anis, Aslam H

    2017-07-04

    The RACAT (Rheumatoid Arthritis Comparison of Active Therapies) trial found triple therapy to be noninferior to etanercept-methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To determine the cost-effectiveness of etanercept-methotrexate versus triple therapy as a first-line strategy. A within-trial analysis based on the 353 participants in the RACAT trial and a lifetime analysis that extrapolated costs and outcomes by using a decision analytic cohort model. The RACAT trial and sources from the literature. Patients with active RA despite at least 12 weeks of methotrexate therapy. 24 weeks and lifetime. Societal and Medicare. Etanercept-methotrexate first versus triple therapy first. Incremental costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The within-trial analysis found that etanercept-methotrexate as first-line therapy provided marginally more QALYs but accumulated substantially higher drug costs. Differences in other costs between strategies were negligible. The ICERs for first-line etanercept-methotrexate and triple therapy were $2.7 million per QALY and $0.98 million per QALY over 24 and 48 weeks, respectively. The lifetime analysis suggested that first-line etanercept-methotrexate would result in 0.15 additional lifetime QALY, but this gain would cost an incremental $77 290, leading to an ICER of $521 520 per QALY per patient. Considering a long-term perspective, an initial strategy of etanercept-methotrexate and biologics with similar cost and efficacy is unlikely to be cost-effective compared with using triple therapy first, even under optimistic assumptions. Data on the long-term benefit of triple therapy are uncertain. Initiating biologic therapy without trying triple therapy first increases costs while providing minimal incremental benefit. The Cooperative Studies Program, Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development, Canadian Institutes for Health Research, and an

  10. The influence of urban area opacity on biologically active UV-B irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Rozental', Victor

    2013-04-01

    The study of UV irradiance changes in urban area is an essential problem due to the significant effect of UV irradiance on human health which can be positive (vitamin D synthesis) and negative (erythema, skin cancer, eye damage). According to the results of several experiments within the Moscow megacity we studied the effects of urban area opacity on the different types of biologically active UV-B irradiance on the base of a specially developed mobile photometric complex snd additional measurements of the urban opacity by Nikon Fisheye Converter FC-E8. We analyzed both the level of erythemally-active irradiance and the UV eye damaging radiation using the broadband UVB-1 YES pyranometer calibrated against ultraviolet spectroradiometer Bentham DTM-300 of the Medical University of Innsbruck (courtesy of Dr. M.Blumthaler). In order to estimate the effects of the urban opacity the measurements were normalized on similar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University with zero opacity. This ratio is defined as an urban radiative transmittance (URT). Different atmospheric conditions were considered. In cloudy conditions the effect of opacity on URT is much less than that in conditions when the sun disk is open from clouds. We revealed some spectral features in transmittance of biologically active UV-B irradiance which is characterized by higher URT variations in overcast cloudy conditions due to more intensive scattering and smaller direct solar radiation component. In the absence of cloudiness the effect of opacity was studied for open and screening solar disk conditions. We obtained much higher URT in UVB spectral region compared with that for total solar irradiance for screening solar disk conditions with a significant URT dependence on the opacity only in UVB spectral region. No URT dependence was obtained for total solar irradiance in these conditions. Some model calculations were fulfilled to match the experimental results.

  11. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  12. Biological activities of some Fluoroquinolones-metal complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    . There was no observation of mutagenic effects in the dominant lethal test in mice. Similarly, there was no detection of carcinogenic effect on a 19-month study of chronic administration of norfloxacin to rat at 8-9 times the usual human dose.

  13. Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active Archaean ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Ruth E; Chang, Sae Jung; Lepland, Aivo

    2010-04-15

    Oxygen and silicon isotope compositions of cherts and studies of protein evolution have been interpreted to reflect ocean temperatures of 55-85 degrees C during the early Palaeoarchaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago). A recent study combining oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of cherts, however, makes a case for Archaean ocean temperatures being no greater than 40 degrees C (ref. 5). Ocean temperature can also be assessed using the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate. Recent studies show that (18)O:(16)O ratios of dissolved inorganic phosphate (delta(18)O(P)) reflect ambient seawater temperature as well as biological processing that dominates marine phosphorus cycling at low temperature. All forms of life require and concentrate phosphorus, and as a result of biological processing, modern marine phosphates have delta(18)O(P) values typically between 19-26 per thousand (VSMOW), highly evolved from presumed source values of approximately 6-8 per thousand that are characteristic of apatite in igneous rocks and meteorites. Here we report oxygen isotope compositions of phosphates in sediments from the 3.2-3.5-billion-year-old Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We find that delta(18)O(P) values range from 9.3 per thousand to 19.9 per thousand and include the highest values reported for Archaean rocks. The temperatures calculated from our highest delta(18)O(P) values and assuming equilibrium with sea water with delta(18)O = 0 per thousand (ref. 12) range from 26 degrees C to 35 degrees C. The higher delta(18)O(P) values are similar to those of modern marine phosphate and suggest a well-developed phosphorus cycle and evolved biologic activity on the Archaean Earth.

  14. Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Plants Growing in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the oils showed anti-candida activity, with oils from Ocimum species being the most active compared to the others. Thus, Ocimum suave oils merit further investigation towards the development of safe and biodegradable larvicides. Furthermore, oils from Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum kilimandscharicum could offer ...

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of 1-substituted-2-methyl benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activities. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were verified on the basis of spectral and elemental methods of analyses. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds ...

  16. Biological activities and nutritional value of Tapinanthus bangwensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions showed cytotoxic activity with LD50 values of 11.22 and 15.84 μg/ml, respectively. ... These results demonstrate the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of T. bangwensis leaves and support the traditional use of the plant in cancer treatment.

  17. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anis

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit.

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    antiprotozoal. 20,21 and anti-hepatitis B virus activity. 22. In addition, a large number of antibiotics contain the 2-azetidinone. (commonly known as β-lactam) moiety. 23 such as penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem (figure 2). It is also associated with a variety of therapeutic activities. 24–28. In continuation of our work to.

  19. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit collected in August ...

  20. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  1. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  2. A glimpse on biological activities of tellurium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. O. R. Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium is a rare element which has been regarded as a toxic, non-essential trace element and its biological role is not clearly established to date. Besides of that, the biological effects of elemental tellurium and some of its inorganic and organic derivatives have been studied, leading to a set of interesting and promising applications. As an example, it can be highlighted the uses of alkali-metal tellurites and tellurates in microbiology, the antioxidant effects of organotellurides and diorganoditellurides and the immunomodulatory effects of the non-toxic inorganic tellurane, named AS-101, and the plethora of its uses. Inasmuch, the nascent applications of organic telluranes (organotelluranes as protease inhibitors and its applications in disease models are the most recent contribution to the scenario of the biological effects and applications of tellurium and its compounds discussed in this manuscript.O telúrio é um elemento não-essencial raro que vem sendo considerado tóxico, e o seu papel biológico é ainda pouco esclarecido. Apesar disso, os efeitos biológicos do telúrio elementar e de alguns derivados inorgânicos e orgânicos que têm sido estudados revelam um conjunto de aplicações diversificadas interessantes e promissoras. Como exemplo, pode-se destacar os usos de teluritos e teluratos de metais alcalinos em microbiologia, o efeito antioxidante de teluretos e diteluretos orgânicos, os efeitos imunomodulatórios e a diversidade de usos correlacionados a este efeito de uma telurana inorgânica denominada AS-101. Ademais, as aplicações de teluranas orgânicas (organoteluranas como inibidoras de proteases e as aplicações em modelos de doenças compõem a mais recente contribuição ao cenário dos efeitos e aplicações biológicas do telúrio e seus compostos discutidas neste manuscrito.

  3. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  4. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 20, 30, 31, 32, and 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of genetic continuity, methods of investigation, cell biology, genetics, and animal physiology. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives for the unit; a…

  5. An Introduction to Biological Modeling Using Coin Flips to Predict the Outcome of a Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Greg Q.; Rodriguez, Juan; Chirhart, Scott; Messina, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase students' awareness for and comfort with mathematical modeling of biological processes, and increase their understanding of diffusion, the following lab was developed for use in 100-level, majors/non-majors biology and neuroscience courses. The activity begins with generation of a data set that uses coin-flips to replicate…

