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Sample records for biological activity results

  1. Biological activities of triazine derivatives. Combining DFT and QSAR results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Larif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between activities and structures, a 3D-QSAR study is applied to a set of 43 molecules based on triazines. This study was conducted using the principal component analysis (PCA method, the multiple linear regression method (MLR and the artificial neural network (ANN. The predicted values of activities are in good agreement with the experimental results. The artificial neural network (ANN techniques, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with an 8-3-1 ANN model which is a good result. As a result of quantitative structure–activity relationships, we found that the model proposed in this study is constituted of major descriptors used to describe these molecules. The obtained results suggested that the proposed combination of several calculated parameters could be useful to predict the biological activity of triazine derivatives.

  2. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  3. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  4. Brassinosteroids: synthesis and biological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oklešťková, Jana; Rárová, Lucie; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2015), s. 1053-1072 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brassinosteroids * Chemical synthesis * Plant biological activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2015

  5. About the factors distorting biological dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The row of chemical substances that have not mutagenic effect can strengthen ionising radiation induced cytogenetic effects. For example nitrite sodium and nitrate sodium reinforce mutagenic action of radiation and cause sensitized effect although they aren't mutagens. Presence of residual amount of herbicides in food products can have influence at level of aberration in human cells. It was investigated the influence of herbicide zencor at mutagenic action of radiation. This substance has weak mutagenic activity. In the case of combined action of zencor with irradiation antagonistic effect was observed. Mutation rate turns out to be lower than expected summary value. At the same time many foods products (tea, coffee, cacao, chocolate etc., which contain melanin) are antimutagens and can also change the frequency of radiation induced mutations. Taking of medicine distort the results of dose estimation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after acute irradiation is considered to be adequate method of biological dosimetry. In the case of chronic irradiation this analysis becomes complicated with such processes as adaptation (selection and proliferation of cells with more radioresistant genotype) and the origin of genetic un stability which leads to higher radiosensitivity. The estimation of the level of point mutations is the most precise method of biological dosimetry because their existence is less exposed to modifications

  6. Cosmogenic activation: Recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2018-01-01

    Activation of materials is known to cause background events in underground experiments that may affect the sensitivity of these experiments to rare event searches. The most common source of activation is the exposure of materials to cosmic rays at the surface of the Earth but other various sources of neutrons may also be dangerous. Different computer codes provide estimates of production rates of radioactive isotopes due to activation but their results are sometimes inconsistent. High-sensitivity experiments looking for dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay or neutrinos from various sources, although affected by activation, provide crucial tests of models used in the codes. Recent calculations and measurements of activation rates are discussed in this paper.

  7. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  8. Ethnobotanical and biological activities of Leptadenia pyrotechnica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This review includes the substance of different ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and exclusive capability of this plant in the field of anti-microbial and human disease activities. Key words: Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Biological activities, Desert plant, Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical activity, phytochemistry.

  9. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Benzimidazoles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated using NMR and elemental analysis. The biological activity of these compounds as fungicides was tested against three commercially known fungicides (C. albicans, patient isolate C. glabrata and C. krusei).The biological activity of two compounds was found to be ...

  11. Exploring the biological activities of Echeveria leucotricha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ruiz, María G; Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Juárez, Zaida N; Hernández, Luis R; Bach, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Echeveria leucotricha J. A. Purpus (Crassulaceae) was evaluated for its potential antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Aerial parts were extracted with hexane, methanol and chloroform, and fractionated accordingly. Biological activity was assessed in vitro against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, four human pathogenic fungi and the protozoan Leishmania donovani. Extracts and fractions showing bioactivities were further investigated for their cytotoxic activities on macrophages. Results show that several extracts and fractions exhibited significant antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities, but no anti-inflammatory activity was recorded. Here, we report for the first time, and to the best of our knowledge, these bioactivities, which suggest that this plant can be used in the traditional Mexican medicine.

  12. Benzimidazoles: A biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of commercially available benzimidazole involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-riosyldimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as a axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. The benzimidazole and its derivatives play a very important role as a therapeutic agent e.g. antiulcer and anthelmintic drugs. Apart from this the benzimidazole derivatives exhibit pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to know about the chemistry as well as pharmacological activities.

  13. Biological activity screening of seven Plectranthus species

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    Epole Ntungwe N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural products from Plectranthus spp. plants have an ethnopharmacological use, inspiring several scientific investigations. As such, this work aims to perform a biological activity screening in order to scientifically validate the use of these plants. Assays on in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activity and Artemia salina lethality were performed on seven Plectranthus spp. extracts (P. swynnertonii, P. welwischii, P. woodii, P. cylindraceus, P. spicatus, P. ramosior and P. petiolaris. Acetonic extracts were obtained by sonication (10% w/v, where P. ramosior had the highest yield of dry extract (13.49% w/w. In the AChE inhibition assay, only P. cylindraceus extract decreased enzymatic activity (30.2 ± 3.78%. The antimicrobial activity was screened using the well diffusion method, against Gram positive and negative bacteria and yeast. P. ramosior extract showed not only an inhibition zone against S. aureus and C. albicans (15 and 11 mm, respectively, but also the highest scavenging activity (DPPH method, 36.4 ± 0.04%. On the lethality test in A. salina, P. swynnertonnii extract was the most toxic (LC50 = 0.036 mg/L. These preliminary results showed that P. cylindraceus, P. ramosior and P. swynnertonnii are potential bioactive extracts for further isolation and antimicrobial and cytotoxic studies.

  14. Elsholtzia: phytochemistry and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhiqin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants of the genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae have a long history of medicinal use in folk. The phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Abundant volatile components are also identified. Pure compounds, volatile constituents and crude extracts from the genus exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities. The aims of this review hopefully provide comprehensive information on the distribution, phytochemistry, volatile components, and pharmacological research of Elsholtzia for exploring the potential and advance researches.

  15. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  16. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  17. Biologic treatment response among adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    McErlane, Flora; Foster, Helen E.; Davies, Rebecca; Lunt, Mark; Watson, Kath D.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the use of and response to biologic therapies commenced in adults with JIA. Methods. Patients with arthritis onset Biologics Register for rheumatoid arthritis (BSRBR-RA) and stratified into ILAR JIA subtypes. Patterns of biologic use and treatment persistence were explored, with disability levels (HAQ) and remission rates [28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)] evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Results. Arthritis with an onset of biologic commencement was 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) 23–39] and 76% were female. The biologic therapies were etanercept (49%), infliximab (28%), adalimumab (22%) and anakinra (1%). Fifty per cent of patients received more than one biologic during follow-up (2 agents, n = 64; ≥3 agents, n = 49). Treatment persistence at 1 year was 78% (95% CI 71%, 82%), falling to 42% (95% CI 34%, 49%) at 5 years. Both the HAQ and DAS28 improved significantly at 6 months, with 21% and 28% of patients in remission (DAS28 biologic use in a national cohort of adults with JIA. With no national guidance currently available in this area, the choice of first biologic was inconsistent, although treatment outcomes were good. These data confirm that biologic therapies are an important treatment option in adults with active JIA in adulthood. PMID:23873820

  18. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide ...

  19. Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active Recombinant Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4/CD26/ADAbp) Comprising the Extracellular Domain in the Yeast, Pichia ... Purpose: To investigate Pichia pastoris expression system for producing clinically usable, high-quality dipeptidyl peptidase 4 recombinant protein.

  20. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  1. Biological activity screening of seven Plectranthus species

    OpenAIRE

    Epole Ntungwe N; Joana Marçalo; Catarina Garcia; Catarina Reis; Catarina Teodósio; Carolina Oliveira; Cláudia Oliveira; Amílcar Roberto; Patrícia Rijo

    2017-01-01

    Natural products from Plectranthus spp. plants have an ethnopharmacological use, inspiring several scientific investigations. As such, this work aims to perform a biological activity screening in order to scientifically validate the use of these plants. Assays on in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activity and Artemia salina lethality were performed on seven Plectranthus spp. extracts (P. swynnertonii, P. welwischii, P. woodii, P. cylindraceus,...

  2. Biological activity of SV40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the biological activity of SV40 DNA. The transforming activity of SV40 DNA and DNA fragments is investigated in order to define as precisely as possible the area of the viral genome that is involved in the transformation. The infectivity of SV40 DNA is used to study the defective repair mechanisms of radiation damages of human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (C.F.)

  3. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  4. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  5. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  6. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  7. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The elemental compositions of 18 biological reference materials have been processed, for 14 stepped combinations of irradiation/decay/counting times, by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program. The 18 materials studied include 11 plant materials, 5 animal materials, and 2 other biological materials. Of these 18 materials, 14 are NBS Standard Reference Materials and four are IAEA reference materials. Overall, the results show that a mean of 52% of the input elements can be determined to a relative standard deviation of ±10% or better by reactor flux (thermal plus epithermal) INAA

  9. Maintenance of biologic-free remission with naproxen or no treatment in patients with early, active axial spondyloarthritis: results from a 6-month, randomised, open-label follow-up study, INFAST Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Sieper, J; Lenaerts, J; Wollenhaupt, J; Rudwaleit, M; Mazurov, V I; Myasoutova, L; Park, S; Song, Y; Yao, R; Chitkara, D; Vastesaeger, N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether biologic-free remission can be achieved in patients with early, active axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) who were in partial remission after 28 weeks of infliximab (IFX)+naproxen (NPX) or placebo (PBO)+NPX treatment and whether treatment with NPX was superior to no treatment to maintain disease control. Method Infliximab as First-Line Therapy in Patients with Early Active Axial Spondyloarthritis Trial (INFAST) Part 1 was a double-blind, randomised, controlled tria...

  10. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  11. Fluid dynamics in biological active nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda; Hirst, Linda

    We use biological materials to form a self-mixing active system that consists of microtubules driven by kinesin clusters. Microtubules are rigid biopolymers that are a part of the cytoskeleton. Kinesin motors are molecular motors that walk along microtubules to transport cellular cargo. In this system, microtubules are bundled together, and as the kinesin clusters walk along the filaments, the microtubule bundles move relative to each other. As microtubules shear against each other, they extend, bend, buckle and fracture. When confined in a 2D water-oil interface, the system becomes an active nematic that self-mixes due to the buckling and fracturing. To quantify this self-mixing, we attached beads to the microtubules, and tracked their motion. We quantify the quality of mixing using the bead trajectories. This new active material has potential applications as a self-mixing solvent. CCBM NSF-CREST, UC Merced Health Science Research Institute.

  12. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo CAC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  13. Polysulfides as biologically active ingredients of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberg, Ute; Anwar, Awais; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Jacob, Claus

    2007-05-21

    Garlic has long been considered as a natural remedy against a range of human illnesses, including various bacterial, viral and fungal infections. This kind of antibiotic activity of garlic has mostly been associated with the thiosulfinate allicin. Even so, recent studies have pointed towards a significant biological activity of trisulfides and tetrasulfides found in various Allium species, including a wide range of antibiotic properties and the ability of polysulfides to cause the death of certain cancer cells. The chemistry underlying the biological activity of these polysulfides is currently emerging. It seems to include a combination of several distinct transformations, such as oxidation reactions, superoxide radical and peroxide generation, decomposition with release of highly electrophilic S(x) species, inhibition of metalloenzymes, disturbance of metal homeostasis and membrane integrity and interference with different cellular signalling pathways. Further research in this area is required to provide a better understanding of polysulfide reactions within a biochemical context. This knowledge may ultimately form the basis for the development of 'green' antibiotics, fungicides and possibly anticancer agents with dramatically reduced side effects in humans.

  14. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  15. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  16. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  18. Shortened Insulin Analogues: Marked Changes in Biological Activity Resulting from Replacement of TyrB26 and N-Methylation of Peptide Bonds in the C-Terminus of the B-Chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáková, Lenka; Barth, Tomislav; Jiráček, Jiří; Barthová, J.; Zórad, Š.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2004), s. 2323-2331 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA MPO PZ-Z2/32; GA AV ČR IBS4055006 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/3190/23 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : insulin analogues * biological activity * N-methylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.008, year: 2004

  19. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  20. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  1. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  2. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  3. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences. PMID:26339647

  4. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  5. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  6. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  7. Recent results of CHIMERA activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activity of CHIMERA in recent years has been characterized by a steady progress in the detection technique and data analysis. Since 2008 the detector system benefits of new implementations: a new reaction chamber, a new charged particle identification in silicon detector made by an extended pulse shape method and an efficient system for the identification of exotic beams produced by projectile-like fragmentation (In-flight method. These implementations appear to be promising tools in view of further exclusive experiments in the field of isospin physics. The coupling of CHIMERA with other equipments (such as interferometers and highly segmented arrays, magnetic elements, neutron detectors, etc. is also envisaged in order to extend the studies of the reaction mechanism in heavy ion physics.

  8. Maintenance of biologic-free remission with naproxen or no treatment in patients with early, active axial spondyloarthritis: results from a 6-month, randomised, open-label follow-up study, INFAST Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, J; Lenaerts, J; Wollenhaupt, J; Rudwaleit, M; Mazurov, V I; Myasoutova, L; Park, S; Song, Y; Yao, R; Chitkara, D; Vastesaeger, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether biologic-free remission can be achieved in patients with early, active axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) who were in partial remission after 28 weeks of infliximab (IFX)+naproxen (NPX) or placebo (PBO)+NPX treatment and whether treatment with NPX was superior to no treatment to maintain disease control. Infliximab as First-Line Therapy in Patients with Early Active Axial Spondyloarthritis Trial (INFAST) Part 1 was a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial in biologic-naïve patients with early, active, moderate-to-severe axial SpA treated with either IFX 5 mg/kg+NPX 1000 mg/d or PBO+NPX 1000 mg/d for 28 weeks. Patients achieving Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) partial remission at week 28 continued to Part 2 and were randomised (1:1) to NPX or no treatment until week 52. Treatment group differences in ASAS partial remission and other efficacy variables were assessed through week 52 with Fisher exact tests. At week 52, similar percentages of patients in the NPX group (47.5%, 19/40) and the no-treatment group (40.0%, 16/40) maintained partial remission, p=0.65. Median duration of partial remission was 23 weeks in the NPX group and 12.6 weeks in the no-treatment group (p=0.38). Mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index scores were low at week 28, the start of follow-up treatment (NPX, 0.7; no treatment, 0.6), and remained low at week 52 (NPX, 1.2; no treatment, 1.7). In axial SpA patients who reached partial remission after treatment with either IFX+NPX or NPX alone, disease activity remained low, and about half of patients remained in remission during 6 months in which NPX was continued or all treatments were stopped.

  9. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-05-13

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  10. Biological Activity and Photostability of Biflorin Micellar Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. B. Santana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9% and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures’ photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  11. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  12. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum.

  13. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  14. Polymer application for separation/filtration of biological active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, B.; Tsibranska, I.

    2017-06-01

    Membrane technology is an important part of the engineer's toolbox. This is especially true for industries that process food and other products with their primary source from nature. This review is focused on ongoing development work using membrane technologies for concentration and separation of biologically active compounds, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. We provide the readers not only with the last results achieve in this field but also, we deliver detailed information about the membrane types and polymers used for their preparation.

  15. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  16. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 3,6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 3,6-DISUBSTITUTED-1,2,4-. TRIAZOLO-1,3 ... Thus, many chemists reported synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some 1,2,4-triazolothiadiazole derivatives in ..... N.H. Synthesis and biological activity of oxadiazole and triazolothiadiazole derivatives as tyrosinase inhibitors.

  17. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  19. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  20. Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach geospatial technology activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO) in Reston, Virginia, and its Center for Biological Informatics (CBI) in Denver, Colorado, provide leadership in the development and use of geospatial technologies to advance the Nation's biological science activities.

  1. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    , although weaker zinc ligands than the hydroxamic acids, generally lead to bioactive molecules and pos- sess higher stability in biological environments. In this respect we prepared both hydroxamic acids and benzamide versions of the target ...

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  3. Biologically active and biomimetic dual gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, P; Pedraz, J L; Orive, G

    2017-05-01

    We have designed, developed and optimized Genipin cross-linked 3D gelatin scaffolds that were biologically active and biomimetic, show a dual activity both for growth factor and cell delivery. Type B gelatin powder was dissolved in DI water. 100mg of genipin was dissolved in 10ml of DI water. Three genipin concentrations were prepared: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% (w/v). Solutions were mixed at 40°C and under stirring and then left crosslinking for 72h. Scaffolds were obtained by punching 8 mm-cylinders into ethanol 70% solution for 10min and then freeze-drying. Scaffolds were biologically, biomechanically and morphologically evaluated. Cell adhesion and morphology of D1-Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and L-929 fibroblast was studied. Vascular endothelial grwoth factor (VEGF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) were used as model proteins. Swelling ratio increased and younǵs module decreased along with the concentration of genipin. All scaffolds were biocompatible according to the toxicity test. MSC and L-929 cell adhesion improved in 0.2% of genipin, obtaining better results with MSCs. VEGF and SHH were released from the gels. This preliminary study suggest that the biologically active and dual gelatin scaffolds may be used for tissue engineering approaches like bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological

  5. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  6. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanotechnology is interdisciplinary which includes physics, chemistry, biology, material science and medicine. Nanotechnology is a universal term for the creation, manip ... range of medical devices including bone cement, surgical instruments, surgical masks, etc. Synthesis of noble metal na- noparticles, in particular, silver ...

  7. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagui, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN ( 1 H, 13 C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity

  9. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  10. Egg yolk proteins and peptides with biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins of food reveal biological activity. In the sequence of these proteins also numerous biologically active peptides are encrypted. These peptides are released during proteolysis naturally occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, food fermentation or during designed enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro. Biopeptides may exert multiple activities, affecting the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems. An especially rich source of bioactive proteins and biopeptides is egg. Bioactive peptides released from egg white proteins have been well described, whereas egg yolk proteins as precursors of biopeptides are less well characterized. This manuscript describes biologically active proteins and peptides originating from egg yolk and presents their potential therapeutic role.

  11. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Giusti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. METHODS: The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a socio-demographic data; b perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c knowledge about biological risks; d biological risks in the working environment. The questionnaire was submitted to a convenience sample of workers of an industrial area in Southern Rome. RESULTS: 729 participants entered the study from the following work activities: food, catering, service, farming and breeding, healthcare, school and research (males 57.2%; mean age 37.4 years, SD = 10.9. Significant associations were found between different activity areas with respect to the relevance of the biological risk (p = 0.044 and the perception of the biological risk (p < 0.001. With respect to vehicles of infectious agents, the highest percentages of the most common biological risk exposures were: air and physical contact for the catering and food group, 66.7% and 61.90% respectively; air and blood for the health and research group, with 73.50% and 57.00% respectively; and physical contact and blood for the service group, 63.10 % and 48.30%. Significant difference of proportions were found about the prevalent effect caused by the biological agents was the occurrence of infectious diseases (59.90% food group, 91.60% health and research and 79.30% service group (p < 0.001. The perception of knowledge resulted in a good rank (sufficient, many or complete in the food and catering group, 78.3% with significant difference compared to other professions (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: All participants show good knowledge the effects induced by biological agents and it is significant that almost half of the respondents are aware of the risks concerning allergies

  12. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  13. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity. Keywords. Trichostatic acid; HDAC; inhibitor. 1. Introduction. Reversible chemical modifications of DNA and his- tones are important cellular events that promote activation or repression of DNA ...

  14. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  15. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2001-01-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  16. Facile Chemical Access to Biologically Active Norcantharidin Derivatives from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Galkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reductive amination of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF was used to implement the transition from bio-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF to pharmaceuticals. The synthesized bis(aminomethylfurans were utilized as building blocks for the construction of new derivatives with structural cores of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. Using the one-pot procedure, which included the Diels–Alder reaction followed by hydrogenation of the double bond, bio-derived analogues of the anticancer drug norcantharidin were obtained. The cyclization process was diastereoselective, and resulted in the formation of tricyclic products with the endo configuration. Analysis of cytotoxycity for the resulting tricyclic amine-containing compounds showed an increase of anticancer activity as compared with the unsubstituted norcantharimide.

  17. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  18. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    El Mokhtar Essassi; R. Bouhfid; Y. Kandri Rodi; S. Ferfra; H. Benzeid; Y. Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  19. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  20. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocerino N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nunzia Nocerino,1 Andrea Fulgione,1 Marco Iannaccone,1 Laura Tomasetta,1 Flora Ianniello,1 Francesca Martora,1 Marco Lelli,2 Norberto Roveri,2 Federico Capuano,3 Rosanna Capparelli1 1Department of Agriculture Special Biotechnology Center Federico II, CeBIOTEC Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Chemistry, G Ciamician, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3Department of Food Inspection IZS ME, Naples, Italy Abstract: The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA. We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. Keywords: lactoferrin, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, biomimetism, biological activity, drug delivery

  1. Synthesis and biological activities of substituted N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... The present study describes the synthesis, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of substituted N'- benzoylhydrazone derivatives, to ... addition, the dramatically rising prevalence of multidrug- resistant microbial infections has ...... extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes.

  2. Biological activities of Castela coccinea Griseb. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, María Noel; Ratti, María Soledad; Sciara, Mariela; García Vescovi, Eleonora; Gattuso, Martha; Martínez, María Laura

    2011-01-01

    Infusions of leaf and bark of Castela coccinea Griseb. (Simaroubaceae) were traditionally used against dysentery. In this work, anti-bacterial and antioxidant activity were studied in C. coccinea extracts. The higest DPPH scavenging activity was detected in ethanolic leaf extracts with an IC50= 0.015 mg/ml. Bark ethanolic extracts showed inhibition of lipoperoxidation and free radical scavenging. However, a previous work evidenced that this extract is toxic at a concentration needed ...

  3. Phytochemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Salvia suffruticosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rustaie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Salvia suffruticosa is a perennial plant from Lamiaceae family. Many Salvia species have been employed as medicinal plants; despite the medicinal potentials of S. suffruticosa, there is limited studies regarding its phytochemical profile or biological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of the plant and evaluate its biological activities. Methods: Essential oil from the aerial parts of the plant was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Isolation of compounds from methanol and petroleum ether fractions was achieved by using column chromatography with different stationary phases. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR techniques. Cytotoxicity potentials were evaluated using MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH method. Results: Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes were identified as the predominant components of the oil, with β-caryophyllene (27.35%, bicyclogermacrene (22.15%, germacrene-D (9.49% and β-farnesene (9.08% as the major constituents. Phytochemical analysis of the extract resulted in isolation of lupeol (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, caffeic acid (4 and 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (5. Among the tested samples, lupeol demonstrated the most potent inhibitory activity toward breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values equal to 33.38±2.6, 36.70±3.1 and 23.66±1.4 μg/mL, respectively; caffeic acid with IC50 value of 12.1±1.2 μg/mL showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested S. suffruticosa as a promising source of bioactive compounds useful in prevention and treatment of cancer.

  4. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  5. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oee-Sook Park

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  6. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A.; Felczykowska, A.; Hohlfeld, N.; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    Cyanobacteria are effective producers of bioactive metabolites, including both acute toxins and potential pharmaceuticals. In the current work, the biological activity of 27 strains of Baltic cyanobacteria representing different taxonomic groups...

  7. Biologically active substances from Zanthoxylum capense(thumb.) Harv.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, PS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation into the composition of Zanthoxylum capense yielded several biologically active compounds, including pellitorine. A convenient HPLC method was developed to determine the presence of pellitorine in crude extracts from plants...

  8. Triazoles: a valuable insight into recent developments and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagdish K; Ganguly, Swastika; Kaushik, Atul

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, heterocyclic compounds, analogs, and derivatives have attracted strong interest due to their useful biological and pharmacological properties. The small and simple triazole nucleus is present in compounds aimed at evaluating new entities that possess anti-microbial, anti-tumor, antitubercular, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Triazoles display a broad range of biological activities and are found in many potent, biologically active compounds, such as trazodone (antidepressant drug), rizatriptan (antimigrane drug), hexaconazole (antifungal drug) and alprazolam (hyptonic, sedative and tranquilizer drug). So far, modifications of the triazole ring have proven highly effective with improved potency and lesser toxicity. The present review highlights the recently synthesized triazoles possessing important biological activities. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  10. Biological activity of Herissantia crispa (L. Brizicky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available The crude methanol extract (EMeOH of the aerial parts of Herissantia crispa (L. Brizicky, plant riches in flavonoids and without pharmacological studies, was tested to value its activity under the behaviour parameters and to determine the lethal dose (LD50 in mice; antimicrobial and antiulcerogenic activities. The EMeOH (5,000 mg/kg, v.o. or 2,000 mg/kg i.p. did not alter the behaviour parameters and there were not mice deaths. The extract inhibited the bacterial growth. The EMeOH (750 mg/kg showed anti-diarroeal activity. The EMeOH (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg decreased the gastric lesions induced by 0.3 M HCl/ethanol 60% in mice. In conclusion, the EMeOH presents anti-ulcerogenic activity;, however it is necessary to value the antiulcerogenic activity in more specific models and to study the action mechanism by which the vegetable sample protects the gastric mucosa.

  11. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver ...

  12. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  13. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications.

  14. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Raman Optical Activity of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Barron, Laurence D.

