WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologic immunomodulator hdfx

  1. Prescribing patterns of biologic immunomodulating medicine in the South African private health care sector / Ilanca Roux

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Ilanca

    2010-01-01

    Advances in molecular immunology and rapid technical evolution during the past two decades have led to a new class of medicines called biologics. Recently, a large number of biologics, or biologic immunomodulators, directed towards an array of immune–mediated diseases, have entered the market. This has lead to a dramatic change in the immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases, as biologics present new potential to improve or substitute conventional immunosuppressive therapies. Accor...

  2. Immunomodulation of rheumatologic disorders with non-biologic disease modifying antirheumtic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ulrich A

    2016-04-01

    Although biological agents have revolutionized the immunomodulation of many rheumatic disorders, conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) remain important glucocorticosteroid sparing agents and combination partners. In rheumatoid arthritis, low-dose glucocorticosteroids can be regarded as a DMARD due to preventive effects on joint erosions. Therapy with methothrexate and possibly also other DMARDs may alter the natural evolution of rheumatoid arthritis severity over time and therapy should be instituted as early as possible. Leflunomide is an equipotent alternative to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis, if methotrexate cannot be tolerated. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits toll-like receptor signaling and exerts antithrombotic and antihyperlipidemic effects, all thought to be beneficial in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine improves organ involvement in lupus, prevents lupus flares, and reduces mortality. It should be given to every lupus patient without contraindications. PMID:27312168

  3. Biologic treatment or immunomodulation is not associated with postoperative anastomotic complications in abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, A.; Andersen, J.; Bisgaard, T.;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: There are concerns that biologic treatments or immunomodulation may negatively influence anastomotic healing. This study investigates the relationship between these treatments and anastomotic complications after surgery for Crohn's disease. Patients and methods. Retrospective study...... on 417 operations for Crohn's disease performed at four Danish hospitals in 2000-2007. Thirty-two patients were preoperatively treated with biologics and 166 were on immunomodulation. In total, 154 were treated with corticosteroids of which 66 had prednisolone 20 mg or more. Results: Anastomotic...... complications were more frequent after a colo-colic anastomosis than after an entero-enteric or entero-colic (33% vs. 12% (p=0.013)). Patients with anastomotic complications were older (40 years vs. 35 years (p=0.014)), had longer disease duration (7.5 years vs. 4 years (p=0.04)), longer operation time (155 min...

  4. Biological evaluation of ferulic acid as potent immunomodulator: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Ganeshpurkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The development of immunity and suppression of undesired immune reaction are two of the strategies that are responsible to control the disease. Immunomodulators, which are devoid of any untoward effects, can be administered for a long period for prevention of variety of diseases. Ferulic acid, a hydroxylated cinnamic acid is an abundant phenolic phytochemical found in cell wall of plants. It is one of the important phyto-molecule with diverse therapeutic effects. The current work was proposed to determine in vitro immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid. Materials and Methods: Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans, neutrophil locomotion and chemotaxis test and membrane stabilisation studies were performed to determine immunomodulatory effect of ferulic acid. Results: Ferulic acid caused stimulation of neutrophils causing phagocytotic activity to significant degree. Ferulic acid aroused the process of phagocytosis of killed C. albicans and demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05 chemotactic activity at all tested concentrations. Ferulic acid at concentrations of 50-300 μg/ml demonstrated protection to goat erythrocytes membrane against lysis induced by heat solution. Conclusion: The present study suggests that ferulic acid could be regarded as potential immunomodulatory compound. However, it would be interesting to understand in vivo behaviour of ferulic acid under varied experimental conditions.

  5. The Role of Biological Agents and Immunomodulators in Treatment Strategies for Thyroid Eye Disease: An Evidence-based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Anna; Migliori, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    Graves' Disease is an autoimmune disease where circulating antibodies bind to the thyrotropin receptors on the thyroid gland. These bound antibodies mimic thyroid stimulating hormone without the normal feedback from the anterior pituitary, causing hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. These antibodies also interact with orbital tissues and cause the characteristic orbital findings of thyroid eye disease (TED). It is not clearly understood why anatomically and physiologically distinct tissues like the thyroid gland and orbit are affected selectively, or why the orbital disease tends to be self-limited. Identifying and understanding these processes is critical to targeting therapy. In the active phase of the disease patients may experience orbital inflammation, eyelid and conjunctiva edema (chemosis), eyelid retraction, proptosis, ocular motility restriction, and optic nerve compression. Current treatment strategies for the ocular symptoms have been predominantly directed at symptomatic relief. More recently, investigators have concentrated their efforts to better understanding the underlying pathophysiologic processes to direct therapy at these processes. This review examines the current literature exploring a variety of newer therapeutic alternatives, including immunomodulative and suppressive agents, targeted at strategic points of the active-phase TED pathophysiological pathways. Specifically, biological agents including rituximab, adalimumab, intravenous immunoglobulin and others are reviewed with considerations for pathophysiology, extent of literature support, and adverse effects. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-06.asp, free with no login].

  6. Immunomodulators in Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Kumbasar

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulators include both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive agents. The introduction of this new class of drugs marked the beginning of the post-cortisone era in clinical dermatology. Topical immunotherapy with both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive agents show potential for effective treatment of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic skin diseases. These agents have few side effects and have clinical effects similar to corticosteroids. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collagues potentially useful immunomodulators in clinical dermatology. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 3-8

  7. Search for anti-radiation immunomodulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research objective: Creation of the effective radio-protectors and immunomodulators against radiation and its testing. To achieve the intended goals, the following tasks are to be done: - to study the radiomodifying and immunity-correcting properties of the preparation; - to test it in combination with other preparations, - to produce new radioprotectors and immunomodulators on a base of the organs and tissues of various animals, including the simplest vertebrates, at the contaminated territories, and its tests; - to test existing preparations possessing the property to suppress tumours as the candidates for a role of radioprotector in a case of low-dose irradiation. - Collection of raw materials (organs and tissues of animals), its transportation, fractionating, dialysis are carried out at low temperature in order to fractionating, dialysis are carried out at low temperature in order to preserve activity of the produced preparations. - Determination of biological activity is performed by a specific technique with white linear mouse: - determination of the spectrum and other features are made by ordinary methods; irradiation of laboratory animals is executed at medicine X-ray devices. Expected Results: Technology for production of the radioprotectors and preparations with specified immunomodulating property on a base of lymphoid and endocrine organs of various kinds of animals will be developed. After tests the most effective, prospecting preparations, possessing high biological activity and low toxic action will be selected; its doses will be determined. The prospecting and effective preparations will be transferred for clinic tests

  8. Progesterone-dependent immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres-Bartho, J; Polgar, B; Kozma, N; Miko, E; Par, G; Szereday, L; Barakonyi, A; Palkovics, T; Papp, O; Varga, P

    2005-01-01

    The biological effects of progesterone are mediated by a 34-kDa protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). PIBF, synthesized by lymphocytes of healthy pregnant women in the presence of progesterone, inhibits arachidonic acid release as well as NK activity, and modifies the cytokine balance. Within the cell the full-length PIBF is associated with the centrosome, while secretion of shorter forms is induced by activation of the cell. PIBF induces nuclear translocation of STAT6 as well as PKC phosphorylation and exerts a negative effect on STAT4 phosphorylation. The concentration of PIBF in pregnancy urine is related to the positive or negative outcome of pregnancy; furthermore, premature pregnancy termination is predictable by lower than normal pregnancy PIBF values. In vivo data suggest the biological importance of the above findings. Treatment of pregnant Balb/c mice with the antiprogesterone RU 486 results in an increased resorption rate, which is associated with the inability of spleen cells to produce PIBF. High resorption rates induced by progesterone receptor block as well as those due to high NK activity are corrected by simultaneous PIBF treatment. PMID:16129958

  9. Recent advances using immunomodulators for inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Herfarth, Hans;

    2013-01-01

    Use of the immunomodulators thiopurines and methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), is considered to be good clinical practice. However, despite being administered to a considerable number of IBD patients over...... to define the subgroup of IBD patients in need of immunomodulators, including those in need of combination therapy with biologic agents, especially because some side effects may be rather severe. Second, colorectal cancer is observed more often in IBD patients than in the background population. However...... on pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics, and therapeutic blood testing, as well as the occurrence of adverse events, when using AZA, 6-MP, and MTX in an attempt to determine a more up-to-date and rational treatment regimen in IBD....

  10. From immune substitution to immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahn, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) are currently used in many fields of medicine for replacement and immunomodulation. This review focuses on the milestones in the history of human immunoglobulins since the initial observation by Ogden C. Bruton who described replacement therapy in a boy with agammaglobulinemia. Since then, the preparations used for treatment have been markedly improved with respect to tolerability, clinical efficacy, and pathogen safety. Preparations and appropriate pumps for subcutaneous administration of IgG have been developed and offer an alternative mode of treatment for immunodeficient patients. Appropriate replacement today allows patients with humoral immunodeficiencies to reach adulthood and normal or near-normal quality of life. In 1981 a second fundamental discovery was made. Paul Imbach and coauthors in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) showed that IVIG has immunomodulatory potential, offering a chance for affected children to receive effective treatment with little or no side effects compared to systemic corticosteroids. This new principle of treatment encouraged many researchers worldwide to exploit the potential of IVIG in many other immunopathological situations. As an example, Rhesus hemolytic disease in newborn babies is discussed. PMID:27312172

  11. IMMUNOMODULATORS IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The immune status and the level of specific antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (121 patients or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (129 patients were tested in 250 patients aged 19–56 years old. This cohort was divided for three groups. Seventy eight patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and normal rates of other parameters of immune status were jointed in Group 1. The second group was presented by 85 patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ and high level of CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes. Eighty seven patients with lymphopenia were distinguished in Group 3. All patients were treated with antiviral or antibacterial and immunomodulatory drugs. Three schemes of immunomodulatory therapy including imunofanum, polyoxidonium, cycloferonum, glutoxim, immunomax in different combination were used. In three weeks after treatment in 72,4% of patients no clinical symptoms as well as normalization of immune status indices and decrease of specific antibodies titers were observed. Sixty nine patients reported improvement of subjective health status, however they had high level of specific antibodies. Immunological examination of these patients after second course of immunomodulatory therapy confirmed their convalescence. It was shown that the condition of immune status determines effect of the different immunomodulators.

  12. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Peres, Adam G.; Andreea C. Damian; Joaquín Madrenas

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and d...

  13. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  14. Immunomodulators in warts: Unexplored or ineffective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous warts are known to be recurrent and often resistant to therapy. Resistant warts may reflect a localized or systemic cell mediated immune (CMI deficiency to HPV. Many modalities of treatment are in use; most of the provider-administered therapies are destructive and cause scarring, such as cryotherapy, chemical cauterisation, curettage, electrodessication and laser removal. Most patient-applied agents like podophyllotoxin have the risk of application-site reactions and recurrence. Thus immunotherapy is a promising modality which could lead to resolution of warts without any physical changes or scarring and in addition would augment the host response against the causative agent, thereby leading to complete resolution and decreased recurrences. Immunomodulators can be administered systemically, intralesionally or intradermally, and topically. A few agents have been tried and studied extensively such as cimetidine and interferons; others are new on the horizon, such as Echinacea, green tea catechins and quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and their efficacy is yet to be completely established. Though some like levamisole have shown no efficacy as monotherapy and are now used only in combination, other more recent agents require large and long term randomized placebo-controlled trials to clearly establish their efficacy or lack of it. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulators that have been used for the treatment of warts and the studies that have been conducted on them.

  15. Immunomodulating Activity of Aronia melanocarpa Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang T. T. Ho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulating effects of isolated proanthocyanidin-rich fractions, procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and anthocyanins of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated. In this work, the complement-modulating activities, the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and effects on cell viability of these polyphenols were studied. Several of the proanthocyanidin-rich fractions, the procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and the cyanidin aglycone possessed strong complement-fixing activities. Cyanidin 3-glucoside possessed stronger activity than the other anthocyanins. Procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and proanthocyanidin-rich fractions having an average degree of polymerization (PD of 7 and 34 showed inhibitory activities on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. All, except for the fraction containing proanthocyanidins with PD 34, showed inhibitory effects without affecting cell viability. This study suggests that polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa may have beneficial effects as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory agents.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of various immunomodulators: independence from normal levels of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morahan, P.S.; Dempsey, W.L.; Volkman, A.; Connor, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of /sup 89/Sr treatment on the natural host resistance of CD-1 mice and the enhancement of resistance by immunomodulators to infection with Listeria monocytogenes or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were determined. In the CD-1 mouse, single-dose treatment with /sup 89/Sr caused a profound decrease in the number of circulating monocytes (Mo), lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) within 1 week. There was also marked functional impairment of the Mo inflammatory response, as well as markedly decreased spontaneous and activatable cytoxicity by splenic natural killer (NK) cells. Despite this profound cellular suppression, there was no significant change in natural resistance of CD-1 mice to L. monocytogenes of HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, prophylactic treatment of mice with the biologic immunomodulator Corynebacterium parvum or the synthetic immunomodulators maleic anhydride-divinyl ether or avridine in liposomes resulted in comparable enhancement of resistance in /sup 89/Sr-treated and normal mice. These data indicate that natural and immunomodulator-enhanced resistance of CD-1 mice to microbail infections do not depend on normal levels of Mo, PMN, or NK cells. The resistance enhancement may rely on activated tissue macrophages. In contrast to the early changes in circulating leukocytes, the residenet peritoneal cell populations were not markedly altered until after day 30. There then was a distinct decline in lymphocytes and a gradual decline in activated tissue macrophages.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW IMMUNOMODULATING DRUG TIMOFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Kholnazarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the development of an immunomodulating drug timofer based on coordination compounds isoleucyl-tryptophan dipeptide with iron (II, including the study of coordinate isoleucyl-tryptophan dipeptide with iron (II, the study of the immunostimulatory activity of the coordination compounds, the results of the preclinical and clinical studies of timotsin are presented. Method of pH titration showed that the interaction of zinc and dipeptide isoleucyltryptophan formed in solution following complex forms: [Fe (HL±]2+ (β = 1,00×1034, [Fe(HL±2]2+ (β = 6,25×1011, [Fe (HL±OH]+ (β = 4,01×1026, [Fe (L]+ (β = 8,10×1018, [Fe (L2]+ (β = 7,50×1028, [Fe (LOH]+ (β = 1,03×1029. It was shown that the immunostimulatory activity of the coordination compounds is 2 times higher than that starting dipeptide. The substance sample and standard formulation of timofer were developed and standardized. The developed immunomodulatory drug timofer showed a high therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia patients with inflammatory processes and traumatic injuries of the maxillofacial region, with chronic inflammatory diseases of the the genitals (CMV, HSV, chlamydia, chronic endometritis, chronic salpingoopharitis, ureaplasmosis with chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, chronic glomerulonephritis, and chronic renal failure complicated by anemia Bright, withrheumatic diseases, gynecological patients with anemia of moderate and severe degrees of severity, at surgical treatment of patients with suppurative lung disease, heart disease and chronic pericarditis operated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Timofer is registered in Tajikistan (registration number of medical drug №002866.

  18. How should immunomodulators be optimized when used as combination therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in the management of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mark G; Irving, Peter M; Sparrow, Miles P

    2015-10-28

    In the last 15 years the management of inflammatory bowel disease has evolved greatly, largely through the increased use of immunomodulators and, especially, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents. Within this time period, confidence in the use of anti-TNFs has increased, whilst, especially in recent years, the efficacy and safety of thiopurines has been questioned. Yet despite recent concerns regarding the risk: benefit profile of thiopurines, combination therapy with an immunomodulator and an anti-TNF has emerged as the recommended treatment strategy for the majority of patients with moderate-severe disease, especially those who are recently diagnosed. Concurrently, therapeutic drug monitoring has emerged as a means of optimizing the dosage of both immunomodulators and anti-TNFs. However the recommended therapeutic target levels for both drug classes were largely derived from studies of monotherapy with either agent, or studies underpowered to analyze outcomes in combination therapy patients. It has been assumed that these target levels are applicable to patients on combination therapy also, however there are few data to support this. Similarly, the timing and duration of treatment with immunomodulators when used in combination therapy remains unknown. Recent attention, including post hoc analyses of the pivotal registration trials, has focused on the optimization of anti-TNF agents, when used as either monotherapy or combination therapy. This review will instead focus on how best to optimize immunomodulators when used in combination therapy, including an evaluation of recent data addressing unanswered questions regarding the optimal timing, dosage and duration of immunomodulator therapy in combination therapy patients.

  19. Topical macrolide immunomodulators: a role in the treatment of vitiligo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjioe, M.; Vissers, W.H.P.M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, topical macrolide immunomodulators have been successfully introduced in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. With the growing interest in this new line of topical immunosuppressants, research into the efficacy of these medicines in other T-cell-mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lic

  20. Immunomodulating and anticancer properties of fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Kopczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi contain a number of biologically active substances whose importance for human health has been confirmed in several studies. In particular, β-glucans, selenium, vitamin D, C and E should be mentioned. These substances play an important role in shaping the immune system and prevent cancer. β-Glucans reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and lower the cholesterol level.

  1. Immunomodulating and anticancer properties of fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Kopczyński

    2013-01-01

    Fungi contain a number of biologically active substances whose importance for human health has been confirmed in several studies. In particular, β-glucans, selenium, vitamin D, C and E should be mentioned. These substances play an important role in shaping the immune system and prevent cancer. β-Glucans reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and lower the cholesterol level.

  2. Clinical predictors of response to immunomodulators for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine, based on clinical criteria, the proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS patients responsive to immunomodulators (RI and nonresponsive to immunomodulators (NRI, and to ascertain whether clinical and epidemiological data differs between RI and NRI patient groups. METHODS: Patients were assessed on rate of exarcerbations per year, for the period before and after commencement of treatment. The RI and NRI groups were compared for several clinical and epidemiological characteristics. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A total of 31.4% of the patients were nonresponders to the immunomodulatory treatment. The main predictors of immunomodulatory response were early diagnostic and commencement of therapy and high rate of annual exacerbations prior to treatment. Given the arsenal of medication options available for MS management, screening potential candidates for different therapeutic approaches are critical to optimize evolution of patients with the disease.

  3. 7th International Immunoglobulin Conference: Immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, M G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that is usually treated aggressively to slow the rate of joint destruction. The therapeutic strategy used at the French centre, described here, is to use the non-biological disease-modifying drug, methotrexate, as first-line therapy and to add biological agents as second-line treatment. The two other autoimmune diseases discussed in this session were immunobullous skin diseases, and secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM). In the former conditions, low levels of pathogenic autoantibodies can be achieved with adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy, usually in combination with an immunosuppressant. Secondary RM has an autoimmune basis, as shown by high tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels and specific human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms. Although the mechanism is not yet known, IVIg may also be an effective treatment, despite the generally low doses used in published studies. PMID:25546788

  4. Immunomodulators and Immunosuppressants for Japanese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Bamba; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Masaya Sasaki; Yoshihide Fujiyama; Akira Andoh

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by a long-standing chronic course with remissions and exacerbations. Previously, patients do not respond to 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds and corticosteroids are considered for colectomies, however, in recent years, alternative treatments emerged for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent UC. In this review article, we focus on immunomodulators (such as azathioprine [AZA] and 6-mercaptopurine [6-MP]) and immunosuppressants (such as cyclosporine A [C...