  6. The comparison of biological activity of chocolates made by different technological procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Godočiková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 12.00 Chocolate is one of the most consumed delicacies in the world. Nowadays, raw chocolates without vanilla or allergens are getting more attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological activity of different types of chocolate - cold processed chocolate and chocolate made by traditional way. Total content of fat, crude fibre, polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids and metylxantines - theobromine and caffeine was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was determined by a method using DPPH radical, reducing power method and phosphomolybdenum method. Both evaluated chocolates had similar content of fat and crude fibre, but sample of chocolate made by traditional way probably due to the higher content of cocoa mass had almost two times higher content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and phenolic acids as cold processed chocolate. Also the content of theobromine and caffeine was slightly higher in chocolate made by traditional way. This sample had the highest antioxidant activity - 93.68 mg TEAC.g-1 determined by phosphomolybdenum method, while in the sample of chocolate made by cold processed way was measeured value 50.82 mg TEAC.g-1. Similarly, reducing power of chocolate made by traditional way was almost two times higher, but antioxidant activity determined with DPPH method was similar in both samples (3.58 and 3.62 mg TEAC.g-1. The antioxidants and metylxantines in chocolates determine its potential to be a significant source of biologicaly active compounds with favorable effects to human health. It can be concluded in this study, that chocolate produced by conventional production technology can have more health-promoting ingredients reserved, but more extensive researches are still needed.  12.00 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Biologically Active Organic Matter in Soils of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Masyutenko, N. P.; Malyukova, L. S.; Lebedeva, T. N.; Tulina, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental and literature data on the contents and stocks of active organic matter in 200 soil samples from the forest-tundra, southern-taiga, deciduous-forest, forest-steppe, dry-steppe, semidesert, and subtropical zones have been generalized. Natural lands, agrocenoses, treatments of long-term field experiments (bare fallow, unfertilized and fertilized crop rotations, perennial plantations), and different layers of soil profile are presented. Sphagnum peat and humus-peat soil in the tundra and forest-tundra zones are characterized by a very high content of active organic matter (300-600 mg C/100 g). Among the zonal soils, the content of active organic matter increases from the medium (75-150 mg C/100 g) to the high (150-300 mg C/100 g) level when going from soddy-podzolic soil to gray forest and dark-gray forest soils and then to leached chernozem. In the series from typical chernozem to ordinary and southern chernozem and chestnut and brown semidesert soils, a decrease in the content of active organic matter to the low (35-75 mg C/100 g) and very low (<35 mg C/100 g) levels is observed. Acid brown forest soil in the subtropical zone is characterized by a medium supply with active organic matter. Most arable soils are mainly characterized by low or very low contents of active organic matter. In the upper layers of soils, active organic matter makes up 1.2-11.1% of total Corg. The profile distribution of active organic matter in the studied soils coincides with that of Corg: their contents appreciably decrease with depth, except for brown semidesert soil. The stocks of active organic matter vary from 0.4 to 5.4 t/ha in the layer of 0-20 cm and from 1.0 to 12.4/ha in the layer of 0-50 cm of different soil types.

  7. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  8. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS ON FORAGE BIOMASS YIELD IN SMOOTH BROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal biostimulants are organic products (natural or synthesized that exert upon plant growth an action similar to the phytohormones’ one, when they are applied in small amounts, in certain stages of plant development. Biostimulants change organisms or organs’ development, nutrition or resistance, under various stress conditions, by inducing changes into the vital processes leading to the improvement of crop quality and quantity, to a better and more operative mechanical harvesting and to an improvement in the agricultural products’ preservation. The application of biologically-active products in the smooth brome crop determined growth of the dry matter yield of up to 1.11 t/ha depending on the product used, and the foliar surface index increased in the variants with application of biologically-active products with up to 1.16 m2SA/m2 land, compared to the control variant.

  9. Biological activity of camel milk casein following enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Moosavi-Movahedi, Faezeh; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Farhadi, Mohammad; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis with digestive enzymes of camel whole casein and beta-casein (β-CN) on their antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory properties. Peptides in each hydrolysate were fractionated with ultra-filtration membranes. The antioxidant activity was determined using a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) scale. After enzymatic hydrolysis, both antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of camel whole casein and camel β-CN were enhanced. Camel whole casein and β-CN showed significant ACE-inhibitory activities after hydrolysis with pepsin alone and after pepsinolysis followed by trypsinolysis and chymotrypsinolysis. Camel β-CN showed high antioxidant activity after hydrolysis with chymotrypsin. The results of this study suggest that when camel milk is consumed and digested, the produced peptides start to act as natural antioxidants and ACE-inhibitors.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  11. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  12. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  13. Biological activity in Technosols as a key factor of their structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watteau, Françoise; Villemin, Geneviève; Bouchard, Adeline; Monserié, Marie-France; Séré, Geoffroy; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    The studies of the dynamics of organic matters within soils, show that their structural stability depends on the biological activity bound to the degradation of organic products. We wondered what it was for Technosols there. We then tried to specify the contribution of this biological activity to the structure of three contrasted technosols : - Technosol 1: a material originated from a former steel industry containing steel and coke residues, which was deposited two years ago in lysimetric plots - Technosol 2: a constructed soil (30 months) resulting from the combination of paper-mill sludge, thermally treated soil material excavated from a former coking plant site, and green-waste compost - Technosol 3: 30 years old technosol developed on flotation ponds of a former steel mill with strong metallic pollution, on which grows a forest ecosystem If these 3 technosols presented initially a similar organic carbon content (around 70 g.kg-1), the origin of organic matters was different A follow-up of the structural stability of these 3 systems, based on techniques of granulometric soil fractionation and morphological/analytical characterization at ultrastructural scale (TEM/EDX), was realized. Results showed the specific contribution of organic matters to the formation of stable organo-mineral associations, in particular those belonging to (0-50 μm) fraction. They mainly involved organic matter from vegetal origin coming from the spontaneous colonization of these 3 sites, but also from microbial origin corresponding to rhizospheric bacteria producing exopolymers. Organic matters from the compost and cellulosic fibers from the paper-mill sludge also contributed to the formation of organo-mineral associations all the more that compost was also a source of microorganisms. Organic matters were also associated to pollutant metallic elements (Pb, Zn, Mn) initially brought by the materials, then highlighting their possible transfer and questioning about their (bio

  14. Bioactive components and functional properties of biologically activated cereal grains: A bibliographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2017-09-22

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibers, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional, and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health-promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  15. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  16. High school biology students' participation in a year-long sequence of analogical activities: The relationship of development of analogical thought to student learning and classroom interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Marcella Wichser

    1999-10-01

    This research explored development of analogical thought through high school biology students' participation in a year-long sequence of analogical activities. Analogizing involves: selecting a familiar analog; mapping similarities and differences between the analog and less familiar target; making inferences from the analogy; evaluating validity of the inferences; and ultimately, understanding the biological target (Holyoak & Thagard, 1995). This investigation considered: student development of independence in learning through analogical thought, student learning of biology, the relationship between development of students' analogical thinking and students' learning of biology, and the quality of student interactions in the classroom This researcher, as teacher participant, used three approaches for teaching by analogy: traditional didactic, teacher-guided, and analogy-generated-by-the-student (Zeitoun, 1983). Within cooperative groups, students in one honors biology class actively engaged in research-based analogical activities that targeted specific biological topics. Two honors biology classes participated in similar, but nonanalogical activities that targeted the same biological topics. This two-class comparison group permitted analytical separation of effects of the analogical emphasis from the effects of biology content and activity-based learning. Data collected included: fieldnotes of researcher observations, student responses to guidesheets, tapes of group interactions, student products, student perceptions survey evaluations, ratings of students' expressed analogical development, pre- and posttest scores on a biology achievement test, essay responses, and selected student interviews. These data formed the basis for researcher qualitative analysis, augmented by quantitative techniques. Through participation in the sequence of analogical activities, students developed their abilities to engage in the processes of analogical thinking, but attained different

  17. Biological activities of Suaeda heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities of different extracts of Suaeda heterophylla (S. heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi (B. stracheyi. Methods: The extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi were evaluated for antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities using standard experimental methods. Results: The overall antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract of S. heterophylla was the strongest, followed by chloroform extract, methanolic extract and n-hexane extract. It is interesting to note that ethyl acetate fraction showed 94.98% inhibition at concentration of 60 µg/mL while standard ascorbic acid showed 98.49% inhibition at same concentration. The crude methanol extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi showed significant phytotoxic activity at the highest dose. Moreover, methanol extract of B. stracheyi possessed strong activity in xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibition. Conclusions: Antioxidant, phytotoxic, and xanthine oxidase activities of different fractions of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi clearly demonstrate that these fractions possess great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Yarovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were performed according to ‘Methodology of Experimental Work in Vegetable and Melon Growing’ on area sown with cultivars ‘Karas’ and ‘Kremenchugskiy’. The fungicides ‘Mars U 77%’, ‘Vimpel with Fitotsid’, ‘Vermistim’ wth ‘Azotofit’ and ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ were used on cultivars of tomato, as control were the plants without treatment. It was determined that all preparations decreased the development of diseases. On average, the development of early dry spot had decreased by 12.2–16.1% and anthracnose by 10.0–12.6% in the cultivars ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’. Thus, biopreparations used on the varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’ were effective in decrease of disease development, such as early dry spot, anthracnose, in a range of 39.1–52.7 %. Generally, during observation period the efficacy index of the preparations ‘Vermistim’ with ‘Azotofit’, ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ was higher than others preparations on the varieties ‘Kremenchug and ‘Karas’ against early dry spot (48.3–50.9%, 50.3–52.7% and anthracnose (46.1–47.0%, 47.6–48.5%. The results showed that the vast majority of biological preparations, phytohormones used against diseases in tomato crops of varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’, were effective in a range of 39.1-52.7% and also maintained the tomato yield within 2.8-5.1 t/ha or 8.1- 13.9%. The biological preparations, phytohormones improved

  19. Methods for chemical synthesis of biologically active compounds using supramolecular protective groups and novel compounds obtainable Thereby

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andreas; Bastian, Andreas Alexander; Marcozzi, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to drug development and synthetic chemistry, in particular to the manufacture of biologically active compounds based on naturally occurring molecules. It also relates to novel biologically active compounds, for example aminoglycoside antibiotics, in a substantially pure

  1. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  2. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  3. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  4. Phytochemical components and biological activities of Silene arenarioides Desf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golea, Lynda; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Lavaud, Catherine; Long, Christophe; Haba, Hamada

    2017-12-01

    In this study, six known compounds 1-6 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these compounds were identified as maltol glycoside (1), soyacerebroside I (2), chrysin (3), apigenin (4), quercetin (5) and stigmasterol glucoside (6). The compounds (1) and (2) are reported for the first time from this genus. The isolated compounds were determined using NMR techniques ( 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts and of compound (1) have been evaluated. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH radical scavenging method, which showed that methanol extract possesses a good antioxidant activity with value of IC 50  = 8.064 ± 0.005 μg/mL.