    Now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure, Raman optical activity (ROA) measures a small difference in Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized light. As ROA spectra measure vibrational optical activity, they contain highly informative band structures sensitive to the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses and carbohydrates as well as the absolute configurations of small molecules. In this review we present a survey of recent studies on biomolecular structure and dynamics using ROA and also a discussion of future applications of this powerful new technique in biomedical research.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  17. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    3 H and 14 C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with 3 H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled [29- 3 H]-[24- 14 C] fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the 3 H/ 14 C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of 3 H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The [29- 3 H] phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation

  18. Biologically active compounds of semi-metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Semi-metals (boron, silicon, arsenic and selenium) form organo-metal compounds, some of which are found in nature and affect the physiology of living organisms. They include, e.g., the boron-containing antibiotics aplasmomycin, borophycin, boromycin, and tartrolon or the silicon compounds present in "silicate" bacteria, relatives of the genus Bacillus, which release silicon from aluminosilicates through the secretion of organic acids. Arsenic is incorporated into arsenosugars and arsenobetaines by marine algae and invertebrates, and fungi and bacteria can produce volatile methylated arsenic compounds. Some prokaryotes can use arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor while others can utilize arsenite as an electron donor to generate energy. Selenium is incorporated into selenocysteine that is found in some proteins. Biomethylation of selenide produces methylselenide and dimethylselenide. Selenium analogues of amino acids, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-infective drugs are often used as analogues of important pharmacological sulfur compounds. Other metalloids, i.e. the rare and toxic tellurium and the radioactive short-lived astatine, have no biological significance.

  19. Copper Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyvaldiev, A. S.; Zhasnakunov, Z. K.; Omurzak, E.; Doolotkeldieva, T. D.; Bobusheva, S. T.; Orozmatova, G. T.; Kelgenbaeva, Z.

    2018-01-01

    By means of XRD and FESEM analysis, it is established that copper nanoparticles with sizes less than 10 nm are formed during the chemical reduction, which form aggregates mainly with spherical shape. Presence of gelatin during the chemical reduction of copper induced formation of smaller size distribution nanoparticles than that of nanoparticles synthesized without gelatin and it can be related to formation of protective layer. Synthesized Cu nano-powders have sufficiently high activity against the Erwinia amylovora bacterium, and the bacterial growth inhibition depends on the Cu nanoparticles concentration. At a concentration of 5 mg / ml of Cu nanoparticles, the exciter growth inhibition zone reaches a maximum value within 72 hours and the lysis zone is 20 mm, and at a concentration of 1 mg / ml this value is 16 mm, which also indicates the significant antibacterial activity of this sample.

  20. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ical scavenging activity was measured by the salicylic acid method [16]. The synthesized AgNPs solution at different concentrations (10 to 80 μg ml. −1. ) was dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water. One millilitre of AgNPs mixed with 1 ml of. 9 mM salicylic acid, 1 ml of 9 mM ferrous sulphate and 1ml of 9 mM hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... CD4+ T cells to enhance the ability of secreting antibody and also enhance the function of CD8+ T cells. (Papatriantafyllou, 2011; Tovey and Lallemand, 2010). GM-CSF also is a key regulator of IL-1beta production. Furthermore, It was reported that GM-CSF play a key role in the activation of Th1 and Th17 ...

  2. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  3. A Survey of Biology Teachers Use of Activity-Oriented, Laboratory Practical Exercises to Promote Functional Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Mgboyibo Osuafor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of science education is fostering students’ intellectual competencies such as independent learning, problem-solving, decision-making and critical thinking. This goal can only be achieved when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process through activity-based, practical-oriented instructional methods involving the use of laboratories. This study therefore, investigated the extent to which the biology teachers employ activity-oriented, laboratory/practical instructional methods in order to improve the learning outcome of their students. The descriptive survey involved 73 Biology teachers randomly selected from all the six education zones of Anambra state, Nigeria. Four research questions were posed and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the study. A 32-item structured questionnaire which has reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-tests. Results show that Biology teachers adopt practical-oriented strategies in teaching biology, conduct practical activities to a high extent, and perceive practical exercises as essential to effective teaching and learning of the subject. Provision of adequate number of laboratory materials, employment of adequate number of biology teachers, making provision for well designed laboratory activities in the curriculum and training of teachers on how to effectively combine theory with practical are some of the strategies that will encourage biology teachers to conduct practical lessons. There was no significant difference between male and female biology teachers in their responses to the different aspects investigated. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made that include that curriculum designers should incorporate guides for practical activities that go with each topic in the curriculum so as to encourage the teachers to teach theory with practical as a unified whole to

  4. Template Synthesis of Tubular Nanostructures for Loading Biologically Active Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Aysegul; Algan, Aslıhan Hilal

    2017-01-01

    The template synthesis is a low cost, simple and versatile nanofabrication method to produce cylindrical/tubular nanostructures with controllable dimensions such as length, diameter and aspect ratio. This method utilizes nanoporous membranes such as anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) or polycarbonate (PC) as templates which have nanosized specific, cylindrical and uniform inner pores to be coated with the desired material. Template synthesized nanotubular structures have been produced from variety of materials including ceramics, polymers and proteins for loading biologically active molecules. Available procedures of material deposition into the template nanopores consist of several techniques like wetting (melt or solution wetting), layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and sol-gel chemistry. Template synthesis enables not only control of the geometry of the resulting nanostructures but also provides nanovehicles having separated inner and outer surfaces which can be variously functionalized. Tubular nanostructures fabricated by this method have numerous potential applications including delivery of biologically active molecules such as drugs, gene, enzymes and proteins. In this review we aimed to present up-to-date works on the template based synthesis which has greatly facilitated the fabrication of polymer and protein tubular nanostructures, principally. The strategies regarding the synthesis and designing of these promising tubular nanostructures together with recent approaches relevant of drug delivery was also presented. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  6. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  7. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  8. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  9. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  10. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  11. [Oregano: properties, composition and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila-Lozano, Cynthia Cristina; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Lecona-Uribe, Salvador; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2004-03-01

    The oregano spice includes various plant species. The most common are the genus Origanum, native of Europe, and the Lippia, native of Mexico. Among the species of Origanum. their most important components are the limonene, gamma-cariofilene, rho-cymenene, canfor, linalol, alpha-pinene, carvacrol and thymol. In the genus Lippia, the same compounds can be found. The oregano composition depends on the specie, climate, altitude, time of recollection and the stage of growth. Some of the properties of this plant's extracts are being currently studied due to the growing interest for substituting synthetic additives commonly found in foods. Oregano has a good antioxidant capacity and also presents antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, among others. These are all characteristics of interest for the food industry because they may enhance the safety and stability of foods. There are also some reports regarding the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effect of oregano; representing an alternative for the potential treatment and/or prevention of certain chronic ailments, like cancer.

  12. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  13. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  14. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    2017-01-01

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is…

  15. Zoanthid mucus as new source of useful biologically active proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Míriam Camargo; de Albuquerque Modesto, Jeanne Claíne; Pérez, Carlos Daniel; Ottaiano, Tatiana Fontes; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Campos, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use. The enzymatic (proteolytic and phospholipase A 2 ), inhibitory (metallo, cysteine and serine proteases), and hemagglutinating (human erythrocyte) activities were determined. The results showed high levels of cysteine and metallo proteases, intermediate levels of phosholipase A 2 , low levels of trypsin, and no elastase and chymotrypsin like activities. The mucus showed potent inhibitory activity on snake venom metalloproteases and cysteine proteinase papain. In addition, it showed agglutinating activity towards O + , B + , and A + erythrocyte types. The hemostatic results showed that the mucus prolongs the aPTT and PT, and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, ADP, and thrombin. The antimicrobial activity was tested on 15 strains of bacteria and fungi through the radial diffusion assay in agar, and no activity was observed. Compounds in P. caribaeorum mucus were analyzed for the first time in this study, and our results show potential pharmacological activities in these compounds, which are relevant for use in physiopathological investigations. However, the demonstration of these activities indicates caution in the use of crude mucus in folk medicine. Furthermore, the present or absent activities identified in this mucus suggest that the studied P. caribaeorum colonies were in thermal stress conditions at the time of sample collection; these conditions may precede the bleaching

  16. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF THE LAURUS NOBILIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nasukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 12-15 m high. The plant’s name is devoted to an Ancient Greek God of Sun Apollo and is a symbol of peace and victory. It was used in making up wreaths for emperors, generals, and poets. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries with high level of annual precipitation. It is actively cultivated as a decorative plant in Europe, Russia, USA and other countries. It is cultivated in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Russia, and Mexico. The aim of the study is the review of available literature about isolation, identification, quantitative determination of biologically active compounds of the Laurus nobilis leaves in the established species and their pharmacological activity. Materialsand methods. The study was carried out using searching (PubMed, CiteSeer, arXiv, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninka, and ResearchGate free social network. Results and discussion. We have established that Laurus nobilis leaves have components of essential oil, phenolic compounds, and sesquiterpenic lactones as the principal active substances. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of these compound groups in these raw materials varies depending on the ecological and geographical, edaphic, climatic factors, phase of the plant growth, cultivation technology, drying method etc. The results of the pharmacological studies of the extracts, summary fractions, and individual compounds of Laurus nobilis leaves characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for a more profound study. Conclusion. As the available open review data showed, the essential oil components, phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc, sesquiterpenic lactones of Laurus nobilis exhibit a diverse spectrum of pharmacological activity. Antimicrobial (widely, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cytoxic (anticancer activities, established in extracts

  17. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  18. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Multifunctional biomaterial coatings: synthetic challenges and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Mareen; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2017-01-01

    A controlled interaction of materials with their surrounding biological environment is of great interest in many fields. Multifunctional coatings aim to provide simultaneous modulation of several biological signals. They can consist of various combinations of bioactive, and bioinert components as well as of reporter molecules to improve cell-material contacts, prevent infections or to analyze biochemical events on the surface. However, specific immobilization and particular assembly of various active molecules are challenging. Herein, an overview of multifunctional coatings for biomaterials is given, focusing on synthetic strategies and the biological benefits by displaying several motifs.

  20. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mokhtar Essassi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  1. P-glycoprotein activity and biological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaalburg, W.; Hendrikse, N.H.; Elsinga, P.H.; Bart, J.; Waarde, A. van

    2005-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane drug efflux pump encoded by the MDR-1 gene in humans. Most likely P-gp protects organs against endogenous and exogenous toxins by extruding toxic compounds such as chemotherapeutics and other drugs. Many drugs are substrates for P-gp. Since P-gp is also expressed in the blood-brain barrier, P-gp substrates reach lower concentrations in the brain than in P-gp-negative tissues. Failure of response to chemotherapy of malignancies can be due to intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Many tumors are multidrug resistant (MDR); resistant to several structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic agents. Several mechanisms are involved in MDR of which P-gp is studied most extensively. P-gp extrudes drugs out of tumor cells resulting in decreased intracellular drug concentrations, leading to the MDR phenotype. Furthermore, the MDR-1 gene exhibits several single nucleotide polymorphisms, some of which result in different transport capabilities. P-gp functionality and the effect of P-gp modulation on the pharmacokinetics of novel and established drugs can be studied in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) using carbon-11 and fluorine-18-labeled P-gp substrates and modulators. PET may demonstrate the consequences of genetic differences on tissue pharmacokinetics. Inhibitors such as calcium-channel blockers (verapamil), cyclosporin A, ONT-093, and XR9576 can modulate the P-gp functionality. With PET the effect of P-gp modulation on the bioavailability of drugs can be investigated in humans in vivo. PET also allows the measurement of the efficacy of newly developed P-gp modulators

  2. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  3. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological activity of antitumoural MGBG: the structural variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M P M; Gil, F P S C; Calheiros, R; Battaglia, V; Brunati, A M; Agostinelli, E; Toninello, A

    2008-05-01

    The present study aims at determining the structure-activity relationships (SAR's) ruling the biological function of MGBG (methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)), a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase displaying anticancer activity, involved in the biosynthesis of the naturally occurring polyamines spermidine and spermine. In order to properly understand its biochemical activity, MGBG's structural preferences at physiological conditions were ascertained, by quantum mechanical (DFT) calculations.

  5. Characterization of biological macromolecules by electrophoresis and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Hancock, D.; Zeisler, R.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with INAA and autoradiography was developed to study biological macromolecules and their associated trace elements. Results from the application of this method to several metalloproteins are presented. (author)

  6. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  7. Phenolic compounds characterization and biological activities of Citrus aurantium bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Hendra, Rudi; Oskoueian, Armin; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-30

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP). The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to appreciable

  8. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  9. Biological activities of undescribed North American lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeash, Erik A; Letwin, Lyndon; Malek, Lada; Suntres, Zacharias; Knudsen, Kerry; Christopher, Lew P

    2017-11-01

    Lichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The results from this study demonstrated the following: (i) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities, which were concentration dependent; (ii) acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 µg mL -1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 µg mL -1 against Enterococcus faecalis; (iii) acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 87 µg mL -1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase, whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited. New lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  11. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  12. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  13. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sreeja; Sithul, Hima; Muraleedharan, Parvathy; Azeez, Juberiya Mohammed; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231), and endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc) were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds. PMID:24818149

  14. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  15. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  16. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Momordica charantia L. ( M. charantia ), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia .

  17. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia.

  18. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  19. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Cotula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotula cinerea contains a wide range of phytochemical compounds such as saponins, essential oils, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids. This paper reviews information pertaining its traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, herbicidal, anti-diarrheal and ...

  20. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  1. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  2. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  3. A Review on Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review is aimed to deliver some updates on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of Beilschmiedia species in order to throw more light on their therapeutic potentials and future research priorities. Phytochemical studies on Beilschmiedia genus yielded essential oils, endiandric acid ...

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Isothiosemicarbazones with Antimycobacterial Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, E.; Waisser, K.; Kuneš, J.; Palát, K.; Skálová, L.; Szotáková, B.; Buchta, V.; Stolaříková, J.; Ulmann, V.; Pávová, Marcela; Weber, Jan; Komrsková, J.; Hašková, P.; Vokřál, I.; Wsól, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e1700020. ISSN 0365-6233 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological activity * cytotoxicity * isocitrate lyase * isothiosemicarbazone * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2016

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  6. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE 2-BENZOYL PACLITAXEL ANALOGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GEORG, GI; ALI, SM; BOGE, TC

    1995-01-01

    The influence of aromatic substitution at the 2-benzoyl moiety of paclitaxel on biological activity was investigated, following the Topliss Operational Scheme. Twelve paclitaxel derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in a microtubule assembly assay and for cytotoxicity against B16 melanoma ce...

  7. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  8. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  9. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Cotula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Asteraceae, Cotula cinerea, Traditional uses, Phytochemistry, Biological activities. This is an Open .... desert conditions with an average annual rainfall .... Desert area between. Cairo and. Ismailia. (Egypt). Not stated. [33]. The essential oil of C. cinerea has also been subjected to many studies. The essential oil.

  10. Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of Pituranthos scoparius (Coss and ... mg/mL. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the essential oil of P.scoparius has a potential for use as a preservative and flavorant in ..... Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n=3). Key: control (♢), BHT (□) ...

  11. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129 ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  12. The Biological Activities of Moltkia aurea; an Endemic Species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neslihan BALPINAR

    inclination that studies on medicinal plants, which are basis for the development of new biologically active molecules for pharmaceuticals, have rapidly increased. Recent studies associated with medicinal plants make possible to better understand their properties, safety and efficiency. In this study, Moltkia aurea Boiss.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Shakeel Ahmad Khan1*, Sammia Shahid1, Waqas Bashir1, Sadia Kanwal2 and. Ahsan Iqbal3. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, Lahore-54000, ...

  14. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  15. Biological activities of some Fluoroquinolones-metal complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metal ions play a vital role in the design of more biologically active drugs. Aim: The paper reviewed the antimicrobial, toxicological and DNA cleavage studies of some synthesized metal complexes of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Literature searches were done using scientific databases.

  16. Preliminary Phytochemical and Biological activities on Russelia juncea Zucc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bibi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To probe the ethnomedicinal claims of Russelia juncea Zucc. (Plantaginaceae as prescribed traditionally in the folklore history of medicines. Methods: The dichloromethane and methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots were examined for antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiglycation, insecticidal, leishmanicidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Different phytochemical tests were also performed to confirm the presence of various groups of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Results: Phytochemical screening of this plant confirmed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Antibacterial activity was only shown by RJRD with 80% inhibition at the concentration of 150µg/ml against Shigella flexneri. Among the tested samples, RJAM and RJRM displayed significant radical scavenging activity up to 93% and 89% with IC50 values of 184.75 ± 4.05µM and 263.01 ± 9.36µM. The significant antiglycation potential was exhibited by RJAD, RJAM and RJRM with 55.35%, 62.25% and 59.22% inhibition and IC50 values of 0.84 ± 0.08mg/ml, 1.37 ± 0.15mg/ml and 1.52 ± 0.10mg/ml respectively. Moderate leishmanicidal activity was exposed by RJAD and RJRM with IC50 values of 73.04 ± 1.05µg/ml and 77.66 ± 0.23µg/ml while RJAM was found to be more potent and exposed significant leishmanicidal activity having IC50 of 48 ± 0.39µg/ml. However, prominent cytotoxic activity was displayed by RJRM with 66.08% inhibition and IC50 of 31.20 ± 3µg/ml. Non-significant antifungal, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities were demonstrated by all the tested samples. Conclusion: All the above contributions give serious attentiveness to scientists to isolate and purify the biologically active phytoconstituents by using advanced scientific methodologies that serve as lead compounds in the synthesis of new therapeutic agents of desired interest in the world of drug discovery.

  17. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Petrelli; Giuseppe Orsomando; Leonardo Sorci; Filippo Maggi; Farahnaz Ranjbarian; Prosper C. Biapa Nya; Dezemona Petrelli; Luca A. Vitali; Giulio Lupidi; Luana Quassinti; Massimo Bramucci; Anders Hofer; Loredana Cappellacci

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucle...

  18. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  19. Secondary metabolites from Inula britannica L. and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Hamayun, Muhammad; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Ahmad, Shabir; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-03-10

    Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids) and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  20. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-07-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles.

  1. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  2. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  3. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  4. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  5. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  6. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Keast

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  7. Should Soil Testing Services Measure Soil Biological Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic matter accumulation. Total soil organic matter changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil testing services via the flush of CO during 1 to 3 d following rewetting of dried soil. The flush of CO is related to soil microbial biomass C and has repeatedly been shown strongly related to net N mineralization during standard aerobic incubations. New research is documenting the close association with plant N uptake in semicontrolled greenhouse conditions ( = 0.77, = 36. Field calibrations are underway to relate the flush of CO to the need for in-season N requirement in a variety of crops. An index of soil biological activity can and should be determined to help predict soil health and soil N availability.

  8. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, and tridecadepsipeptides have been isolated from fungi. These metabolites are mainly reported from the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Fusarium, Isaria, Metarhizium, Penicillium, and Rosellina. They are known to exhibit various biological activities such as cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumoral and enzyme-inhibitory activities. Some CDPs (i.e., PF1022A, enniatins and destruxins have been applied as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

  9. Nonoxidized, biologically active parathyroid hormone determines mortality in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Grön, Hans Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was shown that nonoxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is bioactive, whereas the oxidation of PTH results in a loss of biological activity. Methods: In this study we analyzed the association of n-oxPTH on mortality in hemodialysis patients using a recently developed assay system. Results......: Hemodialysis patients (224 men, 116 women) had a median age of 66 years. One hundred seventy patients (50%) died during the follow-up period of 5 years. Median n-oxPTH levels were higher in survivors (7.2 ng/L) compared with deceased patients (5.0 ng/L; P = .002). Survival analysis showed an increased survival...... in the highest n-oxPTH tertile compared with the lowest n-oxPTH tertile (χ(2), 14.3; P = .0008). Median survival was 1702 days in the highest n-oxPTH tertile, whereas it was only 453 days in the lowest n-oxPTH tertile. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression showed that higher age increased odds for death, whereas...

  10. Indonesian propolis: chemical composition, biological activity and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusheva, Boryana; Popova, Milena; Koendhori, Eko Budi; Tsvetkova, Iva; Naydenski, Christo; Bankova, Vassya

    2011-03-01

    From a biologically active extract of Indonesian propolis from East Java, 11 compounds were isolated and identified: four alk(en)ylresorcinols (obtained as an inseparable mixture) (1-4) were isolated for the first time from propolis, along with four prenylflavanones (6-9) and three cycloartane-type triterpenes (5, 10 and 11). The structures of the components were elucidated based on their spectral properties. All prenylflavanones demonstrated significant radical scavenging activity against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radicals, and compound 6 showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. For the first time Macaranga tanarius L. and Mangifera indica L. are shown as plant sources of Indonesian propolis.

  11. Perceptions of Prospective Biology Teachers on Scientific Argumentation in Microbiology Inquiry Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviati, E.; Widodo, A.; Purwianingsih, W.; Riandi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Inquiry laboratory activity and scientific argumentation in science education should be promoted and explicitly experienced by prospective biology teacher students in classes, including in microbiology courses. The goal of this study is to get information about perceptions of prospective biology teachers on scientific argumentation in microbiology inquiry lab activities. This study reported the result of a survey research to prospective biology teachers about how their perception about microbiology lab classes and their perception about inquiry and argumentation in microbiology lab activities should be. The participants of this study were 100 students of biology education department from an institute in Cirebon, West Java taking microbiology lecture during the fifth semester. The data were collected using questionnaire to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prospective biology teachers about microbiology, inquiry lab activities and argumentation. The result showed that students thought that the difficulties of microbiology as a subject were the lack of references and the way lecturer teaching. The students’ perception was that argumentation and inquiry should be implemented in microbiology courses and lab activities. Based on the data from questionnaire, It showed that prospective biology teacher students had very little knowledge about scientific argumentation and its implementation in science education. When the participants made arguments based on the problems given, they showed low quality of arguments.

  12. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggested that heat treatment does not adversely affect SOD or DNase activity, polysaccharide content, or cordycepin dissolution. Thus, heat treatment might be a safe processing method to extend the storage time of wild C. sinensis without compromising biological activity.

  13. QSAR Study of the Biologically Active Organosulfurs in Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr M. Abu-Awwad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of two sets of a total of 30 different polysulfides were investigated using QSAR. The semiempirical AM1 in Gaussian 2003 for windows was used to optimize the structures whereas a subsequent calculation of hundreds of various types of descriptors at the density functional (B3LYP/6-31G* using CODESSA package was employed. The known 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity data (IC50 of 19 polysulfides out of the whole data set were correlated in a multiple linear regression procedures with the computed descriptors. Statistically, the most significant overall correlations were five- and four- parameter equations with good statistical parameters; R2= 0.9981, R2CV = 0.9970 and R2=9967, R2CV = 0.9933 respectively. The models concluded that biological activity of polysulfides is mainly attributed to quantum-chemical, geometrical and topological descriptors with neither electrostatic contribution nor chief role of sulfur atoms. Also sulfur related descriptors were not the most significant contributors in the concluded models. The obtained models were efficiently employed to estimate the biological activities of the other 11 polysulfides available in natural products such as garlic and mushroom.

  14. Midterm results of biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling in osteochondritis dissecans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuluhan Yunus Emre

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling as a technique to treatment of the lesion in OCD by osteochondral autograft transfer has resulted in good and excellent clinical outcomes in our patients and it is considered that providing blood flow to subchondral bone by circumferencial drilling leads to an increase in the robustness of biological internal fixation and shortens the duration of recovery.

  15. [Results of 2 years of activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigazzi, M

    2010-01-01

    Work-related injuries and occupational diseases are a scourge of modern, western societies, which, although technologically advanced, have difficulty in preventing, treating and rehabilitating victims with speed and efficiency. The current hospital neuromotor rehabilitation centres, whether public or accredited private structures, have notable difficulty in meeting the demand, which despite annual fluctuations and variable needs, does not, overall, seem to be decreasing. We present the results of an organization model developed at the "Fondazione Maugeri" Scientific Institute (Pavia, Italy), the criteria used for the activity, the technological innovations employed to determine ability, and the prospects for further development. This model is effective from a health care-rehabilitative point of view, also in the light of the new legislative scenarios, and is sustainable from an economic points of view; overall it is, therefore, efficient.

  16. Implications of the use of experimental activities in biology education in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cardoso da Silva Morais

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of a didactic sequence with experimental activities on student motivation in relation to the subject matter Biology and check the possibility of applying such a result having as input the cultural-historical perspective and the dynamic of the three pedagogical moments. The work is part of a Master Degree research developed with 70 students from a high school in Patos de Minas city. The analysis of the data collected through observation, questionnaires, reports, testimonies of students, filming and photography of biology classes, points out that the use of experimental activities in Biology classes contributed to the increase of student motivation relating to Biology classes favoring the teaching-learning process and also to promote a converge between the scientific knowledge and reality of the students besides encourage their self-esteem and investigative sense. The results also indicate that it is possible to develop at school a didactic sequence based on the complementarity of two different theoretical lines like the dynamics of the three moments and in the historical and cultural perspective. Based on above considerations, we believe that the use of experimental activities following didactics positively influences student motivation in relation to Biology, favoring the teaching and learning of Biology. However, it is the whole of this, as the theory and the posture of motivating teachers, allowed approximation between scientific knowledge and reality of the students, enabling greater learning of biological concepts.