  5. Immunomodulation on the ocular surface: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.; Ambroziak, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Jan; Skopiński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The increasing understanding of immune mechanisms changed our perception of the ocular surface, which is now considered a compartment of the common mucosal immune system. It offered the possibility to alter the physiological immune response on the ocular surface and effectively combat inflammation, which impairs stability of the tear film and causes tear hyperosmolarity, causing symptoms of dry eye disease. The paper provides an overview of ocular surface anatomy and physiology, explains the underlying mechanisms of dry eye disease and discusses novel and promising treatment modalities, such as cyclosporine A, biological therapies using autologous serum and various growth factors as well as experimental treatment methods which are currently being investigated. PMID:27536206

  6. Fatos e mitos sobre imunomoduladores Facts and myths about immunomodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermênio Cavalcante Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir alguns fatos dos imunomoduladores modernos que podem ser úteis para o dermatologista clínico. Outro objetivo importante é o de dissipar mitos que possam ter impacto negativo no uso dessas drogas pelo clínico. O foco inicial está em imunomoduladores estimuladores que podem conduzir à acentuação da resposta normal das células imunocompetentes. Para tanto, diversos aspectos associados à regulação do sistema imune e às vias regulatórias das células do sistema imune são mencionados. Discutem-se a regulação aberrante e seu impacto no sistema imune e examina-se a classe de drogas imunossupressoras que têm sua função bem estabelecida. Diversas drogas não foram mencionadas. A razão para isso é o foco do artigo que pretende cobrir os fatos bem estabelecidos ou os mitos que as novas evidências científicas modificaram. Com esse padrão em mente, é provável que exista uma quantidade considerável de similaridade nos conceitos, uma vez que descrevem drogas imunomoduladoras. Nesse contexto, a intenção de fornecer novas perspectivas de como o sistema imune pode ser modulado por essas drogas supera esse problema.The objective of this article is to discuss some facts of modern immunomodulators that might be useful for clinical dermatology. Moreover, it aims to dispel myths that might have a negative impact on the use of such drugs by clinicians. The primary focus is on immunomodulators that stimulate and may enhance the normal response of immunocompetent cells. Therefore, several aspects associated to immune system regulation, and regulatory pathways of immune cells are also mentioned. Furthermore, aberrant regulation is discussed in the context of immunomodulator use and the impact this has on the immune system. This review also examines the class of immunosuppressive drugs and their wellestablished function. Several drugs were not mentioned since the article focuses on well accepted facts or

  7. Lack of immunomodulating effect of disulfiram on HIV positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørding, M; Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;

    1990-01-01

    Disulfiram (Antabuse (R)) is metabolized to two molecules of diethyldithiocarbamate, which has been reported to be an immunomodulating agent. In a double blind trial, 15 HIV antibody positive homosexual men were given daily doses of 100 mg or 400 mg of disulfiram or placebo, for 4 weeks. All had...... a CD4-count below 500 X 10(6)/l and/or a pokeweed mitogen response in a lymphocyte proliferation assay less than 50% of normal controls. None suffered from opportunistic infections. No significant effect of disulfiram on immunological, haematological, biochemical or clinical variables was observed...

  8. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  9. [Comparative study of immunomodulating properties of phenibut and gammoxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Samotrueva, M A; Kuleshevskaia, N R; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2010-12-01

    Experiments on CBA mice with model immunodepression induced by cyclophosphamide showed that phenibut (25 mg/kg) and gammoxin (25 mg/kg) recover both cellular and humoral immunoreactivity and restore lymphoproliferative processes in immunocompetent organs, which is evidence for pronounced immunocorrecting properties of these drugs. A comparative analysis of the immunomodulating activity of phenibut and gammoxin showed that the latter drug predominantly affects the process of immunocompetent cell maturation (growth in mass and cellularity of thymus and spleen--the central immunocompetent organs), while phenibut mostly influences the realization of the final reaction of the primary anti-erythrocyte immune response (significant correction of local infiltration delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and antibody formation). This difference can be related to the fact that the drugs influence GABA receptors of different types, whereby gammoxin acts on these receptors in immunocompetent organs and phenibut acts on the receptors in lymphocytes. PMID:21395013

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Immunomodulators in a Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yur-Ren Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularized composite allotransplantations (VCAs are not routinely performed for tissue reconstruction because of the potentially harmful adverse effects associated with lifelong administration of immunosuppressive agents. Researchers have been eagerly seeking alternative methods that circumvent the long-term use of immunosuppressants. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show promise as an immunomodulatory therapeutic agent and are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical settings as therapies for autoimmune disorders or transplant rejection. The mechanisms by which MSCs modulate the immune response are still under thorough investigation, but these most likely involve expression of local factors influencing T-cell regulation, modulation of cytokine expression (e.g., IL-10, TGF-β, TNF-, INF-γ, etc., and interactions with dendritic or antigen presenting cells. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of immunomodulation achieved by MSC therapies and introduce a possible outline for future clinical applications in VCA.

  11. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus FIV infected cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection m...

  12. Preliminary Studies of the Immunomodulator Effect of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana Extract in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluvia Arteaga Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bougainvillea xbuttiana is used as an analgesic in folk medicine in Mexico. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the ethanolic extract from B. xbuttiana on macrophages activities. The phytochemical screening was performed for determine the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and saponins. The effects of B. xbuttiana were analyzed using the macrophages activities as determined by the H2O2 release, spreading and phagocytic index, vacuoles formation percentage, and mediators production. The viability percentage was determined in live cells after fixing and staining with crystal violet. The presence of H2O2 in macrophages was performed by using the peroxidase-phenol red solution. The cytokine production was determined by two assays, ELISA for detection of IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ and biological assay for TNF detection. The results showed that the Bxb extract dose-dependent manner produces (a an increase in levels of H2O2 and spreading and vacuoles formation percentages, (b a decrease in phagocytic index and in the amounts of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ, and (c an increase significant in IL-10 and NO production. This study indicates that the ethanolic extract from Bougainvillea xbuttiana was able to activate macrophages. The combination of these results suggests that this extract has an immunomodulator effect.

  13. Plant-derived immunomodulators: An insight on their preclinical evaluation and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim eJantan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The phagocyte-microbe interactions in the immune system is a defence mechanism but when excessively or inappropriately deployed can harm host tissues and participate in the development of different non-immune and immune chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune problems, allergies, some rheumatoid disorders, cancers and others. Immunodrugs include organic synthetics, biological agents such as cytokines and antibodies acting on single targets or pathways have been used to treat immune-related diseases but with limited success. Most of immunostimulants and immunosuppressants in clinical use are the cytotoxic drugs which possess serious side effects. There is a growing interest to use herbal medicines as multi-component agents to modulate the complex immune system in the prevention of infections rather than treating the immune-related diseases. Many therapeutic effects of plant extracts have been suggested to be due to their wide array of immunomodulatory effects and influence on the immune system of the human body. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, polysaccharides, lactones, alkaloids, diterpenoids and glycosides, present in several plants, have been reported to be responsible for the plants immunomodulating properties. Thus the search for natural products of plant origin as new leads for development of potent and safe immunosuppressant and immunostimulant agents is gaining much major research

  14. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL IMMUNOMODULATORS ON PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND CORTISOL CONTENT IN RABBIT BLOOD UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovskyi S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of protein fractions, cortisol content in blood of rabbits, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances are presented in the article. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period are using of spleen extract biologically active substances were obtained with ultrasound application. The purpose of research — determination of changes of protein fractions, cortisol content in rabbits blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances (spleen extract. Object and research methods. The experiment was conducted on 15 rabbits with standard diet. Three groups of rabbits five month of age (5 rabbits each was formed for research. The spleen extract were using as an biologically active substances to the feed rabbits in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. The extracts were applied to feed by aerosol method (70 °alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per rabbit (group I. The rabbits (group II received to the feed in the same way of 70 °alcohol solution in the same volume. The control group rabbits received the standard feed in the same volume. The feed eating by rabbits was exercised daily. The rabbits ate food completely. The rabbits slaughter was carried out in the morning. The blood plasma protein fractions separation was carried out by horizontal electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0 and Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Probability differences was assessed by Student t-test and results considered likely at P ≤ 0.05. Results and discussion. We measured the ratio of blood plasma protein fractions of rabbits, which in addition to the feed fed of natural origin biologically active substances. As a result of research was found that aerosol introduction of the spleen extract to the rabbits

  15. Immunomodulation in human and experimental uveitis: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vijay

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that targets the neural retina and serves as a model of human uveitis. EAU can be induced against several retinal proteins in rats, mice, and subhuman primates. These include the S-antigen, a major protein in retinal photoreceptor cells; interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP; and rhodopsin and other antigens of retinal origin. There are many similarities between clinical uveitis and EAU, but the latter differs in being self-limited, and needs adjuvant for disease induction. The experimental disease can be induced only in susceptible animal strains. Use of the EAU model has helped investigators understand the pathophysiology of the disease and to evaluate disease-modifying strategies, which could be applied in the clinic. There has been significant progress in this field during last decade, but much more understanding is needed before the knowledge can be transferred to clinical practice. A deeper understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in the EAU model may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches targeted at various components of the immune response by immunomodulation to control uveitis. This review summarises the evidence from the EAU model, which could be of relevance to the clinical management of patients with uveitis.

  16. Immunomodulation stimulates the innervation of engineered tooth organ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunay Kökten

    Full Text Available The sensory innervation of the dental mesenchyme is essential for tooth function and protection. Sensory innervation of the dental pulp is mediated by axons originating from the trigeminal ganglia and is strictly regulated in time. Teeth can develop from cultured re-associations between dissociated dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells from Embryonic Day 14 mouse molars, after implantation under the skin of adult ICR mice. In these conditions however, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme did not occur spontaneously. In order to go further with this question, complementary experimental approaches were designed. Cultured cell re-associations were implanted together with trigeminal ganglia for one or two weeks. Although axonal growth was regularly observed extending from the trigeminal ganglia to all around the forming teeth, the presence of axons in the dental mesenchyme was detected in less than 2.5% of samples after two weeks, demonstrating a specific impairment of their entering the dental mesenchyme. In clinical context, immunosuppressive therapy using cyclosporin A was found to accelerate the innervation of transplanted tissues. Indeed, when cultured cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in cyclosporin A-treated ICR mice, nerve fibers were detected in the dental pulp, even reaching odontoblasts after one week. However, cyclosporin A shows multiple effects, including direct ones on nerve growth. To test whether there may be a direct functional relationship between immunomodulation and innervation, cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in immunocompromised Nude mice. In these conditions as well, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme was observed already after one week of implantation, but axons reached the odontoblast layer after two weeks only. This study demonstrated that immunodepression per se does stimulate the innervation of the dental mesenchyme.

  17. [Chemical structure and immunomodulating activities of peptidoglycan from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, F

    1989-12-01

    The chemical structure and immunomodulating activities of the cell wall peptidoglycans isolated from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were investigated. Peptidoglycans were isolated from A. actinomycetemcomitans strains Y4 and ATCC 29522 by boiling in 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate and by digestion with pronase, trypsin and alpha-amylase. Analysis of amino acids and amino sugars of the peptidoglycans revealed that glucosamine, muramic acid, D-glutamic acid, D-alanine, and meso-2, 6-diaminopimelic acid (A2pm) were the principal components. Serine and glycine were not found. Dinitrophenylation method revealed that about half of A2pm residue had a free aminogroup, and analysis by hydrazinolysis showed that a small part of alanine and A2pm located at the C-terminal. The above results indicate that one of the amino groups of A2pm residue at one strand of the stem peptide subunit crosslinked to the carboxyl group of alanine of the neighboring strand. It was thus revealed that the peptidoglycans of A. actinomycetemcomitans belonged to the Al gamma type of the classification by Schleifer and Kandler. Peptidoglycans isolated from A. actinomycetemcmitans strain Y4 and ATCC 29522 were found to be definitely adjuvant-active in induction of delayed type hypersensitivity against ovalbumin when administered to guinea pigs as water-in oil emulsion and stimulation of increase serum antibody levels was found in both peptidoglycans. Regarding mitogenicity on splenocytes of BALB/c and BALB/c nu/nu mice, peptidoglycans from two strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were markedly enhanced the uptake [3H] thymidine in dose of 10 micrograms/10(5) cells, however thymocytes were not reactive. Stimulation effects on peritoneal macrophages from a guinea pig to incorporation of 14C-glucosamin were not exhibited on addition of 100 micrograms of both peptidoglycans. These findings indicate that peptidoglycan of A. actinomycetemcomitans might eventually be responsible for destruction of periodontal

  18. Levels of serum immunomodulators and alterations with electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zincir, Serkan; Öztürk, Pelin; Bilgen, Ali Emrah; İzci, Filiz; Yükselir, Cihad

    2016-01-01

    Studies in recent years have indicated that neuroimmunological events and immune activation may have a place in the etiology of depression. It has been suggested from data that there is a causal relationship between activation of the immune system and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the etiology of depression. Although the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear, there is evidence that it can reduce cytokines and immune system changes. In our study, we aimed to determine how levels of serum immunomodulators were affected by ECT in major depression patients. This study was conducted on 50 patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The data of the patients were compared with 30 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics. A clinical response occurred in the patients and at the end of therapy, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. The disease severity was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 15. Significant differences were determined between the patients with major depression and control group with respect to basal serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels. ECT treatment was shown to reduce these differences. ECT may cause significant changes in the activity of the immune system. The consideration of the relationship between the immune endocrine neurotransmitter systems could contribute to new theories regarding the mechanism of antidepressant treatment and biology of depression. PMID:27366071

  19. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  20. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  1. [Influence of antioxidant phenovin and immunomodulator Una de gato on free radical oxidation at parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogebashvili, N N; Dzhashi, L M; Datunashvili, I V; Intskirveli, N A; Kiparoidze, L I

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the research: detection of changes in free radical oxidation at treatment of parodontitis with combination of preparations - antioxidant Phenovin and immunomodulator Una de gato. Reactive compounds of nitrogen, oxygen and lipids in saliva, blood and gingival tissue of patients suffering from moderate form of parodontitis has been studied by means of the electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method and spin-traps (DETC, DMPO, PBN - Sigma). In patients with parodontitis content of free NO in saliva and blood increases, while in gingival tissue - decreases. In saliva, blood and gingival tissue of patients intense EPR signals of superoxidradicals (O2(-)) and lipoperoxides (LOO(-)) has been revealed indicating intensification of processes of lipid peroxidation in oral cavity, as well as in whole organism of patient. Exaggerated synthesis of NO in saliva and blood of patient is determined by high- expression of inducible NO-synthase triggered by oxidative stress, and increased activity of neuronal NO-synthase in saliva as a result of high concentrations of metacholine and P substance intensely secreted at parodontitis. Decreased content of free NO in gingival tissue of patients with parodontitis compared to control is the result of biological degradation of nitric oxide (conversion of NO into peroxinitrite on the background of intense oxidative stress in oral cavity) and nitrosylation of mitochondrial electron transport proteins of gingival tissue (characteristic for parodontitis) with further decrease in content of free oxide, suppression of intensity of mitochondrial respiration, energogenesis, development of ischemia in oral tissue leading to further initiation of destructive processes and progression of parodontitis. Treatment with combination of preparations - Phenovin and Una de gato decreased intensity of oxidative stress in organism of patients and reduced destructive processes of tissues in oral cavity. Relative normalization of oxidative metabolism

  2. Results of a non-specific immunomodulation therapy on chronic heart failure (ACCLAIM trial): a placebo-controlled randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre-Amione, G.; Anker, S.D.; Bourge, R.C.;

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled s...

  3. High-Throughput Screening Platform for the Discovery of New Immunomodulator Molecules from Natural Product Extract Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Del Palacio, José; Díaz, Caridad; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Annang, Frederick; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de Pedro, Nuria; Tormo, José R; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that central nervous system inflammation and systemic inflammation play a significant role in the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, neurotropic viral infections, stroke, paraneoplastic disorders, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose that the use of anti-inflammatory drugs might diminish the cumulative effects of inflammation. Indeed, some epidemiological studies suggest that sustained use of anti-inflammatory drugs may prevent or slow down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory drugs and biologics used clinically have the disadvantage of causing side effects and a high cost of treatment. Alternatively, natural products offer great potential for the identification and development of bioactive lead compounds into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases with an improved safety profile. In this work, we present a validated high-throughput screening approach in 96-well plate format for the discovery of new molecules with anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory activity. The in vitro models are based on the quantitation of nitrite levels in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset of 5976 noncytotoxic crude microbial extracts from the MEDINA microbial natural product collection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an high-throughput screening of microbial natural product extracts for the discovery of immunomodulators.

  4. Drug lag for antineoplastic and immunomodulating agent approvals in India compared with the US and EU approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaven C. Kataria

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms that India lag behind the US and EU regions in terms of total number of new drug approvals for antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents. There is a substantial approval delay in India compared to the US and EU regions. Further detailed analyses are necessary to find the reasons and impacts of drug lag for new antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents in India. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 335-340

  5. Steroid dependency and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in the era of immunomodulators-A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Munkholm, Pia Susanne; Paerregaard, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The aim was to investigate the impact of systemic steroid treatment (SST) and immunomodulators (IM) on disease course in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:: All IBD patients in eastern Denmark......BACKGROUND:: The aim was to investigate the impact of systemic steroid treatment (SST) and immunomodulators (IM) on disease course in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:: All IBD patients in eastern Denmark...

  6. [Immunomodulators for topical application to prevent and manage chronic adenoiditis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garashchenko, T I; Zelenkova, I V; Alferova, M V

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of a study on the efficacy of topical application of the immunomodulator IRS 19 in children presenting with chronic adenoiditis and grade I-III hypertrophy of adenoid vegetation. The use of this preparation is shown to faster and more efficaciously normalize the volume of the lymphoid tissue than irrigation of the nasopharynx with saline solutions. Moreover, the treatment of chronic adenoiditis with IRS 19 promoted normalization of biocenosis of the nasopharyngeal secretion and significantly decreased the abundance of pathogenic microflora. Specifically, the overall frequency of exacerbations and the frequency of exacerbations of adenoiditis decreased three- and two-fold respectively while the duration of the disease shortened. It is recommended that the topical immunomodulator IRS 19 should be included in the programs of planned seasonal treatment of children suffering chronic adenoiditis (to be applied at least 2-3 times annually). PMID:21512491

  7. What do we learn from immunomodulation in patients with immune thrombocytopenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, Masataka

    2016-04-01

    Current therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases primarily rely on immunosuppression, but global immune suppression results in an increased risk for severe infection and malignancy. In contrast, immuomodulation is another therapeutic approach employing intrinsic or environmental regulators that exert modulatory effects by intervening multiple checkpoints of the immune system, leading to correction of dysregulated immune responses. We have learned that immunomodulation by intravenous immunoglobulin is highly efficacious and safe in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune disease mediated by IgG antiplatelet autoantibodies. Recently, another types of immunomodulatory treatment are also effective for ITP. These include eradication of Helicobacter pylori and thrombopoietic agents, such as thrombopoietin receptor agonists. These treatment modalities are shown to exert immunomodulatory action by suppressing multiple checkpoints of the pathogenic loop of ITP, although only certain subsets of the patients show robust responses. Understanding mechanisms underlying immunomodulation is highly useful in clarifying pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases and developing novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27312160

  8. The Immunomodulation Effect of Aronia Extract Lacks Association with Its Antioxidant Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols comprise a diverse group of molecules with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. To compare the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity of Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberries), recognized for their high content of anthocyanins, a noncytotoxic isolation method...... was developed to obtain high-purity anthocyanins in the extract. The antioxidative activity of the extract, the anthocyanin-rich fraction (AF) was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric-reducing ability of plasma along with resveratrol as a reference. The immunomodulation properties were......, whereas AF only had a slight effect in reducing IL-10. These results demonstrated that there was no major relationship between the antioxidative effect and immunomodulation capacities of AF and resveratrol. The immunomodulatory activity of the extract is associated with bioactive compounds in Aronia other...