  5. Synthesis and biological activities of diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükgüzel, S Güniz; Mazi, Adil; Sahin, Fikrettin; Oztürk, Suzan; Stables, James

    2003-01-01

    Several diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives namely 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid [(5-nitro-2-furyl/substitutedphenyl)methylene] hydrazide (3a-o) have been synthesised. Methyl 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylate (1) and 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid hydrazide (2) were also synthesised and used as intermediate compounds. All synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv, antimicrobial activities against various bacteria, fungi and yeast species. Compound 3a have shown activity against Staphylococcus epidermis HE-5 and Staphylococcus aureus HE-9 at 18.75 and 37.5 microg mL(-1), respectively. Compound 3o have exhibited activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IO-16 at a concentration of 37.5 microg mL(-1), whereas Cefepime, the drug used as standard, have been found less active against the microorganisms mentioned above. The synthesised compounds were found to provide 12-34% inhibition of mycobacterial growth of M. tuberculosis H37 Rv in the primary screen at 6.25 microg mL(-1). Anticonvulsant activity of the compounds were also determined by maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous metrazole (scMET) tests in mice and rats following the procedures of antiepileptic drug development (ADD) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Compound 3k showed 25% protection against MES induced seizures in p.o. rat screening at a dose level of 30 mg kg(-1) whereas 3n and 3o showed neurotoxicity after 4 and 0.5 h at a dose level of 100 and 300 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  6. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  8. Physical properties and biological activities of hesperetin and naringenin in complex with methylated β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waratchada Sangpheak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to improve physical properties and biological activities of the two flavanones hesperetin and naringenin by complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and its methylated derivatives (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin, DM-β-CD and randomly methylated-β-CD, RAMEB. The free energies of inclusion complexes between hesperetin with cyclodextrins (β-CD and DM-β-CD were theoretically investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The free energy values obtained suggested a more stable inclusion complex with DM-β-CD. The vdW force is the main guest–host interaction when hesperetin binds with CDs. The phase solubility diagram showed the formation of a soluble complex of AL type, with higher increase in solubility and stability when hesperetin and naringenin were complexed with RAMEB. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying, and the data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC confirmed the formation of inclusion complexes. The data obtained by the dissolution method showed that complexation with RAMEB resulted in a better release of both flavanones to aqueous solution. The flavanones-β-CD/DM-β-CD complexes demonstrated a similar or a slight increase in anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity towards three different cancer cell lines. The overall results suggested that solubilities and bioactivities of both flavanones were increased by complexation with methylated β-CDs.

  9. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  10. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Evaluation of Biological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flemingia philippinensis and to investigate the antioxidant and anti-tumor activities of the extracts of the materials from various locations in China. Methods: The total flavonoids in F. philippinensis were obtained by ultrasonic-assisted conventional solvent extraction method, and the extraction conditions were optimized by ...

  11. Some biological activities of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate a correlation in the activities of the leaves and as such serve as panacea for infectious diseases and therefore scientific justification to some of the folkloric uses of the plant. Keywords: Antimicrobial; Larvicidal; Brine shrimp lethality; Pycnanthus angolensis. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  12. Research on prokaryocyte expression and biological activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the ATPase activity of the protein was also assayed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry based on PiColorLock Gold reagent. An effective expression method was established for BLM protein in E. coli. The obvious bioactivities of the protein were observed in binding to ssDNA or dsDNA, unwinding the dsDNA in ...

  13. Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays while antimicrobial activity was screened using the disk diffusion method against a panel of six bacterial (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebseilla pneumonia, Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and four fungal strains (Candida albicans, ...

  14. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the major phytoconstituents, the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of Rhus lancea essential oil against eight bacterial and four fungal species. The yield was 0.18% and the major phytoconstituents found were µ-pinene, benzene and d-3-carene. The oil exhibited remarkable ...

  15. Biological activities of four essential oils against Anopheles gambiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control of malaria is still a challenge partly due to mosquito's resistance to current available insecticides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellent activities of Lantana camara, Hyptis suaveolens, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum canum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae s.l. ...

  16. Determination of cephalosporin acylase activity by biological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... microorganisms with cephalosporin acylase activity was developed. The core part of cephalosporin was replaced by 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) to generate new substrates glutaryl-6-APA and adipoyl-6-APA for screen- ing. Serratia marcescens that is sensitive to 6-APA and resistant to penicillin G, ...

  17. chemical constituents and biological activity of three tanzanian wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    antimicrobial activities infer that the three mushroom species are potential functional food substrates. INTRODUCTION. Termitomyces is a tropical edible ... extract (32 g) on cooling in the fridge at -. 4°C formed white crystals of mannitol and ... against the bacteria Vibrio cholerae and. Escherichia coli, and the fungus Candida.

  18. Biological activities of Rumex dentatus L: Evaluation of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... solani, respectively by methanol extracts of roots and leaves. Phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts showed presence of flavor-noids as major constituents, which might be responsible for antifungal activity. (Atindehou et al., 2002). Previously, fungitoxic surface flavonoids (Isoflavonoids) have been ...

  19. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  20. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2-ol (19.4%), transp- mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (16.4%) and limonene (13.7%). The major components identified in the oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus were piperitone (68.4%), and ä-2-carene (11.5%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential ...

  1. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Sava M; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Licina, Braho Z; Radojevic, Ivana D; Comic, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use.

  2. Evaluation of some biological activities of Abelia triflora R Br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cardiovascular and cytotoxic activities of the leaf extract and major compounds isolated from Abelia triflora R. Br. (Caprifoliaceae) Methods: The chloroform soluble fraction of A. triflora leaves was subjected to several column chromatographic ...

  3. Phytochemical profile and some biological activities of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterise the phytochemical profile of whole plants of Centaurea balsamita, C. depressa and C. lycopifolia with LC-ESI-MS/MS, and as well as their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities. Methods: Organic and aqueous extracts of the three Centaurea species were evaluated for DPPH ...

  4. Biologically Active Compounds of Plant Foods: Prospective Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful compounds interfere with normal growth, reproduction, or health and reduce protein and carbohydrate utilization. The health benefits of selected substances from Ethiopian food crops need to be studied. Active compounds need to be isolated, identified and produced to explore their potential benefits with emphasis ...

  5. Biological activity and phytoconstituents of essential oil from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves of Eriosema englerianum by hydrodistillation and its major phytoconstituents determined by GC-MS. The major phytoconstituents were O-cymene, terpinolene and ascaridole with a yield of 0.28%. Antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens ...

  6. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  7. Biological activities and phytochemical constituents of the gray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro assessment of the antibacteriophage, antibacterial and anticandidal activities as well as cytotoxicity were evaluated for both aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from roots, cotyledons, leaves and stems of Avicennia marina. Aqueous extracts of both shoots and roots of the seedlings demonstrated ...

  8. Biologically active dibenzofurans from Pilidiostigma glabrum, an endemic Australian Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Qingyao; Banbury, Linda K; Renshaw, Dane E; Lambley, Eleanore H; Mon, Htwe; Macfarlane, Graham A; Griesser, Hans J; Heinrich, Michael M; Wohlmuth, Hans

    2012-09-28

    In an effort to identify new anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents with potential application in wound healing, five new dibenzofurans, 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylbutanoyl)dibenzofuran (1), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (2), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (3), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2-(2-methylbutanoyl)-8-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (4), and 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2,8-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (5), were isolated from the leaves of Pilidiostigma glabrum together with one previously described dibenzofuran. Structure elucidation was achieved by way of spectroscopic measurements including 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions had potent antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive strains (MIC in the low micromolar range), while compounds with 4,6-acyl substitutions were less active. All compounds except 3 inhibited the synthesis of nitric oxide in RAW264 macrophages with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions also inhibited the synthesis of PGE(2) in 3T3 cells, whereas 4,6-acyl-substituted compounds were inactive. None of the compounds inhibited the synthesis of TNF-α in RAW264 cells. The compounds showed variable but modest antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. These findings highlight that much of the Australian flora remains unexplored and may yet yield many new compounds of interest. Initial clues are provided on structure/activity relationships for this class of bioactives, which may enable the design and synthesis of compounds with higher activity and/or selectivity.

  9. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  10. Relative to quinine and quinidine, their 9-epimers exhibit decreased cytostatic activity and altered heme binding but similar cytocidal activity versus Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Alexander P; Sherlach, Katy S; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The 9-epimers of quinine (QN) and quinidine (QD) are known to exhibit poor cytostatic potency against P. falciparum (Karle JM, Karle IL, Gerena L, Milhous WK, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:1538-1544, 1992). We synthesized 9-epi-QN (eQN) and 9-epi-QD (eQD) via Mitsunobu esterification-saponification and evaluated both cytostatic and cytocidal antimalarial activities. Relative to the cytostatic activity of QN and QD, we observed a large decrease in cytostatic activity (higher 50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)s]) against QN-sensitive strain HB3, QN-resistant strain Dd2, and QN-hypersensitive strain K76I, consistent with previous work. However, we observed relatively small changes in cytocidal activity (the 50% lethal dose), similar to observations with chloroquine (CQ) analogues with a wide range of IC(50)s (see the accompanying paper [A. P. Gorka, J. N. Alumasa, K. S. Sherlach, L. M. Jacobs, K. B. Nickley, J. P. Brower, A. C. de Dios, and P. D. Roepe, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:356-364, 2013]). Compared to QN and QD, the 9-epimers had significantly reduced hemozoin inhibition efficiency and did not affect pH-dependent aggregation of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX) heme. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that the 9-epimers perturb FPIX monomer-dimer equilibrium in favor of monomer, and UV-visible (VIS) titrations showed that eQN and eQD bind monomer with similar affinity relative to QN and QD. However, unique ring proton shifts in the presence of zinc(II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPIX) indicate that binding of the 9-epimers to monomeric heme is via a distinct geometry. We isolated eQN- and eQD-FPIX complexes formed under aqueous conditions and analyzed them by mass, fluorescence, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The 9-epimers produced low-fluorescent adducts with a 2:1 stoichiometry (drug to FPIX) which did not survive electrospray ionization, in contrast to QN and QD complexes. The data offer important insight into the relevance of heme interactions as a