  17. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  18. Characterization of biologically active substances from Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecka, Petra; Lipov, Jan; Thumova, Kamila; Macurkova, Anna

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this work was to compare water and organic extracts, infusions and tinctures from flowers and leaves of Calendula officinalis in terms of their biological activity and composition. The purpose of work was investigation whether the leaves and stems are really the waste or they contain interesting substances which could be utilized. Antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were studied. Then the ability to inhibit collagenase was studied as well. Cytotoxicity was tested for all the samples on mammalian cell lines. To determine the composition of extracts, infusions and tinctures phytochemical analysis (the set of colour reactions for detection of groups of biologically active compounds) was carried out and shown that samples from flowers and leaves contain the same groups of biologically active substances (proteins and amino acids, reducing sugars, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides). The antimicrobial activity of tested samples was proved, where the most sensitive bacterium was Micrococcus luteus and the most sensitive yeast was Geotrichum candidum. The study of anti - collagenase activity has shown that the enzymatic reaction of collagenase was affected by all tested samples and their effect was concentration dependent. Cytotoxicity of water and methanol extracts at cell lines HEK 293T and HepG2 was observed. Cells HepG2 were more sensitive than cells HEK 293T. Using cell line RAW 264.7 anti-inflammatory activity of all samples was observed. Tincture of leaves was the most effective. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  20. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  1. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  2. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  3. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K

    2011-10-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  4. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  5. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, V; Rao, E Upender; P, Srinivas

    2012-07-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  6. Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results from a Motion Noise Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in which basic visual motion signals were manipulated systematically by incorporating different levels of motion noise. We measured the performances of schizophrenia patients (n=21 and healthy controls (n=22 in this biological motion perception task, as well as in coherent motion detection, theory of mind, and a widely used biological motion recognition task. Results: Schizophrenia patients performed the biological motion perception task with significantly lower accuracy than healthy controls when perceptual signals were moderately degraded by noise. A more substantial degradation of perceptual signals, through using additional noise, impaired biological motion perception in both groups. Performance levels on biological motion recognition, coherent motion detection and theory of mind tasks were also reduced in patients. Conclusion: The results from the motion-noise biological motion paradigm indicate that in the presence of visual motion noise, the processing of biological motion information in schizophrenia is deficient. Combined with the results of poor basic visual motion perception (coherent motion task and biological motion recognition, the association between basic motion signals and biological motion perception suggests a need to incorporate the improvement of visual motion perception in social cognitive remediation.

  7. Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bankova, Vassya; Popova, Milena; Trusheva, Boryana

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived...

  8. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Tava

    2007-01-01

    In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers), but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to th...

  9. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P.

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR).

  10. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  11. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been report...

  12. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohan Wang; Xiao Gong; Peng Li; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cycli...

  13. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activities of the Agaricus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Munkhgerel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Agaricus mushroom grown in Mongolia were analyzed for their element content. Biological activity and chemical components study of Agaricus, grown in the Mongolian flora has been investigated for the first time. The ethanol extracts of dried Agaricus sp. mushrooms were analyzed for antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and interferon-like activity. The ethanol extracts from Agaricus arvensis showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. The IC50 of A. silvaticus and A. arvensis were 216 and 17.75 g/ml respectively. Among the twenty three mushroom extracts, the extracts from A. silvatisus and A. arvensis have shown the interferon-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.197Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p41-45

  15. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL -1 and 0.6-0.7 ng mL -1 , respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  18. Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Biologically Activated Brown Coal Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Praščáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of cooper (II and zinc (II ions from aqueous solutions on a biologically activated brown coal sludge was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from the brown coal sludge bya microorganism’s activity. There were used microscopic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. Prepared sorbents were capable of removing Cu (II and Zn (II. The sorption isotherm has been constructed and the specific metal uptake and the maximum capacity of the adsorbent have been determined.

  19. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  20. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoids may play an important role in the decreased risk of chronic diseases associated with a diet rich in plant-derived foods. Flavonoids are also common constituents of plants used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this article is to summarize the distribution and biological activities of one of the most common flavonoids: luteolin. This flavonoid and its glycosides are widely distributed in the plant kingdom; they are present in many plant families and have been identified in Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. Dietary sources of luteolin include, for instance, carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. Preclinical studies have shown that this flavone possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The ability of luteolin to inhibit angiogenesis, to induce apoptosis, to prevent carcinogenesis in animal models, to reduce tumor growth in vivo and to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of some anticancer drugs suggests that this flavonoid has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Modulation of ROS levels, inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity, stabilization of p53, and inhibition of PI3K, STAT3, IGF1R and HER2 are possible mechanisms involved in the biological activities of luteolin.

  1. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  2. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  3. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  4. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  5. Enova results and activities report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    Energy was high on the agenda in 2006. The higher than normal electricity prices, Norway's strong dependence on electricity, and the increased focus on climate change resulted in a lot of interest in environmentally friendly energy solutions. For Enova this meant an exciting and demanding year. At the same time it has been important to take into account the long-term perspective of the activities. Enova is supposed to be a driving force for future oriented energy solutions and to contribute to a lasting change in Norway's generation and use of energy. During the past year better knowledge about what is happening to our world has had a positive effect on Enova's efforts. This increased attention has provided Enova with the opportunity to demonstrate that energy efficiency and renewable energy are the keys to a sustainable energy future. Moreover, the general focus on energy has enabled Enova to more effectively provide business and industry, households and the public authorities with good energy advice. refs., figs., tabs., ills

  6. Enova results and activities report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Enova's primary task is to utilise the Norwegian Energy Fund to contribute to environmentally friendly restructuring of energy consumption and generation. Enova's management of the Energy Fund is governed by an agreement between the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and Enova. Restructuring national energy consumption is a comprehensive task, which includes identifying barriers and fine-tuning policy instruments to achieve changes in the market. In 2007, Enova achieved contractual commitments for an energy result of about 2.4 TWh, while 10.1 TWh was contracted in the period 2001-2007. A 28 million euro wind power project received support in 2007, and counting this project, Enova has granted subsidies totalling 100 million euros for 11 different windmill parks located around Norway. A significant commitment was made in the heating area in 2007. An energy result of 751 GWh in renewable heating energy was contracted, distributed among 69 projects with total funding amounting to 40 million euros. Bio fuel processing projects received 0.6 million euros, divided among four projects totalling 163 GWh. From 2008, three new heating programs will replace the existing heating program, and the solid bio fuel production program will be discontinued. In 2007, Enova received 30 applications for the new technology program, of which 21 were connected to the joint effort with the Research Council of Norway and Innovation Norway. A total of ten projects have received pledges of support from Enova in 2007, totalling 10 million euros. The program for energy consumption in buildings achieved a contractual energy result of 365 GWh in 2007. An evaluation was carried out in 2007 that will be used as a basis for tailoring the program activities to the market. The work aimed at energy efficiency and conversion to renewable energy carriers in industry has contributed a total contracted energy result of 814 GWh in 2007. The main program has been confirmed and maintained in 2007. The

  7. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  8. A comparison of the biological activities of four prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. W.; Main, I. H. M.

    1963-01-01

    The biological activities of prostaglandins E1, E2, E3 and F1α have been compared. Prostaglandins E1, E2, E3 were qualitatively similar; E1 and E2 were about equiactive, but E3 was less active on all preparations. Prostaglandin F1α was a less potent vasodilator than E1 on the cat gastrocnemius muscle blood flow and skin blood flow and a less potent depressor drug on rabbit blood pressure. On the rabbit isolated jejunum F1α was twice as active as E1 but on the guinea-pig isolated ileum E1 was about forty times more active than F1α. One qualitative difference between these prostaglandins was observed; on the rabbit fallopian tube in vivo prostaglandins of the E series decreased both the tone and the peristalsis of the tube whereas prostaglandin F1α increased tubal tone. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:14066143

  9. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  10. Synthesis, biological activities, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel camptothecin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Liu, Ying-Qian; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Liu, Huan-Xiang; Chen, An-Liang

    2015-05-13

    In continuation of our program aimed at the development of natural product-based pesticidal agents, three series of novel camptothecin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their biological activities against T. Cinnabarinus, B. brassicae, and B. xylophilus. All of the derivatives showed good-to-excellent activity against three insect species tested, with LC50 values ranging from 0.00761 to 0.35496 mmol/L. Remarkably, all of the compounds were more potent than CPT against T. Cinnabarinus, and compounds 4d and 4c displayed superior activity (LC50 0.00761 mmol/L and 0.00942 mmol/L, respectively) compared with CPT (LC50 0.19719 mmol/L) against T. Cinnabarinus. Based on the observed bioactivities, preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were also discussed. Furthermore, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was built. The model gave statistically significant results with the cross-validated q2 values of 0.580 and correlation coefficient r2 of 0.991 and  of 0.993. The QSAR analysis indicated that the size of the substituents play an important in the activity of 7-modified camptothecin derivatives. These findings will pave the way for further design, structural optimization, and development of camptothecin-derived compounds as pesticidal agents.

  11. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-02-23

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli.

  12. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  13. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  14. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  15. Investigating Biological Activity Spectrum for Novel Styrylquinazoline Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Polanski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, series of ring-substituted 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H-one and 4-chloro-2-styrylquinazoline derivatives were prepared. The syntheses of the discussed compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial strains and against eight fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than that of the standard isoniazid. It was found that the electronic properties of the R substituent, and not the total lipophilicity of the compound, were decisive for the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of tested compounds.

  16. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  17. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  18. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  19. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petunin AI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs to various targets in vivo.

  20. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    is not suitable for their unambiguous identification, especially not in solution. We attempted to increase the sensitivity by applying UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques. The UV-Raman spectra of the three compounds in ethanol/water 50 : 50 showed only very......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...

  1. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mailcar F; Lemos, Telma G; de Mattos, Marcos C; Segundo, Taciana A; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2002-06-01

    A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol) and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  2. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MAILCAR F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  3. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  4. Annual report 2009. Results and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 Enova entered into agreements which together will provide 3.03 TWh saved and produced renewable energy. So far, Enova has supported energy projects equivalent to 13.8 TWh in the period to 2009. High activity in the industrial energy efficiency and environmentally friendly heat have contributed positively. (eb)

  5. Annual report 2009. Results and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In 2009 Enova entered into agreements which together will provide 3.03 TWh saved and produced renewable energy. So far, Enova has supported energy projects equivalent to 13.8 TWh in the period to 2009. High activity in the industrial energy efficiency and environmentally friendly heat have contributed positively. (eb)

  6. Novel Triazole Hybrids of Betulin: Synthesis and Biological Activity Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bębenek, Ewa; Jastrzębska, Maria; Kadela-Tomanek, Monika; Chrobak, Elwira; Orzechowska, Beata; Zwolińska, Katarzyna; Latocha, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Czuba, Zenon; Boryczka, Stanisław

    2017-11-01

    Betulin derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring possess a wide spectrum of biological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, and antibacterial activity. A series of novel triazoles were prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the alkyne derivatives of betulin and organic azides. The chemical structures of the obtained compounds were defined by ¹H and 13 C NMR, IR, and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) analysis. The target triazoles were screened for their antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses. The cytotoxic activity of the obtained compounds 5a - k and 6a - h was determined using five human cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SNB-19, Colo-829, and C-32) by a WST-1 assay. The bistriazole 6b displayed a promising IC 50 value (0.05 μM) against the human ductal carcinoma T47D (500-fold higher potency than cisplatin). The microdilution method was applied for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of all of the compounds. The triazole 5e containing a 3'-deoxythymidine-5'-yl moiety exhibited antibacterial activity against two gram-negative bacteria vz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.95-1.95 μM).

  7. Novel Triazole Hybrids of Betulin: Synthesis and Biological Activity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Bębenek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Betulin derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring possess a wide spectrum of biological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, and antibacterial activity. A series of novel triazoles were prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the alkyne derivatives of betulin and organic azides. The chemical structures of the obtained compounds were defined by 1H and 13C NMR, IR, and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS analysis. The target triazoles were screened for their antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses. The cytotoxic activity of the obtained compounds 5a–k and 6a–h was determined using five human cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SNB-19, Colo-829, and C-32 by a WST-1 assay. The bistriazole 6b displayed a promising IC50 value (0.05 μM against the human ductal carcinoma T47D (500-fold higher potency than cisplatin. The microdilution method was applied for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of all of the compounds. The triazole 5e containing a 3′-deoxythymidine-5′-yl moiety exhibited antibacterial activity against two gram-negative bacteria vz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC range of 0.95–1.95 μM.

  8. Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae: Alkaloid Profiling, Biological Activities and Molecular Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Tallini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family has proven to be a rich source of active compounds, which are characterized by unique skeleton arrangements and a broad spectrum of biological activities. The aim of this work was to perform the first detailed study of the alkaloid constituents of Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae and to determine the anti-parasitological and cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of the epimers (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine. Twelve alkaloids were identified in H. reticulatum: eight known alkaloids by GC-MS and four unknown (6α-hydroxymaritidine, 6β-hydroxymaritidine, reticulinine and isoreticulinine by NMR. The epimer mixture (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine showed low activity against all protozoan parasites tested and weak AChE-inhibitory activity. Finally, a molecular docking analysis of AChE and BuChE proteins showed that isoreticulinine may be classified as a potential inhibitory molecule since it can be stabilized in the active site through hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions.

  9. Co-evaluation of plant extracts as petrochemical substitutes and for biologically active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D.; Adams, R.P.

    Recent efforts to discover phytochemicals that could substitute for petroleum-derived fuels and industrial feedstocks have not given much attention to the potential of these same phytochemicals to provide sources of biologically active compounds. The suitability of extraction products made to assess specific plants as potential botanochemical sources has been evaluated for use in screening procedures for evidence of biologically active compounds. Screening procedures for antibacterial, antifungal and toxic properties are discussed. Screening results are presented for extracts of nearly 80 species of plants from the southeastern United States and southern Great Plains that had previously been evaluated as sources of botanochemicals.

  10. [Confirming Indicators of Qualitative Results by Chromatography-mass Spectrometry in Biological Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S D; Zhang, D M; Zhang, W; Zhang, W F

    2017-04-01

    Because of the exist of complex matrix, the confirming indicators of qualitative results for toxic substances in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry are different from that in non-biological samples. Even in biological samples, the confirming indicators are different in various application areas. This paper reviews the similarities and differences of confirming indicators for the analyte in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry in the field of forensic toxicological analysis and other application areas. These confirming indicators include retention time (RT), relative retention time (RRT), signal to noise (S/N), characteristic ions, relative abundance of characteristic ions, parent ion-daughter ion pair and abundance ratio of ion pair, etc. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  11. Descriptor Selection via Log-Sum Regularization for the Biological Activities of Chemical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liang-Yong; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, De-Yu; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chai, Hua; Liang, Yong

    2017-12-22

    The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model searches for a reliable relationship between the chemical structure and biological activities in the field of drug design and discovery. (1) Background: In the study of QSAR, the chemical structures of compounds are encoded by a substantial number of descriptors. Some redundant, noisy and irrelevant descriptors result in a side-effect for the QSAR model. Meanwhile, too many descriptors can result in overfitting or low correlation between chemical structure and biological bioactivity. (2) Methods: We use novel log-sum regularization to select quite a few descriptors that are relevant to biological activities. In addition, a coordinate descent algorithm, which uses novel univariate log-sum thresholding for updating the estimated coefficients, has been developed for the QSAR model. (3) Results: Experimental results on artificial and four QSAR datasets demonstrate that our proposed log-sum method has good performance among state-of-the-art methods. (4) Conclusions: Our proposed multiple linear regression with log-sum penalty is an effective technique for both descriptor selection and prediction of biological activity.

  12. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs, are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry.

  13. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  14. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Župančić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach to reversed nucleosides which enables their synthesis in gram quantities is described. N-1′-Pyrimidine reversed nucleosides were prepared by treating of the sodium salt of pyrimidine bases with protected 5-tosyl ribose. Additionally, N-1′,N-3′-disubstituted reversed nucleosides were isolated in the condensation reactions with the 5-halogen pyrimidines. Using the Sonogashira coupling of 5′-iodouracil reversed nucleoside with ethynyltrimethyl silane gave 5′-ethynyl derivative which was further transformed into 5′-acetyl reversed nucleoside. Biological activity of deprotected reversed nucleosides was validated on the panel of six human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa, MIAPaCa2, Hep2, NCI-H358, CaCo-2, and HT-29. 5′-Iodouracil derivative displayed moderate growth inhibition activity against human colon carcinoma (CaCo-2 cells.

  15. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  16. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  17. Recent results on hydrogen and hydration in biology studied by neutron macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, N; Arai, S; Kurihara, K; Chatake, T; Tanaka, I; Bau, R

    2006-02-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in proteins, a technique complimentary to ultra-high-resolution [1, 2] X-ray diffraction. Three different types of neutron diffractometers for biological macromolecules have been constructed in Japan, France and the United States, and they have been used to determine the crystal structures of proteins up to resolution limits of 1.5-2.5 A. Results relating to hydrogen positions and hydration patterns in proteins have been obtained from these studies. Examples include the geometrical details of hydrogen bonds, H/D exchange in proteins and oligonucleotides, the role of hydrogen atoms in enzymatic activity and thermostability, and the dynamical behavior of hydration structures, all of which have been extracted from these structural results and reviewed. Other techniques, such as the growth of large single crystals, the preparation of fully deuterated proteins, the use of cryogenic techniques, and a data base of hydrogen and hydration in proteins, will be described.

  18. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, K; Buckiová, D; Kren, V; Peknicová, J; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2006-03-01

    The biological activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from dehydrated hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae, vernacular name "maca"), was studied on rat hepatocytes and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity in hepatocyte primary cultures up to 10 mg/ml as measured by the MTT viability test, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage. Moreover, after 72 h, extracts inhibited LDH and AST leakage from the hepatocytes. When hepatocytes were intoxicated by t-butyl hydroperoxide, neither extract prevented oxidative damage. Both extracts showed weak antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging test with IC(50) values of 3.46 +/- 0.16 and 0.71 +/- 0.10 mg/ml, for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Thus, the observed effect on spontaneous enzyme leakage is probably mediated through mechanisms other than antioxidant activity. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts have shown estrogenic activity comparable with that of silymarin in MCF-7 cell line. Maca estrogenicity was exhibited in the range from 100 to 200 mug of extract per ml. The findings in the present study show that maca does not display in vitro hepatotoxicity. In contrast, a slight cytoprotective effect, probably not mediated by antioxidant capacity, was noted. Maca extracts exhibited estrogenic activity comparably to the effect of silymarin in MCF-7 cells.

  19. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  20. Biological activities of the antiviral protein BE27 from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Rosario; Citores, Lucía; Di Maro, Antimo; Ferreras, José M

    2015-02-01

    The ribosome inactivating protein BE27 displays several biological activities in vitro that could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens. Beetin 27 (BE27), a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, is an antiviral protein induced by virus and signaling compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid. Its role as a defense protein has been attributed to its RNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity. Here we tested other putative activities of BE27 that could have a defensive role against pathogens finding that BE27 displays rRNA N-glycosidase activity against yeast and Agrobacterium tumefaciens ribosomes, DNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity against herring sperm DNA, and magnesium-dependent endonuclease activity against the supercoiled plasmid PUC19 (nicking activity). The nicking activity could be a consequence of an unusual conformation of the BE27 active site, similar to that of PD-L1, a RIP from Phytolacca dioica L. leaves. Additionally, BE27 possesses superoxide dismutase activity, thus being able to produce the signal compound hydrogen peroxide. BE27 is also toxic to COLO 320 cells, inducing apoptosis in these cells by either activating the caspase pathways and/or inhibiting protein synthesis. The combined effect of these biological activities could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens such as virus, bacteria, fungi or insects.

  1. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  2. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  3. Trends in biologic therapies for rheumatoid arthritis: results from a survey of payers and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenapple, Rhonda

    2012-03-01

    Advances in therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly biologics, have transformed the treatment paradigm for RA. However, the associated costs of these therapies result in a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. As a chronic disease requiring lifelong treatment, most health plans now position RA drugs as a high-priority therapeutic category. To identify provider and payer practices and perceptions regarding coverage of RA biologics in the current marketplace, as well as emerging trends in reimbursement practices. In November 2011, Reimbursement Intelligence, a healthcare research company, collected and analyzed quantitative and qualitative data via parallel-structure online surveys of 100 rheumatologists and 50 health plan payers (medical and pharmacy directors) who represent more than 80 million covered lives. The surveys included approximately 150 questions, and the surveys were designed to force a response for each question. Payers reported using tier placement, prior authorization, and contracting in determining coverage strategies for RA biologics. Among providers, experience with older RA agents remains the key driver for the choice of a biologic agent. A majority of payers and providers (68% and 54%, respectively) reported that they did not anticipate a change in the way their plans would manage biologics over the next 2 to 4 years. Payers' responses indicated uncertainty about how therapeutic positioning of newer, small-molecule drugs at price parity to biologics would affect the current reimbursement landscape. Survey responses show that approval of an indication for early treatment of RA is not likely to change the prescribing and reimbursement landscape for RA biologics. This survey further shows that payers and providers are generally aligned in terms of perceptions of current and future treatments for RA. Advances in RA therapies allow patients increasing options for effective disease management. However, the high cost of

  4. The Role of Biologically Active Ingredients from Natural Drug Treatments for Arrhythmias in Different Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Hu, Dan; Song, Xiaoli; Han, Tao; Gao, Yonghong; Xing, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Arrhythmia is a disease that is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart rate or rhythm. It is the major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several antiarrhythmic drugs have been used in clinic for decades, their application is often limited by their adverse effects. As a result, natural drugs, which have fewer side effects, are now being used to treat arrhythmias. We searched for all articles on the role of biologically active ingredients from natural drug t...

  5. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators.

  6. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  7. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  8. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  9. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  10. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  11. Annual report 2011. Results and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Enova is a state-owned enterprise, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Over a period of ten years, the enterprise has worked to trigger energy efficiency measures and renewable energy production by supporting proactive players that have paved the way for others. In the period 2002-2011, Enova has contracted an energy result of 16.6 TWh, Enova's Annual Report 2011 shows. This corresponds to the annual energy end-use of more than 35 per cent of Norways 2.2 million private households. Enova has allocated NOK 9 billion in support over ten years. This has resulted in project owners and other financiers investing about Nok 45 billion in capital for environmentally friendly energy projects in Norway, says Nils Kristian Nakstad, CEO of Enova. In 2011, Enova supported projects with an overall energy result of 1.35 TWh using resources from the Energy Fund, equally distributed between energy efficiency and renewable heating. The greatest contributors in 2011 are within energy conversion to renewable heating and energy efficiency measures in buildings.The climate impact of all of the projects where Enova has entered into contracts corresponds to 9.3 million tonnes in reduced CO2 emissions annually. The latter constitutes 17 per cent of domestic greenhouse gas emissions. (au)

  12. Annual report 2011. Results and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-25

    Enova is a state-owned enterprise, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Over a period of ten years, the enterprise has worked to trigger energy efficiency measures and renewable energy production by supporting proactive players that have paved the way for others. In the period 2002-2011, Enova has contracted an energy result of 16.6 TWh, Enova's Annual Report 2011 shows. This corresponds to the annual energy end-use of more than 35 per cent of Norways 2.2 million private households. Enova has allocated NOK 9 billion in support over ten years. This has resulted in project owners and other financiers investing about Nok 45 billion in capital for environmentally friendly energy projects in Norway, says Nils Kristian Nakstad, CEO of Enova. In 2011, Enova supported projects with an overall energy result of 1.35 TWh using resources from the Energy Fund, equally distributed between energy efficiency and renewable heating. The greatest contributors in 2011 are within energy conversion to renewable heating and energy efficiency measures in buildings.The climate impact of all of the projects where Enova has entered into contracts corresponds to 9.3 million tonnes in reduced CO2 emissions annually. The latter constitutes 17 per cent of domestic greenhouse gas emissions. (au)

  13. Biological shielding test of hot cells with high active source 60Co (300 TBq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švrčula, P.; Zoul, D.; Zimina, M.; Petříčková, A.; Adamíková, T.; Schulc, M.; Srba, O.

    2017-11-01

    This article describes a method for testing of the efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cell facility, which were constructed as a part of the project SUSEN. Ten hot cells and one semi-hot cell are present in the facility Radiochemistry II. The shielding is made from steel plates. In order to demonstrate sufficient efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cells and a correspondence between measured and contractual values at selected points. The test was done using sealed high activity 60Co sources. The results are also used as a proof of the optimization of radiation protection for the workplace of this type. The results confirm significant optimization of radiation protection at the workplace. The dose received by a staff do not exceed one tens of annual limit during active service. Obtained results fulfill general requirements of radiation protection and will be used for further active service of hot cells facility.