  9. Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swiss albino mice respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of A. heterophyllus were administered to the experimental animals among which the methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus leaves have shown to be exhibit significant analgesic and immunomodulator effect by paw licking and increasing the swimming or survival time (P<0.001 respectively in mice.

  10. Role of Natural Immunomodulator (Aloe Vera in Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera belongs to a group of Liliaceae family plant and cultivated worldwide. It possesses acemannan (acetylated mannan, which has a significant pharmacological property. The acemannan has an immunomodulatory activity when administered to animals. The major immunomodulating effect includes the activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of cytokines, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. In particular, this extract can modulate the differentiation capacity of CD4+T cells to mature into Th1 subsets and enhance the innate cytokine response. As a consequence, this extract will have a profound effect in controlling disease, caused by intracellular infectious agents (bacteria and viruses. However, further studies are needed to determine the immunomodulating effects of Aloe vera in multi-component extracts equivalent to what are being used commonly in traditional medicine.

  11. Immunomodulation with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, Giovanbattista; Lucioni, Marco; Leonardi, Giuseppe; Paulli, Marco

    2015-12-24

    Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin's manifold mechanisms of action may be attribuited to its polyclonal nature. Its T-cell depleting effect on lymphoid cells is well established: Occurring in the blood and secondary lymphoid tissues, depletion proceeds through complement-dependent lysis, opsonization and apoptotic pathways. Clinical studies have shown that rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin's immunomodulatory effect extends beyond the initial T-cell depletion and up to the period during which lymphocyte populations begin to recover. The drug is able to mediate immunomodulation and graft tolerance by functionally inactivating cell surface receptors involved in antigen recognition, leukocyte trafficking and leukocyte endothelium adhesion. The complex and prolonged immunomodulation induced by this drug contributes to its efficacy in solid organ transplantation, mainly by reducing the incidence of acute graft rejection. PMID:26722653

  12. Can we change the natural history of Crohn's disease with early immunomodulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, James

    2014-01-01

    In both children and adults, the natural history of Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by relapsing and remitting bouts of intestinal inflammation, often associated with a progressive shift from inflammatory to complicated stricturing or penetrating disease behavior. The past 2 decades have seen a dramatic shift in therapeutic approach with the increasingly common use of early thiopurine immunomodulation. These maintenance medications were initially introduced primarily as corticosteroid-sparing agents capable of minimizing recurrent flares of inflammatory disease and have proven to be quite efficacious. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that thiopurines may only delay rather than prevent the development of complicated disease behavior. Data from both adult and pediatric CD populations from around the world are reviewed in terms of the effect of early immunomodulation on progression to complicated disease behavior, need for surgery, and prevention of recurrent disease after resection. The effect of thiopurines on the growth of children is also reviewed.

  13. Prospects of using licorice as an immunomodulator in pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Rukhmakova, О. А.; Yarnykh, Т. G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the current choice of medicines supplied by pharmaceutical industry, phytotherapy today is a quite popular method of treatment, including pediatric patients. Among its advantages we should note, first of all, plant safety and the possibility of long-term use, the biological affinity between the active substances of plant and physiologically active substances of the body, the multivalency of phytopreparations’ action, simplicity and ease of preparation and use at home, et...

  14. Use of Allopurinol to Optimize Thiopurine Immunomodulator Efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrow, Miles P.

    2008-01-01

    The thiopurine immunomodulators azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are integral to the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly as corticosteroid-sparing and maintenance agents; however, up to 50% of patients do not adequately respond to these agents. Advances in pharmacogenomics and an increased understanding of thiopurine metabolism have led to the practice of measuring the thiopurine metabolites 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) to help achieve opt...

  15. Role of Natural Immunomodulator (Aloe Vera) in Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ening Wiedosari

    2007-01-01

    Aloe vera belongs to a group of Liliaceae family plant and cultivated worldwide. It possesses acemannan (acetylated mannan), which has a significant pharmacological property. The acemannan has an immunomodulatory activity when administered to animals. The major immunomodulating effect includes the activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). In particu...

  16. Use of allopurinol to optimize thiopurine immunomodulator efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Miles P

    2008-07-01

    The thiopurine immunomodulators azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are integral to the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly as corticosteroid-sparing and maintenance agents; however, up to 50% of patients do not adequately respond to these agents. Advances in pharmacogenomics and an increased understanding of thiopurine metabolism have led to the practice of measuring the thiopurine metabolites 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) to help achieve optimal immunomodulator dosages. Metabolite profiles are also useful for categorizing the reasons for thiopurine treatment failures. A desirable metabolite profile favors 6-TGN production over 6-MMP formation; however, a significant subgroup of IBD patients, perhaps 15%, preferentially metabolizes thiopurines toward the inefficacious and potentially hepatotoxic metabolite 6-MMP. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol has been shown recently to advantageously switch thiopurine metabolism toward 6-TGN production in this subgroup of patients, and small studies have shown this switch to be safe and clinically beneficial. This article reviews evidence describing the use of allopurinol to optimize immunomodulator metabolism, provides careful practice guidelines to clinicians considering this strategy, and briefly discusses the potential mechanisms by which this favorable interaction occurs. PMID:21960930

  17. The Effect of Immunomodulating Therapy on a Lysozyme Activity and the Expression of Helicobacter Pylori Contamination in Chronic Gastric and Duodenal Peptic Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugina V.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been investigated a lysozyme activity level and the expression of Helicobacter pylori contamination in eradication therapy of gastric and duodenal peptic ulcer using immunomodulators of different pharmacological groups. The use of immunomodulators such as lycopid and immunal against a background of the anti-H.bacter “quadroscheme” has been stated to lead to the increase of eradication, with a lysozyme activity in saliva significantly increasing. The tendency to lysozyme normalization in gastric juice has also been observed. A synthetic bacterial immunomodulator lycopid in a greater degree effects a lysozyme activity in comparison with the effect of immunal — an immunomodulator of plants.

  18. Addition of selenium improves immunomodulative effects of glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Vetvicka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selenium (Se is an established essential nutrient that plays a role in various biological processes including cancer development. Similarly, stimulation of immune reactions by β-glucans is well-documented. Aims: In the current study, we focused on the stimulation of phagocytosis and interleukin (IL-2 production and on potentiation of anticancer immunity by a combination of glucan with two types of Se. Materials and Methods: Phagocytosis was evaluated using synthetic microspheres; cancer development was measured either using breast cancer cells or using lung cancer cells. Results: Using two different murine models of cancer, we showed that the Se/glucan combination strongly suppressed the growth of cancer, mostly probably via stimulation of immunity. Conclusions: A combination of glucan with Se offers superior stimulation of immunity and inhibition of cancer growth.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells: Emerging mechanisms of immunomodulation and therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justin; D; Glenn; Katharine; A; Whartenby

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) are a pleiotropic population of cells that are self-renewing and capable of differentiating into canonical cells of the mesenchyme, including adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. They employ multi-faceted approaches to maintain bone marrow niche homeostasis and promote wound healing during injury. Biomedical research has long sought to exploit their pleiotropic properties as a basis for cell therapy for a variety of diseases and to facilitate hematopoietic stem cell establishment and stromal reconstruction in bone marrow transplantation. Early results demonstrated their usage as safe, and there was little host response to these cells. The discovery of their immunosuppressive functions ushered in a new interest in MSCs as a promising therapeutic tool to suppress inflammation and down-regulate pathogenic immune responses in graft-versus-host and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. MSCs produce a large number of soluble and membrane-bound factors, some of which inhibit immune responses. However, the full range of MSC-mediated immune-modulation remains incompletely understood, as emerging reports also reveal that MSCs can adopt an immunogenic phenotype, stimulate immune cells, and yield seemingly contradictory results in experimental animal models of inflammatory disease. The present review describes the large body of literature that has been accumulated on the fascinating biology of MSCs and their complex effects on immune responses.

  20. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; El-Zoubair, Elnour; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-30

    The bark of Parkia biglobosa is used in traditional medicine to cure a wide range of illnesses. Polysaccharides were extracted from the bark with 50% ethanol-water, 50°C and 100°C water, and seven active fractions obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The complement fixation and macrophage stimulating activities of the different fractions were determined. The acidic fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were the most active in the complement fixation assay, but the other fractions were also potent compared to the positive control BPII from Biophytum petersianum. Fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were also the most potent fractions in stimulating macrophages to release nitric oxide. Structural studies showed that PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were pectic type polysaccharides, containing arabinogalactan type II structures. The observed differences in biological activities among the seven purified polysaccharide sub-fractions are probably due to differences in monosaccharide compositions, linkage types and molecular sizes.

  1. Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sonia Regina I N; Valente, Ligia M M; Sampaio, André L; Siani, Antonio C; Gandini, Mariana; Azeredo, Elzinandes L; D'Avila, Luiz A; Mazzei, José L; Henriques, Maria das Graças M; Kubelka, Claire F

    2008-03-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC., a large woody vine native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests has been used medicinally by indigenous peoples since ancient times and has scientifically proven immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. Several inflammatory mediators that are implicated in vascular permeability and shock are produced after Dengue Virus (DENV) infection by monocytes, the primary targets for virus replication. Here we assessed the immunoregulatory and antiviral activities from U. tomentosa-derived samples, which were tested in an in vitro DENV infection model. DENV-2 infected human monocytes were incubated with U. tomentosa hydro-alcoholic extract or either its pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched or non-alkaloid fractions. The antiviral activity was determined by viral antigen (DENV-Ag) detection in monocytes by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated an in vitro inhibitory activity by both extract and alkaloidal fraction, reducing DENV-Ag+ cell rates in treated monocytes. A multiple microbead immunoassay was applied for cytokine determination (TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10) in infected monocyte culture supernatants. The alkaloidal fraction induced a strong immunomodulation: TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha levels were significantly decreased and there was a tendency towards IL-10 modulation. We conclude that the alkaloidal fraction was the most effective in reducing monocyte infection rates and cytokine levels. The antiviral and immunomodulating in vitro effects from U. tomentosa pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids displayed novel properties regarding therapeutic procedures in Dengue Fever and might be further investigated as a promising candidate for clinical application.

  2. [The humoral immunity indices of patients with malignant skin melanoma using the viral immunomodulator rigvir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkina, L S; Heisele, O G; Garklava, R R; Muceniece, A J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a viral immunomodulator rigvir on humoral immunity was studied in patients with skin malignant melanoma. Peripheral blood levels of B-lymphocytes, IgA, G and M and circulating immune complexes were assayed and immunoglobulin/B-cell ratio (Ig/B) calculated. Preoperative treatment with rigvir brought the indexes of humoral immunity to normal. Response of melanoma patients to rigvir treatment was different from that seen in healthy subjects and was determined by the course of disease. PMID:1300751

  3. [The cellular immunity indices of patients with malignant melanoma using the viral immunomodulator rigvir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkina, L S; Bruvere, R Zh; Venskus, D R; Garklava, R R; Muceniece, A J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of rigvir, an immunomodulator of the viral origin, on cell-mediated immunity was studied in patients with skin malignant melanoma. Rosette formation and monoclonal antibody techniques were used to measure blood immunocompetent cell levels in patients with the above pathology, cases of benign skin tumors and healthy subjects. Rigvir was shown to influence natural resistance by raising blood monocyte and large granule-containing lymphocyte levels. It potentiated recruitment of pre-T-lymphocytes and young active T-lymphocytes to the peripheral blood. PMID:1300752

  4. Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti; Om Prakash; Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swis...

  5. IMMUNOMODULATION OF SYNTHESIZED POLYMERS CONTAINING PHOSPHORUS IN THE BACKBONE —EFFECT ON THE PROLIFERATION OF LYMPHOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuoRenxi; WangJun; 等

    1997-01-01

    The immunomodulation of several Charged synthetic polymers containing phosphorus in the backbone was studied in vitro through examining their inhibition or promotion effect on the proliferatioin of both T and B lymphocytes,It is found that polymers based on long chain alkyl ester of tyrosine exhibit immunomodulative activity.Negatively charged polymers show stimulative activity on LPS-induced B lymphocytes proliferation.Positively charged polymers exhibit inhibitory activity on both Con A-induced T lymphocytes and LPS-induced B lymplhyocytes proliferation.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of some lipidic aminoalcohols and diamines as immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Olmo, Esther; Plaza, Alvaro; Muro, Antonio; Martínez-Fernández, Antonio R; Nogal-Ruiz, Juan J; López-Pérez, José L; Feliciano, Arturo San

    2006-12-01

    Lymphoproliferation inhibition and cytotoxicity of a number of lipidic aminoacids, aminoalcohols and diamines were evaluated as a preliminary screening to select potential immunomodulators. The four most potent/less toxic compounds were submitted to delayed hypersensibility (DTH) assays to define the best to be evaluated further Graft-vs-Host, NO production and other immunoevaluation (CD4(+), CD45, CD8, CD11b, I-Ek, and NK cells) assays, to establish their immunomodulation potential for being further considered as auxiliary agents for vaccination against some parasitic infections. Compounds 5d, 6d, 6f, 7a, and 9a, fairly inhibited the lymphoproliferation (71.6-79.5%, at 3.2-2.4 nM), while the aminoalcohol derivative 6f and the diamine 7a gave the most promising results in the DTH assays. Diamine derivative 8b induced nitrite production on normal macrophages, whereas compounds 6f and 7a induced nitrite production on LPS pre-stimulated macrophages. These two last compounds have been selected to follow in vivo vaccination assays. PMID:17000108

  7. Voluntary immunomodulation: potentiality and implications for long-duration manned space-flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, Stefano

    The influence of psychological and neural factors on immunologic activity has been dedicated a growing interest over the past fifteen years, since the publication ofPsychoneuroimmunology by Robert Ader in 1981. Studies on this topic gave evidence for bi-directional communication between psychosocial, behavioural, neuroanatomical and neuroendocrine processes with the immune system and the detrimental effects of various stressors, physical and psychological, on immune reactions were widely investigated with reports of stress-induced changes in immune paramenters and immunocompetence. Much of the evidence support the notion that stress is associated with an increase in those diseases against which the immune system defends. Recently, several studies showed that immune functions can be influenced voluntarily and the term voluntary immunomodulation was coined to describe the use of various hypnosis-like and relaxation/imagery techniques for the self-regulation of immune activity. Alterations in the immune regulatory system are one of the most critical issues to be addressed in relation to crew health management during space missions, especially long-term ones. Providing crewmembers with a tool to enhance immunocompetence might be of great value to defend against some severe diseases, such as cancer and infectious illness, which may be elicited in outer space. In this view, a critical assessment of the potential usefulness of voluntary immunomodulation for crew health maintenance during manned space-flight is presented and discussed.

  8. Development and hygiene of functional foods with immunomodulation activity using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hemopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, 6 herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and 6 exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found 4 effective Oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. The immunomodulation activity by the herb combination was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone marrow cells, the changes of cytokine expression patterns by herb mixture extracts were observed. In the further studies, we would to evaluate the effects of the herb combinations, to identify the active component, to confirm toxicological safety, and to prepare the provisional products for foods. And then, the functional foods with immunomodulation activity would be developed, and would be applied to overcoming the declined immunity and hemopoiesis caused by various factors.

  9. Influence of immunomodulation on the development of Listeria monocytogenes infection in aged guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hoan-Jen E; Lo, Chih-Yu; Matthews, Karl R

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the impact of immunomodulation on the development of listeriosis within an aged population of guinea pigs after an intragastric challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Supplementation with vitamin E for 35 days significantly increased the level of cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)), while treatment with cyclosporin A resulted in a 25% decrease of CD8(+) T cells. In the animals receiving the low dose (10(2) CFU) of L. monocytogenes, 50% of the control-group animals became infected. Only 22% of animals receiving the orthomolecular dose of vitamin E became infected, whereas animals that were immunosuppressed had an infection rate of 89%. In the immunosuppressed group three animals (16%) developed listerial infection with a quantifiable bacterial level of 0.3-3 log CFU g(-1) of organ in the spleen and liver. In the high-dose study, the population of L. monocytogenes was consistently 1 log CFU g(-1) lower in the spleen or liver of the vitamin E-supplemented group, compared with the control and cyclosporin A-treated animals. At day 4, a significant increase in the levels of CD8(+) during listerial infection occurred in vitamin E-supplemented animals, suggesting an increased ability to produce CD8(+) T cells. The results suggest that immunomodulation of the host can influence listerial infection within an aged population of guinea pigs. PMID:17378902

  10. Development and hygiene of functional foods with immunomodulation activity using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In searching modulators of immunity and hemopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, 6 herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and 6 exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found 4 effective Oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. The immunomodulation activity by the herb combination was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone marrow cells, the changes of cytokine expression patterns by herb mixture extracts were observed. In the further studies, we would to evaluate the effects of the herb combinations, to identify the active component, to confirm toxicological safety, and to prepare the provisional products for foods. And then, the functional foods with immunomodulation activity would be developed, and would be applied to overcoming the declined immunity and hemopoiesis caused by various factors

  11. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  12. The role of immunomodulators on intestinal barrier homeostasis in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria Emília Rabelo; Araújo, Raquel Silva; de Barros, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Abrantes, Fernanda Alves; Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    The intestinal epithelium is composed of specialized epithelial cells that form a physical and biochemical barrier to commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulation of the epithelial barrier function can lead to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation across the intestinal mucosa, which contributes to local and systemic immune activation. The increase in these parameters is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, physical exercise under heat stress, intestinal obstruction, ischemia, and mucositis, among other conditions. Lately, there has been growing interest in immunomodulatory nutrients and probiotics that can regulate host immune and inflammatory responses and possibly restore the intestinal barrier. Immunomodulators such as amino acids (glutamine, arginine, tryptophan, and citrulline), fatty acids (short-chain and omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids), and probiotics (Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Lactobacillus) have been reported in the literature. Here, we review the critical roles of immunomodulatory nutrients in supporting gut barrier integrity and function. PMID:25660317

  13. Immuno-modulating properties of saliphenylhalamide, SNS-032, obatoclax, and gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Sandra; Anastasina, Maria; Islam, Mohammad Majharul; Tynell, Janne; Poranen, Minna M; Bamford, Dennis H; Stenman, Jakob; Julkunen, Ilkka; Šaulienė, Ingrida; De Brabander, Jef K; Matikainen, Sampsa; Nyman, Tuula A; Saelens, Xavier; Kainov, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) impact the public health and global economy by causing yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. Several anti-IAV drugs are available and many are in development. However, the question remains which of these antiviral agents may allow activation of immune responses and protect patients against co- and re-infections. To answer to this question, we analysed immuno-modulating properties of the antivirals saliphenylhalamide (SaliPhe), SNS-032, obatoclax, and gemcitabine, and found that only gemcitabine did not impair immune responses in infected cells. It also allowed activation of innate immune responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon alpha (IFNα)-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, immuno-mediators produced by gemcitabine-treated IAV-infected macrophages were able to prime immune responses in non-infected cells. Thus, we identified an antiviral agent which might be beneficial for treatment of patients with severe viral infections. PMID:26738783

  14. Defense peptides secreted by helminth pathogens: antimicrobial and/or immunomodulator molecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eCotton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all living species. They possess antimicrobial activities against a broad range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. HDPs also have the ability to enhance immune responses by acting as immunomodulators. We discovered a new family of HDPs derived from pathogenic helminthes (worms that cause enormous disease in animals and humans worldwide. The discovery of these peptides was based on their similar biochemical and functional characteristics to the human defense peptide LL-37. We propose that these new peptides modulate the immune response via molecular mimicry of mammalian HDPs thus providing a mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory properties of helminth infections.