  11. Biologic activity of cyclic and caged phosphates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Stegmeier-Petroianu, Anka; Petroianu, Georg A

    2017-01-01

    The recognition in the early 1960s by Morifusa Eto that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system to an intermediate that spontaneously cyclizes to a neurotoxic phosphate (saligenin phosphate ester) ignited the interest in this group of compounds. Only the ortho isomer can cyclize and clinically cause Organo Phosphate Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN); the meta and para isomers of tri-cresyl phosphate are not neuropathic because they are unable to form stable cyclic saligenin phosphate esters. This review identifies the diverse biological effects associated with various cyclic and caged phosphates and phosphonates and their possible use. Cyclic compounds that inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), such as salithion, can be employed as pesticides. Others are neurotoxic, most probably because of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Cyclic phosphates that inhibit lipases, the cyclipostins, possibly represent promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or microbial infections; those compounds inhibiting β-lactamase may prevent bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Naturally occurring cyclic phosphates, such as cyclic AMP, cyclic phosphatidic acid and the ryanodine receptor modulator cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, play an important physiological role in signal transduction. Moreover, some cyclic phosphates are GABA-antagonists, while others are an essential component of Molybdenum-containing enzymes. Some cyclic phosphates (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide) are clinically used in tumor therapy, while the coupling of therapeutic agents with other cyclic phosphates (HepDirect® Technology) allows drugs to be targeted to specific organs. Possible clinical applications of these compounds are considered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Structure-biological activity relationship of synthetic trihydroxilated chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devia Cristina M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriostatic activity of 2?,4?,2-trihydroxychalcone; 2?,4?,3-trihydroxychalcone and 2?,4?,4-trihydroxychalcone, prepared by condensation of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and benzaldehyde substituted, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was assayed by agar plate method. The three compounds presented important inhibition halos. In order to elucidate structure-activity relationships, the minimal inhibitory concentrations against S. aureus were determined by the broth dilution method and the results obtained were compared to that of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. The sequence observed was: MIC 2?,4?,3-(OH3 > MIC 2?,4?-(OH2 > MIC 2?,4?,4-(OH3 > > MIC 2?,4?,2-(OH3. These results showed that the introduction of an electron donating group (-OH in the aromatic B-ring causes an increase in bioactivity, and that the intensity of action depends on the position of the OH substitute.

  13. Characterization and biological activity of bacterial glycoconjugates in cold adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Casillo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The cryosphere, covering about one-fifth of the surface of the Earth, comprises several components: snow, river and lake ice, sea ice, ice sheets, ice shelves, glaciers and ice caps, and frozen ground which exist, both on land and beneath the oceans (Vaughan DG, et al. 2013). All these habitats, combining the low temperature and the low liquid water activity, are challenging for all the forms of life (Casanueva et al., 2010). These extreme environments are inhabited by microorganisms of all t...

  14. New Conjugated Benzothiazole-N-oxides: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Foltínová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new 2-styrylbenzothiazole-N-oxides have been prepared by aldol – type condensation reactions between 2-methylbenzothiazole–N-oxide and para-substituted benzaldehydes. Compounds with cyclic amino substituents showed typical push-pull molecule properties. Four compounds were tested against various bacterial strains as well as the protozoan Euglena gracilis as model microorganisms. Unlike previously prepared analogous benzothiazolium salts, only weak activity was recorded.

  15. Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of oregano are widely recognized for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and antifungal properties. Nevertheless, recent investigations have demonstrated that these compounds are also potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and cancer suppressor agents. These properties of oregano essential oils are of potential interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this manuscript is to review the latest evidence regarding essential oils of oregano and their beneficial effects on health.

  16. Biological activities and DNA interactions of Amanita ovoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Hasan Hüseyin; Arslan, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link (Amanitaceae) is a well-known species due to its pleasant aroma and flavor since ancient times in the worldwide. This species is also known in Turkey and people consume it extensively. To evaluate medicinal importance of A. ovoidea for human health, to explain the effect of mushroom extracts on bacterial DNA, and to find preventive role on bacterial disease. Chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts of A. ovoidea were tested for the antimicrobial activities against four Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast using a micro-dilution method. In addition, DNA binding, DNA cleavage activity, and restriction enzyme digestion of the methanol extract of A. ovoidea were examined at different concentrations (40.000-78.125 µg/mL). The highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value observed against the test micro-organisms was with the chloroform extract (MIC 19.5 µg/mL concentration) against Candida albicans. Other highest antimicrobial effects observed against the test micro-organisms were with the methanol extracts against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella enteritidis (MICs, 78 µg/mL concentrations). All concentrations reduced the mobility of plasmid DNA. BamHI and HindIII targeted specially to supercoils and cut them. Amanita ovoidea extract prevented cutting with HindIII by binding especially to the AA region in open circular DNA. Present results demonstrated that A. ovoidea has excellent antimicrobial and antifungal activities by its DNA interaction activity on pBR322.

  17. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  18. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC-FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF BILBERRY EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. HACIBEKİROĞLU, U. KOLAK*, I. HACIBEKİROĞLU, U. KOLAK*

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYIn this study, the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and hot water extracts were prepared from bilberry blooms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated by using four methods including DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays. The methanol ext...

  19. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Shabir; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloid...

  20. Biological activities and phenolic contents of Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by methyl-thiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: The results revealed abundant polyphenols and flavonoids (221.39 ± 5.70 μg GAEq/1 g and 66.86 ± 3.36 μg CAEq/1 g, respectively) in the leaf extract. UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling showed the presence of ...

  1. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40–60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8 mm and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm at concentration of 5 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 µg/disc and less than 2.5 µg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  2. Vouacapane diterpenoids isolated from Pterodon and their biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra A.R. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pterodon genus comprises two native species in Brazil, known as “sucupira-branca” or “faveira”. Their fruits have long been used in Brazilian natural medicine, mainly for the treatment of infections and inflammations. The pharmacological properties of these fruits have often been linked with vouacapane diterpenoids. This review evaluated the scientific research in the period from 1973 to February 2017, aiming to answer how difficult it still is to develop a scientifically supported product based on Pterodon vouacapanes. Therefore, this paper reviews purification, identification, and quantification methods applied to vouacapane diterpenoids from Pterodon, as well as the performance of these phytochemicals in pharmacological tests described in the literature. Data analysis results support conventional notions that suggest vouacapane diterpenoids from Pterodon have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the studies carried out so far still represent partial assessment of the vouacapane activities and further studies need to be completed. Pterodon diterpenoids have also been associated with larvicidal, leishmanicidal, cardiovascular, and antitumor activities, which reinforces the genus' potential as a source of phytomedicines. Some remaining gaps about the reviewed activities were mentioned, while trends and perspectives for future research were proposed.

  3. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  4. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Solkamy, E.N.; Sayed, Sh. R. M.; Khan, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Al-Warthan, A.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40-60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8?mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm) at concentration of 5 μg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 μg/disc and less than 2.5 μg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  5. Chemical or biological activity in open chaotic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolyi, G.; Pentek, A.; Toroczkai, Z.; Toroczkai, Z.; Tel, T.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of particle ensembles in open chaotic hydrodynamical flows. Active processes of the type A+B→2B and A+B→2C are considered in the limit of weak diffusion. As an illustrative advection dynamics we consider a model of the von Karman vortex street, a time-periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder. We show that a fractal unstable manifold acts as a catalyst for the process, and the products cover fattened-up copies of this manifold. This may account for the observed filamental intensification of activity in environmental flows. The reaction equations valid in the wake are derived either in the form of dissipative maps or differential equations depending on the regime under consideration. They contain terms that are not present in the traditional reaction equations of the same active process: the decay of the products is slower while the productivity is much faster than in homogeneous flows. Both effects appear as a consequence of underlying fractal structures. In the long time limit, the system locks itself in a dynamic equilibrium state synchronized to the flow for both types of reactions. For particles of finite size an emptying transition might also occur leading to no products left in the wake. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: similar activity but difference in subcellular localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Miettinen, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Voster, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Memelink, J.; Krol, van der S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32 µM and 51 µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and

  7. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  8. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  9. Usage, biological activity, and safety of selected botanical dietary supplements consumed in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Annécie Benatrehina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR, and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure α-mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. Keywords: Açaí, Noni, Mangosteen, Black chokeberry, Maqui berry

  10. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  11. Objectives of research activities in Biology Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The primary responsibility assigned to the Biology Branch within the framework of CRNL has been an active engagement in basic research related to the assessment of radiation hazards, particularly those to be expected after exposure to relatively low doses of radiation delivered at low dose-rates. The present group is characterized by a broad interest in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into biological effects, with a special focus of attention on the mechanisms by which the initial damage can be largely repaired and by which the risks to man are modified under different circumstances. The basic concepts in radiation biology and risk estimates are reviewed in the light of recent literature on these topics. The current and proposed research activities of the Biology Branch are described. General and specific recommendations for future activities are given. (author)

  12. Brain activity in adults who stutter: Similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n = 12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS. PMID:22564749

  13. Perceptions of Prospective Biology Teachers on Scientific Argumentation in Microbiology Inquiry Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviati, E.; Widodo, A.; Purwianingsih, W.; Riandi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Inquiry laboratory activity and scientific argumentation in science education should be promoted and explicitly experienced by prospective biology teacher students in classes, including in microbiology courses. The goal of this study is to get information about perceptions of prospective biology teachers on scientific argumentation in microbiology inquiry lab activities. This study reported the result of a survey research to prospective biology teachers about how their perception about microbiology lab classes and their perception about inquiry and argumentation in microbiology lab activities should be. The participants of this study were 100 students of biology education department from an institute in Cirebon, West Java taking microbiology lecture during the fifth semester. The data were collected using questionnaire to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prospective biology teachers about microbiology, inquiry lab activities and argumentation. The result showed that students thought that the difficulties of microbiology as a subject were the lack of references and the way lecturer teaching. The students’ perception was that argumentation and inquiry should be implemented in microbiology courses and lab activities. Based on the data from questionnaire, It showed that prospective biology teacher students had very little knowledge about scientific argumentation and its implementation in science education. When the participants made arguments based on the problems given, they showed low quality of arguments.