  14. Biological regeneration of para-nitrophenol loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.; Martin, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Biological regeneration is one of several methods that may be used to restore the adsorptive capacity of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC). This study deals with in-situ biological regeneration on a pilot scale. The principal objective of this research was to ascertain whether biological regeneration of GAC could occur under conditions typical of water treatment. The important parameters which may have the greatest impact on bio regeneration of a given adsorbate were studied. The research investigated the extent of bio regeneration for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in the total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in he total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated with a mixed culture of bacteria, and lastly the carbon was re-saturated. In the totally exhausted GAC system, the bio regeneration was enhanced by increasing the during of regeneration for a fixed initial biomass content of the bioreactor. The bio regeneration efficiency of the totally exhausted (with PNP) GAC the empty bed contact time (EBCT) and the initial concentration of the substrate had a profound effect on the bio regeneration efficiency. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. (author)

  15. Annual report 2010. Results and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, 926 G Wh of renewable heating was contracted. This is nearly on par with the record-breaking year of 2009, when Enova had extra funds to distribute through the Governments Stimulus Package in response to the financial crisis. District heating has been developed, or is in the process of being developed, in most major cities.We also expect new developments in smaller communities and extensions of existing facilities in cities. We expect this to result in an increased number of applications for smaller projects. (au)

  16. Annual report 2010. Results and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, 926 G Wh of renewable heating was contracted. This is nearly on par with the record-breaking year of 2009, when Enova had extra funds to distribute through the Governments Stimulus Package in response to the financial crisis. District heating has been developed, or is in the process of being developed, in most major cities.We also expect new developments in smaller communities and extensions of existing facilities in cities. We expect this to result in an increased number of applications for smaller projects. (au)

  17. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  18. Switching profiles in a population-based cohort of rheumatoid arthritis receiving biologic therapy: results from the KOBIO registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Jin; Choi, Sung Jae; Shin, Kichul; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Park, Yong-Beom; Kang, Seong Wook; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Nam, Eon Jeong; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Lee, Jaejoon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Jeon, Chan Hong; Lee, Shin-Seok

    2017-05-01

    Despite improved quality of care for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, many still experience treatment failure with a biologic agent and eventually switch to another biologic agent. We investigated patterns of biologic treatment and reasons for switching biologics in patients with RA. Patients with RA who had started on a biologic agent or had switched to another biologic agent were identified from the prospective observational Korean nationwide Biologics (KOBIO) registry. The KOBIO registry contained 1184 patients with RA at the time of initiation or switching of biologic agents. Patients were categorized according to the chronological order of the introduction of biologic agents, and reasons for switching biologics were also evaluated. Of the 1184 patients with RA, 801 started with their first biologic agent, 228 were first-time switchers, and 89 were second-time or more switchers. Second-time or more switchers had lower rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP positivity, and higher disease activity scores at the time of enrollment than the other groups. Among these patients, tocilizumab was the most commonly prescribed biologic agent, followed by adalimumab and etanercept. The most common reason for switching biologics was inefficacy, followed by adverse events, including infusion reactions, infections, and skin eruptions. Furthermore, the proportion of inefficacy, as a reason for switching, was significantly higher with respect to switching between biologics with different mechanisms of action than between biologics with similar mechanisms. In this registry, we showed diverse prescribing patterns and differing baseline profiles based on the chronological order of biologic agents.

  19. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  20. Biological activities and nutritional value of Tapinanthus bangwensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions showed cytotoxic activity with LD50 values of 11.22 and 15.84 μg/ml, respectively. ... These results demonstrate the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of T. bangwensis leaves and support the traditional use of the plant in cancer treatment.

  1. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anis

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit.

  2. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit collected in August ...

  3. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Rao Ambati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′-carotene-4,4′-dione is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

  4. Reading about the actions of others: biological motion imagery and action congruency influence brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; McCarthy, Gregory

    2010-05-01

    Prior neuroimaging research has implicated regions within and near the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the visual processing of biological motion and of the intentions implied by specific movements. However, it is unknown whether this region is engaged during the processing of human motion at a conceptual level, such as during story comprehension. Here, we obtained functional magnetic resonance images from subjects reading brief stories that described a human character's background and then concluded with an action or decision made by the character. Half of the stories contained incidental descriptions of biological motion (such as the character's walking or grasping) while the remaining half did not. As a second factor, the final action of the story was either congruent or incongruent with the character's background and implied goals and intentions. Stories that contained biological motion strongly activated the pSTS bilaterally, along with ventral temporal areas, premotor cortex, left motor cortex, and the precuneus. Active regions of pSTS in individual subjects closely overlapped with regions identified with a separate biological motion localizer (point-light display) task. Reading incongruent versus congruent stories activated dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral anterior insula. These results support the hypothesis that reading can engage higher visual cortex in a content-specific manner, and suggest that the presence of biological motion should be controlled as a potential confound in fMRI studies using story comprehension tasks. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  6. Relationships between the stereochemistry and biological activity of fungal phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi assume great importance because of their involvement in several plant diseases. Although such pathogens are known to have seriously damaged crops, forest, and environmental resources, they represent a very important tool to develop new environmentally friendly herbicides and fungicides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for major forest plants and for damaging weeds and their stereochemistry. In particular, the methods used to determine their relative and/or absolute configuration will be illustrated. These include the application of Mosher's and Murata's methods, X-ray diffractometric analysis, circular dichroism, and the use of computational methods to determine the theoretical optical rotatory power as well as the CD spectrum. The importance of determining the absolute configuration to achieve the total synthesis of some phytotoxins, interesting for their potential practical application, is also discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  8. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  9. Structure and Biological Activity of Pathogen-like Synthetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R.; Somogyi, Eszter; Horkay, Ferenc; Chandran, Preethi; Douglas, Jack F.; Szebeni, János; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2011-01-01

    Here we characterize the structure, stability and intracellular mode-of-action of DermaVir nanomedicine that is under clinical development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This nanomedicine is comprised of pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles (NPs) having the structure and function resembling spherical viruses that naturally evolved to deliver nucleic acids to the cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated spherical 100–200nm NPs with a smooth polymer surface protecting the pDNA in the core. Optical-absorption determined both the NP structural stability and biological activity relevant to their ability to escape from the endosome and release the pDNA at the nucleus. Salt, pH and temperature influence the nanomedicine shelf-life and intracellular stability. This approach facilitates the development of diverse polyplex nanomedicines where the delivered pDNA-expressed antigens induce immune responses to kill infected cells. PMID:21839051

  10. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  11. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  12. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  13. Factors associated with choice of biologic among children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: results from two UK paediatric biologic registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Davies, Rebecca; Baildam, Eileen; Beresford, Michael W; Foster, Helen E; Southwood, Taunton R; Thomson, Wendy; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe patients starting first-line biologics for JIA, to describe characteristics over time among patients starting etanercept, and to describe patterns of second biologic prescribing. The British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study, and the Biologics for Children with Rheumatic Diseases study are ongoing prospective observational cohorts, collecting data on patients starting biologic therapy for JIA. Patients registered from 1 January 2010 starting their first biologic were compared between therapies. Patients starting etanercept before 2010 were included to analyse changes in etanercept prescribing. The pathway of patients starting a second biologic was recorded in all patients. To 26 August 2014, 931 patients were recruited starting a first-line biologic (142 Biologics for Children with Rheumatic Diseases; 789 British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study). From 2010, patients with systemic JIA (sJIA) were almost exclusively prescribed anakinra or tocilizumab. Choice between anti-TNF therapies was largely driven by history of chronic anterior uveitis (CAU). When investigating trends in patients starting etanercept over time, disease duration at etanercept start, patients with sJIA, a history of CAU, and those who received concomitant oral corticosteroids decreased over time. Patients who started a second biologic from 1 January 2010 showed a similar stratification. Although etanercept remains the most common biologic prescribed for JIA, there has been a clear shift towards the use of alternative biologics, largely driven by disease subtype and history of CAU. This channelling of children towards specific therapies should be considered carefully in future studies and in clinical guidelines and ongoing research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  14. Role of Muramyl Dipeptide in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Biological Activity and Osteoclast Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kitaura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an endotoxin and bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing inflammation and immunological activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is another inflammation-inducing molecule that is ubiquitously expressed by bacteria. Several studies have shown that inflammation-related biological activities were synergistically induced by interactions between LPS and MDP. MDP synergistically enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines that are induced by LPS exposure. Injection of MDP induces lethal shock in mice challenged with LPS. LPS also induces osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption; MDP enhances LPS induction of both processes. Furthermore, MDP enhances the LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, MDP enhances LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in stromal cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that MDP plays an important role in LPS-induced biological activities. This review discusses the role of MDP in LPS-mediated biological activities, primarily in relation to osteoclastogenesis.

  15. Determination of mercury concentration in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain a confident analytical method for measuring the mercury concentration in biological materials. Destructive neutron activation analysis was used for this purpose and a radiochemical separation method was studied to isolate the mercury from its main interferences: sodium and phosphorus, because these elements in biological materials are in high concentrations. The method developed was based on the copper amalgamation under controlled conditions. Yield and reproductibility studies were performed using 203 Hg as radioactive tracer. Finally, food samples of regular consumption were analyzed and the results were compared with those recommended by FAO/WHO. (Author)

  16. The Importance of Spatiotemporal Information in Biological Motion Perception: White Noise Presented with a Step-like Motion Activates the Biological Motion Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel; Ando, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Humans can easily recognize the motion of living creatures using only a handful of point-lights that describe the motion of the main joints (biological motion perception). This special ability to perceive the motion of animate objects signifies the importance of the spatiotemporal information in perceiving biological motion. The posterior STS (pSTS) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) region have been established by many functional neuroimaging studies as a locus for biological motion perception. Because listening to a walking human also activates the pSTS/pMTG region, the region has been proposed to be supramodal in nature. In this study, we investigated whether the spatiotemporal information from simple auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate this biological motion area. We compared spatially moving white noise, having a running-like tempo that was consistent with biological motion, with stationary white noise. The moving-minus-stationary contrast showed significant differences in activation of the pSTS/pMTG region. Our results suggest that the spatiotemporal information of the auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate the biological motion area.

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  18. Modeling large scale cohesive sediment transport affected by small scale biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Bastiaan Wijnand; de Vries, Mindert; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; de Boer, Gerben J.

    2008-01-01

    Biological activity on the bottom of the seabed is known to have significant influence on the dynamics of cohesive sediment on a small spatial and temporal scale. In this study, we aim to understand the large-scale effects of small-scale biological activity. Hereto, effects of biology are

  19. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  20. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  1. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  2. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  3. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  4. Biological activity of interferon betas in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected by treatment regimen and neutralising antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotto, A; Sala, A; Malucchi, S; Marnetto, F; Caldano, M; Di Sapio, A; Capobianco, M; Gilli, F

    2004-09-01

    MxA gene expression is one of the most appropriate markers of biological activity of exogenous interferon (IFN) beta. We quantified MxA mRNA for five consecutive days in 62 patients treated with IFN beta (16, Avonex; 10, Betaferon; 24, Rebif 22; 12, Rebif 44), by quantitative-competitive polymerase chain reaction. Every three months, IFN beta induced neutralising antibodies (NAbs) were evaluated in sera using a cytopathic effect assay. Two categories of patients were identified: one group (49/62) had a sharp post-injection increase in MxA expression (defined as "IFN beta biological responder"), whereas the other group (13/62) had no MxA induction after IFN beta administrations (defined as "IFN beta biological non-responder"). In 11/13 biological non-responders, the persistent presence of NAbs correlated with abolished biological activity, independently of treatment regimen. The two remaining IFN beta biological non-responders were NAb-. Among the 49 IFN beta biological responders, biological activity was comparable between the four preparations on day 2 and 3 (+12 and +36 hours post-injection), but it was greater in Betaferon and both Rebif preparations on day 1, 4, and 5. In biological responders treated three times a week, only 82% (59/72) of injections were considered effective, compared with 100% (13/13) of Avonex injections. Our results suggest that an optimal IFN beta regimen is not yet available: Avonex, given once a week, shows lower cumulative biological activity. On the other hand, both Betaferon and Rebif, given three times a week, show 18% biologically ineffective injections and higher risk of developing NAbs, which abolish biological activity.

  5. Isolation, Biological Activities and Synthesis of Indoloquinoline Alkaloids: Cryptolepine, Isocryptolepine and Neocryptolepine

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, P.T.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    of biological properties. This review describes the isolation, brief biological activities and various synthetic methodologies developed during recent years for the preparation of this important class of alkaloids, with special emphasis on preparation...

  6. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  7. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  8. Biological activity of camel milk casein following enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Moosavi-Movahedi, Faezeh; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Farhadi, Mohammad; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis with digestive enzymes of camel whole casein and beta-casein (β-CN) on their antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory properties. Peptides in each hydrolysate were fractionated with ultra-filtration membranes. The antioxidant activity was determined using a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) scale. After enzymatic hydrolysis, both antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of camel whole casein and camel β-CN were enhanced. Camel whole casein and β-CN showed significant ACE-inhibitory activities after hydrolysis with pepsin alone and after pepsinolysis followed by trypsinolysis and chymotrypsinolysis. Camel β-CN showed high antioxidant activity after hydrolysis with chymotrypsin. The results of this study suggest that when camel milk is consumed and digested, the produced peptides start to act as natural antioxidants and ACE-inhibitors.

  9. Interpretation of results for tumor markers on the basis of analytical imprecision and biological variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Schiøler, V; Nielsen, D

    1993-01-01

    Interpretation of results for CA 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) during breast cancer monitoring requires data on intra- (CVP) and inter- (CVG) individual biological variation, analytical imprecision (CVA), and indices of individuality. The average CVP a....... Consequently, both CVP and CVA should be considered in criteria for marker evaluation. Because of low indices of individuality, conventional cutoff limits are inappropriate both for initial identification and for follow-up of breast cancer....

  10. [Pseudomonas infection: biological risk by occupational exposure and results of an environmental monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Francesco; Giorgi, Doriana Antonella; Palmieri, Sabina; Arcangeli, Luca; Ricci, Serafino

    2014-01-01

    The biological risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for activities involving exposure to contaminated water, such as, for example, routine maintenance of swimming pools, is related to the availability of effective prophylactic and therapeutic measures. The authors present the data of the microbiological analyzes made on 2349 samples taken from pools in Rome and province. The contamination by Pseudomonas was found in 191 samples with 13 samples that had a level > 100 cfu/100 ml and 5 samples with level > 200 cfu/100 ml. Useful considerations derived from the analysis of the literature about the profile and prophylactic treatment of infection by Pseudomonas, necessarily to be taken into consideration for an adequate risk assessment.

  11. Physical activity intensity and biological markers among adults with diabetes: considerations by age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Pariser, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on various biological health outcomes associated with diabetes; however, these studies have been limited by the use of self-report measures of PA. To provide the most accurate association between PA and health among adults with diabetes, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between accelerometer-assessed PA and numerous biological markers associated with diabetes. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Adult participants with diabetes were included in the present study and wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer. Light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) intensity was determined from accelerometer-derived estimates. Various biological measures, such as triglycerides and C-reactive protein, were measured from a blood sample. Results showed that both light-intensity and MVPA were inversely associated with several biological health outcomes. Additionally, active adults were less likely to have multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Findings also differed by age and gender, suggesting that PA interventions may need to consider the influence that age and gender may have on the efficacy of physical activity interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological activities and phenolic contents of Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by methyl-thiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: The results revealed abundant polyphenols and flavonoids (221.39 ± 5.70 μg GAEq/1 g and 66.86 ± 3.36 μg CAEq/1 g, respectively) in the leaf extract. UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling showed the presence of ...

  13. Nabarlek evaporation and storage ponds: possible role of biological activity in the escape of toxic substances to the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinick, W.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine whether or not game birds might become contaminated with radionuclides while visiting the evaporating ponds at the Nabarlek uranium mine. The level of biological community development in the ponds and water bird activity were low. It is concluded that at present escape of radionuclides or toxic elements from the ponds as a result of biological activity is not a problem

  14. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  15. Isoflavone profile and biological activity of soy bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Chu; Albrecht, Daniel; Bomser, Joshua; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2003-12-17

    The present study examines the ability of isoflavone extracts from whole soy bread and two soy bread fractions, crumb and crust, to modulate the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Total isoflavone content in the two fractions of soy bread were similar (3.17 micromol/g dry basis). However, their conjugate patterns were altered. Both fractions of soy bread contained a similar level of isoflavone aglycones ( approximately 24%). Low concentrations of soy bread extracts increased PC-3 cell proliferation as much as 47% compared to untreated control. This proliferative effect in cell growth was reduced at higher extract concentration. Soy bread crust extract (10 mg/mL) reduced PC-3 cell proliferation by 15% compared to untreated control. Interestingly, wheat bread extracts increased cell proliferation at all concentrations tested. Although extracts from both breads possessed biological activity, only soy bread crust extract reduced PC-3 cell proliferation. This observation may be related to the presence of soy in this bread.

  16. Synthesis of Combretastatin A-4 Analogs and their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Agnieszka; Gensicka, Monika; Cholewinski, Grzegorz; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a natural product, which consists of two phenyl rings, linked by an ethylene bridge. CA-4, inhibitor of polymerization of tubulin to microtubules, possesses a strong antitumor and anti-vascular properties both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies showed that disodium phosphate salt of CA-4, a water-soluble prodrug is well tolerated at therapeutically useful doses. However, it should be noted that the cis-configuration of the double bond and the 3,4,5-trimethoxy group on ring A is necessary for the biological activity of CA-4. Structure of CA-4 renders the compound readily susceptible to isomerization, which reduces the potency and bioavailability. To circumvent this problem, a lot of scientists in the world synthesized a series of cis-restricted CA-4 analogs, where the double bond has been replaced by introduction of non-heterocyclic groups or heterocyclic groups like β -lactam and oxadiazole. This paper reviews the most important approaches in analogs of combretastatin synthesis and presents structure-reactivity relationships for these compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  18. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  19. Salinity fluctuation influencing biological adaptation: growth dynamics and Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity in a euryhaline bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Meng, Yang; Song, Youxin; Tan, Yalin; Warren, Alan; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-07-01

    Although salinity fluctuation is a prominent characteristic of many coastal ecosystems, its effects on biological adaptation have not yet been fully recognized. To test the salinity fluctuations on biological adaptation, population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity were investigated in the euryhaline bacterium Idiomarina sp. DYB, which was acclimated at different salinity exposure levels, exposure times, and shifts in direction of salinity. Results showed: (1) bacterial population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity changed significantly in response to salinity fluctuation; (2) patterns of variation in bacterial growth dynamics were related to exposure times, levels of salinity, and shifts in direction of salinity change; (3) significant tradeoffs were detected between growth rate (r) and carrying capacity (K) on the one hand, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity on the other; and (4) beneficial acclimation was confirmed in Idiomarina sp. DYB. In brief, this study demonstrated that salinity fluctuation can change the population growth dynamics, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and tradeoffs between r, K, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity, thus facilitating bacterial adaption in a changing environment. These findings provide constructive information for determining biological response patterns to environmental change. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Isolation and characterization of biologically active venom protein from sea snake Enhydrina schistosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotharan, Palani; Veeruraj, Anguchamy; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2015-03-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the isolation and characterization of biological and biochemical active venom protein from sea snake, Enhydrina schistosa. The highest purification peaks in ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column were obtained for fraction numbers 39-49 when eluted with 0.35-0.45 M NaCl. Eighty per cent purity was obtained in the final stage of purification, and a single protein band of about 44 kDa was visualized in SDS-polyacrylamide gel under reducing condition. Purified venom protein expressed as haemolytic, cytotoxicity and proteolytic activities with lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 2.0 μg/mL. Venom protein exhibits enzymatic activity and hydrolyzed casein and gelatin. Gelatinolytic activity was optimal at pH 5-9. In conclusion, the present results suggested that the sea snake venom might be feasible sources for biologically active substances. Thus, this low molecular weight component of the venom protein could be used in potentially serve biological and pharmaceutical aspects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    OpenAIRE

    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...

  3. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Williams, J. R.; Dicello, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used.

  4. Correlation studies between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.

    1987-10-01

    Some nuclear-based and non-nuclear analytical techniques have been used to look for correlations between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters of exposed workers in various workplace environments. The analytical competence of the external beam thick and thin target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been established for elemental analysis of air particulates and biological materials. The capability of low-energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) has also been demonstrated. Using the methods of PIXE and flame AAS, some studies have been performed on the elemental composition of air particulates, human head hair, nail and urine collected in different workplace environments in Dhaka. This report contains a brief account of this research along with an outline of future research projects to be carried out in this and other related areas. 13 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Biological role of gravity: Hypotheses and results of experiments on ``Cosmos'' biosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, Alexey M.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Tairbekov, Murad G.

    In order to reveal the biological significance of gravity, microgravity effects have been studied at the cellular, organism and population levels. The following questions arise. Do any gravity - dependent processes exist in a cell? Is cell adaptation to weightlessness possible; if so, what role may cytoskeleton, the genetic apparatus play in it? What are the consequences of the lack of convection in weightlessness for the performance of morphogenesis? Do the integral characteristics of living beings change in weightlessness? Is there any change in ``biological capacity'' of space, its resistance to expansion of life? What are the direction and intensity of microgravity action as a factor of natural selection, the driving force of evolution? These problems are discussed from a theoretical point of view, and in the light of results obtained in experiments flown aboard biosatellites ``Cosmos''.

  6. Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübler Alexander C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains of BMP receptors. In the present study the biological effect of a BMP-2 double mutant with antagonistic activity was evaluated in vivo. Methods Equine-derived collagenous carriers were loaded with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 in a well-known dose to provide an osteoinductive stimulus. The study was performed in a split animal design: carriers only coupled with rhBMP-2 (control were implanted into prepared cavities of lower limb muscle of rats, specimens coupled with rhBMP-2 as well as BMP-2 double mutant were placed into the opposite limb in the same way. After 28 days the carriers were explanted, measured radiographically and characterized histologically. Results As expected, the BMP-2 loaded implants showed a typical heterotopic bone formation. The specimens coupled with both proteins showed a significant decreased bone formation in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The antagonistic effect of a specific BMP-2 double mutant could be demonstrated in vivo. The dose dependent influence on heterotopic bone formation by preventing rhBMP-2 induced osteoinduction suggests a competitive receptor antagonism.

  7. Antiproliferative Pt(IV) complexes: synthesis, biological activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Luini, Mara; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gaviglio, Luca; Osella, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Several Pt(IV) complexes of the general formula [Pt(L)2(L')2(L'')2] [axial ligands L are Cl-, RCOO-, or OH-; equatorial ligands L' are two am(m)ine or one diamine; and equatorial ligands L'' are Cl- or glycolato] were rationally designed and synthesized in the attempt to develop a predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model. Numerous theoretical molecular descriptors were used alongside physicochemical data (i.e., reduction peak potential, Ep, and partition coefficient, log Po/w) to obtain a validated QSAR between in vitro cytotoxicity (half maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, on A2780 ovarian and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines) and some features of Pt(IV) complexes. In the resulting best models, a lipophilic descriptor (log Po/w or the number of secondary sp3 carbon atoms) plus an electronic descriptor (Ep, the number of oxygen atoms, or the topological polar surface area expressed as the N,O polar contribution) is necessary for modeling, supporting the general finding that the biological behavior of Pt(IV) complexes can be rationalized on the basis of their cellular uptake, the Pt(IV)-->Pt(II) reduction, and the structure of the corresponding Pt(II) metabolites. Novel compounds were synthesized on the basis of their predicted cytotoxicity in the preliminary QSAR model, and were experimentally tested. A final QSAR model, based solely on theoretical molecular descriptors to ensure its general applicability, is proposed.

  8. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  9. Biological activities of Suaeda heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities of different extracts of Suaeda heterophylla (S. heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi (B. stracheyi. Methods: The extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi were evaluated for antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities using standard experimental methods. Results: The overall antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract of S. heterophylla was the strongest, followed by chloroform extract, methanolic extract and n-hexane extract. It is interesting to note that ethyl acetate fraction showed 94.98% inhibition at concentration of 60 µg/mL while standard ascorbic acid showed 98.49% inhibition at same concentration. The crude methanol extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi showed significant phytotoxic activity at the highest dose. Moreover, methanol extract of B. stracheyi possessed strong activity in xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibition. Conclusions: Antioxidant, phytotoxic, and xanthine oxidase activities of different fractions of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi clearly demonstrate that these fractions possess great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Structure-biological activity relationship of synthetic trihydroxilated chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devia Cristina M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriostatic activity of 2?,4?,2-trihydroxychalcone; 2?,4?,3-trihydroxychalcone and 2?,4?,4-trihydroxychalcone, prepared by condensation of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and benzaldehyde substituted, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was assayed by agar plate method. The three compounds presented important inhibition halos. In order to elucidate structure-activity relationships, the minimal inhibitory concentrations against S. aureus were determined by the broth dilution method and the results obtained were compared to that of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. The sequence observed was: MIC 2?,4?,3-(OH3 > MIC 2?,4?-(OH2 > MIC 2?,4?,4-(OH3 > > MIC 2?,4?,2-(OH3. These results showed that the introduction of an electron donating group (-OH in the aromatic B-ring causes an increase in bioactivity, and that the intensity of action depends on the position of the OH substitute.

  11. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Shabir; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloid...

  12. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Quercetin Associated with the Enhancement of Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-08-16

    Nonthermal plasma is a promising technology to improve the safety and to extend the shelf-life of various minimally processed foods. However, research on plasma-induced systemic degradation related to changes in chemical structure and biological activity is still very limited. In this study, the enhancement of biological activity and the mechanism of degradation of the most common type of flavonol, quercetin, induced by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma were investigated. Quercetin is dissolved in methanol and exposed to nonthermal DBD plasma for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. The quercetin treated with the plasma for 20 min showed rapidly increased α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities compared to those of parent quercetin. The structures of the degradation products 1-3 from the quercetin treated with the plasma for 20 min were isolated and characterized by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Among the generated products, (±)-alphitonin (1) exhibited significantly improved antidiabetic and antioxidant properties compared to those of the parent quercetin. The antidiabetic and antioxidant properties were measured by α-glucosidase inhibition and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays. These results suggested that structural changes in quercetin induced by DBD plasma might be attributable to improving the biological activity.