  15. STUDY OF EFFECT OF IMMUNOMODULATOR IN TREATMENT OF CATEGORY - I SPUTUM POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Tuberculosis is amongst one of the major public health problems in the developing countries of the world today . Modern Chemotherapy kills most of the bacilli within days. WHO initiated DOTS for treating TB but still success rate of treatment is less. Immune response in most of the tuberculosis patients is inappropriate because of gross tissue destruction and progre ssion of the disease. The nature of an effective immune response to TB is incompletely understood but the most effective vaccination strategies is to stimulate T - cell responses, both CD4 and CD8, to produce Th - 1 associated cytokines. So rationale for TB i mmunotherapy is to replace immunopathology with protective antibacterial immunity. Mycobacter i um w. have such immunogenic properties, so it was used in clinical trial as an injectable immunomodulator adjuvant to treatment of sputum positive new Pulmonary T B cases taking Cat - 1 therapy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of Immunomodulator used as an adjuvant to treatment of newly diagnosed sputum positive cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis taking Cat - I Therapy under RNTCP. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Patients w ere selected from OPD and IPD of TB & Chest Department V.S.S. Medical College Burla. It was a Double blind randomized placebo contolled study done during Jan. 2004 to Jan. 2006. Study was conducted in30 newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis of wh ich 17 were in group A and 13 were in group B after taking informed consent. The study subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two groups (A&B.Group A was treated with Cat - I and injectable Immunomodulator and Group B received Cat - I with placebo. Ana lysis of sputum status was done at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sputum conversion, side effects, weight gain and relief of symptoms between both the groups were analysed. RESULTS: The majority of patients of new sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis were found in between the age group of 21 – 40

  16. More Than Just Tumor Destruction: Immunomodulation by Thermal Ablation of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian P. Haen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, thermoablative techniques for the therapy of localized tumors have gained importance in the treatment of patients not eligible for surgical resection. Anecdotal reports have described spontaneous distant tumor regression after thermal ablation, indicating a possible involvement of the immune system, hence an induction of antitumor immunity after thermoinduced therapy. In recent years, a growing body of evidence for modulation of both adaptive and innate immunity, as well as for the induction of danger signals through thermoablation, has emerged. Induced immune responses, however, are mostly weak and not sufficient for the complete eradication of established tumors or durable prevention of disease progression, and combination therapies with immunomodulating drugs are being evaluated with promising results. This article aims to summarize published findings on immune modulation through radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and laser-induced thermotherapy.

  17. An immunomodulator from Tinospora cordifolia with antioxidant activity in cell-free systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veena R Desai; J P Kamat; K B Sainis

    2002-12-01

    Several plant products are known to exhibit immense medicinal value against human diseases. Our earlier studies showed that dry stem crude extract (DSCE) of Tinospora cordifolia contained a polyclonal B cell mitogen, G1-4A. DSCE as well as G1-4A also enhanced immune response in mice. In order to explore the possibility of using G1-4A/PPI (partially purified immunomodulator) to modulate radiation induced immunosuppression, the antioxidant effect of PPI from this plant was examined against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), generated by photosensitization/peroxynitrite. Levels of lipid peroxidation products, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver/spleen homogenate from mouse were monitored. Photosensitization induced significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. The activities of SOD and catalase were reduced considerably. PPI, present during photosensitisation, prevented lipid peroxidation and restored the activities of both the enzymes. Likewise, oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite was inhibited by PPI. The degradation of proteins due to photosensitization as assessed by SDS-PAGE was effectively reduced by simultaneous treatment with PPI during photosensitization. Selective inhibitors of ROS like mannitol, SOD, sodium azide and antioxidants, GSH and vitamin C brought about significant inhibition of formation of TBARS suggesting possible involvement of O$_2^{-\\bullet}$,${}^{\\bullet}$OH and 1O2. Photosensitization in deuterated buffer enhanced formation of TBARS thus indicating generation of 1O2. Thus, the action of PPI may be against oxidative damage through Type I and II photosensitization mechanisms. Therefore, the immunomodulator from Tinospora cordifolia may also be beneficial as an antioxidant.

  18. [Immunomodulator Intensification of Etioropic Therapy in Patients with Advanced Pulmonary Tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiets, V M; Abramov, A V; Rachina, N V; Rubleva, N V

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at possible increase of the therapy efficacy in patients with advanced tuberculosis by including immunomodulators to the treatment schemes. The data concerning 6034 patients with advanced tuberculosis, mainly fibrocavernous tuberculosis of the lungs, were analysed. Four groups of the patients were randomized. In group 1 the management of the patients included etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures with the use of Cycloferon. The group 2 patients in addition to the etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures were given Omega-3. In group 3 the management included the etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures. In group 4 the etioropic therapy was used alone. The analysis showed that 3419 patients had primary pulmonary tuberculosis, 340 patients had relapsing tuberculosis and 2275 patients had long-term process. The etiotropic therapy efficacy was estimated after an intensive phase of not more than 3 months. In the cases with Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance and some other unfavourable factors it was estimated after a 5-month intensive phase. The results confirmed that inclusion of immunomodulators to the treatment schemes allowed to increase the therapy efficacy and the patients' adherence to the treatment, as well as to shorten the period of the bacteria carriage. Thus, the use of Cycloferon in the schemes of the treatment of the patients with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis allowed to shorten the period of the pathogen carriage (as well as the drug resistant forms) in 94.1 ± 3.33% of the patients in spite of concomitant diseases. The effect of Cycloferon in such cases was likely due to both its direct immunoprotective action and the improvement of the general state of the patients and their higher adherence to the treatment.

  19. The Effect of Immunomodulating Therapy on a Lysozyme Activity and the Expression of Helicobacter Pylori Contamination in Chronic Gastric and Duodenal Peptic Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Dugina V.V.; Kuzin V.B.; Lebedeva N.V.

    2011-01-01

    There has been investigated a lysozyme activity level and the expression of Helicobacter pylori contamination in eradication therapy of gastric and duodenal peptic ulcer using immunomodulators of different pharmacological groups. The use of immunomodulators such as lycopid and immunal against a background of the anti-H.bacter “quadroscheme” has been stated to lead to the increase of eradication, with a lysozyme activity in saliva significantly increasing. The tendency to lysozyme normalizatio...

  20. Drug lag for antineoplastic and immunomodulating agent approvals in India compared with the US and EU approvals

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaven C. Kataria; Ashna S. Pandya; Ashwin K. Panchasara; Pavan J. Panchal; Mitul R. Parmar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a tremendous amount of research being conducted on development of new drugs for cancer therapies. The drug development of cancer therapies has dramatically increased over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to assess the drug lag for new antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents in India compared with that in the United States (US) or European Union (EU). Methods: The new drugs approved in the US, EU and India between 2011 and 2015 were identified a...

  1. Effect of uterine immunomodulation on hematobiochemical parameters in cyclic non-breeding cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswat Sahoo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of uterine immunomodulation on hematobiochemical parameters and total immunoglobulin concentration in cyclic non-breeding cows. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one repeat breeding cows around Bhubaneswar area were screened by white side test to detect and treat the endometritis and were assigned to three treatment protocols with an equal number of seven animals in each group. Cows in control group were administered with 50 ml of normal saline while treatment Group I animals were given single intrauterine infusion of 20 ml of fresh colostrum and treatment Group II animals received nonpathogenic Escherichia coli in 10 ml sterile saline. The blood samples were collected from all the experimental animals, and hematobiochemical parameters and total immunoglobulin concentration were estimated. Results: A high significant difference (p<0.01 was accounted in lymphocyte count of E. coli treated group within different days of sampling. Analysis of variance recorded a highly significant difference with neutrophil percent in E. coli lavaged cows. In colostrum treated group monocyte count showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between 0 and 14th day of sampling. The analysis of hematocrit values did not show any significant difference apart from the erythrocyte sedimentation rate parameter in the colostrum infused group with the highest significant (p<0.01 variation being observed between 7th and 14th day of sampling. The analysis of aspartate amino transferase values in the colostrum lavaged cows revealed a significant difference, but that of alanine amino transferase values did not show any significant difference. Comparison of immunoglobulin values for different days in all the treatment protocol revealed a highly significant (p<0.05 difference within various days of sampling. Conclusion: In the present study, the local immunomodulation by different agents have been highlighted and which indicated potentiation of uterine immunity

  2. The immunomodulator PSK induces in vitro cytotoxic activity in tumour cell lines via arrest of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Federico

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and has shown anticancer activity in vitro and in in vivo experimental models and human cancers. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential in adjuvant cancer therapy, with positive results in the adjuvant treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as an immunomodulator of biological responses. The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for its biological activity have yet to be fully elucidated. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumour activity of PSK has been evaluated in various tumour cell lines derived from leukaemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cervix, lung, pancreas and gastric cancers. Tumour cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of PSK on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in PSK-treated cells. Results PSK showed in vitro inhibition of tumour cell proliferation as measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. The inhibition ranged from 22 to 84%. Inhibition mechanisms were identified as cell cycle arrest, with cell accumulation in G0/G1 phase and increase in apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. These results indicate that PSK has a direct cytotoxic activity in vitro, inhibiting tumour cell proliferation. In contrast, PSK shows a synergistic effect with IL-2 that increases PBL proliferation. Conclusion These results indicate that PSK has cytotoxic activity in vitro on tumour cell lines. This new cytotoxic activity of PSK on tumour cells is independent of its previously described immunomodulatory activity on NK cells.

  3. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Mariano Silveira e Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization.

  4. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Lewis

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis.

  5. Engineered Bovine Antibodies in the Development of Novel Therapeutics, Immunomodulators and Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Koti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some bovine antibodies across all classes are unique, such as the CDR3 of the variable heavy-domain (VH CDR3, which is exceptionally long (up to 66 amino acids, unlike most conventional antibodies where the VH CDR3 loops range from 10 to 25 amino acids. The exceptionally long VH CDR3 is encoded by unusually long germline IGHD genes together with insertion of novel “a” nucleotide rich conserved short nucleotide sequence (CSNS specifically at the IGH V-D junction. Such an exceptionally long VH CDR3 confers unique “knob and stalk” structural architecture where the knob, formed by intra-VH CDR3 disulfide bridges, is separated by 20 Å solvent exposed stalk composed of anti-parallel beta strands. The substitution of the knob with cytokines, such as, erythropoietin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte colony stimulating factor, results in expression of functional fusion proteins with enhanced pharmacokinetics. The beta stranded stalk can be substituted with other rigid structures, for example, repeat alpha helices to form coiled-coil that mimics the beta-stranded stalk and, thus, opens opportunities for insertion of this structure in the CDRs of antibodies across species. Given the versatility of such a structural platform in bovine antibody VH CDR3, it provides the opportunity for the development of new generation of diagnostics, therapeutics, vaccines and immunomodulating drugs.

  6. Distribution of rabies virus in infected mice, vaccinated and submitted to P. acnes as immunomodulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megid, J; Cremonini, D N; Leomil, H

    2002-07-01

    The lethality and distribution of rabies virus were evaluated in swiss mice experimentally infected with street rabies virus, vaccinated and submitted to immunomodulation by P .acnes (formerly Corynebacterium parvum). The animals were sacrificed at different times,when the different tissues were collected and submitted to fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and mouse inoculation test (MIT). The group submitted to vaccination and P. acnes treatment presented a percentage of survival superior to that observed in infected mice only treated with P. acnes. Control infected animals had the lowest survival rates. The distribution of rabies virus in spleen of infected mice, vaccinated and submitted to P. acnes was superior to that verified in infected mice not treated with P.acnes. The increased survival correlated with the distribution of rabies virus in lymphoid tissues, could be interpreted as the consequence of P. acnes activity on macrophages. The results suggest the role of macrophages against rabies virus infection in mice and the importance of vaccination in the post expositive treatment of rabies. PMID:12135238

  7. Therapeutic vaccination and immunomodulation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: preclinical studies in the woodchuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska, Anna D; Liu, Jia; Lu, Mengji; Roggendorf, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to subclinical, acute or chronic hepatitis. In the prevaccination era, HBV infections were endemic due to frequent mother to child transmission in large regions of the world. However, there are still estimated 240 million chronic HBV carriers today and ca. 620,000 patients die per year due to HBV-related liver diseases. Recommended treatment of chronic hepatitis B with interferon-α and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues does not lead to satisfactory results. Induction of HBV-specific T cells by therapeutic vaccination or immunomodulation may be an innovative strategy to overcome virus persistence. Vaccination with commercially available HBV vaccines in patients with or without therapeutic reduction of viral load did not result in effective immune control of HBV infection, suggesting that combination of antiviral treatment with new formulations of therapeutic vaccines is needed. The woodchuck (Marmota monax) and its HBV-like woodchuck hepatitis virus are a useful preclinical animal model for developing new therapeutic approaches in chronic hepadnaviral infections. Several innovative approaches combining antiviral treatments using nucleos(t)ide analogues, with prime-boost vaccination using DNA vaccines, new hepadnaviral antigens or recombinant adenoviral vectors were tested in the woodchuck model. In this review, we summarize these encouraging results obtained with these therapeutic vaccines. In addition, we present potential innovations in immunostimulatory strategies by blocking the interaction of the inhibitory programmed death receptor 1 with its ligand in this animal model. PMID:25535101

  8. Evaluation of the Intestinal Colonizing Potential and Immunomodulating Capacity of Lactobacilli Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Karyn I; Addo, Richard T; D'Souza, Martin J

    2016-05-01

    Lactobacilli species get degraded by acidic conditions in the stomach. Thus, the objective of this study was to (1) formulate and characterize gastro-resistant Lactobacilli microspheres and (2) evaluate the ability of Lactobacilli microspheres to colonize the intestine and their capacity to have an immunomodulating effect in vivo. The product yield and the encapsulation efficiency were 45% and 100%, respectively. The average microsphere particle size was 5 μm. Lactobacilli microspheres were most stable at 4°C and showed a better suspendibility in distilled water. Without encapsulation, the viability of bacteria decreased within 30 min. In the case of Lactobacilli microspheres, no Lactobacilli were released in the first 3 h, and highest release was observed at 4 h, thus, suggesting the significance of encapsulation of Lactobacilli. Lactobacilli microspheres maintained intestinal colonization only during the dosing period, and the serum IgG, serum IgA, fecal, intestinal, nasal IgA, and the serum interleukin-1β levels were higher in the Lactobacilli microsphere group compared with the blank microsphere and the lactobacilli solution group, suggesting that the Lactobacilli microspheres were more gastro-resistant and, hence, showed positive effects compared with the Lactobacilli solution. However, the Lactobacilli microspheres did not have a significant effect on the tumor necrosis factor-α levels.

  9. Emerging oral immunomodulating agents – focus on teriflunomide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwo E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enyioma Nwankwo, Douglas R Allington, Michael P RiveyPharmacy Practice Department, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USAAbstract: Treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS, a chronic disease of the central nervous system, has historically relied exclusively on the use of injectable therapies. As the disease requires lifelong therapy, the development of oral therapies that are safe and effective would provide a more convenient dosage form that may improve patient compliance. One oral medication (fingolimod was recently approved for treatment of MS. Teriflunomide, an immunomodulator, is one of four oral therapies currently undergoing Phase III trials. Teriflunomide exerts its clinical effects via selective inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, primarily targeting proliferating T and B lymphocytes in the periphery. Teriflunomide was effective as monotherapy in reducing magnetic resonance imaging lesions and annual relapse rates in Phase II and Phase III trials. When teriflunomide was added to interferon or glatiramer acetate therapy in Phase II trials, teriflunomide reduced magnetic resonance imaging lesions significantly more than either interferon or glatiramer acetate alone. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred at similar rates among all groups in teriflunomide studies, with a trend towards a higher treatment emergent adverse events rate in the higher dosage group of teriflunomide (14 mg daily. Treatment discontinuations in teriflunomide trials were relatively low, suggesting that teriflunomide monotherapy is well tolerated. This article reviews the mode of action of teriflunomide, its pharmacokinetic, clinical efficacy, and safety profiles.Keywords: clinical trials, oral drugs, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology

  10. HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING IMMUNOMODULATION DURING LATE GESTATION IN BUFFALOES (BUBALIS BUBALUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I, Qureshi, L.A. Lodhi, H.A. Samad, N.A. Naz1 and M. Nawaz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two adult riverine buffaloes (Buhalis bubalus in their last trimester of pregnancy were selected and randomly divided into four groups. The buffaloes of group I served as control. Animals in group II, III and IV were treated twice (7 days apart with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5mg/kg b. w. orally, Etosol (Vit E+Se, 10ml, I/m and Bacilli Calmette Guerine (BCG (0.5 ml/animal, s/c, respectively. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting day 0 untill parturition. Total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume values were higher (P<0.05 in levamisole and vit E+Se treated group of buffaloes. Haemoglobin concentration was higher (P<0.05 inVit E+Se treated group. MCV, MCH and MCHC remained unchanged among all the experimental groups. Total leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05 in levamisole treated group of buffaloes. Differential leukocyte counts (relative revealed moderate lymphocytosis in all immunomodulated groups with significantly higher counts in Vit E+Se treated buffaloes. It was inferred that levamisole and vit E-se altered some haematological values, whereas BCG did not affect the haematological parameters.

  11. Oxidative processes during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod protein and their influence on antioxidant and immunomodulating ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Sigrun M; Sveinsdottir, Holmfridur; Freysdottir, Jona; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2014-01-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) have many desirable properties, however heating and shifts in pH can cause oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective was to investigate oxidative processes during enzymatic hydrolysis of fish protein and the impact of oxidation on the antioxidant and immunomodulating ability of FPH. Protease P "Amano" 6 was used to hydrolyze cod protein in the presence and absence of pro-oxidants at pH 8 and 36°C to achieve 20% degree of hydrolysis. Results from thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory analysis indicate that oxidation can develop rapidly during hydrolysis. A cellular antioxidant assay using a HepG2 cell model indicated a negative impact of oxidation products on antioxidant properties of the FPH while results obtained in chemical assays showed a negligible impact. Results from a dendritic cell model indicating that oxidation products may affect anti-inflammatory activity in the body. This study provides important information regarding bioactive FPH. PMID:24001832

  12. 支气管哮喘与免疫调节%Bronchial asthma and immunomodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 戚好文

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is caused by dysregulated Th2-biased immune responses to environmental allergens in genetically predisposed individuals.Asthma is characterized by cytokine pathology.CD4+ T cells that produce Th2 cytokines play a prominent role in the lungs of asthmatic subj ects.In addition,there are many other agents such as proinflammatory factor,antigen presenting cell and immunoglobulin E which all play important roles in the pathogeness of asthma. This text makes a review of the relation between asthma and immunomodulation,and the perspective of the immunotherapy.%支气管哮喘(哮喘)是由环境过敏原引起基因易感人群Th1/Th2免疫失衡,Th2功能亢进而引起的.产生Th2细胞因子的CD4+T细胞在哮喘发生过程中起了关键的作用[1].各种特异性致炎因子,调节性T细胞,抗原呈递细胞以及免疫球蛋白(Ig)都参与了哮喘的发生,本文就哮喘与免疫调节的关系以及免疫治疗的前景作一综述.