  14. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  16. Biological activity and dimerization state of modified phytochrome A proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    Full Text Available To assess potential physical interactions of type I phyA with the type II phyB-phyE phytochromes in vivo, transgenes expressing fusion gene forms of phyA were introduced into the Arabidopsis phyA mutant background. When a single c-Myc (myc epitope is added to either the N- or C-terminus of phyA, the constructs completely complement phyA mutant phenotypes. However, addition of larger tags, such as six consecutive myc epitopes or the yellow fluorescent protein sequence, result in fusion proteins that show reduced activity. All the tagged phyA proteins migrate as dimers on native gels and co-immunoprecipitation reveals no binding interaction of phyA to any of the type II phys in the dark or under continuous far-red light. Dimers of the phyA 1-615 amino acid N-terminal photosensory domain (NphyA, generated in vivo with a yeast GAL4 dimerization domain and attached to a constitutive nuclear localization sequence, are expressed at a low level and, although they cause a cop phenotype in darkness and mediate a very low fluence response to pulses of FR, have no activity under continuous FR. It is concluded that type I phyA in its Pr form is present in plants predominantly or exclusively as a homodimer and does not stably interact with type II phys in a dimer-to-dimer manner. In addition, its activity in mediating response to continuous FR is sensitive to modification of its N- or C-terminus.

  17. Biological activities and cytotoxicity of diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Vargas, Fabiano; D O de Almeida, Patrícia; Aranha, Elenn Suzany P; de A Boleti, Ana Paula; Newton, Peter; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Junior, Valdir F Veiga; Lima, Emerson S

    2015-04-09

    Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5%) at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%). Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3%) and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9%) at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%), kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%), kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%), and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%), respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  18. Biological Activities and Cytotoxicity of Diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de S. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5% at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%. Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3% and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9% at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%, kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%, kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%, and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%, respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  19. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  20. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? (a) The towing of a person... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a...

  1. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  2. Compositional studies and Biological activities of Perovskia abrotanoides Kar. oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Sadaf Naz; Zubair, Muhammad; Rizwan, Komal; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh; Rasool, Nasir; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2014-01-01

    Background Current study has been designed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential and fixed oils from stem and leaves of Perovskia abrotanoides and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these oils. Results GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified 19 compounds with (E)-9-dodecenal being the major component in stem and hexadecanoic acid in leaves. In contrast, GC-MS analysis of fixed oil showed 40 constituents with α-amyrin the major component in stem and α-copaene in leaves....

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation, QSAR analysis, and molecular docking of chalcone derivatives for antimalarial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jufrizal Syahri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize chalcone derivatives and investigate their antimalarial activity toward chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (Pf3D7 strain; to develop quantitative structureactivity relationships (QSAR model to estimate IC50 values for biological activity of antimalarial and compared to experimental measurement; and to determine the binding interactions of the most active compounds with targeting P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase using molecular docking simulation. Methods: Seven chalcone derivatives have been synthesized from substituted acetophenone and substituted benzaldehyde in ethanol with the presence of bases catalysis at reflux condition. The QSAR analysis was conducted by using Gaussian 09 software to predict IC50 value for antimalarial activity. The in vitro test was evaluated against the chloroquine-sensitive Pf3D7 strain. Finally, the docking studies were performed with the CDOCKER protocol under the receptor-ligand interaction section in Discovery Studio® 3.1 (Accelrys, Inc., San Diego, USA. Results: Among the synthesized chalcone, a prenylated chalcone 5c and an allylated chalcones 10a showed the best IC 50 values of 1.08 and 1.73 μg/mL respectively against Pf3D7 strain (1.37 and 2.33 μg/mL based on QSAR analysis. Comparison between the prediction of IC50 value generated from the QSAR and the outcome from an in vitro assay showed a similar result as seen from the r2 value (r2 = 0.99. The most active compound 5c was employed in the docking simulation to determine the potential binding interactions with active sites of P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (protein data bank ID: 1J3I. The docking simulation study showed 5c bind well with Ala16, Ser108, Ile164, Trp48, and Phe58 which are the crucial interactions that could possibly interrupt the sequential catalysis reactions in the thymidylate cycle and subsequently prevent deoxythymidine monophosphate production

  4. Implications of the use of experimental activities in biology education in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cardoso da Silva Morais

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of a didactic sequence with experimental activities on student motivation in relation to the subject matter Biology and check the possibility of applying such a result having as input the cultural-historical perspective and the dynamic of the three pedagogical moments. The work is part of a Master Degree research developed with 70 students from a high school in Patos de Minas city. The analysis of the data collected through observation, questionnaires, reports, testimonies of students, filming and photography of biology classes, points out that the use of experimental activities in Biology classes contributed to the increase of student motivation relating to Biology classes favoring the teaching-learning process and also to promote a converge between the scientific knowledge and reality of the students besides encourage their self-esteem and investigative sense. The results also indicate that it is possible to develop at school a didactic sequence based on the complementarity of two different theoretical lines like the dynamics of the three moments and in the historical and cultural perspective. Based on above considerations, we believe that the use of experimental activities following didactics positively influences student motivation in relation to Biology, favoring the teaching and learning of Biology. However, it is the whole of this, as the theory and the posture of motivating teachers, allowed approximation between scientific knowledge and reality of the students, enabling greater learning of biological concepts.

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridazine amides, hydrazones and hydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Ann M; Yap, Maurice Ch; Hunter, Ricky; Babcock, Jonathan; Huang, Xinpei

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on compounds initially designed to be herbicides led to the discovery of a series of [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides exhibiting aphicidal properties. Systematic modifications of the amide moiety as well as the pyridine and pyridazine rings were carried out to determine if these changes could improve insecticidal potency. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that changes to the pyridine and pyridazine rings generally resulted in a significant loss of insecticidal potency against green peach aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] and cotton aphids [(Aphis gossypii (Glover)]. However, replacement of the amide moiety with hydrazines, hydrazones, or hydrazides appeared to be tolerated, with small aliphatic substituents being especially potent. A series of aphicidal [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides were discovered as a result of random screening of compounds that were intially investigated as herbicides. Follow-up studies of the structure-activity relationship of these [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides showed that biosteric replacement of the amide moiety was widely tolerated suggesting that further opportunities for exploitation may exist for this new area of insecticidal chemistry. Insecticidal efficacy from the original hit, compound 1, to the efficacy of compound 14 produced greater than 10-fold potency improvement against Aphis gossypii and greater than 14-fold potency improvement against Myzus persicae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  7. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  8. A Mechanistic Study to Determine the Structural Similarities Between Artificial Membrane Strat-M™ and Biological Membranes and Its Application to Carry Out Skin Permeation Study of Amphotericin B Nanoformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lakhvir; Singh, Kanwaldeep; Paul, Surinder; Singh, Sukhprit; Singh, Shashank; Jain, Subheet Kumar

    2018-02-27

    Type of biological membrane used in skin permeation experiment significantly affects skin permeation and deposition potential of tested formulations. In this study, a comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of a synthetic membrane (Strat-M™) with rat, human, and porcine ear skin to carry out skin permeation study of nanoformulations of a high molecular weight drug, amphotericin B. Results demonstrated that the permeation of this high molecular weight drug through Strat-M™ showed close similitude to human skin. Value of correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of log diffusion between Strat-M™ and human skin was found to be 0.99 which demonstrated the similarities of Strat-M™ membrane to the human skin. In similarity factor analysis, the value of f 2 was also found to be 85, which further demonstrated the similarities of Strat-M™ membrane to human skin. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis of synthetic and biological membranes depicted almost similar morphological features (thickness, pore size, surface morphology, and diameter) of synthetic membrane with human skin. The results of the study demonstrated Strat-M™ as a better alternative to carry out skin permeation experiment due to the consistent results, reproducibility, easy availability, and minimum variability with human skin.

  9. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: CULTIVATION OF CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina SÎRBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative achievement is obvious in the arts but it is essential in all other fields including the sciences and business. Creativity allows for the making of connections across different domains of knowledge. It is possible in all areas of human activity and all young people and adults have creative abilities. It is cultivated through rigorous training and by practicing of dynamic capabilities over an extended period of time. Creativity needs time, flow, interaction, suspension of judgement. It is influenced by much more than the shape and content of the formal school curriculum. The roles of teachers are to recognise young people's creative capacities; and to provide the creative climate in which they can be realised. Educational actors have the power to unlock the creative and innovative potential of the young. Creative learning requires innovative and flexible teaching. Creative education involves a balance between teaching knowledge and skills, and encouraging innovation.