  13. Correlation between biological activity and electron transferring of bovine liver catalase: Osmolytes effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, H. Sepasi; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Ghourchian, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proline increases ET in Bovine Liver Catalase (BLC) whereas histidine decreases it. • Proline also increased the biological activity, whereas histidine decreased it. • Electron transferring and biological activity for BLC are directly correlated. • Proline causes favorable ET for BLC shown by positive E 1/2 (E°′) and negative ΔG. • Histidine makes ET unfavorable for BLC, manifested by E 1/2 (E°′) 0. -- Abstract: Catalase is a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects life against detrimental effects of H 2 O 2 by disproportionating it into water and molecular oxygen. Effect of proline as a compatible and histidine as a non compatible osmolyte on the electron transferring and midpoint potential of catalase has been investigated. Proline increases the midpoint potential (ΔE m > 0), therefore causing the ΔG ET to be less positive and making the electron transfer reaction more facile whereas histidine decreases the E m (ΔE m ET , thereby rendering the electron transfer reaction less efficient. These results indicate the inhibitory effect of histidine evident by a −37% decrease in the cathodic peak current compared to 16% increase in the case of proline indicative of activation. The insight paves the tedious way towards our ultimate goal of elucidating a correlation between biological activity and electron transferring

  14. Screening of some biological activities of Alyssum fulvescens var. fulvescens known as ege madwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Cennet; Mammadov, Ramazan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, the phenolic composition, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the methanolic extracts obtained from Alyssum fulvescens var. fulvescens aerial parts known as Ege kuduzotu in western Turkey, were firstly investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by DPPH, metal chelating, phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducing power assays. Moreover, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extract were investigated. The brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) lethality test was used to investigate for the possible cytotoxic activity of the extract. Microdilution broth method was used to study antibacterial potency of extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The extract exhibited good biological activities. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extract were significantly correlated with antioxidant potentials. HPLC analysis showed that chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic in extract tested. The results indicated that the extract of A. fulvescens var. fulvescens may be considered as a potential source of biological agents and in vivo investigations are needed to test the biological effects of A. fulvescens var. fulvescens.

  15. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation

  16. Production of biologically active recombinant human factor H in Physcomitrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Parsons, Juliana; Jérôme, Hanna; Hartmann, Andrea; Lamer, Stephanie; Schaaf, Andreas; Schlosser, Andreas; Zipfel, Peter F; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L

    2011-04-01

    The human complement regulatory serum protein factor H (FH) is a promising future biopharmaceutical. Defects in the gene encoding FH are associated with human diseases like severe kidney and retinal disorders in the form of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis II (MPGN II) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is a current need to apply intact full-length FH for the therapy of patients with congenital or acquired defects of this protein. Application of purified or recombinant FH (rFH) to these patients is an important and promising approach for the treatment of these diseases. However, neither protein purified from plasma of healthy individuals nor recombinant protein is currently available on the market. Here, we report the first stable expression of the full-length human FH cDNA and the subsequent production of this glycoprotein in a plant system. The moss Physcomitrella patens perfectly suits the requirements for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals as this eukaryotic system not only offers an outstanding genetical accessibility, but moreover, proteins can be produced safely in scalable photobioreactors without the need for animal-derived medium compounds. Transgenic moss lines were created, which express the human FH cDNA and target the recombinant protein to the culture supernatant via a moss-derived secretion signal. Correct processing of the signal peptide and integrity of the moss-produced rFH were verified via peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we show that the rFH displays complement regulatory activity comparable to FH purified from plasma. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  18. Repurposing High-Throughput Image Assays Enables Biological Activity Prediction for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Jaak; Klambauer, Günter; Arany, Adam; Steijaert, Marvin; Wegner, Jörg Kurt; Gustin, Emmanuel; Chupakhin, Vladimir; Chong, Yolanda T; Vialard, Jorge; Buijnsters, Peter; Velter, Ingrid; Vapirev, Alexander; Singh, Shantanu; Carpenter, Anne E; Wuyts, Roel; Hochreiter, Sepp; Moreau, Yves; Ceulemans, Hugo

    2018-02-16

    In both academia and the pharmaceutical industry, large-scale assays for drug discovery are expensive and often impractical, particularly for the increasingly important physiologically relevant model systems that require primary cells, organoids, whole organisms, or expensive or rare reagents. We hypothesized that data from a single high-throughput imaging assay can be repurposed to predict the biological activity of compounds in other assays, even those targeting alternate pathways or biological processes. Indeed, quantitative information extracted from a three-channel microscopy-based screen for glucocorticoid receptor translocation was able to predict assay-specific biological activity in two ongoing drug discovery projects. In these projects, repurposing increased hit rates by 50- to 250-fold over that of the initial project assays while increasing the chemical structure diversity of the hits. Our results suggest that data from high-content screens are a rich source of information that can be used to predict and replace customized biological assays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  20. The relation between growth of four microbes on six different plasterboards and biological activity of spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtoniemi, T; Hirvonen, M-R; Nevalainen, A; Suutari, M

    2003-03-01

    Microbial growth on water-damaged building materials is commonly associated with adverse health effects in the occupants. We examined the growth of Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Streptomyces californicus, isolated from water-damaged buildings, on six different brands of plasterboards. The microbial growth was compared with the biological activity of the spores, that is the potential to induce cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results showed that the microbial growth on plasterboard depended on both the microbial strain and the brand of plasterboard used. The biological activity of spores appeared to be regulated by different growth conditions on plasterboards so that good microbial growth was associated with a low bioactivity of the spores, whereas the spores collected from plasterboard supporting only weak growth usually were biologically active. Cytotoxicity of either S. chartarum or A. versicolor did not correlate with any particular growth conditions or induced inflammatory responses. Instead, there were positive correlations between cytotoxicity and levels of induced proinflammatory cytokines for P. spinulosum and S. californicus. These data suggest that both the microbial growth on plasterboard and the resulting bioactivity of spores vary and might be affected by changing the growth conditions provided by the plasterboards.

  1. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Yarovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were performed according to ‘Methodology of Experimental Work in Vegetable and Melon Growing’ on area sown with cultivars ‘Karas’ and ‘Kremenchugskiy’. The fungicides ‘Mars U 77%’, ‘Vimpel with Fitotsid’, ‘Vermistim’ wth ‘Azotofit’ and ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ were used on cultivars of tomato, as control were the plants without treatment. It was determined that all preparations decreased the development of diseases. On average, the development of early dry spot had decreased by 12.2–16.1% and anthracnose by 10.0–12.6% in the cultivars ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’. Thus, biopreparations used on the varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’ were effective in decrease of disease development, such as early dry spot, anthracnose, in a range of 39.1–52.7 %. Generally, during observation period the efficacy index of the preparations ‘Vermistim’ with ‘Azotofit’, ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ was higher than others preparations on the varieties ‘Kremenchug and ‘Karas’ against early dry spot (48.3–50.9%, 50.3–52.7% and anthracnose (46.1–47.0%, 47.6–48.5%. The results showed that the vast majority of biological preparations, phytohormones used against diseases in tomato crops of varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’, were effective in a range of 39.1-52.7% and also maintained the tomato yield within 2.8-5.1 t/ha or 8.1- 13.9%. The biological preparations, phytohormones improved

  2. Biological activities of the sulfated polysaccharide from the vascular plant Halodule wrightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. C. Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated polysaccharide (SPSG was successfully isolated from seagrass Halodule wrightii Asch., Cymodoceaceae, and its antioxidant and anticoagulant activities were investigated. The data presented here showed that the SPSG is a 11 kDa sulfated heterogalactan with a sulfatation degree of 20.63% and it also contains glucose and xylose. SPSG antioxidant activities were evaluated using several in vitro assays and the anticoagulant activity was evaluated by aPTT and PT tests. These assays suggested that the SPSG possessed remarkable antioxidant properties in different in vitro assays and an outstanding anticoagulant activity 2.5-fold higher than that of heparin Clexane® in the aPTT test. This data represents the first reported on the sulfated polysaccharide biological activities from seagrass. These results indicate that SPSG can be considered in the future as a drug utilized in treating diseases from these systems.

  3. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  4. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F., E-mail: valdirveiga@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 {mu}g/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  5. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  6. Selenylation Modification of Degraded Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera and Its Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haitao; Duan, Ke; Shan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera possessed excellent biological activities, but its molecular weight was greatly high which influenced the activity. Organic Se had higher biological activities and was safer than inorganic Se species. In the present study, Enteromorpha polysaccharide was degraded to low molecular weight by free-radical degradation method of H2O2 and ascorbic acid. By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimal degradation conditions were reaction time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 50°C, H2O2/ascorbic acid (n/n=1:1) concentration of 15 mmol L-1, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:50 (g mL-1). Then, the degraded polysaccharide was chemically modified to obtain its selenide derivatives by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. The selenium content was 1137.29 μg g-1, while the content of sulfate radical had no change. IR spectra indicated that the selenite ester group was formed. Degraded polysaccharide selenide was characterized and evaluated for antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results showed that degraded polysaccharide selenide had strong capacity of scavenging DPPH and ·OH free radical. It had significant antibacterial properties for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella spp., and it also had significant antifungal properties for Apple anthrax. The result ascertained degradation and selenylation modification did not change the main structure of polysaccharides. It was possible that free-radical degradation was an effective way for enhancing antioxidant activity to decrease molecular weight of polysaccharides.

  7. Tyfon as a valuable forage crop and a prospective source of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Геннадіївна Гур’єва

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an inexhaustible source of biologically active compounds. Traditional medicinal plants and relatively new hybrid plants are used for phytomedicines’ obtaining. Tyfon is one of such plants. It is a hybrid of Chinese cabbage and turnip which is used in fodder production. This culture is valuable due to the presence of a large predictable resource base.Goal. The aim of our work was a profound phytochemical study of tyfon plant material, as well as the study of pharmacological activity of phytosubstances on its basis.Methods. The qualitative analysis was carried out using quality reactions and thin-layer chromatography. The quantitative analysis of the biologically active compounds content was carried out by the means of gravimetric, titrimetric, spectrophotometric methods and gas chromatography.Results. The presence of carbohydrates, carbonic acids, amino acids, flavonoids, tannins, steroidal compounds, carotenoids, chlorophylls, sulfur-containing compounds as well as the compounds of a volatile fraction was determined as a result of the study. On the basis of experiments carried out the method of a thick extract obtaining was substantiated and its acute toxicity and anabolic activity was determined. The polysaccharide complex of tyfon leaves, having immune stimulating activity, was obtained.Conclusions. The plant material of tyfon is prospective for obtaining substances on its basis and carrying out their further pharmacological study

  8. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  9. Effect of amino acid substitution on biological activity of cyanophlyctin-β and brevinin-2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Aryan, Ehsan; Karimi, Gholamreza; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2018-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as ancient immune components, are found in almost all types of living organisms. They are bioactive components with strong antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor properties. In this study, we designed three sequences of antimicrobial peptides to study the effects of structural changes in biological activity compared with original peptides, cyanophlyctin β, and brevinin-2R. For antibacterial activity, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) were assayed. Unlike cyanophlyctin β and brevinin-2R, the synthesized peptide (brevinin-M1, brevinin-M2 and brevinin-M3) showed no considerable antibacterial properties. Hemolytic activity of these peptides was also ignorable even at very high concentrations of 2 mg/ml. However, after proteolytic digestion by trypsin, the peptides showed antibacterial activity comparable to their original template sequences. Structural prediction suggested that the motif sequence responsible for antibacterial activity may be re-exposed to bacterial cell membrane after proteolytic digestion. Also, findings showed that only a small change in primary sequence and therefore structure of peptides may result in a significant alteration in biological activity.

  10. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  11. Survey of French research in biological and medical engineering - aims, means, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the aims and means available is followed by an outline of the results of French research in biological and medical engineering. Most of the work undertaken has given very positive results from the scientific view-point, followed up by industrial applications. Scintigraphic image processing research has led to CINE 200. A study of heart output quantification in real time has produced a haemodynamic investigation system, the Sysconoram, now commercialized. The study of heart signal recording methods has led to a marketable and reliable system for the detection of pathological heart conditions. Research in neurosurgery on the use of pressure transducers in integrated technology, using a piezoelectric detector associated with a field effect amplifier, has enabled two types of extradural pressure transducer and one cervical intraventricular pressure transducer to be industrialized. Finally the study of a gamma detector combined with a light-amplifier tube has led to the development of camera giving quite exceptional results [fr

  12. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  13. Compositional studies and Biological activities of Perovskia abrotanoides Kar. oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Sadaf Naz; Zubair, Muhammad; Rizwan, Komal; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh; Rasool, Nasir; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2014-01-01

    Background Current study has been designed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential and fixed oils from stem and leaves of Perovskia abrotanoides and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these oils. Results GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified 19 compounds with (E)-9-dodecenal being the major component in stem and hexadecanoic acid in leaves. In contrast, GC-MS analysis of fixed oil showed 40 constituents with α-amyrin the major component in stem and α-copaene in leaves....

  14. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40–60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8 mm and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm at concentration of 5 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 µg/disc and less than 2.5 µg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  15. Vouacapane diterpenoids isolated from Pterodon and their biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra A.R. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pterodon genus comprises two native species in Brazil, known as “sucupira-branca” or “faveira”. Their fruits have long been used in Brazilian natural medicine, mainly for the treatment of infections and inflammations. The pharmacological properties of these fruits have often been linked with vouacapane diterpenoids. This review evaluated the scientific research in the period from 1973 to February 2017, aiming to answer how difficult it still is to develop a scientifically supported product based on Pterodon vouacapanes. Therefore, this paper reviews purification, identification, and quantification methods applied to vouacapane diterpenoids from Pterodon, as well as the performance of these phytochemicals in pharmacological tests described in the literature. Data analysis results support conventional notions that suggest vouacapane diterpenoids from Pterodon have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the studies carried out so far still represent partial assessment of the vouacapane activities and further studies need to be completed. Pterodon diterpenoids have also been associated with larvicidal, leishmanicidal, cardiovascular, and antitumor activities, which reinforces the genus' potential as a source of phytomedicines. Some remaining gaps about the reviewed activities were mentioned, while trends and perspectives for future research were proposed.

  16. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  17. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Solkamy, E.N.; Sayed, Sh. R. M.; Khan, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Al-Warthan, A.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40-60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8?mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm) at concentration of 5 μg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 μg/disc and less than 2.5 μg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  18. Structure-property relationship of quinuclidinium surfactants--Towards multifunctional biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočibušić, Mirjana; Odžak, Renata; Štefanić, Zoran; Križić, Ivana; Krišto, Lucija; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Primožič, Ines; Jurašin, Darija

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by diverse biological and pharmacological activity of quinuclidine and oxime compounds we have synthesized and characterized novel class of surfactants, 3-hydroxyimino quinuclidinium bromides with different alkyl chains lengths (CnQNOH; n=12, 14 and 16). The incorporation of non conventional hydroxyimino quinuclidinium headgroup and variation in alkyl chain length affects hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of surfactant molecule and thereby physicochemical properties important for its application. Therefore, newly synthesized surfactants were characterized by the combination of different experimental techniques: X-ray analysis, potentiometry, electrical conductivity, surface tension and dynamic light scattering measurements, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Comprehensive investigation of CnQNOH surfactants enabled insight into structure-property relationship i.e., way in which the arrangement of surfactant molecules in the crystal phase correlates with their solution behavior and biologically activity. The synthesized CnQNOH surfactants exhibited high adsorption efficiency and relatively low critical micelle concentrations. In addition, all investigated compounds showed very potent and promising activity against Gram-positive and clinically relevant Gram-negative bacterial strains compared to conventional antimicrobial agents: tetracycline and gentamicin. The overall results indicate that bicyclic headgroup with oxime moiety, which affects both hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of CnQNOH molecule in addition to enabling hydrogen bonding, has dominant effect on crystal packing and physicochemical properties. The unique structural features of cationic surfactants with hydroxyimino quinuclidine headgroup along with diverse biological activity have made them promising structures in novel drug discovery. Obtained fundamental understanding how combination of different functionalities in a single surfactant molecule affects its physicochemical

  19. Biological image construction by using Raman radiation and Pca: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, DIC, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Hugo R, V., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Tonala, Morelos No. 180, 69584 Tonala, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In the last years, the Raman spectroscopy (Rs) technique has had some applications in the study and analysis of biological samples, due to it is able to detect concentrations or presence of certain organic and inorganic compounds of medical interest. In this work, raw data were obtained through measurements in selected points on a square regions in order to detect specific organic / inorganic compounds on biological samples. Gold nano stars samples were prepared and coated with membrane markers (CD 10+ and CD 19+) and diluted in leukemic B lymphocytes. Each data block was evaluated independently by the method of principal component analysis (Pca) in order to find representative dimensionless values (Cp) for each Raman spectrum in a specific coordinate. Each Cp was normalized in a range of 0-255 in order to generate a representative image of 8 bits of the region under study. Data acquisition was performed with Raman microscopy system Renishaw in Via in the range of 550 to 1700 cm-1 with a 785 nm laser source, with a power of 17 m W and 15 s of exposure time were used for each spectrum. In preliminary results could detect the presence of molecular markers CD 10+ and CD 19+ with gold nano stars and discrimination between both markers. The results suggest conducting studies with specific concentrations organic and inorganic materials. (Author)

  20. Biological activities and DNA interactions of Amanita ovoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Hasan Hüseyin; Arslan, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link (Amanitaceae) is a well-known species due to its pleasant aroma and flavor since ancient times in the worldwide. This species is also known in Turkey and people consume it extensively. To evaluate medicinal importance of A. ovoidea for human health, to explain the effect of mushroom extracts on bacterial DNA, and to find preventive role on bacterial disease. Chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts of A. ovoidea were tested for the antimicrobial activities against four Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast using a micro-dilution method. In addition, DNA binding, DNA cleavage activity, and restriction enzyme digestion of the methanol extract of A. ovoidea were examined at different concentrations (40.000-78.125 µg/mL). The highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value observed against the test micro-organisms was with the chloroform extract (MIC 19.5 µg/mL concentration) against Candida albicans. Other highest antimicrobial effects observed against the test micro-organisms were with the methanol extracts against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella enteritidis (MICs, 78 µg/mL concentrations). All concentrations reduced the mobility of plasmid DNA. BamHI and HindIII targeted specially to supercoils and cut them. Amanita ovoidea extract prevented cutting with HindIII by binding especially to the AA region in open circular DNA. Present results demonstrated that A. ovoidea has excellent antimicrobial and antifungal activities by its DNA interaction activity on pBR322.

  1. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridazine amides, hydrazones and hydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Ann M; Yap, Maurice Ch; Hunter, Ricky; Babcock, Jonathan; Huang, Xinpei

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on compounds initially designed to be herbicides led to the discovery of a series of [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides exhibiting aphicidal properties. Systematic modifications of the amide moiety as well as the pyridine and pyridazine rings were carried out to determine if these changes could improve insecticidal potency. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that changes to the pyridine and pyridazine rings generally resulted in a significant loss of insecticidal potency against green peach aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] and cotton aphids [(Aphis gossypii (Glover)]. However, replacement of the amide moiety with hydrazines, hydrazones, or hydrazides appeared to be tolerated, with small aliphatic substituents being especially potent. A series of aphicidal [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides were discovered as a result of random screening of compounds that were intially investigated as herbicides. Follow-up studies of the structure-activity relationship of these [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides showed that biosteric replacement of the amide moiety was widely tolerated suggesting that further opportunities for exploitation may exist for this new area of insecticidal chemistry. Insecticidal efficacy from the original hit, compound 1, to the efficacy of compound 14 produced greater than 10-fold potency improvement against Aphis gossypii and greater than 14-fold potency improvement against Myzus persicae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  4. Screening of some marine plants from the Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Solimabi; Kamat, S.Y.; De; Reddy, C.V.G.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Dhawan, B

    Extracts of twenty five seaweeds from Indian coast have been put through a broad biological screen which includes tests for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antifertility activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities...

  5. Determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols in various objects by chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, M V; Semenistaya, E N; Larionov, Oleg G; Revina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques for determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols are considered. Various methods for sample preparation and detection are compared. The advantages of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection for determination of antioxidants are demonstrated. Data on determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols published in the period from 1995 to 2005 are analysed.

  6. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...... developments in the synthesis of macrocycles, with an emphasis on chemistry developed to generate libraries of putative biologically active compounds....

  7. Surface mixing and biological activity in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS are characterized by a high productivity of plankton associated with large commercial fisheries, thus playing key biological and socio-economical roles. Since they are populated by several physical oceanic structures such as filaments and eddies, which interact with the biological processes, it is a major challenge to study this sub- and mesoscale activity in connection with the chlorophyll distribution. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study of these four upwelling systems focussing on their surface stirring, using the Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs, and their biological activity, based on satellite data. First, the spatial distribution of horizontal mixing is analysed from time averages and from probability density functions of FSLEs, which allow us to divide each areas in two different subsystems. Then we studied the temporal variability of surface stirring focussing on the annual and seasonal cycle. We also proposed a ranking of the four EBUS based on the averaged mixing intensity. When investigating the links with chlorophyll concentration, the previous subsystems reveal distinct biological signatures. There is a global negative correlation between surface horizontal mixing and chlorophyll standing stocks over the four areas. To try to better understand this inverse relationship, we consider the vertical dimension by looking at the Ekman-transport and vertical velocities. We suggest the possibility of a changing response of the phytoplankton to sub/mesoscale turbulence, from a negative effect in the very productive coastal areas to a positive one in the open ocean. This study provides new insights for the understanding of the variable biological productivity in the ocean, which results from both dynamics of the marine ecosystem and of the 3-D turbulent medium.

  8. Biological Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Liliane Nachtigall; Lara, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de; Ferreira, Márcio Soares; Nunes, Adrise Medeiros; Bernardi, Daniel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello

    2018-01-18

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered to be one of the major pest insects in fruit orchards worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strains are widely used as biological control agents and show high biological activity against different insect species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different strains of B. thuringiensis against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using suspensions of bacterial spores/crystals of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), kurstaki (Btk), and oswaldocruzi (Bto) strains at three concentrations [2 × 107, 2 × 108, and 2 × 109 colony-forming units per ml (CFU ml-1)]. At a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1, a significant larval effect (mortality 60%) was observed when compared with the control treatment. Larvae that ingested spore/crystal suspensions of Bti, Btk, or Bto bacterial strains exhibited significant larval and pupal deformations, leading to a significant decrease (~50%) in the completion of the insects' biological cycle (egg to adult). The B. thuringiensis strains (Bti, Btk, or Bto) at a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1 in combination with one food attractant (BioAnastrepha 3% or CeraTrap 1.5%) in formulations of toxic baits provided high mortality (mortality > 85%) of A. fraterculus adults 7 d after treatment. However, the Btk strain in combination with CeraTrap 1.5% caused mortality of 40%. On the basis of these results, the native bacterial strains Bti, Btk, and Bto were considered to be promising candidates as biological control agents against A. fraterculus. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Results of SSTC NRS Scientific and Technical Activities for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Valyigun, N.P.; Vorobej, I.I.; Kornijevska, O.S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes results of SSTC NRS scientific activities for 2014 in basic areas of activities. In particular, it addresses the development of nuclear regulatory control system, reviews, scientific and technical support to the SNRIU oversight function, research ampersand development and analytical efforts as well as scientific information and international activity. First-priority areas for SSTC NRS for the nearest years are identified

  10. Synthesis and biological activity of new homolupanes and homolupane saponins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidoryk, K.; Korda, A.; Rárová, Lucie; Oklešťková, Jana; Strnad, Miroslav; Cmoch, P.; Pakulski, Z.; Gwardiak, K.; Karczewski, R.; Luboradzki, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 13 (2015), s. 2004-2012 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Homobetulin * Homobetulinic acid * Glycosylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  11. Amazonian palm Oenocarpus bataua ("patawa"): chemical and biological antioxidant activity--phytochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaire, A; Robinson, J-C; Bereau, D; Verbaere, A; Sommerer, N; Khan, M K; Durand, P; Prost, E; Fils-Lycaon, B

    2014-04-15

    In French Guiana, "diversity" within the Palm family is obvious since more than 75 species have been identified. Oenocarpus bataua Mart., called "patawa" is well known for its culinary uses whereas literature on its phytochemical composition and biological properties remains poor. This work deals with determining the antioxidant activity of this palm fruit and its polyphenol composition; Euterpe oleracea (açai) used as a reference. It turned out that patawa had a stronger antioxidant activity than açai in TEAC and FRAP tests. A similar activity was observed by DPPH assay whereas in ORAC and KRL tests, that açai showed an antioxidant activity respectively 2.6 and 1.5 fold higher than patawa. Polyphenolic composition, determined by UPLC/MS(n), would imply the presence of anthocyanins, condensed tannins, stilbenes and phenolic acids, well known for their biological activities. These results present patawa fruit as a new amazonian resource for cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological activity of bicyclic and tricyclic diterpenoids from Salvia species of immediate pharmacological and pharmaceutical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Maria Carmela; Cicala, Carla; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Maione, Francesco; Mascolo, Nicola

    2011-08-01

    Diterpenoids are a class of compounds that derive from the condensation of four isoprene units that leads to a wide variety of complex chemical structures, including acyclic bi-, tri-and tetra-cyclic compounds; in Salvia species, only bi-, tri-and tetra-cyclic compounds have been found. This review covers a wide range of biological activities and mode of action of diterpenoids isolated from Salvia species that might raise some pharmacological and pharmaceutical interest. We have produced a synoptic table where the biological activities of the main active principles are summarized. Our analysis emphasizes that diterpenoids from Salvia species continue to be a plant defence system since their antimicrobic activity. Experimental studies show that most of diterpenoids considered have cytotoxic and/or antiproliferative activity. Some of them have also cardiovascular and central effects. In a less extended manner, diterpenoids from Salvia species show gastrointestinal, urinary, antinflammatory, antidiabetic, ipolipidemic and antiaggregating effects. In the last decade, several clinical trials have been developed in order to investigate the real value of Salvia extracts treatment; results obtained are promising and confer scientific basis in the use of medicinal plants from folk medicine.