  13. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  14. Arsenic immunotoxicity and immunomodulation by phytochemicals: potential relations to develop chemopreventive approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Elizagaray, Sabina I; Soria, Elio A

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contaminates drinking water worldwide, and As exposure, hypersensitivity and deficiency are involved in the immunopathogenesis of various health problems. Its chemoprevention thus has a high health impact. Given its oxidative potential, antioxidant compounds are good candidates to counteract arsenic's deleterious effects on humans. Phytochemicals (e.g., phenolics, carotenoids, etc.) act through free radical chelation activity and regulation of cellular targets. Consequently, they are appropriate for developing anti-As strategies derived from plants, and Argentinean flora is rich in useful species. Several molecular pathways involved in immune regulation are at the same time targets of exogenous agents, and oxidative stress itself is a modulating phenomenon of immunity. Since xenohormesis has been described as the organic enhancement of resistance to stress conditions (e.g., oxidation, pollution, etc.) by consuming xenobiotics, immunoxenohormesis implies also defense improvement. This review focuses on recent patents on the development of vegetable redox-related immunomodulating agents, which might be applied in As-induced dysfunctions, with their scientific basis being reviewed.

  15. The Role of Antioxidation and Immunomodulation in Postnatal Multipotent Stem Cell-Mediated Cardiac Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Huard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play major roles in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease including myocardial infarction (MI. The pathological progression following MI is very complex and involves a number of cell populations including cells localized within the heart, as well as cells recruited from the circulation and other tissues that participate in inflammatory and reparative processes. These cells, with their secretory factors, have pleiotropic effects that depend on the stage of inflammation and regeneration. Excessive inflammation leads to enlargement of the infarction site, pathological remodeling and eventually, heart dysfunction. Stem cell therapy represents a unique and innovative approach to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation caused by ischemic heart disease. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the crosstalk between stem cells and other cells involved in post-MI cardiac tissue repair, especially immune cells, in order to harness the beneficial effects of the immune response following MI and further improve stem cell-mediated cardiac regeneration. This paper reviews the recent findings on the role of antioxidation and immunomodulation in postnatal multipotent stem cell-mediated cardiac repair following ischemic heart disease, particularly acute MI and focuses specifically on mesenchymal, muscle and blood-vessel-derived stem cells due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy: immunomodulation and neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Stemberger

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are currently strong candidates for cell-based therapies. They are well known for their differentiation potential and immunoregulatory properties and have been proven to be potentially effective in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Currently there is no treatment that provides consistent long-term benefits for patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA, a fatal late onset α-synucleinopathy. Principally neuroprotective or regenerative strategies, including cell-based therapies, represent a powerful approach for treating MSA. In this study we investigated the efficacy of intravenously applied MSCs in terms of behavioural improvement, neuroprotection and modulation of neuroinflammation in the (PLP-αsynuclein (αSYN MSA model.MSCs were intravenously applied in aged (PLP-αSYN transgenic mice. Behavioural analyses, defining fine motor coordination and balance capabilities as well as stride length analysis, were performed to measure behavioural outcome. Neuroprotection was assessed by quantifying TH neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc. MSC treatment on neuroinflammation was analysed by cytokine measurements (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, GM-CSF, INFγ, MCP-1, TGF-β1, TNF-α in brain lysates together with immunohistochemistry for T-cells and microglia. Four weeks post MSC treatment we observed neuroprotection in the SNc, as well as downregulation of cytokines involved in neuroinflammation. However, there was no behavioural improvement after MSC application.To our knowledge this is the first experimental approach of MSC treatment in a transgenic MSA mouse model. Our data suggest that intravenously infused MSCs have a potent effect on immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Our data warrant further studies to elucidate the efficacy of systemically administered MSCs in transgenic MSA models.

  17. Increased attenuation but decreased immunogenicity by deletion of multiple vaccinia virus immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Rebecca P; Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2016-09-14

    Vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived vectors are popular candidates for vaccination against diseases such as HIV-1, malaria and tuberculosis. However, their genomes encode a multitude of proteins with immunomodulatory functions, several of which reduce the immunogenicity of these vectors. Hitherto only limited studies have investigated whether the removal of these immunomodulatory genes in combination can increase vaccine efficacy further. To this end we constructed viruses based on VACV strain Western Reserve (WR) lacking up to three intracellular innate immunomodulators (N1, C6 and K7). These genes were selected because the encoded proteins had known functions in innate immunity and the deletion of each gene individually had caused a decrease in virus virulence in the murine intranasal and intradermal models of infection and an increase in immunogenicity. Data presented here demonstrate that deletion of two, or three of these genes in combination attenuated the virus further in an incremental manner. However, when vaccinated mice were challenged with VACV WR the double and triple gene deletion viruses provided weaker protection against challenge. This was accompanied by inferior memory CD8(+) T cell responses and lower neutralising antibody titres. This study indicates that, at least for the three genes studied in the context of VACV WR, the single gene deletion viruses are the best vaccine vectors, and that increased attenuation induced by deletion of additional genes decreased immunogenicity. These data highlight the fine balance and complex relationship between viral attenuation and immunogenicity. Given that the proteins encoded by the genes examined in this study are known to affect specific aspects of innate immunity, the set of viruses constructed here are interesting tools to probe the role of the innate immune response in influencing immune memory and vaccine efficacy. PMID:27544585

  18. Chemical Structure and Immunomodulating Activities of an α-Glucan Purified from Lobelia chinensis Lour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A neutral α-glucan, named BP1, with a molecular mass of approximately 9.45 kDa, was isolated from Lobelia chinensis by hot-water extraction, a Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Superdex-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis and analysis of its FT-IR, high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC and 1D/2D-NMR spectra data. The backbone of BP1 consists of →6α-d-Glcp1→6,3α-d-Glcp1→(6α-d-Glcp1x-6,3α-d-Glcp1-(6α-d-Glcp1y→. The side chains were terminal α-d-Glcp1→ and α-d-Glcp1→ (6α-d-Glcp1z→4α-d-Glcp1→3α-d-Glcp1→4α-d-Glcp1→ (x + y + z = 5, which are attached to the backbone at O-3 of 3,6α-d-Glcp1. The results of the effect of BP1 on mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 indicate that BP1 enhances the cell proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and cytokine secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Because the inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 blocks the BP1-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, we hypothesize that α-glucan BP1 activates TLR4, which mediates the above-mentioned immunomodulating effects.

  19. Chemical Structure and Immunomodulating Activities of an α-Glucan Purified from Lobelia chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Bao, Wan-Rong; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Ai-Ping; Wang, Shun-Chun; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    A neutral α-glucan, named BP1, with a molecular mass of approximately 9.45 kDa, was isolated from Lobelia chinensis by hot-water extraction, a Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Superdex-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis and analysis of its FT-IR, high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and 1D/2D-NMR spectra data. The backbone of BP1 consists of →₆α-d-Glcp¹→6,3α-d-Glcp¹→(₆α-d-Glcp¹)x-6,3α-d-Glcp¹-(₆α-d-Glcp¹)y→. The side chains were terminal α-d-Glcp¹→ and α-d-Glcp¹→ (₆α-d-Glcp¹)z→₄α-d-Glcp¹→₃α-d-Glcp¹→₄α-d-Glcp¹→ (x + y + z = 5), which are attached to the backbone at O-3 of 3,6α-d-Glcp¹. The results of the effect of BP1 on mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 indicate that BP1 enhances the cell proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and cytokine secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Because the inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 blocks the BP1-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, we hypothesize that α-glucan BP1 activates TLR4, which mediates the above-mentioned immunomodulating effects. PMID:27314319

  20. Effect of a Chinese herbal formula Astragalus immunomodulator on immune function of chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru ZHANG; Guojun JIANG; Shupeng LI; Xiuhui ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the immunomodulatory effects and the mechanism of a Chinese herbal medicine, Zengmiansan (Astragalus immunomodulator), on immune function of chickens, three hundred 1-day-old chickens were assigned randomly into 5 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the Chinese herbal medicine Zengmiansan (ZMS)-treated group, the cyclophosphamide group, the cyclophosphamide plus levamisole group, the cyclophosphamide plus ZMS group and the control group. All chickens were immunized with Lasota vaccine by nose-drip or eye-drop at the age of 6 days. Newcastle Disease (ND) antibody titers, growth indexes of the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood, and the apoptosis of splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells were observed at the ages of 14,21, 28 and 35 days, respectively. Our results indicated that the NDV antibody titers of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS-treated group at the ages of 14 and 21 days were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.01). The growth indexes of immune organs, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS- treated group at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 d were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P<0.01). The apoptotic splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells of chickens in the ZMS-treated group were significantly lower than the other groups (P < 0.01) at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 days.

  1. Immunomodulation targeting abnormal protein conformation reduces pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Goñi

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the conformational change of normal self-proteins into amyloidogenic, pathological conformers, which share structural properties such as high β-sheet content and resistance to degradation. The most common is Alzheimer's disease (AD where the normal soluble amyloid β (sAβ peptide is converted into highly toxic oligomeric Aβ and fibrillar Aβ that deposits as neuritic plaques and congophilic angiopathy. Currently, there is no highly effective treatment for AD, but immunotherapy is emerging as a potential disease modifying intervention. A major problem with most active and passive immunization approaches for AD is that both the normal sAβ and pathogenic forms are equally targeted with the potential of autoimmune inflammation. In order to avoid this pitfall, we have developed a novel immunomodulatory method that specifically targets the pathological conformations, by immunizing with polymerized British amyloidosis (pABri related peptide which has no sequence homology to Aβ or other human proteins. We show that the pABri peptide through conformational mimicry induces a humoral immune response not only to the toxic Aβ in APP/PS1 AD transgenic mice but also to paired helical filaments as shown on AD human tissue samples. Treated APP/PS1 mice had a cognitive benefit compared to controls (p<0.0001, associated with a reduction in the amyloid burden (p = 0.0001 and Aβ40/42 levels, as well as reduced Aβ oligomer levels. This type of immunomodulation has the potential to be a universal β-sheet disrupter, which could be useful for the prevention or treatment of a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Dynamics of central and peripheral immunomodulation in a murine glioma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Richard CE

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppression by gliomas contributes to tumor progression and treatment resistance. It is not known when immunosuppression occurs during tumor development but it likely involves cross-talk among tumor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs, and peripheral as well as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs. Results We have performed a kinetic study of this immunomodulation, assessing the dynamics of immune infiltration and function, within the central nervous system (CNS and peripherally. PDGF-driven murine glioma cells were injected into the white matter of 13 mice. Four mice were sacrificed 13 days post-injection (dpi, four mice at 26 dpi, and five mice at 40 dpi. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, splenic T cells were assessed for FoxP3 expression to identify regulatory T cells (Tregs and production of IFN-γ and IL-10 after stimulation with PMA/ionomycin; within the CNS, CD4+ TILs were quantified, and TAMs were quantified and assessed for TNF-α and IL-10 production after stimulation with LPS. Peripheral changes associated with tumor development were noted prior to effects within the CNS. The percentage of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs increased by day 26, with elevated frequencies throughout the duration of the study. This early increase in Tregs was paralleled by an increase in IL-10 production from Tregs. At the final time points examined (tumor morbidity or 40 dpi, there was an increase in the frequency of TAMs with decreased capacity to secrete TNF-α. An increase in TIL frequency was also observed at these final time points. Conclusion These data provide insight into the kinetics of the immunosuppressive state associated with tumor growth in a murine model of human gliomas. Functional impairment of TAMs occurs relatively late in the course of GBM tumor growth, potentially providing a window of opportunity for therapeutic strategies directed towards preventing their functional impairment.

  3. In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IFN-γ release assay enhances T cell responses in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv L Gaur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of innate immunity via pathogen recognition receptors (PRR modulates adaptive immune responses. PRR ligands are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants and as therapeutics, but their utility in diagnostics has not been explored. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs are functional T cell assays used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI; however, novel approaches are needed to improve their sensitivity. METHODS: In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IGRA (QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD In-Tube with Toll-like receptor agonists poly(I:C, LPS, and imiquimod was performed on blood from subjects with LTBI and negative controls. RESULTS: In vitro immunomodulation significantly enhanced the response of T cells stimulated with M. tuberculosis antigens from subjects with LTBI but not from uninfected controls. Immunomodulation of IGRA revealed T cell responses in subjects with LTBI whose T cells otherwise do not respond to in vitro stimulation with antigens alone. Similar to their in vivo functions, addition of poly(I:C and LPS to whole blood induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and IFN-α and enhanced the surface expression of antigen presenting and costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro immunomodulation of whole blood IGRA may be an effective strategy for enhancing the sensitivity of T cells for diagnosis of LTBI.

  4. The Role of Human Milk Immunomodulators in Protecting Against Viral Bronchiolitis and Development of Chronic Wheezing Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani-Louise Dixon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infants who are breastfed are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula fed infants, evidenced by decreased incidence of infections and diminished propensity for long term conditions, including chronic wheeze and/or asthma. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the duration of hospital admission, risk of respiratory failure and requirement for supplemental oxygen in infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis suggesting a potentially protective mechanism. This review examines the evidence and potential pathways for protection by immunomodulatory factors in human milk against the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, and subsequent recurrent wheeze in infants. Further investigations into the interplay between respiratory virus infections such as RSV and how they affect, and are affected by, human milk immunomodulators is necessary if we are to gain a true understanding of how breastfeeding protects many infants but not all against infections, and how this relates to long-term protection against conditions such as chronic wheezing illness or asthma.

  5. The Role of Human Milk Immunomodulators in Protecting Against Viral Bronchiolitis and Development of Chronic Wheezing Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dani-Louise

    2015-07-07

    Infants who are breastfed are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula fed infants, evidenced by decreased incidence of infections and diminished propensity for long term conditions, including chronic wheeze and/or asthma. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the duration of hospital admission, risk of respiratory failure and requirement for supplemental oxygen in infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis suggesting a potentially protective mechanism. This review examines the evidence and potential pathways for protection by immunomodulatory factors in human milk against the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and subsequent recurrent wheeze in infants. Further investigations into the interplay between respiratory virus infections such as RSV and how they affect, and are affected by, human milk immunomodulators is necessary if we are to gain a true understanding of how breastfeeding protects many infants but not all against infections, and how this relates to long-term protection against conditions such as chronic wheezing illness or asthma.

  6. Immunomodulating and Anti-Relapse Effects of Ozone Therapy in Atopic Dermatitis in Preschool and Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illek Y.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the state of immunologic responsiveness, immunomodulating and anti-relapse effects of ozone therapy in children with severe extended atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods. We examined 64 children (38 boys and 26 girls aged 5–10 years with severe extended atopic dermatitis. Group 1 patients (n=33 received complex standard treatment, Group 2 (n=31 — complex therapy in combination with ozone therapy. Results. Complex standard therapy resulted in complete, though short, clinical remission; and in remission the patients preserved the changed parameters of cellular and humoral components of immune system, nonspecific resistance and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood serum; while the patients receiving complex therapy combined with ozone therapy were found to have more rapid improvement of clinical indices, normalization of the most parameters of immunologic responsiveness and a long clinical remission.

  7. Immunomodulated signaling in macrophages: Studies on activation of Raf-1, MAPK, cPLA2 and secretion of IL-12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗梁; 宋秋宝; 林明群; 丁跃梅; 康小伟; 姚錱

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanism and signal transduction by LPS-mediated immunomodulation of murine peritoneal macrophages. It is found that the signal molecules of the down-stream of Ras, Raf-1, MAPK p44, and MAPK p42 are phosphorylated, and cPLA2 is activated with a significant increase of the release of [ H3 ] AA by macrophages in response to LPS and PMA. Compared with the very recent finding that LPS and PMA trigger the activation and translocation of PKC-α and PKC-ε, these findings suggest that there is a connection between PKC signaling pathway and the Raf-1/MAPK pathway and that the activation of these main signaling events may be closely related to the secretion of IL-12 during LPS-induced modulation of macrophages.

  8. CONCENTRATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFLAMMATORY PROCESS IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE UNDER ACTION OF IMMUNOMODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.I.

    2015-05-01

    groups of animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension treated with PO 0,5 ml 3- month rats (IIIb group n = 6 and 1 ml 22-month rats (IVb group n = 6. Control animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation on 3rd day - n = 12. Infected animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation on 3rd day - n = 12 and 7th day - n = 12. Results and discussion. One of the biological functions of the immunoglobulins is neutralization antigens to form circulating immune complexes. In the work it was shown that the induction of inflammation of P.aeruginosa and E.coli suspension in experimental animals of two age groups led to the increase of the CEC in serum compared to control animals. After administration experimental composite preparation comprising amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes and vitamins (MF in young animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension was revealed an increase the CEC, compared with an older group of animals throughout the experiment. When adding formulation containing mannitol and natural antioxidant betacarotene (РО, in the animals two age groups intensity CEC formation depended on the sequence of adding of suspension E. coli and immunomodulator PО. Was revealed elevated levels of CEC only, in those animals which immunocorrector PО was given to induce an inflammatory response. Conclusion. In the control group of animals older age (22 months the CEC concentration was 2 times lower than in the young (3 months control animals. After the action of bacterial suspensions P.aeruginosa and E.coli formation CEC intensity was significantly increased in both age groups of experimental animals, indicating the activation of antigen binding immunoglobulin infection. The action of the immunocorrective composite peptide drug MF significantly inhibited the formation of the CEC only in older animals throughout the experiment. With the addition of immunocorrector PО revealed increase of the CEC in young and old animals to induce inflammatory

  9. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  10. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  11. Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J E

    2001-12-01

    Viral diseases, including emerging and chronic viruses, are an increasing worldwide health concern. As a consequence, the discovery of new antiviral agents from plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. A number of native Amazonian medicines of plant origin are known to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, although only a few have been studied for their antiviral properties and immunomodulating effects. Those most studied include: Sangre de Grado (drago) (Croton lechleri) in the Euphorbiaceae family and Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa) in the Rubiaceae family. This article reviews the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, state of current research, clinical use, and potential antiviral and immunomodulating activity of these and other plants from the Peruvian Amazon.

  12. [Use of immunomodulators isolated from marine invertebrates for reducing the toxic effects of thermostable toxin and lipopolysaccharides from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on a macroorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T A; Logvinenko, A A; Timchenko, N F; Epshteĭn, L M; Besednova, N N

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to use immunomodulators isolated from marine invertebrates for the lowering of the toxic effects caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis thermoresistant toxin and lipopolysaccharide was investigated. Effects were evaluated by the animals survival rate in per cent and mice average lifetime after toxin lethal dose injection. It was shown that polypeptide gangleen when compared to timalin as well as glycanes mitilane and strombus had dose-dependent protective effect. These substances increased animals survival rate to 15-17 per cent and prolonged life period for about two times when compared to control group. These results demonstrates the possibility to use investigated immunomodulators is clinical practice at the treatment of the patients with pseudotuberculosis. PMID:11697237

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF IMMUNOMODULATING PROPERTIES OF C HITOSAN AND ITS DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ivanushko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative study was carried out, aiming to assess immunostimulatory properties of high-molecular chitosan (Ch-HM and its derivatives, i.e., low molecular weight chitosan (Ch-LM, N-3-hydroxymyristoyl (Ch-LM at a low acylation ratio, N-3-hydroxymyristoylchitooligosaccharides (N-acylchito-biose, -triose, -tetraose, N-, O-carboxyalkylchitosans (carboxymethyl, -ethyl, -propyl derivates. It was established, that the chemical modifications of chitosan influenced its biological activity. The derivatives of chitosan were found to have improved physical properties (good solubility in neutral and alkaline solutions, low viscosity in acidic solutions, good absorption from a gastrointestinal compartment, as compared with initial (high molecular weight chitosan formula. They possess immunomodulatory properties and may be regarded as promising substances for preparation of medical drugs and biologically active food additives (BAFA.