  10. Synthesis of some new hydrazone derivatives as biologically active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, A K; Rastogi, A

    1986-05-01

    A series of [4-(6H/bromo-4-oxo-2-phenyl-3(4H)-quinazolinyl)phenoxy]acetic acid (1,2-dihydro-1-H/methyl-2-oxo-3H-indol-3-ylidene)hydrazides (VII1-16) were synthesised by condensing 1-H/methyl-5-substituted indoline-2,3-diones with [4-(6H/bromo-4-oxo-2-phenyl-3(4H)-quinazolinyl) phenoxy]acetic acid hydrazides (IV1-2) which in turn were obtained by reacting ethyl [4-(6H/bromo-4-oxo-2-phenyl-3(4H)-quinazolinyl)phenoxy]acetates (III1-2) with hydrazine hydrate. All the synthesised compounds (VIII1-16) were screened for their antibacterial, acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activities.

  11. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Aziz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  12. Phytochemical and biological activities of four wild medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Shabir; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M; Fouad, H; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  13. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Pseudocalymma elegans: A False Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Sana; Versiani, Muhammad Ali; Jahangir, Sajid; Jawaid, Khurshid; Shafique, Maryam; Khan, Huma; Faizi, Shaheen

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hexane (PELH), dichloromethane (PELDCM), ethyl acetate (PELEA), and MeOH (PELM) extracts of young leaves of Pseudocalymma elegans have been carried out. Moreover, extracts have also been explored for the presence of sulphur containing compounds, 1,2-dithiolane (33), diallyl disulfide (35), 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene (37), and diallyl trisulfide (38) responsible for the garlic like smell of P. elegans. All the extracts were found to be antioxidant and showed potent inhibition with IC 50 values of 0.168 ± 0.001, 0.128 ± 0.002, 0.221 ± 0.011, and 0.054 ± 0.001, respectively, as compared to standard drugs ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The ethyl acetate extract (PELE) showed excellent activities against few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi as compared with standard drug ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin) and nystatin, respectively. Chemical constituents of hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectral library search. Over all 55 chemical constituents were first time identified from the leaves which included branched and n-hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, terpenes, alkaloid, vitamins, glycosides, aromatic compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Two known chemical constituents, ursolic acid (1) and β-amyrin (2), were also purified for the first time from the MeOH extract. To elucidate the structures of these compounds, UV, IR, EI-MS, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy were used. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. The impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on biological nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial community shifts in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dapeng; Cui, Fuyi; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Dongmei; Xu, Yongpeng; Li, Huiting; Yang, Xiaonan

    2014-04-01

    The potential impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on nitrogen removal from wastewater in activated sludge was investigated using a sequencing batch reactor. The addition of 2-50 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs did not adversely affect nitrogen removal. However, when the activated sludge was exposed to 100-200 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs, the effluent total nitrogen removal efficiencies were 36.5 % and 20.3 %, respectively, which are markedly lower than the values observed in the control test (80 %). Further studies showed that the decrease in biological nitrogen removal induced by higher concentrations of TiO2 NPs was due to an inhibitory effect on the de-nitrification process. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed that 200 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs significantly reduced microbial diversity in the activated sludge. The effect of light on the antibacterial activity of TiO2 NPs was also investigated, and the results showed that the levels of TiO2-dependent inhibition of biological nitrogen removal were similar under both dark and light conditions. Additional studies revealed that different TiO2 concentrations had a significant effect on dehydrogenase activity, and this effect was most likely the result of decreased microbial activity.

  15. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  16. Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübler Alexander C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains of BMP receptors. In the present study the biological effect of a BMP-2 double mutant with antagonistic activity was evaluated in vivo. Methods Equine-derived collagenous carriers were loaded with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 in a well-known dose to provide an osteoinductive stimulus. The study was performed in a split animal design: carriers only coupled with rhBMP-2 (control were implanted into prepared cavities of lower limb muscle of rats, specimens coupled with rhBMP-2 as well as BMP-2 double mutant were placed into the opposite limb in the same way. After 28 days the carriers were explanted, measured radiographically and characterized histologically. Results As expected, the BMP-2 loaded implants showed a typical heterotopic bone formation. The specimens coupled with both proteins showed a significant decreased bone formation in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The antagonistic effect of a specific BMP-2 double mutant could be demonstrated in vivo. The dose dependent influence on heterotopic bone formation by preventing rhBMP-2 induced osteoinduction suggests a competitive receptor antagonism.

  17. Antiproliferative Pt(IV) complexes: synthesis, biological activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Luini, Mara; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gaviglio, Luca; Osella, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Several Pt(IV) complexes of the general formula [Pt(L)2(L')2(L'')2] [axial ligands L are Cl-, RCOO-, or OH-; equatorial ligands L' are two am(m)ine or one diamine; and equatorial ligands L'' are Cl- or glycolato] were rationally designed and synthesized in the attempt to develop a predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model. Numerous theoretical molecular descriptors were used alongside physicochemical data (i.e., reduction peak potential, Ep, and partition coefficient, log Po/w) to obtain a validated QSAR between in vitro cytotoxicity (half maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, on A2780 ovarian and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines) and some features of Pt(IV) complexes. In the resulting best models, a lipophilic descriptor (log Po/w or the number of secondary sp3 carbon atoms) plus an electronic descriptor (Ep, the number of oxygen atoms, or the topological polar surface area expressed as the N,O polar contribution) is necessary for modeling, supporting the general finding that the biological behavior of Pt(IV) complexes can be rationalized on the basis of their cellular uptake, the Pt(IV)-->Pt(II) reduction, and the structure of the corresponding Pt(II) metabolites. Novel compounds were synthesized on the basis of their predicted cytotoxicity in the preliminary QSAR model, and were experimentally tested. A final QSAR model, based solely on theoretical molecular descriptors to ensure its general applicability, is proposed.

  18. New hydrazones of ferulic acid: synthesis, characterization and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolszleger, Maria; Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Apotrosoaei, Maria; Vasincu, Ioana; Pânzariu, Andreea; Profire, Lenuţa

    2014-01-01

    The ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid) is a phenolic compound with important antioxidant effects and which nowadays is being extensively studied for his potential indications in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, etc. The synthesis of new ferulic acid compounds with potential antioxidant activity. The synthesis of the designed compounds was performed in several steps: (i) the obtaining of ferulic acid chloride by reacting of ferulic acid with thionyl chloride; (ii) the reaction between the ferulic acid chloride and hydrazine hydrate 98% to obtain the ferulic acid hydrazide; (iii) the condensation of ferrulic acid hydrazide with various benzaldehydes (2-hydroxy/3-hydroxy/4-hydroxy/2-nitro/3-nitro/4-nitro/2-methoxi/ 4-chloro/4-fluoro/4-bromo-benzaldehyde) resulting the correspond- ing hydrazones. The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and the evaluation of antioxidant potential was achieved by determining the total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. In this study new hydrazones of ferulic acid have been synthesized, physic-chemical and spectral characterized. The evaluation of antioxidant potential using in vitro methods showed the favorable influence of the structural modulation on the antioxidant effects of ferulic acid.

  19. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review on Annona squamosa L.: Phytochemicals and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengyao; Chen, Yayun; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional uses. A. squamosa is an evergreen plant mainly located in tropical and subtropical regions. Srikayas, the fruits of A. squamosa, are extensively used to prepare candies, ice creams and beverages. A wide range of ethno-medicinal uses has been related to different portions of A. squamosa, such as tonic, apophlegmatisant, cool medicine, abortient and heart sedative. Numerous research projects on A. squamosa have found that it has anticancer, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, microbicidel and molluscicidal activities. Phytochemistry investigations on A. squamosa have considered annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs), diterpenes (DITs), alkaloids (ALKs) and cyclopeptides (CPs) as the main constituents. Until 2016, 33 DITs, 19 ALKs, 88 ACGs and 13 CPs from this species were reported. On the basis of the multiple researches on A. squamosa, this review strives to integrate available information on its phytochemicals, folklore uses and bioactivities, hoping to promote a better understanding of its medicinal values.

  1. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  2. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological response of tissues with macrophagic activity to titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Evelson, Pablo; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2008-03-15

    The titanium dioxide layer is composed mainly of anatase and rutile. This layer is prone to break, releasing particles to the milieu. Therefore, corrosion may cause implant failure and body contamination. We have previously shown that commercial anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-anatase) is deposited in organs with macrophagic activity, transported in the blood by phagocytic-mononuclear cells, and induces an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of rutile-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-rutile). Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with a suspension of TiO(2)-rutile powder at a dose of 1.60 g/100 g b.w. Six months postinjection, the presence of Ti was assessed in serum, blood cells, liver, spleen, and lung. Titanium was found in phagocytic mononuclear cells, serum, and in the parenchyma of all the organs tested. TiO(2)-rutile generated a rise in the percentage of reactive cells, which was smaller than that observed when TiO(2)-anatase was employed in a previous study. Although TiO(2)-rutile provoked an augmentation of ROS, it failed to induce damage to membrane lipids, possibly due to an adaptive response. The present study reveals that TiO(2)-rutile is less bioreactive than TiO(2)-anatase. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH˙, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2˙(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered.

  5. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.

  6. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-07-28

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  7. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  8. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  9. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  10. A bacteriophage system for screening and study of biologically active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W T; Harvey, R G; Lin, E J; Weiss, S B

    1977-01-01

    The usefulness of bacterial viruses for detecting substances that are potentially carcinogenic is reexamined as a model system for screening biologically active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A modification of the original assay procedure allows one to distinguish between aromatics that can modify the biological activity of infectious nucleic acids directly and those polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that require metabolic activation by Escherichia coli enzymes. The effect of chemical modification of several different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with respect to their biological activity in the phage assay system, is described. Among the 31 different compounds examined, (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide was the most potent inhibitor of infectious phage nucleic acid. The (+) and (-) isomers of the above racemic mixture did not differ significantly in their capacity to inhibit phage replication. PMID:323848

  11. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-02-23

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli.