  13. Changes in biological anthropology: results of the 1998 American Association of Physical Anthropology Membership Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Trudy R

    2002-06-01

    In response to the results of the 1996 survey of the membership of the American Association of Physical Anthropology (AAPA), the Executive Committee of the Association sponsored a follow-up survey designed to assess gender and specialty differences in training, employment, academic status, mentoring, and research support. A total of 993 questionnaires was analyzed, representing approximately 62% of the 1998 membership of the Association. There has been a marked shift in the number of males and females in the discipline from the 1960s to the 1990s. While 51.2% of all respondents are female and 48.8% are male, 70% of the students are female. Chi-square tests indicate significant differences between males and females by highest degree, age, status, obtaining a tenure-track position, receiving tenure, and taking nontenure-track employment before receiving a tenure-track position. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of females in the ranks of assistant and associate professors; however, this is not true for the rank of professor. There are also significant differences between males and females by specialty within the discipline: researchers in primatology, human biological variation, skeletal biology, and paleopathology are primarily female, while researchers in human and primate evolution are increasingly female. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Lampson, M. A.; Greathouse, D. V.; Koeppe, R. E., II; Andersen, O. S.

    2006-07-01

    Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)—Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly—alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.

  15. Biological activity and dimerization state of modified phytochrome A proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    Full Text Available To assess potential physical interactions of type I phyA with the type II phyB-phyE phytochromes in vivo, transgenes expressing fusion gene forms of phyA were introduced into the Arabidopsis phyA mutant background. When a single c-Myc (myc epitope is added to either the N- or C-terminus of phyA, the constructs completely complement phyA mutant phenotypes. However, addition of larger tags, such as six consecutive myc epitopes or the yellow fluorescent protein sequence, result in fusion proteins that show reduced activity. All the tagged phyA proteins migrate as dimers on native gels and co-immunoprecipitation reveals no binding interaction of phyA to any of the type II phys in the dark or under continuous far-red light. Dimers of the phyA 1-615 amino acid N-terminal photosensory domain (NphyA, generated in vivo with a yeast GAL4 dimerization domain and attached to a constitutive nuclear localization sequence, are expressed at a low level and, although they cause a cop phenotype in darkness and mediate a very low fluence response to pulses of FR, have no activity under continuous FR. It is concluded that type I phyA in its Pr form is present in plants predominantly or exclusively as a homodimer and does not stably interact with type II phys in a dimer-to-dimer manner. In addition, its activity in mediating response to continuous FR is sensitive to modification of its N- or C-terminus.

  16. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  17. Biological activities of Peganum harmala leaves | Hayet | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activity was evaluated using ammonium thiocyanate method. Among tested extracts, methanol and chloroform extracts displayed a higher antibacterial activity against gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. The methanol extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity and good antiviral activity ...

  18. Different pathways but same result? Comparing chemistry and biological effects of burned and decomposed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; El-Gawad, Ahmed M. Abd; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Cesarano, Gaspare; Saulino, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio; Castro Rego, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. Here, we tested the chemical convergence hypothesis (i.e. materials with different initial chemistry tend to converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances) for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition of 63 organic materials - 7 litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C - as assessed by 13C NMR. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter materials (0.5 % dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by CO2 flux chamber. We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of most other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth progressively decreased with litter age and temperature. Plant growth underwent an inhibitory effect by untreated litter, more and less rapidly released over decomposing and burning materials, respectively. Correlation analysis between NMR and bioassay data showed that opposite responses for soil respiration and fungi, compared to plants, are related to essentially the same C molecular types. Our findings suggest a functional convergence of decomposed and burnt organic substrates, emerging from the balance between the bioavailability of labile C sources and the presence of recalcitrant and pyrogenic compounds, oppositely affecting different trophic levels.

  19. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  20. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  1. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Huaiyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD, Entity Relationship (ER and Activity Flow (AF, allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail.

  2. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Aziz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  3. Phytochemical and biological activities of four wild medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Shabir; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M; Fouad, H; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  4. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  5. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  6. On multielement analysis of biological samples with the aid of neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    A main objective of this study was elucidation of problems of sampling and sample preparation methods for multielement analysis of environmental and biological specimens. Another was assessment of the potentials of multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) in environmental and biological research. In an attempt to explain the great differences in the elemental concentration ranges between biopsy and autopsy samples as reported in the literature, it was shown that post mortem changes induce great variations in the apparent elemental composition of autopsy specimens resulting in serious systematic errors. Applications of NAA to analysis of tissues of experimental animals, human tissues in health and disease, and environmental samples are illustrated with several examples. The suitability of NAA for routine analysis of elements such as Cr, Mo and Se, which are difficult to determine by other methods has been specially discussed. (author)

  7. Di- and sesquiterpenoids from Cystoseira genus: structure, intra-molecular transformations and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Vera; Seca, Ana M L; Barreto, M Carmo; Pinto, Diana C G A

    2013-06-01

    Natural products have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, because of the great variety of their chemical structures. Previous chemical investigation of members of the genus Cystoseira resulted in the discovery of various bioactive secondary metabolites. The secondary metabolites isolated and characterized are very interesting, both from the biological activity and structural complexity points of view, which make this genus an attractive target for further investigations. The present review covers the research progress on natural products isolated from this genus since January 1995 until now, concerning the isolation and structural elucidation of the secondary metabolites from Cystoseira species. In this contribution significant biological properties are briefly discussed. Simultaneously, we gradually construct an intra-molecular pathway that logically interrelates the isolated compounds.

  8. Biological activities of Agave by-products and their possible applications in food and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Romero, Julio Cesar; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Peña-Ramos, Etna Aida; González-Ríos, Humberto

    2017-10-11

    Agave leaves are considered a by-product of alcoholic beverage production (tequila, mezcal and bacanora) because they are discarded during the production process, despite accounting for approximately 50% of the total plant weight. These by-products constitute a potential source of Agave extracts rich in bioactive compounds, such as saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenes, and possess different biological effects, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo tests (e.g. antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antiparasitic and anticancer activity). Despite their positive results in biological assays, Agave extracts have not been widely evaluated in food systems and pharmaceutical areas, and these fields represent a potential route to improve the usage of Agave plants as food additives and agents for treating medical diseases. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Zhan, Xin; Pan, Xiwu

    2015-01-01

    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires...... many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Thus, biological production remains the preferred method...... for industrial production for many of these compounds. However, because these chemicals are often found in low abundance in the native plant, or are produced in plants which are difficult to cultivate, there is great interest in engineering increased production or expression of the biosynthetic pathways...

  10. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasviki, K.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Yannakopoulou, E.; Papadopoulou, P.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv

  11. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological and biological activities of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Rozina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlants have been used for health care and medical purposes for several thousands of years. The number of higher plant species on earth is about 250000. It is estimated that 35000 to 70000 species have, at one time or another, been used in some cultures for medicinal purposes. One of these is Mirabilis jalapa L. which is traditionally used as Purgative and emetic, for treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders, including dysentery, diarrhea, muscle pain and abdominal colic. Besides this it also exhibits certain useful activities like Antiviral activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antimalarial activity, Anthelmintic activity, Antioxidant activity, Aytotoxic activity Anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity, Antinociceptive activity, Antifungal activity, Anti-corrosion activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anti-inflammatory activity and many others. Pharmacologically active compounds include active alcoholic extract, ether compound-3,3’-Methylenebis (4- hydroxycoumarin N-D-alpha-Phenylyglycinelaminaribiitol-3-(4-(dimethylamino cinnamoyl 4hydroxycoumarin. The purpose of my review is to find out the areas of scope and to give the detail of the work done on Mirabilis Jalapa L. for future research work.

  13. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  14. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  15. FINASOL OSR 52 active components biodegradation by using the biologic activator Biolen IG 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J. R.; Luengo, M. C.; Socias, S.; Perez, F.; Laseca, D.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Morales, N.

    1997-01-01

    Degradation of the active ingredients in the FINASOL OSR 52, a commonly used dispersant in the treatment of marine oil spills, was studied. BIOLEN IG 30, comprising a mixture of bacteria, specially selected for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds, was used as the biodegrading agent. The kinetic coefficients of the degradation process were determined at different conditions, at ambient temperature, and at controlled 20 degrees C. BIOLEN IC 10 biologic activator was found to be adequate for total ionic and anionic dispersant degradation of the FINASOL OSR 52 at room temperature and at controlled 20 degrees C. Weekly addition of one gram of BIOLEN IG 30 was observed to improve biodegradation percentages for both ionic and anionic dispersants at controlled 20 degrees C. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH˙, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2˙(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered.

  17. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.

  18. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. ESSENTIAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpenic lactone of artemisinin was isolated from the above-ground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment. The purpose of the study was to review the data from the open sources about a component composition of Artemisia annua essential oil in the spectrum of its pharmacological activity. Methods. The study was carried out using information and searching sources (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library data bases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, as well as the results of our studies. Results. We have established that aboveground part of Artemisia annua have a significant amount  of essential oil apart from the sesquiterpene lactones. Essential oil contains more than 120 components, which belong to different classes of natural compounds. The study for dynamics of the essential oil accumulation in the Artemisia annua herb showed that the amount of oil in the herb rises significantly during budding, reaching maximum value in blossom. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of certain components varies depending on ecological and  geographical factors,  plant growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of essential oil of the Artemisia annua characterize it as a prospective source for the development of new antimicrobial medicinal drugs. Besides, as the studies shown, it can be related to the 6 class according to K. Sidorov’s classification – “relatively non-hazardous substances”. Conclusion. The analysis of the open sources on the study of essential oil of Artemisia annua made by us, as well as the results of our own studies, including phytochemical studies allow characterizing the essential oil of Artemisia annua as a prospective source for the working out of new antimicrobial drugs.

  19. Comparison of growth methods and biological activities of brazilian marine Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Granato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the study of the growth and the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of the extracts of the marine microorganisms Streptomyces acrymicini and Streptomyces cebimarensis, the latter a new strain. Both microorganisms were collected from coastal marine sediments of the north coast of São Paulo state. Growth was performed in a shaker and in a bioreactor using Gym medium and the broths of both microorganisms were extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Three extracts, two organic and one aqueous, from each microorganism were obtained and tested for cytotoxic and antitumor activity using the SF-295 (Central Nervous System, HCT-8 (Colon cell lines, and the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The growth methods were compared and show that, although the shaker presented reasonable results, the bioreactor represents the best choice for growth of these microorganisms. The biological activity of the different extracts was evaluated and it was demonstrated that the growth methodology may influence the secondary metabolite production and the biological activity.

  20. Results and Recommendations from the First NATO International Training Exercise on Laboratory Identification of Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hancock, J.R

    2001-01-01

    ...)-inactivated biological material and one blank containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The United States, as the host nation, distributed PBS, Bacillus anthracis, Coxiella burnetii, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE...

  1. Determination of phosphorus in biological samples by thermal neutron activation followed by β--counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weginwar, R.G.; Samudralwar, D.L.; Garg, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    Phosphorus was determined using the β - emitter 32 P by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in several NBS and IAEA standards, and in samples of biological origin such as human and animal blood, cancerous tissue, edible plant leaves, diets, milk samples, etc. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation (for 2-10 h in a reactor) followed by β - counting on an end-window gas flow proportional counter using aluminium filter. The results are within ±10% of the certified values in most cases. (author) 29 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC OF RATS LIVER UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS AND USAGE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovskyi S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied morphometric parameters of rats’ liver under stress conditions using the biologically active substances of plant and animal origin: spleen, Echinacea and Chinese lemon extracts, sprouted grain. Aerosol introduction of spleen extract to the rats feed for five days before slaughter was caused to liver morphological state moderate deviation, indicating the antistressors properties of polyamines contained in this extract. The results of model experiment on rats can be used in research of farm animals for correction of pre-slaughter stress influence and getting the receiving of quality industrial production.

  3. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, A. C. C.; Ximenes, N. C. A.; Aguiar, J. S.; Nascimento, S. C.; Lins, T. U. L.; Magalhães, L. R.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. G.; Gonçalves-Silva, T.; Correia, M. T. S.

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423...

  4. Biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-08-13

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  5. Design and synthesis of a new steroid-macrocyclic derivative with biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ramos, Maria; Figueroa-Valverde, Lauro; Herrera-Meza, Socorro; Rosas-Nexticapa, Marcela; Díaz-Cedillo, Francisco; García-Cervera, Elodia; Pool-Gómez, Eduardo; Cahuich-Carrillo, Regina

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the positive inotropic effect of a new macrocyclic derivative (compound 11 ) and characterize the molecular mechanism involved in its biological activity. The first step was achieved by synthesis of a macrocyclic derivative involving a series of reactions for the preparation of several steroid derivatives such as (a) steroid-pyrimidinone ( 3 and 4 ), (b) steroid-amino ( 5 ), (c) steroid-imino ( 6 ), (d) ester-steroid ( 7 and 8 ), and (e) amido-steroid ( 9 and 10 ). Finally, 11 was prepared by removing the tert -butyldimethylsilane fragment of 10 . The biological activity of compounds on perfusion pressure and vascular resistance was evaluated on isolated rat heart using the Langendorff model. The inotropic activity of 11 was evaluated in presence of prazosin, metoprolol, indomethacin, nifedipine, and flutamide to characterize its molecular mechanism. Theoretical experiments were carried out with a Docking model, to assess potential interactions of androgen receptor with 11 . The results showed that only this macrocyclic derivative exerts changes on perfusion pressure and vascular resistance translated as the positive inotropic effect, and this effect was blocked with flutamide; these data indicate that the positive inotropic activity induced by this macrocyclic derivative was via androgen receptor activation. The theoretical results indicated that the interaction of the macrocyclic derivative with the androgen receptor involves several amino acid residues such as Leu 704 , Asn 705 , Met 780 , Cys 784 , Met 749 , Leu 762 , Phe 764 , Ser 778 , and Met 787 . In conclusion, all these data suggest that the positive inotropic activity of the macrocyclic derivative may depend on its chemical structure.

  6. Study On DPPH Free Radical - Scavenging Activity Of Antioxidant Compounds In Plants Composing BIN-5 Biological Active Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevjav Urjintseren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been common trend among people to refuse from food and medications produced via synthetic method but try to consume natural products as much as possible instead. In this regard wild berries and medicinal plants are considered to be highly essential for human health as these kinds of plants serve as rich sources of biological active substances-phenol compounds. As a result of conducting research on source and spread of herbs which are commonly used as anti-diabetic medication we have developed a technological method to extract preparations from medicinal herbs such as Peony Paeonia lactiflora Pall Dandelion Taraxacum officinalis Wigg. Huckleberry Vaccinium myrtillus L Blueberry Vaccinium uliginosum L Cranberry Vaccinium vitisidaea L and Stinging nettles Urtica dioica accordingly studied chemical composition and antioxidant activity and conducted pharmacological study. With the use of Folin Denis amp Folin Ciocalteu reagent methodit was determined that the content of polyphenol compounds was 4.14-5.17 and 27.5 101.5mgml. The study was also aimed to investigate DPPH free radical-scavenging activity in connection with term temperature and concentration to identify the most rational technological procedure. As a result of study it was identified that free radical-scavenging activity of herbs selected for the study was generally estimated at 564.25-1750.00 mcgml whereas antioxidant activity of solvents with 2-10 mgml concentration was 417.20-1750.00 mcg ml respectively. This shows that such activity is dependent on concentration. However in temperature of 30 1000amp1057 degrees their activity has slowly been decreased by 1750 mcgml 476.7mcgml depending on temperature. Regarding the stinging nettles the activity was grown directly dependent from temperature. DPHH free radical-scavenging activity was gradually increased in 1-10 minutes but was relatively stable and active in 11-16 minutes.

  7. New hydrazones of ferulic acid: synthesis, characterization and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolszleger, Maria; Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Apotrosoaei, Maria; Vasincu, Ioana; Pânzariu, Andreea; Profire, Lenuţa

    2014-01-01

    The ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid) is a phenolic compound with important antioxidant effects and which nowadays is being extensively studied for his potential indications in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, etc. The synthesis of new ferulic acid compounds with potential antioxidant activity. The synthesis of the designed compounds was performed in several steps: (i) the obtaining of ferulic acid chloride by reacting of ferulic acid with thionyl chloride; (ii) the reaction between the ferulic acid chloride and hydrazine hydrate 98% to obtain the ferulic acid hydrazide; (iii) the condensation of ferrulic acid hydrazide with various benzaldehydes (2-hydroxy/3-hydroxy/4-hydroxy/2-nitro/3-nitro/4-nitro/2-methoxi/ 4-chloro/4-fluoro/4-bromo-benzaldehyde) resulting the correspond- ing hydrazones. The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and the evaluation of antioxidant potential was achieved by determining the total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. In this study new hydrazones of ferulic acid have been synthesized, physic-chemical and spectral characterized. The evaluation of antioxidant potential using in vitro methods showed the favorable influence of the structural modulation on the antioxidant effects of ferulic acid.

  8. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  10. Inhibition of survivin influences the biological activities of canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yamazaki

    Full Text Available Canine histiocytic sarcoma (CHS is an aggressive malignant neoplasm that originates from histiocytic lineage cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages, and is characterized by progressive local infiltration and a very high metastatic potential. Survivin is as an apoptotic inhibitory factor that has major functions in cell proliferation, including inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of cell division, and is expressed in most types of human and canine malignant neoplasms, including melanoma and osteosarcoma. To investigate whether survivin was expressed at high levels in CHS and whether its expression was correlated with the aggressive biological behavior of CHS, we assessed relation between survivin expression and CHS progression, as well as the effects of survivin inhibition on the biological activities of CHS cells. We comparatively analyzed the expression of 6 selected anti-apoptotic genes, including survivin, in specimens from 30 dogs with histiocytic sarcoma and performed annexin V staining to evaluate apoptosis, methylthiazole tetrazolium assays to assess cell viability and chemosensitivity, and latex bead assays to measure changes in phagocytic activities in 4 CHS cell lines and normal canine fibroblasts transfected with survivin siRNA. Survivin gene expression levels in 30 specimens were significantly higher than those of the other 6 genes. After transfection with survivin siRNA, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, enhanced chemosensitivity, and weakened phagocytic activities were observed in all CHS cell lines. In contrast, normal canine fibroblasts were not significantly affected by survivin knockdown. These results suggested that survivin expression may mediate the aggressive biological activities of CHS and that survivin may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of CHS.

  11. Exploring Connections Between Earth Science and Biology - Interdisciplinary Science Activities for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.

    2009-05-01

    To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers

  12. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m-2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m-2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher density

  13. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization.

  14. Early results for active infective endocarditis | Aithoussa | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early results for active infective endocarditis. Mahdi Aithoussa, Noureddine Atmani, Reda Mounir, Younes Moutakiallah, Mehdi Bamous, Abdessamad Abdou, Fouad Nya, Anis Seghrouchni, Siham Bellouize, Mohamed Drissi, Mostafa Elouennass, Youssef Elbekkali, Abdelatif Boulahya ...

  15. ICARUS T600: physics results and future activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This contribution will report the present physics results obtained by the ICARUS Collaboration, as well as describe the overhauling activities and the physics program for the detector in its future deployment at Fermilab.

  16. Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Plants Growing in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the oils showed anti-candida activity, with oils from Ocimum species being the most active compared to the others. Thus, Ocimum suave oils merit further investigation towards the development of safe and biodegradable larvicides. Furthermore, oils from Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum kilimandscharicum could offer ...

  17. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of 1-substituted-2-methyl benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activities. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were verified on the basis of spectral and elemental methods of analyses. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds ...

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    antiprotozoal. 20,21 and anti-hepatitis B virus activity. 22. In addition, a large number of antibiotics contain the 2-azetidinone. (commonly known as β-lactam) moiety. 23 such as penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem (figure 2). It is also associated with a variety of therapeutic activities. 24–28. In continuation of our work to.

  19. A glimpse on biological activities of tellurium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. O. R. Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium is a rare element which has been regarded as a toxic, non-essential trace element and its biological role is not clearly established to date. Besides of that, the biological effects of elemental tellurium and some of its inorganic and organic derivatives have been studied, leading to a set of interesting and promising applications. As an example, it can be highlighted the uses of alkali-metal tellurites and tellurates in microbiology, the antioxidant effects of organotellurides and diorganoditellurides and the immunomodulatory effects of the non-toxic inorganic tellurane, named AS-101, and the plethora of its uses. Inasmuch, the nascent applications of organic telluranes (organotelluranes as protease inhibitors and its applications in disease models are the most recent contribution to the scenario of the biological effects and applications of tellurium and its compounds discussed in this manuscript.O telúrio é um elemento não-essencial raro que vem sendo considerado tóxico, e o seu papel biológico é ainda pouco esclarecido. Apesar disso, os efeitos biológicos do telúrio elementar e de alguns derivados inorgânicos e orgânicos que têm sido estudados revelam um conjunto de aplicações diversificadas interessantes e promissoras. Como exemplo, pode-se destacar os usos de teluritos e teluratos de metais alcalinos em microbiologia, o efeito antioxidante de teluretos e diteluretos orgânicos, os efeitos imunomodulatórios e a diversidade de usos correlacionados a este efeito de uma telurana inorgânica denominada AS-101. Ademais, as aplicações de teluranas orgânicas (organoteluranas como inibidoras de proteases e as aplicações em modelos de doenças compõem a mais recente contribuição ao cenário dos efeitos e aplicações biológicas do telúrio e seus compostos discutidas neste manuscrito.

  20. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  1. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 20, 30, 31, 32, and 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of genetic continuity, methods of investigation, cell biology, genetics, and animal physiology. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives for the unit; a…

  2. An Introduction to Biological Modeling Using Coin Flips to Predict the Outcome of a Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Greg Q.; Rodriguez, Juan; Chirhart, Scott; Messina, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase students' awareness for and comfort with mathematical modeling of biological processes, and increase their understanding of diffusion, the following lab was developed for use in 100-level, majors/non-majors biology and neuroscience courses. The activity begins with generation of a data set that uses coin-flips to replicate…

  3. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

  4. Biologically Active Organic Matter in Soils of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Masyutenko, N. P.; Malyukova, L. S.; Lebedeva, T. N.; Tulina, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental and literature data on the contents and stocks of active organic matter in 200 soil samples from the forest-tundra, southern-taiga, deciduous-forest, forest-steppe, dry-steppe, semidesert, and subtropical zones have been generalized. Natural lands, agrocenoses, treatments of long-term field experiments (bare fallow, unfertilized and fertilized crop rotations, perennial plantations), and different layers of soil profile are presented. Sphagnum peat and humus-peat soil in the tundra and forest-tundra zones are characterized by a very high content of active organic matter (300-600 mg C/100 g). Among the zonal soils, the content of active organic matter increases from the medium (75-150 mg C/100 g) to the high (150-300 mg C/100 g) level when going from soddy-podzolic soil to gray forest and dark-gray forest soils and then to leached chernozem. In the series from typical chernozem to ordinary and southern chernozem and chestnut and brown semidesert soils, a decrease in the content of active organic matter to the low (35-75 mg C/100 g) and very low (<35 mg C/100 g) levels is observed. Acid brown forest soil in the subtropical zone is characterized by a medium supply with active organic matter. Most arable soils are mainly characterized by low or very low contents of active organic matter. In the upper layers of soils, active organic matter makes up 1.2-11.1% of total Corg. The profile distribution of active organic matter in the studied soils coincides with that of Corg: their contents appreciably decrease with depth, except for brown semidesert soil. The stocks of active organic matter vary from 0.4 to 5.4 t/ha in the layer of 0-20 cm and from 1.0 to 12.4/ha in the layer of 0-50 cm of different soil types.

  5. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  6. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Cardenas Odila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10 is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. Results The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Conclusion Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as

  7. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  8. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  9. Use of Brevibacillus choshinensis for the production of biologically active brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Phillip A; Carlson, Rebecca J; Thorwall, Sarah; Patrick Walton, S

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family critical for neuronal cell survival and differentiation, with therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurological disorders and spinal cord injuries. The production of recombinant, bioactive BDNF is not practical in most traditional microbial expression systems because of the inability of the host to correctly form the characteristic cystine-knot fold of BDNF. Here, we investigated Brevibacillus choshinensis as a suitable expression host for bioactive BDNF expression, evaluating the effects of medium type (2SY and TM), temperature (25 and 30 °C), and culture time (48-120 h). Maximal BDNF bioactivity (per unit mass) was observed in cultures grown in 2SY medium at extended times (96 h at 30 °C or >72 h at 25 °C), with resulting bioactivity comparable to that of a commercially available BDNF. For cultures grown in 2SY medium at 25 °C for 72 h, the condition that led to the greatest quantity of biologically active protein in the shortest culture time, we recovered 264 μg/L of BDNF. As with other microbial expression systems, BDNF aggregates did form in all culture conditions, indicating that while we were able to recover biologically active BDNF, further optimization of the expression system could yield still greater quantities of bioactive protein. This study provides confirmation that B. choshinensis is capable of producing biologically active BDNF and that further optimization of culture conditions could prove valuable in increasing BDNF yields.

  10. Very accurate determination of trace amounts of selenium in biological materials by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajduk, E.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.