  14. Umbilical cord-derived stem cells (MODULATISTTM show strong immunomodulation capacity compared to adipose tissue-derived or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show great promise in regenerative medicine. Clinical applications of MSCs have recently increased significantly, especially for immune diseases. Autologous transplantation is considered a safe therapy. However, its main disadvantages are poor stability and quality of MSCs from patient to patient, and labor-intensive and time-consuming culture procedures. Therefore, allogeneic MSC transplantation has recently emerged as a potential replacement for autologous transplantation. and ldquo;Off the shelf and rdquo; MSC products, or so-called and ldquo;stem cell drugs and rdquo;, have rapidly developed; these products have already been approved in various countries, including Canada, Korea and Japan. This study aims to evaluate a new stem cell product or and ldquo;drug and rdquo;, termed ModulatistTM, derived from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs, which have strong immunomodulatory properties, compared to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs. Methods: ModulatistTM was produced from MSCs derived from whole umbilical cord (UC tissue (which includes Wharton's jelly and UC, according to GMP compliant procedures. Bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were isolated and proliferated in standard conditions, according to GMP compliant procedures. Immunomodulation mediated by MSCs was assessed by allogenic T cell suppression and cytokine release; role of prostaglandin E2 in the immunomodulation was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that ModulatistTM exhibited stronger immunomodulation than BMMSC and ADSC in vitro. ModulatistTM strongly suppressed allogeneic T cells proliferation and decreased cytokine production, compared to BMMSCs and ADSCs. Conclusion: ModulatistTM is a strong immunomodulator and promising MSC product. It may be useful to modulate or treat autoimmune diseases. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 687-696

  15. Use of immunomodulators in infectious diseases of domestic animals/
    Uso de imunomoduladores nas enfermidades infecciosas dos animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Megid; Camila Michele Appolinário

    2007-01-01

    Immunomodulators are substances that act in the immune system providing, increase of the organic answer against microorganisms, including virus, bacteria and protozoa, by inducing the production of interferon and its inducers. There are a lot of situations in veterinary medicine where it is usefull to potencialize the immune response of individuals, mainly when is desired to increase the resistance to infections and the treatment of immunossupressing or multifactorials infectious diseases. In...

  16. Recent advances in mesenchymal stem cell immunomodulation: the role of microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra; Del Fattore, Andrea; Luciano, Rosa; Muraca, Marta; Teti, Anna; Muraca, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are the most widely used cell phenotype for therapeutic applications, the main reasons being their well-established abilities to promote regeneration of injured tissues and to modulate immune responses. Efficacy was reported in the treatment of several animal models of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and, in clinical settings, for the management of disorders such as GVHD, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The effects of mesenchymal stem cells are believed to be largely mediated by paracrine signals, and several secreted molecules have been identified as contributors to the net biological effect. Recently, it has been recognized that bioactive molecules can be shuttled from cell to cell packed in microvesicles, tiny portions of cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane. Coding and noncoding RNAs are also carried in such microvesicles, transferring relevant biological activity to target cells. Several reports indicate that the regenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells can be reproduced by microvesicles isolated from their culture medium. More recent evidence suggests that the immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells are also at least partially mediated by secreted microvesicles. These findings allow better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell interaction and may have interesting implications for the development of novel therapeutic tools in place of the parent cells.

  17. A Type VI secretion system encoding locus is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica immunomodulation and persistence in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Weyrich

    Full Text Available Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SSs have been identified in numerous gram-negative pathogens, but the lack of a natural host infection model has limited analysis of T6SS contributions to infection and pathogenesis. Here, we describe disruption of a gene within locus encoding a putative T6SS in Bordetella bronchiseptica strain RB50, a respiratory pathogen that circulates in a broad range of mammals, including humans, domestic animals, and mice. The 26 gene locus encoding the B. bronchiseptica T6SS contains apparent orthologs to all known core genes and possesses thirteen novel genes. By generating an in frame deletion of clpV, which encodes a putative ATPase required for some T6SS-dependent protein secretion, we observe that ClpV contributes to in vitro macrophage cytotoxicity while inducing several eukaryotic proteins associated with apoptosis. Additionally, ClpV is required for induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 production in J774 macrophages infected with RB50. During infections in wild type mice, we determined that ClpV contributes to altered cytokine production, increased pathology, delayed lower respiratory tract clearance, and long term nasal cavity persistence. Together, these results reveal a natural host infection system in which to interrogate T6SS contributions to immunomodulation and pathogenesis.

  18. Nutrición enteral con dieta inmunomoduladora perioperatoria Enteral nutrition with peri-surgery immunomodulating diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdel-lah Fernández

    2005-12-01

    ía postoperatorio respecto del 5º día. Las diferencias son en la mayoría de los casos estadísticamente significativas. Resultaron ser partícipes en la ecuación de predicción de la morbimortalidad las variables, colesterol, enfermedades asociadas, PCR, IgM y sexo varón. Conclusiones: Las variables analizadas, excepto el sexo, parecen ser indicadores adecuados para el estudio de la respuesta a la agresión quirúrgica y así mismo a la nutrición enteral. La nutrición perioperatoria inmunomoduladora creemos que recupera las cifras de parámetros nutricionales postoperatorios.La nutrición enteral por yeyunostomía es bien tolerada y con morbilidad baja y poco severa.Objective: To assess the nutritional peri-surgical status of patients suffering from esophageal or gastric cancer, treated with esophagectomy and total gastrectomy, respectively, and to analyze the impact of an enteral immunomodulating diet on postsurgical complications. Setting: Patients admitted to the Surgery Department of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. Patients and methods: Patients submitted to esophagectomy and/or total gastrectomy to whom early enteral nutrition (EN is provided with an immunomodulating diet. Interventions: All patients were prescribed an immunomodulating diet of 1000 Kcal/day p.o. plus a normal grinded diet that they started on the 5th presurgical day and pursued during the immediate postsurgical period (within the first 24 hours with EN through a jejunostomy catheter, in a progressive way until reaching 25 kcal/kg/day at days 4-5. EN was kept in place for at least the first 10 days after surgery and laboratory checkups were done before surgery and at days 5 and 10 after surgery. We also performed a prediction equation, with morbidity as the dependent variable and the remaining as independent variables. Results: Sixty-eight patients were studied of whom 36 (35 men and 1 women suffered from esophageal cancer and 32 (21 men and 11 women from gastric cancer. Mean age of

  19. Immunomodulation and T helper TH₁/TH₂ response polarization by CeO₂ and TiO₂ nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Schanen

    Full Text Available Immunomodulation by nanoparticles, especially as related to the biochemical properties of these unique materials, has scarcely been explored. In an in vitro model of human immunity, we demonstrate two catalytic nanoparticles, TiO₂ (oxidant and CeO₂ (antioxidant, have nearly opposite effects on human dendritic cells and T helper (T(H cells. For example, whereas TiO₂ nanoparticles potentiated DC maturation that led towards T(H1-biased responses, treatment with antioxidant CeO₂ nanoparticles induced APCs to secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, and induce a T(H2-dominated T cell profile. In subsequent studies, we demonstrate these results are likely explained by the disparate capacities of the nanoparticles to modulate ROS, since TiO₂, but not CeO₂ NPs, induced inflammatory responses through an ROS/inflammasome/IL-1β pathway. This novel capacity of metallic NPs to regulate innate and adaptive immunity in profoundly different directions via their ability to modulate dendritic cell function has strong implications for human health since unintentional exposure to these materials is common in modern societies.

  20. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.

  1. Immunomodulative effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou TAN; Zhong-yuan SU; Rong-rong WU; Bin GU; Yu-kan LIU; Xiao-li ZHAO; Ming ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Human embryonic stem cells(hESCs)have recently been reported as an unlimited source of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs).The present study not only provides an identical and clinically compliant MSC source derived from hESCs(hESC-MSCs),but also describes the immunomodulative effects of hESC-MSCs in vitro and in vivo for a carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver inflammation model.Methods: Undifferentiated hESCs were treated with Rho-associated kinase(ROCK)inhibitor and induced to fibroblast-looking cells.These cells were tested for their surface markers and multilineage differentiation capability.Further more,we analyzed their immune characteristics by mixed lymphocyte reactions(MLRs)and animal experiments.Results: hESC-MSCs show a homogenous fibroblastic morphology that resembles bone marrow-derived MSCs(BM-MSCs).The cell markers and differentiation potential of hESC-MSCs are also similar to those of BM-MSCs.Unlike their original cells,hESC-MSCs possess poor immunogenicity and can survive and be engrafted into a xenogenic immunocompetent environment.Conclusions: The hESC-MSCs demonstrate strong inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and anti-inflammatory infiltration properties in vivo.This study offers information essential to the applications of hESC-MSC-based therapies and evidence for the therapeutic mechanisms of action.

  2. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  3. Natural killer cell immunomodulation: targeting activating, inhibitory, and co-stimulatory receptor signaling for cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariad eChester

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling clinical and experimental evidence to suggest natural killer (NK cells play a critical role in the recognition and eradication of tumors. Efforts at using NK cells as antitumor agents began over two decades ago, but recent advances in elucidating NK cell biology have accelerated the development of NK cell-targeting therapeutics. NK cell activation and the triggering of effector functions is governed by a complex set of activating and inhibitory receptors. In the early phases of cancer immune surveillance, NK cells directly identify and lyse cancer cells. Nascent transformed cells elicit NK cell activation and are eliminated. However, as tumors progress, cancerous cells develop immunosuppressive mechanisms that circumvent NK cell-mediated killing, allowing for tumor escape and proliferation. Therapeutic intervention aims to reverse tumor-induced NK cell suppression and sustain NK cells’ tumorlytic capacities. Here, we review tumor-NK cell interactions, discuss the mechanisms by which NK cells generate an antitumor immune response, and discuss NK cell-based therapeutic strategies targeting activating, inhibitory, and costimulatory receptors.

  4. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  5. Interaction involving the thymus and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, immunomodulation by hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana 2

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfectly projected and impeccably created, the endocrine system precisely regulates the most delicate immune processes. The immune and neuroendocrine systems are two essential physiological components of mammalian organisms important for protection from the infection and disease on one hand, and on the other, for regulation of metabolism and other physiological activities; namely, the evidence has been found indicating that there is active and dynamic collaboration of these systems in the execution of their designated functions [1, 2,4]. These interactions occur at many stages of embryonic and neonatal development, and they are a continual part of normal homeostatic balance necessary to preserve health. There is communication between neuroendocrine and immune system via cytokines, neurotransmitters and peptide hormones which act, in both systems, through the same receptor molecules (Scheme 1. Many investigators have reported the increased thymic weight in experimental animals due to both castration and adrenalectomy [4]. The discovery from 1898 revealing that thymus was enlarged in castrated rabbits has been considered the embryo of hybrid medical discipline, i.e. the immunoendocrinology [1]. In the actual literature, at least in that available to us, it has not been noted that the appearance of the eunuchs, i.e. the castrates, stimulated the analytical approach to this phenomenon. Endocrine influences appear to be a part of bidirectional circuitry, namely, thymic hormones also regulate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. Physiologically, thymus is under neuroendocrine control. It is apparent that the circulating levels of distinct peptide hormones are necessary to maintain a series of biological functions related both to micro environmental and lymphoid cells of the organ. The neuroendocrine control of the thymus appears to be extremely complex, with apparent presence of complete intrathymic biological circuitry involving the

  6. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation. PMID:26997202

  7. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Bergamo Estrela

    Full Text Available Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5'-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT, leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado.

  8. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in three-dimensional culture promote neuronal regeneration by neurotrophic protection and immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sufang; Wang, Bin; Li, Xing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Han, Jin; Zhao, Yannan; Fang, Yongxiang; Yin, Yanyun; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed three-dimensional (3D) culture could better mimic the stem cell niche in vivo in comparison with conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture. In this study, we found that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in 3D collagen scaffold (3D BMSCs) exhibited distinctive features including significantly enhancing neurotrophic factor secretions and reducing macrophage activations challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. To further evaluate 3D BMSCs' potential benefits to the regeneration of spinal cord injury (SCI), the 3D and 2D BMSCs were respectively implanted in rat hemisected SCI. Compared with 2D cohort, 3D BMSCs transplantation significantly reduced the expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at 5 days after transplantation, markedly enhanced axonal regeneration, and promoted motor functional recovery during 8 weeks of observation. When Nocodazole was used to depolymerize the cytoskeleton of 3D BMSCs, the changed expressions of neurotrophic factors and inflammatory cytokines were blunted, at least partially. Thus synergistic effects of neuronal protection and immunomodulation of 3D BMSCs may lead to a better functional recovery of SCI and the underlying mechanism may involve the alteration of their cellular morphology because of 3D culture. This study contributes to a better understanding of the cellular characteristics of 3D BMSCs and provides a novel strategy to promote the repair of the injured spinal cord. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1759-1769, 2016. PMID:26990583

  9. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of the herbal preparation indicated for prevention and treatment of alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkin AY

    2013-10-01

    exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. It is promising for the prevention and treatment of alopecia.Keywords: herbal preparation, Arctium lappa, Sophora japonica, Acorus calamus, Urtica dioica, Humulus lupulus

  10. Are we giving biologics too late? The case for early versus late use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena Ricart; Orlando García-Bosch; Ingdd Ordás; Julián Panés

    2008-01-01

    Corticosteroids and immunomodulators have been the mainstay therapies for Crohn's disease. Corticosteroids are highly effective to control symptoms in the shortterm, but they are not effective in maintaining remission, they heal the mucosa in a reduced proportion of cases, and long-time exposure is associated with an increased risk of infections and mortality. Immunomodulators, azathioprine and methotrexate, heal the mucosa in a higher proportion of patients that corticosteroids but their onset of action is slow and they benefit less than half of patients with Crohn's disease. In the last decade, medical therapy for Crohn's disease has experienced a remarkable change due to the introduction of biologic therapy, and particularly the use of anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha agents. Infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol have demonstrated efficacy for induction and maintenance of remission in active Crohn's disease. These agents have raised the bar for what is a suitable symptomatic response in Crohn's disease and modification of the natural history of the disease has become a major goal in the treatment of Crohn's disease. There are several data in the literature that suggest that early use of biologic therapy and achievement of mucosal healing contribute to disease course modification. However, many questions on early biological therapy for Crohn's disease remain still unanswered.

  11. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 μg L-1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 μg L-1 group (n = 10; P = 0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 μg L-1 exposure group (n = 10, P = 0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 μg L-1 groups (n = 12, P -1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations

  12. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  13. Using recombinant Lactococci as an approach to dissect the immunomodulating capacity of surface piliation in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar von Ossowski

    Full Text Available Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA, we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG

  14. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  15. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP) and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovsca Janjatovic, A; Valpotic, H; Kezic, D; Lacković, G; Gregorovic, G; Sladoljev, S; Mršić, G; Popovic, M; Valpotic, I

    2012-09-13

    Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP)] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS), were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc) but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP). Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days), reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs) between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95), SP (rs=0.97/0.97) and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95), respectively, showed positive correlations (Psecretion of

  16. Extended continuous infusion low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 in advanced cancer: prolonged immunomodulation without significant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, M A; Murray, C; Soiffer, R J; Klumpp, T R; Seiden, M; Cochran, K; Cameron, C; Ish, C; Buchanan, L; Perillo, D

    1991-12-01

    In previous clinical trials, recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) has been infused at high doses over short periods of time to generate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells in vivo. These trials have been limited by severe toxicities, and the immunologic effects of rIL-2 have been transient. The present study was designed to assess the toxicity and immunologic effects of prolonged administration of low doses of rIL-2. In this phase I study, patients with advanced cancer were scheduled to receive intravenous (IV) infusion of rIL-2 without interruption for 3 months in an outpatient setting. Twenty-one patients received rIL-2 at doses ranging from 0.5 x 10(5) to 6.0 x 10(5) U/m2/d. Treatment was extremely well tolerated, and no patient experienced grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity. The lowest dose level (0.5 x 10(5) U/m2/d) did not have demonstrable immunologic activity. At doses of 1.5 x 10(5) and 4.5 x 10(5) U/m2/d, rIL-2 infusion resulted in the specific expansion of natural-killer (NK) cells (sixfold and ninefold increases, respectively, at these two dose levels) without any changes in B cells, T cells, neutrophils, or monocytes. Grade 2 toxicity was observed at the dose of 6.0 x 10(5) U/m2/d, as three patients required interruption of therapy and two patients who completed therapy developed transient hypothyroidism. In patients with increased NK cells, enhancement of non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity and increased generation of LAK cells in vitro were also demonstrated. Therapy with low-dose rIL-2 can be given safely in an uninterrupted fashion for prolonged periods of time in an outpatient setting. This results in selective expansion of NK cells in vivo with minimal toxicity. Further investigation of this schedule for immunomodulation in vivo should be pursued in phase II studies of both malignant and immunodeficient disease states. PMID:1960552

  17. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  18. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kovsca Janjatovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP and substance P (SP] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS, were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP. Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days, reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95, SP (rs=0.97/0.97 and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95, respectively, showed positive correlations (P<0

  19. Proceedings of the international conference on radiation biology: frontiers in radiobiology - immunomodulation, countermeasures and therapeutics: abstract book, souvenir and scientific programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was focussed on important research areas such as, induction of an effective anti-tumor response by boosting the immune system; prevention, assessment and treatment of radiation injuries; strategies for developing medical countermeasures against ionizing radiations. The combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy holds particular promise as an important modality for cancer therapeutics. Further, intentional or accidental exposure of humans to ionizing radiation can lead to multiple radiological injuries and therefore, necessitates the need to identify and develop the novel medical countermeasures against ionizing radiations. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. Biological Effects of Yeast β-Glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Petravić-tominac

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available β-Glucans are glucose polymers that naturally occur in yeasts, molds, algae, mushrooms, bacteria, oats and barley. Immunostimulation is one of the most important properties of β-glucans. They are classified as biological response modifiers and because of their biological activities they can be used in human and veterinary medicine and pharmacy. Additionally, β-glucans show interesting physicochemical properties and therefore could be applied in food and feed production as well as in cosmetic and chemical industries. Immunomodulation by β-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents or reduces bacterial infection. In humans, dietary β-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing. β-Glucans work, in part, by stimulating the innate immune mechanism to fight a range of foreign challenges and could be used as an adjuvant, in combination with anti infective or antineoplastic agents, radiotherapy, and a range of topical agents and nutrients. The structure of β-glucans depends on the source they are isolated from. Native β-glucan molecules can be linked and branched in several ways. Biological properties of different β-glucan molecules are dependent on their molecular structure. Some authors claim that the β-(1→3, (1→6-glucan derived from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce the highest biological effects. Thus, in this review the β-glucans and their metabolic activity are discussed, with the special accent on those isolated from yeast. Other possible β-glucan applications, directed to cosmetic production, non-medical application in pharmaceutical and chemical industry, are also discussed.