  12. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggested that heat treatment does not adversely affect SOD or DNase activity, polysaccharide content, or cordycepin dissolution. Thus, heat treatment might be a safe processing method to extend the storage time of wild C. sinensis without compromising biological activity.

  13. In Search of a Better Bean: A Simple Activity to Introduce Plant Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccarotella, Kim; James, Roxie

    2014-01-01

    Measuring plant stem growth over time is a simple activity commonly used to introduce concepts in growth and development in plant biology (Reid & Pu, 2007). This Quick Fix updates the activity and incorporates a real-world application: students consider possible effects of soil substrate and sunlight conditions on plant growth without needing…

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1973-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  15. First synthesis of racemic saphenamycin and its enantiomers. Investigation of biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; Jorgensen, C.G.; Nielsen, John

    2003-01-01

    and screened against a range of skin flora and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Biological activities of saphenamycin enantiomers were compared with that of the synthetic racemate as well as earlier reported activities of saphenamycin isolated from natural sources. No significant difference...

  16. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  17. Biological Activity Alterations of Human Amniotic Membrane Pre and Post Irradiation Tissue Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Waleed; Bashandy, A S; Araby, Eman; Khamiss, O

    Innate immunity of Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) and its highly active secretome that rich with various types of growth factors and anti-inflammatory substances proposed it as a promising material for many medical studies and applications. This study evaluate the biological activity of cultivated HAM pre and post tissue banking process in which freeze-dried HAM was sterilized by 25 KGray (kGy) dose of γ radiation. The HAM's antimicrobial activity, viability, growth of isolated human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs), hematopoietic stimulation of co-cultivated murine bone marrow cells (mammalian model), scaffold efficiency for fish brain building up (non-mammalian model) and self re-epithelialization after trypsin denuding treatment were examined as supposed biological activity features. Native HAM revealed viability indications and was active to kill all tested microorganisms; 6 bacterial species (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative) and Candida albicans as a pathogenic fungus. Also, HAM activity promoted colony formation of murine hematopoietic cells, Tilapia nilotica brain fragment building-up and self re-epithelialization after trypsin treatment. In contrary, radiation-based tissue banking of HAM caused HAM cellular death and consequently lacked almost all of examined biological activity features. Viable HAM was featured with biological activity than fixed HAM prepared by irradiation tissue banking.

  18. Characterization and biological activity of Solidago canadensis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kocmálová, M; Fraňová, S; Pawlaczyk, I; Gancarz, R

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide-protein complex has been isolated from flowers of Solidago canadensis L. by hot alkaline extraction procedure. Compositional analyses of S canadensis complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (43 wt%), protein (27 wt%), phenolics (12 wt%), uronic acids (10 wt%) and inorganic material (8 wt%). The carbohydrate part was rich in neutral sugars (81 wt%) while uronids were determined in lower amount (19 wt%). Monosaccharide analysis of carbohydrate part revealed the presence of five main sugar components, i.e. rhamnose (~23 wt%), arabinose (~20 wt%), uronic acids (~19 wt%), galactose (~17 wt%) and glucose (~14 wt%), and indicated thus the presence of rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan in S. canadensis complex. HPLC analysis of complex showed one single peak of molecule mass at 11.2 kDa. Antitussive activity tests, performed in three doses of Solidago complex, showed the reduction of the number of cough efforts in the dose-dependent manner. Higher doses (50 and 75 mg/kg b.w.) were shown to be by 15 and 20% more effective than that of lower one (25mg/kg b.w.). However, the antitussive effect of the highest dose (75 mg/kg b.w.) was by 10% lower in comparison with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. Besides, the highest dose of the complex (75 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance and their effect remained longer as that of salbutamol, a representative of classic antiasthmatic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. ESSENTIAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpenic lactone of artemisinin was isolated from the above-ground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment. The purpose of the study was to review the data from the open sources about a component composition of Artemisia annua essential oil in the spectrum of its pharmacological activity. Methods. The study was carried out using information and searching sources (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library data bases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, as well as the results of our studies. Results. We have established that aboveground part of Artemisia annua have a significant amount  of essential oil apart from the sesquiterpene lactones. Essential oil contains more than 120 components, which belong to different classes of natural compounds. The study for dynamics of the essential oil accumulation in the Artemisia annua herb showed that the amount of oil in the herb rises significantly during budding, reaching maximum value in blossom. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of certain components varies depending on ecological and  geographical factors,  plant growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of essential oil of the Artemisia annua characterize it as a prospective source for the development of new antimicrobial medicinal drugs. Besides, as the studies shown, it can be related to the 6 class according to K. Sidorov’s classification – “relatively non-hazardous substances”. Conclusion. The analysis of the open sources on the study of essential oil of Artemisia annua made by us, as well as the results of our own studies, including phytochemical studies allow characterizing the essential oil of Artemisia annua as a prospective source for the working out of new antimicrobial drugs.

  20. Exercise training induces similar elevations in the activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and peak oxygen uptake in the human quadriceps muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, Eva; Krustrup, Peter; Søndergaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    During exercise involving a small muscle mass, peak oxygen uptake is thought to be limited by peripheral factors, such as the degree of oxygen extraction from the blood and/or mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Previously, the maximal activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme oxoglutarate dehydrogenase h...

  1. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that 125 I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of 125 I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of 125 I-pPRL was bound. 125 I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites

  2. Using Thermogenic Beige Cells to Identify Biologically Active Small Molecules and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Xu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating molecular libraries in chemical biology screenings in cultured cells has been successfully used for gene discovery in many cellular processes. It has the unique potential to uncover novel mechanisms of complex cellular biology through the screening of small molecules and protein biologics in relevant cell-based assays. Recent development in the understanding and generation of thermogenic adipocytes provides opportunities for potential anti-obesity therapeutics discovery. In this chapter, we describe screening methods using thermogenic beige cells to identify novel compounds and peptides that activate adipocyte thermogenesis.

  3. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heaney, P.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  4. Similar disturbances in B cell activity and regulatory T cell function in Henoch-Schonlein purpura and systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, M.G.; Nash, G.S.; Bertovich, M.J.; MacDermott, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The immunoglobulin synthesizing activities of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) from five patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and eight patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were compared. Cumulative amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesized and secreted by unstimulated and PWM-stimulated patient cells over a 12-day period were determied in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. In unstimulated control cultures mean rates of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesis were less than 250 ng/ml. The synthetic activities of patient MNC were markedly increased. In HSP cultures IgA was the major immunoglobulin class produced (2810 x/divide 1.33 ng/ml) followed by IgG (1754 x/divide 1.32 ng/ml) and IgM (404 x/divide 1.16 ng/ml). In SLE cultures IgA and IgG syntheses were equally elevated (4427 x/divide 1.20 and 4438 x/divide 1.49 ng/ml, respectively) whereas IgM synthesis averaged 967 x/divide 1.66 ng/ml. PWM stimulation of pateient MNC caused a sharp decline in the synthesis of all three immunoglobulin classes. After T cell depletion B cell-enriched fractions from HSP and SLE patients maintained high levels of IgA and IgG synthesis that were inhibited by PWM and by normal allogeneic but not autologous T cells. In PWM-stimulted co-cultures, patient T cells nonspecifically suppressed the synthetic activities of autologous and control B cells. in contrast patient B cells achieved normal levels of immunoglobulin synthesis when cultured with control T cells plus PWM. In longitudinal studies patient B and T cell disturbances persisted despite clinical improvement

  5. Differences and similarities on neuronal activities of people being happily and unhappily in love: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Christina; Stiller, Juliane; Bleich, Stefan; Bönsch, Dominikus; Boensch, Dominikus; Doerfler, Arnd; Garcia, Meritxell; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Forster, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity was studied in grief following frustrated love compared to romantic love, and it was hypothesized that unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers would have decreased brain activity in regions specific to emotional and reward circuits, such as frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral insula or posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Twelve volunteers intensely in love and 12 volunteers recently separated from their romantic partners were scanned performing 3 runs of functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. Subjects viewed partner pictures versus erotic pictures during the first run of the scanning process, autobiographical pictures versus neutral pictures during the second and autobiographical texts versus neutral texts during the third run. The Passionate Love Scale (PLS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were additionally recorded. Decreased brain activity in unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers occurred in frontal areas, ACC and PCC and bilateral insula. Unhappy lovers also revealed clinical depressive symptoms in the BDI. Unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers exhibited clinical depressive symptoms and reduced blood oxygen level dependency changes in a brain network which has been described as being involved in major depression. This might be a cue for the close relationship between grief and depression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Biologically active substances of hydrophytes Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Zostera noltii: composition, properties, applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Novichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary, the author places special emphasis on the study of traditional technologies for processing of geophytes. Modern development trends in biotechnology demand of expansion of the raw material base. The increase in needs medicine, food and feed industries in biologically active substances pay attention to new unconventional sources of renewable raw materials. From this perspective, higher aquatic plants Zostera noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. can be considered as a perspective object due to its high content of unique biologically active substances with different properties. Rationale of choosing of plant material and identifications of optimum performance and operational conditions for the production of biologically active substances: alcohol extraction in the mixer at room temperature limited to 7-10 days. Studied the organoleptic, physicochemical and microbial properties of end products – aqueous-alcoholic extracts of hydrophytes. Experimentations (UV spectrophotometric analysis, thin layer chromatography, mass spectrometry indicate that the composition of plants and extracts contains different biologically active substances. The high content of quercetin and pigments in the extracts of Z. noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. shows the future use of hydrophytes in the Volga river and the Northern Caspian sea as an additional natural source of flavonoids and antioxidants. Therefore, plant preparations (aqueousalcoholic extracts of zostera and pondweed are combinations of various compounds, which have a high biological activity with different properties: adsorptive capacity, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Products of studied plants after extraction with water-alcohol can be used in the food industry as a source-native with minerals, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alcohols, aliphatic acids and etc. Find an opportunity of use of biologically active substances from eelgrass and pondweed

  7. In vitro gamma irradiation of some purified polypeptide hormones and their biological and radioimmunological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromadova, M.; Macho, L.; Strbak, V.; Vigas, M.; Mikulaj, L.