    2006-01-01

    Selenium is both a toxic and an essential trace element for humans and animals. The purpose of this work was to elaborate a very accurate (definitive) method for the determination of selenium traces in different types of biological materials. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation and quantitative and very selective radiochemical separation of selenium by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurement of 75 Se. Three amines: 2,3-diaminonaphtalene, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and 4-nitro-phenyldiamine supported on Bio Beads SM-2 or Amberlite XAD-4 were chosen to batch experiments. Using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tracer experiments were carried out with the unirradiated biological samples. They have proved that the whole radiochemical separation procedure is quantitative. Gamma-ray spectrum of the selenium fraction practically did not show any other activities except background peaks. The obtained results demonstrate good agreement of results obtained by our new '' definitive '' method for the determination of selenium with the certified values

  11. Biological Activity of trans-2-Hexenal Against Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) at Different Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chengyu; Mu, Wei; Zhao, Yunhe; Li, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Qiuhong; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    trans-2-Hexenal, one of the C6 green leaf volatiles, is potentially useful for the control of Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang. In this study, the biological activity of trans-2-hexenal on B. odoriphaga was assessed in the laboratory. trans-2-Hexenal was observed to kill B. odoriphaga in different developmental stages at a relatively low concentration under fumigation. The respiration rate in the male treatment group decreased from 131.44 to 4.07 nmol/g · min with a prolonged fumigation time, while the respiration rate in females decreased from 128.82 to 24.20 nmol/g · min. Male adults exhibited a more sensitive electroantennogram response at 0.05-500 μl/ml at the dose of 10.0 μl than female adults. Moreover, trans-2-hexenal had a repellent effect on adults based on the results with a Y-tube olfactometer at 10.0 μl, as shown by the deterrent rate of male and female adults with 96.67% and 98.33%, respectively. The results showed that trans-2-hexenal had good biological activity in different developmental stages of B. odoriphaga, which could reduce the need for, and risks associated with, the use of traditional insecticides and enable nonharmful management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Membranolytic Activity of Bile Salts: Influence of Biological Membrane Properties and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Blume

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The two main steps of the membranolytic activity of detergents: 1 the partitioning of detergent molecules in the membrane and 2 the solubilisation of the membrane are systematically investigated. The interactions of two bile salt molecules, sodium cholate (NaC and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC with biological phospholipid model membranes are considered. The membranolytic activity is analysed as a function of the hydrophobicity of the bile salt, ionic strength, temperature, membrane phase properties, membrane surface charge and composition of the acyl chains of the lipids. The results are derived from calorimetric measurements (ITC, isothermal titration calorimetry. A thermodynamic model is described, taking into consideration electrostatic interactions, which is used for the calculation of the partition coefficient as well as to derive the complete thermodynamic parameters describing the interaction of detergents with biological membranes (change in enthalpy, change in free energy, change in entropy etc. The solubilisation properties are described in a so-called vesicle-to-micelle phase transition diagram. The obtained results are supplemented and confirmed by data obtained from other biophysical techniques (DSC differential scanning calorimetry, DLS dynamic light scattering, SANS small angle neutron scattering.

  13. Comparative Study of the Biological Activity of Allantoin and Aqueous Extract of the Comfrey Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Vesna Lj; Nikolić, Vesna D; Arsić, Ivana A; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Najman, Stevo J; Stojanović, Sanja; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana I

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR. Pure allantoin showed mild inhibitory effect on proliferation of both cell lines at concentrations 40 and 100 µg/ml, but more pronounced on MDCK cells. Aqueous extract of the comfrey root effect on cell proliferation in concentrations higher than 40 µg/ml was significantly stimulatory for L929 but inhibitory for MDCK cells. Pharmaceutical preparations that contained AECR showed better anti-irritant potential compared with PA. Creams showed better effect on hydration and EI compared with the gels that contained the same components. Our results indicate that the biological activity of the comfrey root extract cannot be attributed only to allantoin but is also likely the result of the interaction of different compounds present in AECR. Topical preparations that contain comfrey extract may have a great application in the treatment of skin irritation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Climate change and physical disturbance manipulations result in distinct biological soil crust communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) colonize plant interspaces in many drylands and are critical to soil nutrient cycling. Multiple climate change and land use factors have been shown to detrimentally impact biocrusts on a macroscopic (i.e., visual) scale. However, the impact of these perturbations on the bacterial components of the biocrusts remain poorly understood. We employed multiple long-term field experiments to assess the impacts of chronic physical (foot trampling) and climatic changes (2 °C soil warming, altered summer precipitation (wetting), and combined warming and wetting) on biocrust bacterial biomass, composition, and metabolic profile. The biocrust bacterial communities adopted distinct states based on the mechanism of disturbance. Chronic trampling decreased biomass and caused small community compositional change. Soil warming had little effect on biocrust biomass or composition, while wetting resulted in an increase in cyanobacterial biomass and altered bacterial composition. Warming combined with wetting dramatically altered bacterial composition and decreased cyanobacteria abundance. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified four functional gene categories that differed in relative abundance among the manipulations, suggesting that climate and land use changes affected soil bacterial functional potential. This study illustrates that different types of biocrust disturbance damage biocrusts in macroscopically similar ways, but they differentially impact the resident soil bacterial communities and the community functional profile can differ depending on the disturbance type. Therefore, the nature of the perturbation and the microbial response are important considerations for management and restoration of drylands.

  15. The role of non-rainfall water on physiological activation in desert biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaoli; Peng, Chengrong; Li, Hua; Li, Shuangshuang; Huang, Shun; Hu, Yao; Zhang, Jinli; Li, Dunhai

    2018-01-01

    Non-rainfall water (NRW, e.g. fog and dew), in addition to rainfall and snowfall, are considered important water inputs to drylands. At the same time, biological soil crusts (BSCs) are important components of drylands. However, little information is available regarding the effect of NRW inputs on BSC activation. In this study, the effects of NRW on physiological activation in three BSC successional stages, including the cyanobacteria crust stage (Crust-C), moss colonization stage (Crust-CM), and moss crust stage (Crust-M), were studied in situ. Results suggest NRW inputs hydrated and activated physiological activity (Fv/Fm, carbon exchange, and nitrogen fixation) in BSCs but led to a negative carbon balance and low rates of nitrogen fixation in BSCs. One effective NRW event could hydrate BSCs for 7 h. Following simulated rainfall, the physiological activities recovered within 3 h, and net carbon gain occurred until 3 h after hydration, whereas NRW-induced physiological recovery processes were slower and exhibited lower activities, leading to a negative carbon balance. There were significant positive correlations between NRW amounts and the recovered values of Fv/Fm in all the three BSC stages (p < .001). The thresholds for Fv/Fm activation decreased with BSC succession, and the annual effective NRW events increased with BSC succession, with values of 29.8, 89.2, and 110.7 in Crust-C, Crust-CM and Crust-M, respectively. The results suggest that moss crust and moss-cyanobacteria crust use NRW to prolong metabolic activity and reduce drought stress more efficiently than cyanobacteria crusts. Therefore, these results suggest that BSCs utilize NRW to sustain life while growth and biomass accumulation require precipitation (rainfall) events over a certain threshold.

  16. Bioactive components and functional properties of biologically activated cereal grains: A bibliographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2017-09-22

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibers, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional, and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health-promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  17. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  18. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  19. Methods for chemical synthesis of biologically active compounds using supramolecular protective groups and novel compounds obtainable Thereby

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andreas; Bastian, Andreas Alexander; Marcozzi, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to drug development and synthetic chemistry, in particular to the manufacture of biologically active compounds based on naturally occurring molecules. It also relates to novel biologically active compounds, for example aminoglycoside antibiotics, in a substantially pure

  20. Chemical composition and biological activity of a new type of Brazilian propolis: red propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, S M; Oldoni, T L C; Castro, M L; Cabral, I S R; Costa-Neto, C M; Cury, J A; Rosalen, P L; Ikegaki, M

    2007-09-05

    Propolis has been used as a medicinal agent to treat infections and promote wound healing for centuries. The aim of the present study was to test the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of a new type of Brazilian propolis, popularly called red propolis, as well as to analyze its chemical composition. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus mutans UA159 was evaluated and the chloroform fraction (Chlo-fr) was the most active with lower MIC ranging from 25 to 50 microg/ml. The hexane fraction (H-fr), having the highest concentration of total flavonoids, showed the best sequestrating activity for the free radical DPPH. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) showed cytotoxic activity for the HeLa tumor cells with an IC(50) of 7.45 microg/ml. When the EEP was analyzed by GC-MS, seven new compounds were found, among which four were isoflavones. Our results showed that the red propolis has biologically active compounds that had never been reported in other types of Brazilian propolis.

  1. Main results of biological experiments on Russian orbital stations and its contribution in future life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Biological experiments in a field of space biology have been started before the first satellite flight. These experiments were devoted to an estimation of space radiation factors on living organisms and carried out in mountains. The systematic biological experiments in space have been started in 1971 with orbital station Salyut. In total more than 1000 experiments have been installed in space flights: fundamental investigations (panspermia theory, gravity biology, complex factors of space environment on biological objects) and applications focused on future biological life support systems. The investigations were directed to some tasks: influence of complex factors of space flight on living organisms at different stages of the evolution scale; investigations of proteins and DNA, cell, tissue, organism and assembled organisms under space flight factors with separation of individual factors, for example, microgravity and space radiation. The aim was to understand the organism reactions on different levels, to get complete ontogenesis cycle in space flight and to find adaption ability of organisms to extreme factors of the space flight. In course of investigations, the unique experimental equipment for orbital biological experiments has been designed; new methods for organism protection against the negative factors of space flight were found; developed new biotechnological products and processes; developed recommendations for space station interior with biological objects for psychological comfort of crew. The results showed a possibility and ways to include different organisms into biotechnological life support systems for future space stations and interplanet spaceships.

  2. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  3. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  4. Phytochemical components and biological activities of Silene arenarioides Desf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golea, Lynda; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Lavaud, Catherine; Long, Christophe; Haba, Hamada

    2017-12-01

    In this study, six known compounds 1-6 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these compounds were identified as maltol glycoside (1), soyacerebroside I (2), chrysin (3), apigenin (4), quercetin (5) and stigmasterol glucoside (6). The compounds (1) and (2) are reported for the first time from this genus. The isolated compounds were determined using NMR techniques ( 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts and of compound (1) have been evaluated. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH radical scavenging method, which showed that methanol extract possesses a good antioxidant activity with value of IC 50  = 8.064 ± 0.005 μg/mL.

  5. Synthesis and biological activities of diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükgüzel, S Güniz; Mazi, Adil; Sahin, Fikrettin; Oztürk, Suzan; Stables, James

    2003-01-01

    Several diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives namely 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid [(5-nitro-2-furyl/substitutedphenyl)methylene] hydrazide (3a-o) have been synthesised. Methyl 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylate (1) and 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid hydrazide (2) were also synthesised and used as intermediate compounds. All synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv, antimicrobial activities against various bacteria, fungi and yeast species. Compound 3a have shown activity against Staphylococcus epidermis HE-5 and Staphylococcus aureus HE-9 at 18.75 and 37.5 microg mL(-1), respectively. Compound 3o have exhibited activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IO-16 at a concentration of 37.5 microg mL(-1), whereas Cefepime, the drug used as standard, have been found less active against the microorganisms mentioned above. The synthesised compounds were found to provide 12-34% inhibition of mycobacterial growth of M. tuberculosis H37 Rv in the primary screen at 6.25 microg mL(-1). Anticonvulsant activity of the compounds were also determined by maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous metrazole (scMET) tests in mice and rats following the procedures of antiepileptic drug development (ADD) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Compound 3k showed 25% protection against MES induced seizures in p.o. rat screening at a dose level of 30 mg kg(-1) whereas 3n and 3o showed neurotoxicity after 4 and 0.5 h at a dose level of 100 and 300 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  6. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of 137 Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of 137 Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, 137 Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of 137 Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, 137 Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested 137 Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested 137 Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that 137 Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  7. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  9. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Evaluation of Biological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flemingia philippinensis and to investigate the antioxidant and anti-tumor activities of the extracts of the materials from various locations in China. Methods: The total flavonoids in F. philippinensis were obtained by ultrasonic-assisted conventional solvent extraction method, and the extraction conditions were optimized by ...

  10. Some biological activities of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate a correlation in the activities of the leaves and as such serve as panacea for infectious diseases and therefore scientific justification to some of the folkloric uses of the plant. Keywords: Antimicrobial; Larvicidal; Brine shrimp lethality; Pycnanthus angolensis. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  11. Research on prokaryocyte expression and biological activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the ATPase activity of the protein was also assayed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry based on PiColorLock Gold reagent. An effective expression method was established for BLM protein in E. coli. The obvious bioactivities of the protein were observed in binding to ssDNA or dsDNA, unwinding the dsDNA in ...

  12. Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays while antimicrobial activity was screened using the disk diffusion method against a panel of six bacterial (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebseilla pneumonia, Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and four fungal strains (Candida albicans, ...

  13. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the major phytoconstituents, the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of Rhus lancea essential oil against eight bacterial and four fungal species. The yield was 0.18% and the major phytoconstituents found were µ-pinene, benzene and d-3-carene. The oil exhibited remarkable ...

  14. Biological activities of four essential oils against Anopheles gambiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control of malaria is still a challenge partly due to mosquito's resistance to current available insecticides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellent activities of Lantana camara, Hyptis suaveolens, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum canum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae s.l. ...

  15. Determination of cephalosporin acylase activity by biological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... microorganisms with cephalosporin acylase activity was developed. The core part of cephalosporin was replaced by 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) to generate new substrates glutaryl-6-APA and adipoyl-6-APA for screen- ing. Serratia marcescens that is sensitive to 6-APA and resistant to penicillin G, ...

  16. chemical constituents and biological activity of three tanzanian wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    antimicrobial activities infer that the three mushroom species are potential functional food substrates. INTRODUCTION. Termitomyces is a tropical edible ... extract (32 g) on cooling in the fridge at -. 4°C formed white crystals of mannitol and ... against the bacteria Vibrio cholerae and. Escherichia coli, and the fungus Candida.

  17. Biological activities of Rumex dentatus L: Evaluation of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... solani, respectively by methanol extracts of roots and leaves. Phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts showed presence of flavor-noids as major constituents, which might be responsible for antifungal activity. (Atindehou et al., 2002). Previously, fungitoxic surface flavonoids (Isoflavonoids) have been ...

  18. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  19. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2-ol (19.4%), transp- mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (16.4%) and limonene (13.7%). The major components identified in the oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus were piperitone (68.4%), and ä-2-carene (11.5%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential ...

  20. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Sava M; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Licina, Braho Z; Radojevic, Ivana D; Comic, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use.

  1. Evaluation of some biological activities of Abelia triflora R Br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cardiovascular and cytotoxic activities of the leaf extract and major compounds isolated from Abelia triflora R. Br. (Caprifoliaceae) Methods: The chloroform soluble fraction of A. triflora leaves was subjected to several column chromatographic ...

  2. Phytochemical profile and some biological activities of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterise the phytochemical profile of whole plants of Centaurea balsamita, C. depressa and C. lycopifolia with LC-ESI-MS/MS, and as well as their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities. Methods: Organic and aqueous extracts of the three Centaurea species were evaluated for DPPH ...

  3. Biologically Active Compounds of Plant Foods: Prospective Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful compounds interfere with normal growth, reproduction, or health and reduce protein and carbohydrate utilization. The health benefits of selected substances from Ethiopian food crops need to be studied. Active compounds need to be isolated, identified and produced to explore their potential benefits with emphasis ...

  4. Biological activity and phytoconstituents of essential oil from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves of Eriosema englerianum by hydrodistillation and its major phytoconstituents determined by GC-MS. The major phytoconstituents were O-cymene, terpinolene and ascaridole with a yield of 0.28%. Antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens ...

  5. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  6. Biological activities and phytochemical constituents of the gray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro assessment of the antibacteriophage, antibacterial and anticandidal activities as well as cytotoxicity were evaluated for both aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from roots, cotyledons, leaves and stems of Avicennia marina. Aqueous extracts of both shoots and roots of the seedlings demonstrated ...

  7. Results of storm activity registration in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtsev A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of storm activity registration processing in the Kola Peninsula during 2013-2014 have been given. Considerable fluctuations of storm activity and unevenness of lightning discharges distribution across the region territory have been noted. It has been proposed to use a cloud-to-ground discharge density indicator taking into account their distribution in the region at an assessment of lightning protection efficiency of power generation facilities in areas with low thunder-storms intensity

  8. Conferring biological activity to native spider silk: A biofunctionalized protein-based microfiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Quan, David N; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Liu, Yi; Terrell, Jessica L; Luo, Xiaolong; Yang, Jen-Chang; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2017-01-01

    Spider silk is an extraordinary material with physical properties comparable to the best scaffolding/structural materials, and as a fiber it can be manipulated with ease into a variety of configurations. Our work here demonstrates that natural spider silk fibers can also be used to organize biological components on and in devices through rapid and simple means. Micron scale spider silk fibers (5-10 μm in diameter) were surface modified with a variety of biological entities engineered with pentaglutamine tags via microbial transglutaminase (mTG). Enzymes, enzyme pathways, antibodies, and fluorescent proteins were all assembled onto spider silk fibers using this biomolecular engineering/biofabrication process. Additionally, arrangement of biofunctionalized fiber should in of itself generate a secondary level of biomolecular organization. Toward this end, as proofs of principle, spatially defined arrangement of biofunctionalized spider silk fiber was shown to generate effects specific to silk position in two cases. In one instance, arrangement perpendicular to a flow produced selective head and neck carcinoma cell capture on silk with antibodies complexed to conjugated protein G. In a second scenario, asymmetric bacterial chemotaxis arose from asymmetric conjugation of enzymes to arranged silk. Overall, the biofabrication processes used here were rapid, required no complex chemistries, were biologically benign, and also the resulting engineered silk microfibers were flexible, readily manipulated and functionally active. Deployed here in microfluidic environments, biofunctional spider silk fiber provides a means to convey complex biological functions over a range of scales, further extending its potential as a biomaterial in biotechnological settings. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 83-95. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Main activities of the Latin American Network of Biological Dosimetry (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Garcia Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; Gonzalez Mesa, J.E.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Guerrero Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.; Barquinero, F.; Roy, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) was constituted in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of a radiation emergency in the region supported by IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/054 and RLA/9/061. The main objectives are: a) to strengthen the technical capacities of Biological Dosimetry Services belonging to laboratories existing in the region (Argentine, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) integrated in National Radiological Emergency Plans to provide a rapid biodosimetric response in a coordinated manner between countries and with RANET-IAEA/BioDoseNet-WHO, b) to provide support to other countries in the region lacking Biological Dosimetry laboratories, c) to consolidate the organization of the Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network for mutual assistance. The activities developed include technical meetings for protocols and chromosomal aberration scoring criteria unification, blood samples cultures exercises, chromosomal aberrations analysis at microscope, discussion of statistical methods and specialized software for dose calculation, the intercomparison between laboratory data after the analysis of slides with irradiated material and the intercomparison of the analysis of captured images distributed electronically in the WEB. The last exercise was the transportation of an irradiated human blood sample to countries inside and outside of the region. At the moment the exercises are concluded and they are pending to be published in reference journals. Results obtained show the capacity in the region for a biodosimetric response to a radiological accident. In the future the network will integrate techniques for high dose exposure evaluation and will enhance the interaction with other emergency systems in the region. (authors) [es

  10. Biologically active dibenzofurans from Pilidiostigma glabrum, an endemic Australian Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Qingyao; Banbury, Linda K; Renshaw, Dane E; Lambley, Eleanore H; Mon, Htwe; Macfarlane, Graham A; Griesser, Hans J; Heinrich, Michael M; Wohlmuth, Hans

    2012-09-28

    In an effort to identify new anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents with potential application in wound healing, five new dibenzofurans, 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylbutanoyl)dibenzofuran (1), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (2), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (3), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2-(2-methylbutanoyl)-8-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (4), and 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2,8-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (5), were isolated from the leaves of Pilidiostigma glabrum together with one previously described dibenzofuran. Structure elucidation was achieved by way of spectroscopic measurements including 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions had potent antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive strains (MIC in the low micromolar range), while compounds with 4,6-acyl substitutions were less active. All compounds except 3 inhibited the synthesis of nitric oxide in RAW264 macrophages with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions also inhibited the synthesis of PGE(2) in 3T3 cells, whereas 4,6-acyl-substituted compounds were inactive. None of the compounds inhibited the synthesis of TNF-α in RAW264 cells. The compounds showed variable but modest antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. These findings highlight that much of the Australian flora remains unexplored and may yet yield many new compounds of interest. Initial clues are provided on structure/activity relationships for this class of bioactives, which may enable the design and synthesis of compounds with higher activity and/or selectivity.

  11. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  12. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  13. Biologic activity of cyclic and caged phosphates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Stegmeier-Petroianu, Anka; Petroianu, Georg A

    2017-01-01

    The recognition in the early 1960s by Morifusa Eto that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system to an intermediate that spontaneously cyclizes to a neurotoxic phosphate (saligenin phosphate ester) ignited the interest in this group of compounds. Only the ortho isomer can cyclize and clinically cause Organo Phosphate Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN); the meta and para isomers of tri-cresyl phosphate are not neuropathic because they are unable to form stable cyclic saligenin phosphate esters. This review identifies the diverse biological effects associated with various cyclic and caged phosphates and phosphonates and their possible use. Cyclic compounds that inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), such as salithion, can be employed as pesticides. Others are neurotoxic, most probably because of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Cyclic phosphates that inhibit lipases, the cyclipostins, possibly represent promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or microbial infections; those compounds inhibiting β-lactamase may prevent bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Naturally occurring cyclic phosphates, such as cyclic AMP, cyclic phosphatidic acid and the ryanodine receptor modulator cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, play an important physiological role in signal transduction. Moreover, some cyclic phosphates are GABA-antagonists, while others are an essential component of Molybdenum-containing enzymes. Some cyclic phosphates (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide) are clinically used in tumor therapy, while the coupling of therapeutic agents with other cyclic phosphates (HepDirect® Technology) allows drugs to be targeted to specific organs. Possible clinical applications of these compounds are considered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Characterization and biological activity of bacterial glycoconjugates in cold adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Casillo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The cryosphere, covering about one-fifth of the surface of the Earth, comprises several components: snow, river and lake ice, sea ice, ice sheets, ice shelves, glaciers and ice caps, and frozen ground which exist, both on land and beneath the oceans (Vaughan DG, et al. 2013). All these habitats, combining the low temperature and the low liquid water activity, are challenging for all the forms of life (Casanueva et al., 2010). These extreme environments are inhabited by microorganisms of all t...

  15. New Conjugated Benzothiazole-N-oxides: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Foltínová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new 2-styrylbenzothiazole-N-oxides have been prepared by aldol – type condensation reactions between 2-methylbenzothiazole–N-oxide and para-substituted benzaldehydes. Compounds with cyclic amino substituents showed typical push-pull molecule properties. Four compounds were tested against various bacterial strains as well as the protozoan Euglena gracilis as model microorganisms. Unlike previously prepared analogous benzothiazolium salts, only weak activity was recorded.

  16. Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of oregano are widely recognized for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and antifungal properties. Nevertheless, recent investigations have demonstrated that these compounds are also potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and cancer suppressor agents. These properties of oregano essential oils are of potential interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this manuscript is to review the latest evidence regarding essential oils of oregano and their beneficial effects on health.

  17. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  18. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC-FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF BILBERRY EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. HACIBEKİROĞLU, U. KOLAK*, I. HACIBEKİROĞLU, U. KOLAK*

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYIn this study, the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and hot water extracts were prepared from bilberry blooms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated by using four methods including DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays. The methanol ext...

  19. Chemical or biological activity in open chaotic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolyi, G.; Pentek, A.; Toroczkai, Z.; Toroczkai, Z.; Tel, T.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of particle ensembles in open chaotic hydrodynamical flows. Active processes of the type A+B→2B and A+B→2C are considered in the limit of weak diffusion. As an illustrative advection dynamics we consider a model of the von Karman vortex street, a time-periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder. We show that a fractal unstable manifold acts as a catalyst for the process, and the products cover fattened-up copies of this manifold. This may account for the observed filamental intensification of activity in environmental flows. The reaction equations valid in the wake are derived either in the form of dissipative maps or differential equations depending on the regime under consideration. They contain terms that are not present in the traditional reaction equations of the same active process: the decay of the products is slower while the productivity is much faster than in homogeneous flows. Both effects appear as a consequence of underlying fractal structures. In the long time limit, the system locks itself in a dynamic equilibrium state synchronized to the flow for both types of reactions. For particles of finite size an emptying transition might also occur leading to no products left in the wake. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. Biological activities of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana butters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf M. Al-Enazi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities; antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer, of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana were determined. The total ethanol, lipoidal matters, chloroform, n-butanol, aqueous extracts and powder of both algae showed and bacterial and antifungal activities. However, the chloroform extract of Galaxaura rugosa showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 mm, 0.15 mg/ml higher than gentamycin (23 mm, 0.49 mg/ml. Moreover, the total ethanol, lipoidal matter and chloroform extracts showed antifungal activity (21, 22 and 25 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml similar to the antibiotic Ketoconazole activity (23, 24 and 27 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and Candida trobicalis, respectively. A good antioxidant activity (80.96%, IC50 = 27.8 µg/ml was provided by Galaxaura rugosa. The anticancer activity results revealed that the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana possessed antitumor activity (IC50 = 15 ± 1.7 and 21.2 ± 1.6, respectively against lung carcinoma (A-549 better than vinblastine sulfate (IC50 = 24.6 ± 0.7. Although, the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana antitumor activity against cervical carcinoma (HeLa and intestinal carcinoma (CACO-2 (IC50 = 10.2 ± 0.6 and 12.2 ± 0.6, respectively preferable than vinblastine sulfate (IC50 = 59.7 ± 2.1 and 30.3 ± 1.4, respectively.