  1. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  2. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  3. Immunomodulation by microbial ribosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Domzig

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, many authors have reported evidence of the immunoprotective capacity of ribosomes isolated from bacteria, fungi and parasites. Since 1971 we have explored the protective capacity of ribosomes isolated from a large variety of microorganisms responsible for human and animal diseases. More recently, using monoclonal antibodies raised against ribosomes and then selected for their ability to confer passive immunity to mice, we have studied the mechanism of the protection induced by ribosomes. These studies, in parallel with the development of a technology for the large scale production of ribosomes, have allowed us to achieve a new regard for ribosomal vaccines for use in human. The general concept of ribosomal vaccines in presented and examples of two such vaccines are described with data on the specific protection that they induce in mice against experimental infections with Klebsiella peneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae for the first one, and against Candida albicans type A and type B for the second one. Because of their high immunogenicity and their innocuity these vaccines represent a decisive improvement over classical microbial vaccines.

  4. Effect of immunomodulation on the fate of tumor cells in the central nervous system and systemic organs of mice. Distribution of (/sup 125/I)5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled KHT tumor cells after left intracardial injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, F.K.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of systemic immunomodulation on tumor cell arrest and retention in the central nervous system was studied by following radioactively labeled tumor cells. KHT mouse sarcoma tumor cells were labeled in vitro with (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, and 1x10/sup 5/ tumor cells were injected into the left side of the hearts of syngeneic C3H mice. Experimental groups consisted of untreated normal mice, mice pretreated iv with Corynebacterium parvum, and mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii; in this model both groups of immunomodulated mice are protected from developing systemic metastatic tumor, but only Toxoplasma-infected mice have protection against metastatic brain tumor. At time intervals from 1 to 96 hours, groups of mice from each experimental group were killed, and the brain and other organs were monitored for radioactivity to determine the number of viable tumor cells that had been present at the time of death. Normal mice demonstrated significant retention of tumor cells in the brain and kidneys plus adrenals at 96 hours. By contrast, in both groups of immunomodulated mice tumor cells were rapidly eliminated from systemic organs, but tumor cells were significantly retained in the central nervous system even at 96 hours after tumor cell injections. The results indicated that generalized immunomodulation had more effect in elimination of tumor cells from systemic organs than from the brain and that the elimination of tumor cells from the brain in Toxoplasma-infected mice was a delayed phenomenon.

  5. Characterization and biological activity of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifa Yang

    Full Text Available Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS improves cellular and humoral immune responses of animals and is a novel potential immunomodulator. However, the components of TPPPS have not been recognized. To investigate the composition of TPPPS, crude polysaccharide was obtained from Taishan P. massoniana pollen through water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (TPPPS1, TPPPS2, and TPPPS3 were purified from TPPPS by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The average molecular weights of the three polysaccharides were 56, 25, and 128 kDa, respectively. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC showed that TPPPS comprised mannose, ribose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The biological activity assays showed that TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 significantly promoted spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and that TPPPS3 showed better effect than TPPPS2. TPPPS3 enhanced the secretion of cytokine IL-2 and TNF, whereas TPPPS2 mainly elevated IL-2 secretion. By contrast, TPPPS1 exhibited other effects, and it induced the highest amount of NO production, thereby indicating that TPPPS1 had the best antioxidant activity. TPPPS3 at 50 μg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of subgroup B Avian Leukosis virus (ALV-B through virus adsorption interference in vitro. Results indicated that TPPPS comprised three main components, among which, TPPPS1 mainly showed antioxidant effects, whereas TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 played key roles in immunomodulation, especially TPPPS3. Further studies on the use of a reasonable proportion of TPPPS1-3 may facilitate the development of an effective immunomodulator.

  6. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  7. Use of immunomodulators in infectious diseases of domestic animals/ Uso de imunomoduladores nas enfermidades infecciosas dos animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulators are substances that act in the immune system providing, increase of the organic answer against microorganisms, including virus, bacteria and protozoa, by inducing the production of interferon and its inducers. There are a lot of situations in veterinary medicine where it is usefull to potencialize the immune response of individuals, mainly when is desired to increase the resistance to infections and the treatment of immunossupressing or multifactorials infectious diseases. In veterinary medicine some of more used immunomodulators are interferons and interferon inducers, interleukines, Baccilus of Calmett-Guérin (BCG and its derivated, Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium parvum, mixed bacterial vaccine, PIND-ORF, Phosprenyl, Quillja Saponis, Bordetella pertussis, avridine and the levamizole. The present work review the available scientific literature, regarding the use of different immunomodulators in the prophylaxis and in the therapeutics of infectious diseases in domestic animals.Imunomoduladores são substâncias que atuam no sistema imunológico conferindo aumento da resposta orgânica contra determinados microorganismos, incluindo vírus, bactérias e protozoários, mediante à produção de interferon e seus indutores. Existem muitas situações na medicina veterinária em que se torna desejável potencializar a resposta imune, principalmente quando se pretende aumentar a resistência às infecções e no tratamento de enfermidades imunossupressoras ou de doenças infecciosas multifatorias, ou seja, nas quais vários agentes estão envolvidos e devido a isso, dificilmente obtêm-se sucesso no emprego de tratamentos convencionais. Na medicina veterinária alguns imunomoduladores utilizados são interferons , interleucinas, Bacilo de Calmett-Guérin (BCG e seus derivados, Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium parvum, vacina bacteriana mista, PIND-ORF, Phosprenyl, Quillaja saponis, Bordetella pertussis, avridina e

  8. Impact of postoperative omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes and immunomodulations in colorectal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liang; Shan Wang; Ying-Jiang Ye; Xiao-Dong Yang; You-Li Wang; Jun Qu; Qi-Wei Xie; Mu-Jun Yin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid parenteral supplementation postoperatively on clinical outcomes and immunomodulation in colorectal cancer patients.METHODS: Forty-two patients undergoing radical colorectal cancer resection with an indication for total parenteral nutrition postoperatively were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study.Patients received total parenteral nutrition supplemented with either soybean oil (LCT; Intralipid(R), Fresenius-Kabi,SO group, n = 21) or a combination of omega-3 fish oil and soybean oil (LCT:fish oil = 5:1, fish oil; Omegaven(R),Fresenius-Kabi, FO group, n = 21), up to a total of 1.2 g lipid/kg per day for 7 d postoperatively. A same volume calorie and nitrogen was administrated.Routine blood test, biochemistry, systemic levels ofIL-6 and TNF-α, percentage of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+lymphocytes were evaluated preoperatively and on postoperative d 1 and 8. Patient outcome was evaluated considering mortality during the hospital stay, length ofpostoperative hospital stay, and occurrence of infectiouscomplications.RESULTS: Both lipid regimens were well tolerated.No differences between the two groups were noticedin demographics, baseline blood test, biochemistry,serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-o~, percentage of CD4+,CD8+ lymphocytes, and ratios of CD4+/CD8+. Comparedwith those on postoperative d 1, serum IL-6 levels onpostoperative d 8 were significantly depressed in the FO group than in the reference group (-44.43 ± 30.53 vs-8.39 ± 69.08, P = 0.039). Simultaneously, the ratios of CD4+/CD+ were significantly increased in the FO group (0.92± 0.62 vs 0.25± 1.22, P = 0.035). In addition,depression of serum TNF-α levels (-0.82 ± 2.71 vs0.27 ± 1.67, P = 0.125) and elevation of CD3+ and CD4+lymphocyte percentage (12.85 ±11.61 vs 3.84 ± 19.62,P = 0.081, 17.80 ±10.86 vs 9.66 ± 17.55, P = 0.084,respectively) were higher in the FO group than in the reference group. Patients in the FO group

  9. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  10. Comparative immunomodulation potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F., Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill and Tinospora cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkhede, A N; Jagtap, S D; Kasote, D M; Kulkarni, O P; Harsulkar, A M

    2014-08-01

    Guduchi has been widely used in the traditional medicine as an immunomodulator. Description of guduchi in Ayurvedic literature resemble with T. sinensis rather than with commonly available T. cordifolia and hence this may be used as substitutes for T. sinensis. T. cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica commonly called Neem-guduchi has more immunomodulatory potential. Thus, immunomodulatory activity of three Tinospora spp. was assessed by checking humoral and cell mediated immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion tests on albino Wistar rats using Guduchi-Satwa, a well known dosage form. Results revealed that Neem-guduchi possesses higher immunomodulatory potential at the dose of 300 mg/kg, po and validated the traditional claim. Hence, Neem-Guduchi can be employed in immunomodulatory formulation prepared using guduchi. PMID:25141544

  11. Mycophenolic acid, an immunomodulator, has potent and broad-spectrum in vitro antiviral activity against pandemic, seasonal and avian influenza viruses affecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Mok, Ka-Yi; Chan, Andy S F; Cheung, Nam N; Wang, Pui; Lui, Yin-Ming; Chan, Jasper F W; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Kao, Richard Y T; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-01

    Immunomodulators have been shown to improve the outcome of severe pneumonia. We have previously shown that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunomodulator, has antiviral activity against influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) using a high-throughput chemical screening assay. This study further investigated the antiviral activity and mechanism of action of MPA against contemporary clinical isolates of influenza A and B viruses. The 50 % cellular cytotoxicity (CC50) of MPA in Madin Darby canine kidney cell line was over 50 µM. MPA prevented influenza virus-induced cell death in the cell-protection assay, with significantly lower IC50 for influenza B virus B/411 than that of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus H1/415 (0.208 vs 1.510 µM, P=0.0001). For H1/415, MPA interfered with the early stage of viral replication before protein synthesis. For B/411, MPA may also act at a later stage since MPA was active against B/411 even when added 12 h post-infection. Virus-yield reduction assay showed that the replication of B/411 was completely inhibited by MPA at concentrations ≥0.78 µM, while there was a dose-dependent reduction of viral titer for H1/415. The antiviral effect of MPA was completely reverted by guanosine supplementation. Plaque reduction assay showed that MPA had antiviral activity against eight different clinical isolates of A(H1N1), A(H3N2), A(H7N9) and influenza B viruses (IC50 <1 µM). In summary, MPA has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human and avian-origin influenza viruses, in addition to its immunomodulatory activity. Together with a high chemotherapeutic index, the use of MPA as an antiviral agent should be further investigated in vivo. PMID:27259985

  12. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  13. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  14. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  15. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  16. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  17. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  18. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  19. Immunomodulators for the treatment of Crohn's disease in adults: optimal use and prospects for future drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patrick B; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) requires treatment beyond symptoms by enabling and maintaining mucosal healing and therefore clinical remission. However, with the increasing use of biologics there have been safety concerns and there is a significant cost implication with the early use of biologics. Therefore, it is imperative that patients with severe/complicated disease or poor prognostic factors are treated with an aggressive strategy while all remaining patients should be treated in a step-up strategy. The potential for disease modification with thiopurines and methotrexate is debated in CD when they are used as a monotherapy. In this review we discuss existing and newer therapies that have recently been developed for CD. We will also provide an algorithm for current management of adult CD patients in routine clinical practice. PMID:26900725

  20. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  1. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  2. Immunomodulation and Nigerian mistletoe immunomodula-tory activities of n-hexane and methanol extracts of Loran-thus micranthus Linn.parasitic on Parkia biglobosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EOOmeje; POOsadebe; FBCOkoyea; AKAgwu; COEsimone

    2008-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus is the species of mistletoe peculiar to the eastern province of Nigeria.It has been shown to possess anti-diabetic,antimotility,antimicrobial and antihypertensive activities which are host-tree depend-ent.The antimicrobial activity was found to vary with the season during which the plant was harvested.We are of the opinion that this species should possess immunomodulating potentials as have been reported for the Euro-pean species,Viscum album.In our efforts to establish the bio-activities and active principles in our local mis-tletoe,the immunomodulatory activity of n-hexane and methanol extracts from Loranthus micranthus parasitic on Persea americana was assessed at three dose levels ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg body weight using de-layed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR)and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression models in mice.This was compared with responses from a standard immunostimulatory drug,levamisole.Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant showed the presence of tannins,flavonoids,alkaloids,terpenoids,carbo-hydrates and saponins.Regression analysis indicated a dose-dependent response relationship in the parameters measured with over 170 % increase for both extracts at the highest dose level.The one way ANOVA test showed significant variation in the parameters between the controls and the different dose levels.However,at 95 % confidence level,(P <0.05),there was no statistically significant difference between the two extracts, an indication that the active immunomodulant(s)could be both in the polar and non-polar crude extract.In conclusion,the present results have established some immune stimulating actions of the Eastern Nigeria mistle-toe,Loranthus micranthus thus indicating that this variant of the semi parasitic plant holds a strong promise as an immunostimulatory candidate.There is therefore,a basis for further detailed investigation on the fractions and specific constituents.Thus,these extracts from Loranthus

  3. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  4. Biological Effects of Yeast β-Glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Petravić-Tominac

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} β-Glucans are glucose polymers that naturally occur in yeasts, molds, algae, mushrooms, bacteria, oats and barley. Immunostimulation is one of the most important properties of β-glucans. They are classified as biological response modifiers and because of their biological activities they can be used in human and veterinary medicine and pharmacy. Additionally, β-glucans show interesting physicochemical properties and therefore could be applied in food and feed production as well as in cosmetic and chemical industries. Immunomodulation by β-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents or reduces bacterial infection. In humans, dietary β-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing. β-Glucans work, in part, by stimulating the innate immune mechanism to fight a range of foreign challenges and could be used as an adjuvant, in combination with anti infective or antineoplastic agents, radiotherapy, and a range of topical agents and nutrients. The structure of β-glucans depends on the source they are isolated from. Native β-glucan molecules can be linked and branched in several ways. Biological properties of different β-glucan molecules are dependent on their molecular structure. Some authors claim that the β-(1→3, (1→6-glucan derived from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce the highest biological effects. Thus, in this review the β-glucans and their metabolic

  5. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  6. 兔肠致病性大肠杆菌lifA基因的免疫调节和黏附特性%Lymphostatin (lifA) of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli possesses both immunomodulation and adhesion properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Cheng-ru; MAO Ying; Edgar C. Boedeker; 冯书章

    2009-01-01

    兔肠致病性大肠杆菌(rEPEC)菌株RDEC-1的基因组中lifA基因与LEE(Locus for enterocyte effacement)致病岛相毗邻.本试验通过DNA序列分析、基因打靶技术、细胞因子检测以及动物试验,分析lifA基因完整核苷酸序列及其生物学功能.结果表明,RDEC-1的lifA基因的核苷酸序列与人肠致病性大肠杆菌的完全相同;ifA基因具有降低家兔外周血单核细胞IL-2表达的作用.与野生型菌株RDEC-1相比,被定点敲除lifA基因的RDEC-1突变株(RDEC-1△lifA)口服接种家兔后,排菌量明显降低.利用野生型RDEC-1和RDEC-1△lifA基因缺失菌株同时口服接种家兔,从粪便中分离细菌,结果显示野生型RDEC-1是优势菌,而RDEC-1△lifA基因缺失菌数量极少.RDEC-1△lifA基因缺失菌株和野生型RDEC-1都能引起特征性家兔肠道上皮的黏附与细胞脱落病变(A/Elesion).表明rEPEC的lifA基因在免疫调节和细菌的肠道定居中起重要作用,这为研究lifA基因的生物学功能提供了直接证据.%The rabbit enteropathogenic E. coli (rEPEC) strain RDEC-1 possesses a lifA homologue adjacent to the LEE pathogenicity island. To study the entire nucleotide sequence and biological function of lifA,the DNA sequence and biological function of RDEC-1 lifA were analysed with gene cloning,gene knock-out and in vivo virulence examination. The result showed that the entire coding sequence of the lifA of RDEC-1 shares nearly absolute homology with the lifA of human isolates. RDEC-1 lifA inhibited IL-2 expression in stimulated rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We further demonstrated significant reduction in fecal bacterial shedding by RDEC-1 derivative lifA mutant when compared with its parent strain. In a competitive study when rabbits were inoculated with a combination of the WT and the mutant, the WT was the predominant bacteria recovered from fecal samples, while fewer mutant bacteria were recovered. However,the lifA mutant is able to

  7. Immunomodulation and neuroprotection with mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells (MSCs): a proposed treatment for multiple sclerosis and other neuroimmunological/neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karussis, Dimitrios; Kassis, Ibrahim; Kurkalli, Basan Gowda S; Slavin, Shimon

    2008-02-15

    Bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (non-hematopoietic, stromal cells) can differentiate under certain circumstances into cells from various neuronal and glial type lineages; they also exert immunomodulatory effects. For potential clinical applications, BM-MSCs offer significant practical advantages over other types of stem cells, since they can be obtained from the adult BM (the patient himself being the donor) and can be easily cultured and expanded posing in parallel a very low risk for development of malignancies. We have shown that BM-MSCs cultured with a cocktail of growth factors (containing FGF and BDNF) differentiate into neuronal/glial lineage cells with a predominance of cells expressing astrocytes' markers. BM-MSCs were effective in suppression of chronic EAE in mice and induced neuroprotection, preserving most of the axons in the CNS of successfully-treated animals. Histopathological studies revealed that MSCs could efficiently migrate into the CNS inflamed tissue (both when administered intravenously and intraventricularly) and differentiated into cells expressing neural-glial lineage markers. Our preclinical results indicate that bone marrow can provide a source of stem cells with a potential for migration into inflamed CNS tissue and differentiation into cells expressing neuronal and glial cell markers. Such an approach may provide a feasible and practical way for in situ immunomodulation, neuroprotection and possibly remyelination/regeneration in diseases like multiple sclerosis. We therefore developed a explorative protocol for the evaluation of this therapeutic approach in a small group of patients with MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Research Advances in Immunomodulation of Echinacea purpurea. in China%国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京城; 李洪; 付京花

    2012-01-01

    紫锥菊属植物,是原产于美洲的一类菊科野生花卉。紫锥菊以其免疫调节作用闻名于世。近年来,国内引种成功,其各种药理作用在人类、畜牧业以及水产养殖业有了广泛的研究。综述国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用在不同行业的研究进展,为紫锥菊在国内的应用提供参考。%The Echinacea purpurea., one of the plants of Compositae originated from America, has been widely used for centuries in North America and later in Europe for many therapeutic purposes. In resent years, the Echinacea purpurea. was introduced successfully in China and the pharmacological effects were widely researched in human, animal husbandry and aquiculture respectively. The advances in immunomodulation studies on Echinacea purpurea. in China were reviewed to provide the references for application of Echinacea purpurea .