    1979-01-01

    Some polypeptide hormones (adrenocorticotropin - ACTH, human and bovine growth hormone - GH, human menopausal gonadotropin - HMG, human luteinizing hormone - LH, and bovine thyrotropin - TSH) were irradiated either with 2.5 or 12.5 Mrad (1.1 Mrad/h) or both and their biological activity or immunoreactivity was tested within few days or 3 to 5 months after irradiation. Biological activity of irradiated ACTH (estimation of corticosterone released into medium by incubated adrenals - Saffran and Schally 1955) was not decreased in both time intervals tested. Ten days after irradiation of bovine GH no changes in biological activity (tibia test - Wilhelmi 1973) were found. No decrease of biological activity of irradiated HMG (augmentation of ovarian and uterine weight - Butt 1973) was found 4 months after irradiation and, finaly, no decrease of bovine TSH activity (radioiodine release from prelabelled thyroid in mice - McKenzie 1958) was found 2 to 30 days after irradiation with 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease was observed after 12.5 Mrad. Three to five months after irradiation, however, there was a decrease of biological activity after both doses. The immunological reactivity of irradiated HMG and LH did not differ from that of nonirradiated samples. The same was found with human GH after 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease of reactivity after 12.5 Mrad was detected. It was concluded that, in most of cases, the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (2.5 Mrad) did not affect the biological activity of polypeptide hormones and that their sensitivity to irradiation appears to differ. (author)

  8. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  9. Volume and activity reduction by biological treatment and ultrafiltration of laundry effluent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan Rosenberger; Bernhard Christ

    2006-01-01

    An innovative patented treatment process (BIBRA) combining biological treatment and a separator centrifuge was developed in the Gundremmingen NPP starting in 1995. To date this process has been successfully implemented in the German NPP of Gundremmingen, Kahl, Brunsbuettel, Stade, Isar 1 and Neckarwestheim. This new process has not only significantly reduced the TOC content in the effluent and waste volumes (6,600 m 3 result in only 160 kg final waste) of BWR and PWR but at the same time has increased the decontamination factor to 20 and more. The cost savings experienced within the plant are more than 125000 euros/a. These savings do not account the additional substantial savings on handling, disposal containers, transportation, interim storage and final disposal. In order to advance the biological treatment of radioactive wastes it is therefore required to find an alternative separation mechanism without loosing the advantages of discharging the inactive salts. An engineering review of possible separation processes that could help to remove these residual activity was conducted. It determined that crossflow filtration and in particular micro-filtration or ultrafiltration were the most promising technologies to further improve the separation efficiency. Ultrafiltration is able to remove bacteria, proteins and similar while allowing dissolved materials such ad salts to pass. Drawback for crossflow filtration systems is that they can experience significant problems with fouling (blocking) of the membranes from suspended solids (TSS) which typically requires the introduction of aggressive chemicals and that all these systems generate an effluent concentrate of typically 2% to 10 % of their throughput. In case of e.g. 6600 m 3 /a waste generation a volume between 120 and 600 m 3 /a concentrate would require additional treatment and conditioning. Almost at the same time as the biological treatment process was developed in Germany, RWE NUKEM matured crossflow filtration

  10. Suitable activated stable nuclide tracer technique and its applications in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weicheng

    1989-01-01

    Stable isotopes as tracers in biology and medicine have been more extensively used. Mass spectrometry has been a classic technique in the analysis of stable isotopes because it is very sensitive and precise. Activation analysis has recently been introduced as an analytical tool. Its fast speed and simplicity is a great advantage for handling large batches of samples in isotopic tracer experiments. The combination of enriched stable isotope tracer studies and activation analysis techniques has become an ideal and reliable technique, especially in the fields of biology and medicine. This paper presents a survey of the fundamental principle, the character and the applications in biology and medicine for the suitable activated stable isotope tracer techniques

  11. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  12. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  13. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL 1,2,4-TRIAZOLES CARRYING BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SULFONAMIDE MOIETIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Alsaid, Mansour S; Al-Dosari, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Thirteen novel 1, 2, 4-triazoles incorporating a biologically active sulfonamide moieties 1-13 were designed and synthesized. The structures of the prepared compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, 'H-NMR, "C-NMR and mass spectral data. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vino anticancer activity against various cancer cell lines. The corresponding triazole carrying a biologically active free sulfonamide with unsubstituted phenyl ring 1 and triazole bearing sulfonamide with dimethylpyrimidine 11 were the most potent in this study which showed higher activity than the reference drug 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Cytotoxic screening of the tested compounds could offer an encouraging framework in the field that may lead to the discovery of potent anticancer activity.

  14. Biological Activity of Ionic Liquids and Their Application in Pharmaceutics and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia S; Gordeev, Evgeniy G; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2017-05-24

    Ionic liquids are remarkable chemical compounds, which find applications in many areas of modern science. Because of their highly tunable nature and exceptional properties, ionic liquids have become essential players in the fields of synthesis and catalysis, extraction, electrochemistry, analytics, biotechnology, etc. Apart from physical and chemical features of ionic liquids, their high biological activity has been attracting significant attention from biochemists, ecologists, and medical scientists. This Review is dedicated to biological activities of ionic liquids, with a special emphasis on their potential employment in pharmaceutics and medicine. The accumulated data on the biological activity of ionic liquids, including their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, are discussed in view of possible applications in drug synthesis and drug delivery systems. Dedicated attention is given to a novel active pharmaceutical ingredient-ionic liquid (API-IL) concept, which suggests using traditional drugs in the form of ionic liquid species. The main aim of this Review is to attract a broad audience of chemical, biological, and medical scientists to study advantages of ionic liquid pharmaceutics. Overall, the discussed data highlight the importance of the research direction defined as "Ioliomics", studies of ions in liquids in modern chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  15. Polymer-based precipitation preserves biological activities of extracellular vesicles from an endometrial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ziru; Pang, Ronald T K; Liu, Weimin; Li, Qian; Cheng, Ranran; Yeung, William S B

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles released by cells and act as media for transfer of proteins, small RNAs and mRNAs to distant sites. They can be isolated by different methods. However, the biological activities of the purified EVs have seldom been studied. In this study, we compared the use of ultracentrifugation (UC), ultra-filtration (UF), polymer-based precipitation (PBP), and PBP with size-based purification (PBP+SP) for isolation of EVs from human endometrial cells and mouse uterine luminal fluid (ULF). Electron microscopy revealed that the diameters of the isolated EVs were similar among the tested methods. UF recovered the highest number of EVs followed by PBP, while UC and PBP+SP were significantly less efficient (P<0.05). Based on the number of EVs-to-protein ratios, PBP had the least protein contamination, significantly better than the other methods (P<0.05). All the isolated EVs expressed exosome-enriched proteins CD63, TSG101 and HSP70. Incubation of the trophoblast JEG-3 cells with an equal amount of the fluorescence-labelled EVs isolated by the studied methods showed that many of the PBP-EVs treated cells were fluorescence positive but only a few cells were labelled in the UC- and UF-EVs treated groups. Moreover, the PBP-EVs could transfer significantly more miRNA to the recipient cells than the other 3 methods (P<0.05). The PBP method could isolate EVs from mouse ULF; the diameter of the isolated EVs was 62±19 nm and expressed CD63, TSG101 and HSP70 proteins. In conclusion, PBP could best preserve the activities of the isolated EVs among the 4 methods studied and was able to isolate EVs from a small volume of sample. The simple setup and low equipment demands makes PBP the most suitable method for rapid EV assessment and isolation of EVs in clinical and basic research settings.

  16. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of biologically active solutions: The effects of anodizing and welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of fabrication processes, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and microbiology is crucial to the resolution of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) problems. The object of this effort was to use AC impedance spectroscopy to characterize the corrosion resistance of Type II anodized aluminum alloy 2219-T87 in sterile and biologically active media and to examine the corrosion resistance of 316L, alloy 2219-T87, and titanium alloy 6-4 in the welded and unwelded conditions. The latter materials were immersed in sterile and biologically active media and corrosion currents were measured using the polarization resistance (DC) technique.

  17. Co-evaluation of plant extracts as petrochemical substitutes and for biologically active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D.; Adams, R.P.

    Recent efforts to discover phytochemicals that could substitute for petroleum-derived fuels and industrial feedstocks have not given much attention to the potential of these same phytochemicals to provide sources of biologically active compounds. The suitability of extraction products made to assess specific plants as potential botanochemical sources has been evaluated for use in screening procedures for evidence of biologically active compounds. Screening procedures for antibacterial, antifungal and toxic properties are discussed. Screening results are presented for extracts of nearly 80 species of plants from the southeastern United States and southern Great Plains that had previously been evaluated as sources of botanochemicals.

  18. Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Biological Activity of Some Schiff Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajavel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modification of organic molecule has considerable biological relevance. Further, coordination of a biomolecules to the metal ions significantly alters the effectiveness of the biomolecules. In view of the antimicrobial activity ligand [bis-(2-aminobenzaldehyde] malonoyl dihydrazone], metal complexes with Cu(II, Ni(II, Zn(II and oxovanadium(IV have been synthesized and found to be potential antimicrobial agents. An attempt is also made to correlate the biological activities with geometry of the complexes. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, spectra and cyclicvoltammetric measurements. The structural assessment of the complexes has been carried out based on electronic, infrared and molar conductivity values.

  19. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  20. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.