  1. Biological activities of the red algaeGalaxaura rugosaandLiagora hawaiianabutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enazi, Nouf M; Awaad, Amani S; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Alwethairi, Metab F

    2018-01-01

    The biological activities; antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer, of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana were determined. The total ethanol, lipoidal matters, chloroform, n-butanol, aqueous extracts and powder of both algae showed and bacterial and antifungal activities. However, the chloroform extract of Galaxaura rugosa showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 mm, 0.15 mg/ml) higher than gentamycin (23 mm, 0.49 mg/ml). Moreover, the total ethanol, lipoidal matter and chloroform extracts showed antifungal activity (21, 22 and 25 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml) similar to the antibiotic Ketoconazole activity (23, 24 and 27 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml) against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. niger and Candida trobicalis , respectively. A good antioxidant activity (80.96%, IC 50  = 27.8 µg/ml) was provided by Galaxaura rugosa . The anticancer activity results revealed that the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana possessed antitumor activity (IC 50  = 15 ± 1.7 and 21.2 ± 1.6, respectively) against lung carcinoma (A-549) better than vinblastine sulfate (IC 50  = 24.6 ± 0.7). Although, the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana antitumor activity against cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and intestinal carcinoma (CACO-2) (IC 50  = 10.2 ± 0.6 and 12.2 ± 0.6, respectively) preferable than vinblastine sulfate (IC 50  = 59.7 ± 2.1 and 30.3 ± 1.4, respectively).

  2. Preliminary monocentric results of biological characteristics of pregnancy associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michieletto, Silvia; Saibene, Tania; Evangelista, Laura; Barbazza, Franco; Grigoletto, Raffaello; Rossi, Giovanna; Ghiotto, Cristina; Bozza, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    We performed a mono-institutional study for evaluating the biological data, such as p53, Ki67 and BRCA mutations, as well as clinical characteristics of pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC), its therapeutic management and the prognosis in a small cohort of patients. We retrospectively examined 26 patients with PABC. Clinical and histopathological characteristics along with Ki67, p53 and BRCA mutations were analysed. Information about chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy was recovered. Data about long-term prognosis was registered and computed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of 26 patients, 17 (65%) were considered as having a locally advanced breast cancer. The majority of them (65.4%) had a ductal invasive carcinoma. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 13 (50%) patients, resulting both negative in four (15.4%) subjects. HER-2 was positive in 5 subjects (19.2%). Ten patients underwent conservative surgery treatment, and 14 were sent to radical mastectomy (38 vs. 54%) associated with axillary lymph node dissection in 18 cases. Many patients (65%) were further treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. Eight out of 11 patients undergoing the evaluation of BRCA mutation were positive while only 2 out of 3 patients had a mutation of p53. After a median follow-up of 110 months (range: 8.2-1227 mo.), 18 women were still alive, six patients (25%) died and two were lost. Three patients showed a loco-regional recurrence, after a median period of 26 months (range: 2-42 mo.). Distant metastases verified in six patients after a median period of 12.5 months (range: 2-108 mo.). The prognosis was less favourable in BRCA mutated patients than no-BRCA mutated group, although not statistically significant. In women with PABC, the initial stage of disease is more advanced requiring more aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter technology in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoming; Liu, Jincui; Li, Shaowen; Biney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Problems have been found in the traditional post-positioned down-flow biological activated carbon filter (DBACF), such as microorganism leakage and low biodegradability. A pilot test was carried out to place a BACF between the sediment tank and the sand filter; a new technology of dual media up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter (UBACF) was developed. Results showed that in terms of the new process, the up-flow mode was better than the down-flow. Compared with the DBACF, the problem of microorganism leakage could be well resolved with the UBACF process by adding disinfectant before the sand filtration, and a similar adsorption effect could be obtained. For the tested raw water, the COD(Mn) and NH3-N removal rate was 54.6% and 85.0%, respectively, similar to the waterworks with the DBACF process. The UBACF greatly enhanced oxygen supply capability and mass transfer rate via aeration, and the NH3-N removal ability was significantly improved from 1.5 mg/L to more than 3 mg/L. Influent to the UBACF with higher turbidity could be coped with through the primary filtration of the ceramisite layer combined with fluid-bed technology, which gave the carbon bed a low-turbidity environment of less than 1.0 NTU. The backwashing parameters and carbon abrasion rate of the two processes were almost the same.

  4. Objectives of research activities in Biology Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The primary responsibility assigned to the Biology Branch within the framework of CRNL has been an active engagement in basic research related to the assessment of radiation hazards, particularly those to be expected after exposure to relatively low doses of radiation delivered at low dose-rates. The present group is characterized by a broad interest in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into biological effects, with a special focus of attention on the mechanisms by which the initial damage can be largely repaired and by which the risks to man are modified under different circumstances. The basic concepts in radiation biology and risk estimates are reviewed in the light of recent literature on these topics. The current and proposed research activities of the Biology Branch are described. General and specific recommendations for future activities are given. (author)

  5. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  6. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Systems theoretic analysis of the central dogma of molecular biology: some recent results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Yu, Juanyi; Zhang, Mingjun; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Jr-Shin

    2010-03-01

    This paper extends our early study on a mathematical formulation of the central dogma of molecular biology, and focuses discussions on recent insights obtained by employing advanced systems theoretic analysis. The goal of this paper is to mathematically represent and interpret the genetic information flow at the molecular level, and explore the fundamental principle of molecular biology at the system level. Specifically, group theory was employed to interpret concepts and properties of gene mutation, and predict backbone torsion angle along the peptide chain. Finite state machine theory was extensively applied to interpret key concepts and analyze the processes related to DNA hybridization. Using the proposed model, we have transferred the character-based model in molecular biology to a sophisticated mathematical model for calculation and interpretation.

  8. ESSENCE AND VALUE OF FINANCIAL RESULTS OF COMMERCIAL BANK ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnarova Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Financial results of the banking institution activity are one of the most important indicators of its functioning. They characterize the stability and reliability of a commercial bank, which is necessary to create reserve funds, to encourage staff and offer guidance to develop and improve operations on the market, reduce costs and improve the quality of services provided. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to determine the composition and significance of financial results for the functioning of the banking institution in the existing competitive environment. Results. The article considers the concept of financial results of a commercial bank as an important element of its activity for achieving competitive advantages in the banking services market. The composition and structure of financial results, factors of possible impact on them are determined. The source of the mapping and recording of the results of the activity is indicated. Attention is paid to the significance of profit as a positive financial result of a commercial bank activity and the priority directions of its distribution are formed. The importance of the relative indicator of the effective activity of a commercial bank as one of the elements of the formation of financial results is substantiated. Conclusions. Thus, in today’s market conditions, one can talk about the expediency of determining the composition of financial results and their significance to ensure the main directions of the functioning of a commercial bank. First of all, in order to increase the level of profitability it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive analysis of income and expenditure, to identify the factors of influence on them, to increase the reserves of activity. Receiving a positive or negative value of financial performance depends primarily on the effectiveness of the interaction of each component of the organization of a modern commercial bank. The ability to correctly identify

  9. Citrus limon from Tunisia: Phytochemical and Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Makni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural plant extracts contain a variety of phenolic compounds which are assigned various biological activities. Our work aims to make a quantitative and qualitative characterization of the Zest (ZL and the Flesh (FL of lemon (Citrus limon, to valorize the pharmacological uses of lemon, by evaluating in vitro activities (DPPH, free radical scavenging and reducing power. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antiproliferative activities were sought in the ability of Citrus limon extracts to protect DNA and protein. We found that the ZL contains high amounts of phenolics responsible for the important antioxidant properties of the extract. However, the FL is richer in flavonoids than the ZL. The FL extract was also found to be more effective than the ZL in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals. We also concluded that the FL extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity unlike ZL. Analysis by LC/MS-MS identified 6 compounds (Caffeoyl N-Tryptophan, Hydroxycinnamoyl-Oglucoside acid, Vicenin 2, Eriocitrin, Kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, and Quercetin-3-rutinoside. These preliminary results showed that Citrus limon has antibacterial and antioxidant activity in vitro. It would be interesting to conduct further studies to evaluate the in vivo potential in an animal model.

  10. Citrus limon from Tunisia: Phytochemical and Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makni, Mohamed; Jemai, Raoua; Kriaa, Walid; Chtourou, Yassine; Fetoui, Hamadi

    2018-01-01

    Natural plant extracts contain a variety of phenolic compounds which are assigned various biological activities. Our work aims to make a quantitative and qualitative characterization of the Zest (ZL) and the Flesh (FL) of lemon (Citrus limon) , to valorize the pharmacological uses of lemon, by evaluating in vitro activities (DPPH, free radical scavenging and reducing power). The antibacterial, antifungal, and antiproliferative activities were sought in the ability of Citrus limon extracts to protect DNA and protein. We found that the ZL contains high amounts of phenolics responsible for the important antioxidant properties of the extract. However, the FL is richer in flavonoids than the ZL. The FL extract was also found to be more effective than the ZL in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals. We also concluded that the FL extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity unlike ZL. Analysis by LC/MS-MS identified 6 compounds (Caffeoyl N-Tryptophan, Hydroxycinnamoyl-Oglucoside acid, Vicenin 2, Eriocitrin, Kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, and Quercetin-3-rutinoside). These preliminary results showed that Citrus limon has antibacterial and antioxidant activity in vitro . It would be interesting to conduct further studies to evaluate the in vivo potential in an animal model.

  11. Biological Activities and Cell Proliferation effects of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeoun Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS are continuously produced at a high rate as a by-product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical, ROS such as hydrogen peroxide(H2O2, nitric oxide(NO increases with age. Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. In this study, we have conducted to investigate the pharmacological effects of red ginseng for the development possibility to pharmacopuncture drug sources or healthy aid foods. Methods: For our aims, it was investigated the biological activities of Red Ginseng ethanol extracts (RGEE by measuring total polyphenol contents, total flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and cell viability of MCF 10A and SK-MEL-2 in vitro with MTT assay method. Results: The total polyphenol contents of RGEE was 3.060.11mg/g in 10mg/ml, the total flavonoid contents of RGEE was 1.350.01mg/g in same concentration. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was about 80% and that of DPPH activity was 65% in 50mg/ml of RGEE. The cell viability of SKMEL-2, skin cancer cell line was decreased and that of MCF 10A, skin normal cell line was increased. Conclusions: We conclude that RGEE may be useful as potential functional foods or pharmacopuncture drug sources on the diseases induced by oxidant stress.

  12. Barks Essential Oil, Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of Four Organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannour, Marwa; Aouadhi, Chedia; Khalfaoui, Houssem; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Khadhri, Ayda

    2016-11-01

    This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil (EO), secondary metabolites and biological activities of the MeOH and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty-four compounds in barks EO. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α-eudesmol (8.65%), trans-caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β-eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The MeOH extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9 - 15 mm and 2.5 - 20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Biological activities and cytotoxicity of diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Vargas, Fabiano; D O de Almeida, Patrícia; Aranha, Elenn Suzany P; de A Boleti, Ana Paula; Newton, Peter; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Junior, Valdir F Veiga; Lima, Emerson S

    2015-04-09

    Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5%) at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%). Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3%) and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9%) at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%), kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%), kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%), and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%), respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  14. Biological Activities and Cytotoxicity of Diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de S. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5% at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%. Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3% and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9% at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%, kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%, kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%, and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%, respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  15. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2). CONCLUSION. The results obtained justify the reported anti- inflammatory and antibacterial use of the plant in traditional medicine also and support its. Ayurvedic medicinal use for ailments such as cephalalgia, diarrhoea, gum diseases, ...

  16. Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Arpi; Markosian, Anahit; Petrosyan, Margarit; Sahakyan, Naira; Babayan, Anush; Aloyan, Samvel; Trchounian, Armen

    2017-01-19

    The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.

  17. Biologic activities of recombinant human-beta-defensin-4 toward cultured human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, O L; Zhuravel, E V; Skachkova, O V; Khranovska, N N; Filonenko, V V; Pogrebnoy, P V; Soldatkina, M A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was in vitro analysis of biological activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-4 (rec-hBD-4). hBD-4 cDNA was cloned into pGEX-2T vector, and recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. To purify soluble fusion GST-hBD-4 protein, affinity chromatography was applied. Rec-hBD-4 was cleaved from the fusion protein with thrombin, and purified by reverse phase chromatography on Sep-Pack C18. Effects of rec-hBD-4 on proliferation, viability, cell cycle distribution, substrate-independent growth, and mobility of cultured human cancer cells of A431, A549, and TPC-1 lines were analyzed by direct cell counting technique, MTT assay, flow cytofluorometry, colony forming assay in semi-soft medium, and wound healing assay. Rec-hBD-4 was expressed in bacterial cells as GST-hBD-4 fusion protein, and purified by routine 3-step procedure (affine chromatography on glutathione-agarose, cleavage of fusion protein by thrombin, and reverse phase chromatography). Analysis of in vitro activity of rec-hBD-4 toward three human cancer cell lines has demonstrated that the defensin is capable to affect cell behaviour in concentration-dependent manner. In 1-100 nM concentrations rec-hBD-4 significantly stimulates cancer cell proliferation and viability, and promotes cell cycle progression through G2/M checkpoint, greatly enhances colony-forming activity and mobility of the cells. Treatment of the cells with 500 nM of rec-hBD-4 resulted in opposite effects: significant suppression of cell proliferation and viability, blockage of cell cycle in G1/S checkpoint, significant inhibition of cell migration and colony forming activity. Recombinant human beta-defensin-4 is biologically active peptide capable to cause oppositely directed effects toward biologic features of cancer cells in vitro dependent on its concentration.

  18. The influence of urban area opacity on biologically active UV-B irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Rozental', Victor

    2013-04-01

    The study of UV irradiance changes in urban area is an essential problem due to the significant effect of UV irradiance on human health which can be positive (vitamin D synthesis) and negative (erythema, skin cancer, eye damage). According to the results of several experiments within the Moscow megacity we studied the effects of urban area opacity on the different types of biologically active UV-B irradiance on the base of a specially developed mobile photometric complex snd additional measurements of the urban opacity by Nikon Fisheye Converter FC-E8. We analyzed both the level of erythemally-active irradiance and the UV eye damaging radiation using the broadband UVB-1 YES pyranometer calibrated against ultraviolet spectroradiometer Bentham DTM-300 of the Medical University of Innsbruck (courtesy of Dr. M.Blumthaler). In order to estimate the effects of the urban opacity the measurements were normalized on similar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University with zero opacity. This ratio is defined as an urban radiative transmittance (URT). Different atmospheric conditions were considered. In cloudy conditions the effect of opacity on URT is much less than that in conditions when the sun disk is open from clouds. We revealed some spectral features in transmittance of biologically active UV-B irradiance which is characterized by higher URT variations in overcast cloudy conditions due to more intensive scattering and smaller direct solar radiation component. In the absence of cloudiness the effect of opacity was studied for open and screening solar disk conditions. We obtained much higher URT in UVB spectral region compared with that for total solar irradiance for screening solar disk conditions with a significant URT dependence on the opacity only in UVB spectral region. No URT dependence was obtained for total solar irradiance in these conditions. Some model calculations were fulfilled to match the experimental results.

  19. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: CULTIVATION OF CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina SÎRBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative achievement is obvious in the arts but it is essential in all other fields including the sciences and business. Creativity allows for the making of connections across different domains of knowledge. It is possible in all areas of human activity and all young people and adults have creative abilities. It is cultivated through rigorous training and by practicing of dynamic capabilities over an extended period of time. Creativity needs time, flow, interaction, suspension of judgement. It is influenced by much more than the shape and content of the formal school curriculum. The roles of teachers are to recognise young people's creative capacities; and to provide the creative climate in which they can be realised. Educational actors have the power to unlock the creative and innovative potential of the young. Creative learning requires innovative and flexible teaching. Creative education involves a balance between teaching knowledge and skills, and encouraging innovation.

  20. Synthesis of some new hydrazone derivatives as biologically active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, A K; Rastogi, A

    1986-05-01

    A series of [4-(6H/bromo-4-oxo-2-phenyl-3(4H)-quinazolinyl)phenoxy]acetic acid (1,2-dihydro-1-H/methyl-2-oxo-3H-indol-3-ylidene)hydrazides (VII1-16) were synthesised by condensing 1-H/methyl-5-substituted indoline-2,3-diones with [4-(6H/bromo-4-oxo-2-phenyl-3(4H)-quinazolinyl) phenoxy]acetic acid hydrazides (IV1-2) which in turn were obtained by reacting ethyl [4-(6H/bromo-4-oxo-2-phenyl-3(4H)-quinazolinyl)phenoxy]acetates (III1-2) with hydrazine hydrate. All the synthesised compounds (VIII1-16) were screened for their antibacterial, acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activities.

  1. Hybridization between a native and introduced predator of Adelgidae: An unintended result of classical biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.P. Havill; Gina Davis; David Mausel; Joanne Klein; Richard McDonald; Cera Jones; Melissa Fischer; Scott Salom; Adelgisa. Caccone

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between introduced biological control agents and native species has the potential to impact native biodiversity and pest control efforts. This study reports progress towards predicting the outcome of hybridization between two beetle species, the introduced Laricobius nigrinus Fender and the native L. rubidus LeConte...

  2. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Pseudocalymma elegans: A False Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Sana; Versiani, Muhammad Ali; Jahangir, Sajid; Jawaid, Khurshid; Shafique, Maryam; Khan, Huma; Faizi, Shaheen

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hexane (PELH), dichloromethane (PELDCM), ethyl acetate (PELEA), and MeOH (PELM) extracts of young leaves of Pseudocalymma elegans have been carried out. Moreover, extracts have also been explored for the presence of sulphur containing compounds, 1,2-dithiolane (33), diallyl disulfide (35), 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene (37), and diallyl trisulfide (38) responsible for the garlic like smell of P. elegans. All the extracts were found to be antioxidant and showed potent inhibition with IC 50 values of 0.168 ± 0.001, 0.128 ± 0.002, 0.221 ± 0.011, and 0.054 ± 0.001, respectively, as compared to standard drugs ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The ethyl acetate extract (PELE) showed excellent activities against few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi as compared with standard drug ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin) and nystatin, respectively. Chemical constituents of hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectral library search. Over all 55 chemical constituents were first time identified from the leaves which included branched and n-hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, terpenes, alkaloid, vitamins, glycosides, aromatic compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Two known chemical constituents, ursolic acid (1) and β-amyrin (2), were also purified for the first time from the MeOH extract. To elucidate the structures of these compounds, UV, IR, EI-MS, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy were used. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  4. Identifying non-point sources of endocrine active compounds and their biological impacts in freshwater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Beth H.; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ferrey, Mark L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Lundy, James R.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake control sites without nearby EAC sources. Caged bluegill sunfish were analyzed for plasma vitellogenin concentrations, organosomatic indices, and histological pathologies. Surface and porewater was collected from each site and analyzed for EACs. Porewater was also collected for laboratory exposure of larval fathead minnow, before analysis of predator escape performance and gene expression profiles. Chemical analysis showed EACs present at low concentrations at each study site, whereas discrete variations were reported between sites and between summer and fall samplings. Body condition index and liver vacuolization of sunfish were found to differ among study sites as did gene expression in exposed larval fathead minnows. Interestingly, biological exposure data and water chemistry did not match. Therefore, although results highlight the potential impacts of seepage from OWTS, further investigation of mixture effects and life history factor as well as chemical fate is warranted.

  5. Active aging promotion: results from the vital aging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  6. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  7. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the n-butanol extract of the stems of T. crispa has resulted the isolation of five ... mechanisms of action on the blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetized, normal and reserpinized rats in ... receptors to decrease blood pressure with a transient decrease of heart rate followed by an increase ...

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity studies of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complexes were characterized using some physical techniques such as melting point, solubility, conductivity measurement and spectroscopic analyses such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, and Infrared spectroscopy. Based on the physical and spectroscopic results, the coordination of the ...

  9. MONARDA - A VALUABLE SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COM-POUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kharchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data on the content of water-soluble antioxidants, accumulation of vitamin C, and dry matter in plants of Monarda fistulosa L. and Monarda citriodora L. of the Lamiaceae family are presented in the article. As a result of comparative assessment the promising early ripening genotype №2 with high content of vitamin C was selected.

  10. Biological activity and toxicitiy of imported and synthetic metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of green alga Scendesmus obliquus. The toxicity of surfactants to Scendesmus obliquus are arranged in the order: imported fluid > Synthetic fluid > S+ D > I+A> S+B> I+ C> I+B > I+D > I+D >S+A > I+4. These results prove that, the toxicity of fluids depends on its chemical structure. Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  11. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samkeliso Takaidza

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... challenge of drug resistance has resulted in an increasing trend towards using medicinal plants to treat various diseases, especially in ... garlic (Allium sativum) since both belong to the family. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ..... Even though medicinal plants have benefits such as low cost, availability and ...

  12. Analytic determination of the activation of essential and toxic trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron activation-analysis technique for the multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of this procedure comprise radiochemical and also instrumental analytic techniques. After radiochemical separation 34 elements can be determined, after only instrumental procedures 26 elements can be detected in biological material. The radiochemical analysis of 34 elements lasts 4 days. Tracer investigations on the radionuclide retention of the anorganic separators HAP, TiP and ZP in 9N aqueous HNO 3 solution indicated that apart from Na-24, K-42 and P-32 the radionuclides Cs-134, Rb-86 and Se-75 are almost quantitatively adsorbed at the separators. For the remaining investigated radionuclides different but well-reproducible retention values resulted. The pH-value only slightly influences the extent of the radionuclide retention. Kinetic investigations on the radiochemical precipitation of some radionuclides on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were carried out. The depositing of the radionuclides Ag-110m, Hg-203 and Se-75 at 0 0 C and room temperature on Cu(Hg)sub(x) and Cu foil is a first order reaction. The half-life periods and the velocity constants of the depositing on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were determined for the investigated radionuclides in dependency of the temperature. The technique was examined by means of international biological multielement standards of known element combinations. The realisation of ring tests for the multielement determination in potatoe and milk powder showed that this method provides precise results. The applicability of the radiochemical method was confirmed by the simultaneous determination of 25 elements in overall nutrition samples. The instrumental technique was applied for the multielement determination in human hair (of the head) and in river water. (orig./MG) [de

  13. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

  14. A Review on Annona squamosa L.: Phytochemicals and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengyao; Chen, Yayun; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional uses. A. squamosa is an evergreen plant mainly located in tropical and subtropical regions. Srikayas, the fruits of A. squamosa, are extensively used to prepare candies, ice creams and beverages. A wide range of ethno-medicinal uses has been related to different portions of A. squamosa, such as tonic, apophlegmatisant, cool medicine, abortient and heart sedative. Numerous research projects on A. squamosa have found that it has anticancer, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, microbicidel and molluscicidal activities. Phytochemistry investigations on A. squamosa have considered annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs), diterpenes (DITs), alkaloids (ALKs) and cyclopeptides (CPs) as the main constituents. Until 2016, 33 DITs, 19 ALKs, 88 ACGs and 13 CPs from this species were reported. On the basis of the multiple researches on A. squamosa, this review strives to integrate available information on its phytochemicals, folklore uses and bioactivities, hoping to promote a better understanding of its medicinal values.

  15. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  16. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological response of tissues with macrophagic activity to titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Evelson, Pablo; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2008-03-15

    The titanium dioxide layer is composed mainly of anatase and rutile. This layer is prone to break, releasing particles to the milieu. Therefore, corrosion may cause implant failure and body contamination. We have previously shown that commercial anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-anatase) is deposited in organs with macrophagic activity, transported in the blood by phagocytic-mononuclear cells, and induces an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of rutile-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-rutile). Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with a suspension of TiO(2)-rutile powder at a dose of 1.60 g/100 g b.w. Six months postinjection, the presence of Ti was assessed in serum, blood cells, liver, spleen, and lung. Titanium was found in phagocytic mononuclear cells, serum, and in the parenchyma of all the organs tested. TiO(2)-rutile generated a rise in the percentage of reactive cells, which was smaller than that observed when TiO(2)-anatase was employed in a previous study. Although TiO(2)-rutile provoked an augmentation of ROS, it failed to induce damage to membrane lipids, possibly due to an adaptive response. The present study reveals that TiO(2)-rutile is less bioreactive than TiO(2)-anatase. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-07-28

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  19. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  20. A bacteriophage system for screening and study of biologically active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W T; Harvey, R G; Lin, E J; Weiss, S B

    1977-01-01

    The usefulness of bacterial viruses for detecting substances that are potentially carcinogenic is reexamined as a model system for screening biologically active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A modification of the original assay procedure allows one to distinguish between aromatics that can modify the biological activity of infectious nucleic acids directly and those polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that require metabolic activation by Escherichia coli enzymes. The effect of chemical modification of several different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with respect to their biological activity in the phage assay system, is described. Among the 31 different compounds examined, (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide was the most potent inhibitor of infectious phage nucleic acid. The (+) and (-) isomers of the above racemic mixture did not differ significantly in their capacity to inhibit phage replication. PMID:323848