  9. Ex Vivo and In Vitro Studies on the Cytotoxicity and Immunomodulative Properties of Poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) as a New Type of Biomedical Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneková, Zuzana; Mikulec, Marcel; Petrenčíková, Nadežda; Paulovičová, Ema; Paulovičová, Lucia; Jančinová, Viera; Nosál', Radomír; Reddy, Palem S; Shimoga, Ganesh D; Chorvát, Dušan; Kronek, Juraj

    2016-08-01

    Poly(2-alkenyl-2-oxazoline)s are promising functional polymers for a variety of biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, peptide conjugates, or gene delivery. In this study, poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) is prepared through free-radical polymerization initiated with azobisisobutyronitrile. Reactive 2-oxazoline units in the side chain support an addition reaction with different compounds containing a carboxylic group, which facilitates the preparation of polymers labeled with two different fluorescent dyes. The cytotoxicities of 2-oxazoline monomers, PIPOx, and fluorescently labeled PIPOx are evaluated in vitro using an 3-(4,5-Dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and ex vivo using a cell proliferation assay with adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence. The cell uptake of labeled PIPOx is used to determine the colocalization of PIPOx with cell organelles that are part of the endocytic pathway. For the first time, it is shown that poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) is a biocompatible material and is suitable for biomedical applications; further, its immunomodulative properties are evaluated. PMID:27150385

  10. Primary structure, conformation in aqueous solution, and intestinal immunomodulating activity of fucoidan from two brown seaweed species Sargassum crassifolium and Padina australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Tran, Van Thi Thanh; Bui, Ly Minh; Takebe, Shizuka; Suzuki, Shiho; Nakajima, Nobukazu; Kitamura, Shinichi; Thanh, Thuy Thi Thu

    2016-08-20

    We studied the structure of fucoidans extracted from two brown seaweed species, Sargassum crassifolium and Padina australis, and their intestinal immunomodulating activity via Peyer's patch cells of C3H/HeJ mice. ESI-MS analysis indicated that the dominant structure of both fucoidans has a backbone of α-(1→4)-linked and α-(1→3)-linked l-fucose residues and sulfate groups are attached at the C-2 and C-4 positions; branches of fucoidan from S. crassifolium are galactose residues with (1→4)- linkage and branching points are at C-4 of fucose, while fucoidan from P. australis, branches are sulfated galactose-fucose disaccharides and sulfated galactose monosaccharides attached to the main chain through (1→3)- or (1→4)- linkages. According to small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, the two fucoidans have a branched structure. We simulated them with molecular models based on our proposed primary structure. These fucoidan samples have the ability to stimulate intestinal immunological activity via Peyer's patch cells. PMID:27178910

  11. [The use of immunomodulating therapy as part of complex treatment of secondary peritonitis induces reduction of inflammation in patients of different age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanova, N Iu; Koniaev, I G; Epifanov, Iu A; Golubeva, V L; Serova, L D

    2011-01-01

    We present experience of using anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) in complex therapy of patients with extensive secondary peritonitis at the age of 29-83 years. The research was based on 60 patient cases: 29 (48%) of whom were given anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) Antilymfolin in post operative period and 31 patient of the control group who did not receive immunomodulating therapy within the complex treatment. The received data clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) usage for normalization of innate immunity indices and inflammation reduction. Immunostimulating effect in patients given anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) could be seen on the fourth day of the threatment. The drug is equally effective in patients of young and middle age as well as in patients of elderly and senility age. The positive influence of anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) on inflammation is shown with the reduction of CRP, gamma-globuline, alpha1-protein fraction serum levels normalization. The use of Antilymfolin induces the regression of inflammation and apparently improves the quality and duration of treatment and rehabilitation.

  12. 维生素D的免疫调节作用与儿童疾病%Immunomodulating effect of vitamin D and children's diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海园

    2012-01-01

    维生素D不仪参与钙磷代谢,而且还是一类重要的免疫功能凋节剂.维生素D主要通过调节各种免疫细胞的生长、分化和功能,影响细胞因子和抗微生物肽的分泌,在固有性免疫和适应性免疫中发挥重要作用.研究发现,维生素D缺乏与儿科急性下呼吸道感染、糖尿病和哮喘等疾病的发生发展相关. 文章就维生素D的免疫调节作用及其与儿童疾病的相关性作一综述.%Vitamin D, participating in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, is an important functional immune regulator. Vitamin D plays an important role in modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses, mainly through the modulation of growth, differentiation and function of a variety of immune cells, and the influence of secretion of eytokines and antimicrobial peptides. Studies show a close, association between vitamin D deficiency and pediutric diseases such as acute lower respiratory infection, diabetes and asthma. The purpose of this paper is to review immunomod-ulating effect of vitamin D and the correlation between vitamin D and children's diseases.

  13. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  14. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  15. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  16. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  17. Biological Literacy in a College Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demastes, Sherry; Wandersee, James H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the proposed definition of biological literacy as the understanding of a small number of pervasive biological principles appropriate to making informed personal and societal decisions. Utilizes the content of a major daily newspaper to adjust biology instruction to focus on this notion of biological literacy. Discusses benefits and…

  18. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  19. Monitoring the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of immunomodulators by time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muddiman, D.C.; Gusev, A.I.; Proctor, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion (TOF-SIMS) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry are emerging as useful methods for the investigation of drugs and metabolites in real biological systems. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the analysis of drugs and metabolites that may prove to be a viable alternative to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and immunoassays (e.g. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA)) in the clinical laboratory. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well characterized and extensively used anti-rejection drug with newer agents, such as FK-506, undergoing clinical trials. The therapeutic index of these agents can be improved by understanding the nature of their metabolism and pharmacokinetics. This report expands upon the initial CsA study by monitoring the in vivo metabolism of the drug and quantifying the major metabolite, AMI (M17) in whole blood extracts. Initial MALDI results of the in vitro metabolism of FK-506 using a hepatic microsomal system are also presented. FK-506 metabolism was investigated using Baboon microsomes because FK-506 will be used in xenotransplantation; thus it is important to understand how the drug is metabolized by other species that may serve as donors.

  20. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  1. Probing the cons and pros of lectin-induced immunomodulation: case studies for the mistletoe lectin and galectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, H J

    2001-07-01

    When imagining to monitor animal cells through a microscope with resolution at the molecular level, a salient attribute of their surfaces will be the abundance of glycan chains. They present galactosides at their termini widely extending like tentacles into the extracellular space. Their spatial accessibility and their potential for structural variability endow especially these glycan parts with capacity to act as docking points for molecular sensors (sugar receptors such as lectins). Binding and ligand clustering account for transmission of post-binding signals into the cell interior. The range of triggered activities has turned plant lectins into popular tools in cell biology and immunology. Potential for clinical application has been investigated rigorously only in recent years. As documented in vitro and in vivo for the galactoside-specific mistletoe lectin, its apparent immunomodulatory capacity reflected in upregulation of production of proinflammatory cytokines will not necessarily be clinically favorable but a double-edged sword. In fact, lectin application has been shown to stimulate tumor growth in cell lines, histocultures of human tumors and in two animal models using chemical carcinogenesis or tumor transplantation. When testing immunological effects of the endogenous lectin galectin-1, protection against disorders mediated by activated T cells came up for consideration. Elimination of these cells via CD7-dependent induction of apoptosis, and a shift to the Th2 response by the galectin, are factors to ameliorate disease states. This result encourages further efforts with other galectins. Functional redundancy, synergism, diversity or antagonism among galectins are being explored to understand the actual role of this class of endogenous lectins in inflammation. Regardless of the results of further preclinical testing for galectin-1, these two case studies break new ground in our understanding how glycans as ligands for lectins convey reactivity to

  2. Immunomodulation by different types of N-oxides in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ciacci

    Full Text Available The potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs for humans and the environment represents an emerging issue. Since the aquatic environment represents the ultimate sink for NP deposition, the development of suitable assays is needed to evaluate the potential impact of NPs on aquatic biota. The immune system is a sensitive target for NPs, and conservation of innate immunity represents an useful basis for studying common biological responses to NPs. Suspension-feeding invertebrates, such as bivalves, are particularly at risk to NP exposure, since they have extremely developed systems for uptake of nano and microscale particles integral to intracellular digestion and cellular immunity. Evaluation of the effects of NPs on functional parameters of bivalve immunocytes, the hemocytes, may help understanding the major toxic mechanisms and modes of actions that could be relevant for different NP types in aquatic organisms.In this work, a battery of assays was applied to the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to compare the in vitro effects of different n-oxides (n-TiO(2, n-SiO(2, n-ZnO, n-CeO(2 chosen on the basis of their commercial and environmental relevance. Physico-chemical characterization of both primary particles and NP suspensions in artificial sea water-ASW was performed. Hemocyte lysosomal and mitochondrial parameters, oxyradical and nitric oxide production, phagocytic activity, as well as NP uptake, were evaluated. The results show that different n-oxides rapidly elicited differential responses hemocytes in relation to their chemical properties, concentration, behavior in sea water, and interactions with subcellular compartments. These represent the most extensive data so far available on the effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic organisms. The results indicate that Mytilus hemocytes can be utilized as a suitable model for screening the potential effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic invertebrates, and may

  3. Evidence for immunomodulation and apoptotic processes induced by cationic polystyrene nanoparticles in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, L; Ciacci, C; Bergami, E; Monopoli, M P; Dawson, K A; Papa, S; Canonico, B; Corsi, I

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles can reach the marine environment from different sources as weathering of plastic debris and nanowaste. Nevertheless, few data are available on their fate and impact on marine biota. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) can be considered as a model for studying the effects of nanoplastics in marine organisms: recent data on amino-modified PS NPs (PS-NH2) toxicity in sea urchin embryos underlined that marine invertebrates can be biological targets of nanoplastics. Cationic PS NPs have been shown to be toxic to mammalian cells, where they can induce apoptotic processes; however, no information is available on their effects and mechanisms of action in the cells of marine organisms. In this work, the effects of 50 nm PS-NH2 were investigated in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Hemocytes were exposed to different concentrations (1, 5, 50 μg/ml) of PS-NH2 suspension in ASW. Clear signs of cytoxicity were evident only at the highest concentrations (50 μg/ml). On the other hand, a dose dependent decrease in phagocytic activity and increase in lysozyme activity were observed. PS-NH2 NPs also stimulated increase in extracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide) production, with maximal effects at lower concentrations. Moreover, at the highest concentration tested, PS-NH2 NPs induced apoptotic process, as evaluated by Flow cytometry (Annexin V binding and mitochondrial parameters). The results demonstrate that in marine invertebrates the immune function can represent a significant target for PS-NPs. Moreover, in Mytilus hemocytes, PS-NH2 NPs can act through mechanisms similar to those observed in mammalian cells. Further research is necessary on specific mechanisms of toxicity and cellular uptake of nanoplastics in order to assess their impact on marine biota. PMID:26115607

  4. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.

  5. Anti-Lung Cancer Activity through Enhancement of Immunomodulation and Induction of Cell Apoptosis of Total Triterpenes Extracted from Ganoderma luncidum (Leyss. ex Fr. Karst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma luncidum (Leyss. ex Fr. Karst. (GLK has been used traditionally for the prevention and treatment of cancers or tumors for a long time in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The triterpenes as main effective components of GLK have been found to be beneficial for the efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-lung cancer activity of triterpenes of GLK in vitro and in vivo and to explore their anti-lung cancer effects and potential mechanisms. A549 cells and Lewis tumor-bearing mice were used to evaluate the inhibition effects of triterpenes on cell proliferation and tumor growth. The IC50 of triterpenes of GLK on A549 cells was 24.63 μg/mL. Triterpenes of GLK could significantly inhibit tumor growth in mice (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg. The immune organs indexes including spleen and thymus were increased remarkedly by the treatment with triterpenes. Moreover, they were able to stimulate the immune response by increasing the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that cell arrest caused by triterpenes treatment (7.5, 15 and 30 μg/mL was in the G2/M phase in A549 cells. Triterpenes induced apoptosis by decreasing the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 9 and increasing the levels of cleaved-caspase 9. Our findings suggested that the triterpenes of GLK have anti-lung cancer activity in vitro and in vivo via enhancement of immunomodulation and induction of cell apoptosis. The study provides insights into the mechanism of GLK in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.

  6. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  7. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  8. Pharmacology and toxicology of diphenyl diselenide in several biological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Rosa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacology of synthetic organoselenium compounds indicates that they can be used as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors, neuroprotectors, anti-tumor and anti-infectious agents, and immunomodulators. In this review, we focus on the effects of diphenyl diselenide (DPDS in various biological model organisms. DPDS possesses antioxidant activity, confirmed in several in vitro and in vivo systems, and thus has a protective effect against hepatic, renal and gastric injuries, in addition to its neuroprotective activity. The activity of the compound on the central nervous system has been studied since DPDS has lipophilic characteristics, increasing adenylyl cyclase activity and inhibiting glutamate and MK-801 binding to rat synaptic membranes. Systemic administration facilitates the formation of long-term object recognition memory in mice and has a protective effect against brain ischemia and on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. On the other hand, DPDS may be toxic, mainly because of its interaction with thiol groups. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the molecule acts as a pro-oxidant by depleting free glutathione. Administration to mice during cadmium intoxication has the opposite effect, reducing oxidative stress in various tissues. DPDS is a potent inhibitor of d-aminolevulinate dehydratase and chronic exposure to high doses of this compound has central effects on mouse brain, as well as liver and renal toxicity. Genotoxicity of this compound has been assessed in bacteria, haploid and diploid yeast and in a tumor cell line.

  9. Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Fatima, Farah; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C.; Penfornis, Patrice; Valadi, Hadi; Ekström, Karin; Kholia, Sharad; Whitt, Jason D.; Fernandes, Joseph D.; Pochampally, Radhika; Squire, Jeremy A.; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies. PMID:26649044

  10. Biological components in a standardized derivative of bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdote, P; Mussano, F; Franchi, S; Panerai, A E; Bussolati, G; Carossa, S; Bartorelli, A; Bussolati, B

    2013-03-01

    Products of different origin, time of collection, and activities fall under the general term of colostrum and, therefore, great variability in composition as well as in the concentration of its components has been reported in the literature. In the present study, we describe the standardization of a bovine colostrum derivative and the characterization of its bioactive components. Evaluation of the most representative agents (lactoferrin, transferrin, IL-2, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor, IgG, and IgA) showed that a marked decrease in active components occurs after the first few hours. Bovine colostrum was, therefore, collected up to the fifth hour after delivery from Holstein cows, in the presence of preservatives, and immediately frozen. A protocol of centrifugation, filtration, and lyophilization was then applied to pools of colostrum from at least 30 cows to obtain a stable, sterile, standardized product. Preservatives were removed by dialysis. Evaluation of the active biological components of colostrum showed that the final product of colostrums contained significant and reproducible amounts of bioactive factors, including cytokines, immunomodulating factors, growth factors, and immunoglobulins. The final product appeared, therefore, as a sterile, pyrogen-free, standardized derivative of bovine colostrum with a high concentration of bioactive components. PMID:23332842

  11. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with the use of biologic and other investigational agents: the importance of long-term post-marketing safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Allison; Borovicka, Judy H; West, Dennis P; Evens, Andrew M; Laumann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after receiving courses of two investigational biologic agents and cyclosporine followed by more than four years of subcutaneous efalizumab for the treatment of extensive chronic plaque psoriasis. Three years later, the patient remains free of lymphoma and his psoriasis is well controlled with thrice-weekly narrow-band ultraviolet phototherapy. This case emphasizes the importance of continued long-term post-marketing safety surveillance and the early reporting of all possible serious side effects, including cancers, related to the use of any newly available product. In particular, surveillance should focus on the immunomodulating biologic agents in order to identify possible dangerous sequelae.

  12. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  13. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  14. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  15. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  16. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  17. Immunomodulators to treat recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R.; Kieffer, Tom E. C.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage is a reproductive disorder affecting many couples. Although several factors are associated with recurrent miscarriage, in more than 50% of the cases the cause is unknown. Maladaptation of the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent miscarriage and could explain part

  18. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  19. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  20. Biology is simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  1. 肺炎疫苗与免疫调节剂在预防下呼吸道感染中的作用%Role of pneumonia vaccines and immunomodulators in prevention of lower respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封辰叶; 康健

    2013-01-01

    关于下呼吸道感染的预防,近年来的研究大多集中于肺炎疫苗和免疫调节剂的使用上,且大多数研究肯定了上述2种药物的预防作用.目前肺炎疫苗主要有2种可获得的疫苗广泛应用于临床:23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和7价肺炎球菌多糖蛋白结合疫苗.肺炎疫苗所带来的消减医疗费的经济学效益已经被多个临床研究肯定.肺炎疫苗在临床的应用主要集中在以下几个方面:老年人、慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)、艾滋病毒感染者、儿童以及抗生素耐药性的影响.免疫调节剂在预防下呼吸道感染中的应用主要集中在对COPD的急性加重期及反复呼吸道感染上,并且被多项研究证实其积极作用.其中应用于COPD的免疫调节剂主要包括:泛福舒、AM3、卡介菌多糖核酸、注射用母牛分枝杆菌、草分枝杆菌F.U.36注射液、匹多莫德和必思添.泛福舒预防COPD急性加重的作用得到了数项较大规模的多中心临床研究的证实,正是基于这些研究成果,GOLD推荐免疫调节剂作为COPD的重要辅助治疗.%The recent studies about prevention of lower respiratory tract infections focus on the use of the pneumonia vaccine and immunomodulator,and most studies have confirmed the preventive effect of the two drugs.There are two available pneumonia vaccines widely used in clinic:23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine.The medical expenses mitigation of pneumonia vaccine has been affirmed by multiple clinical studies.Pneumonia vaccine is mainly used in the following areas:elderly,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,HIV infection,children as well as antibiotic resistance.The preventive effects of immunomodulators on the prevention of lower respiratory tract infections mainly concentrate on acute exacerbation of COPD and recurrent respiratory tract infections,and a number of studies have confirmed its positive role.Immunomodulators

  2. Engineering scalable biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial, and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic, and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast, and mammal...

  3. Systems interface biology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis J Doyle; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Henc...

  4. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  5. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  6. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  7. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  8. Update and future perspectives of a thymic biological response modifier (Thymomodulin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, P; Mazzanti, P; Kouttab, N M

    1987-01-01

    Thymomodulin (Ellem Industria Farmaceutica spa, Milan, Italy) is a calf thymus acid lysate with immunomodulating activities. It is composed of several peptides with a molecular weight range of 1-10kD. Extensive studies in animal systems showed that Thymomodulin exhibited no, or very little toxicity even when used at high doses. Studies done in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that Thymomodulin is a biologically active compound which regulates the maturation of human and murine pre T lymphocytes, as well as modulate the functions of apparently mature human and animal B and T lymphocytes. It was observed that Thymomodulin can promote myelopoiesis as demonstrated by an increase of granulocyte-macrophage colonies in agar. Although additional studies to examine its target cell lineage are required, it appears that Thymomodulin exhibits specificity toward T cells. Therefore, enhancement of other cell lineage functions by Thymomodulin may be indirect, and mainly due to its effect on T cells. Of major importance is to note that Thymomodulin is prepared in a manner which allows it to maintain its biological activity when administered orally. PMID:3325544

  9. Comparison of the Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs exhibit high proliferation and self-renewal capabilities and are critical for tissue repair and regeneration during ontogenesis. They also play a role in immunomodulation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues and have many potential applications in the clinical setting. However, MSCs of different origins may possess different biological characteristics. In this study, we performed a comprehensive comparison of MSCs isolated from bone marrow and skin (BMMSCs and SMSCs, resp., including analysis of the skin sampling area, separation method, culture conditions, primary and passage culture times, cell surface markers, multipotency, cytokine secretion, gene expression, and fibroblast-like features. The results showed that the MSCs from both sources had similar cell morphologies, surface markers, and differentiation capacities. However, the two cell types exhibited major differences in growth characteristics; the primary culture time of BMMSCs was significantly shorter than that of SMSCs, whereas the growth rate of BMMSCs was lower than that of SMSCs after passaging. Moreover, differences in gene expression and cytokine secretion profiles were observed. For example, secretion of proliferative cytokines was significantly higher for SMSCs than for BMMSCs. Our findings provide insights into the different biological functions of both cell types.

  10. Comparison of the Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Chang, Wenjuan; Wei, Hong; Zhang, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit high proliferation and self-renewal capabilities and are critical for tissue repair and regeneration during ontogenesis. They also play a role in immunomodulation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues and have many potential applications in the clinical setting. However, MSCs of different origins may possess different biological characteristics. In this study, we performed a comprehensive comparison of MSCs isolated from bone marrow and skin (BMMSCs and SMSCs, resp.), including analysis of the skin sampling area, separation method, culture conditions, primary and passage culture times, cell surface markers, multipotency, cytokine secretion, gene expression, and fibroblast-like features. The results showed that the MSCs from both sources had similar cell morphologies, surface markers, and differentiation capacities. However, the two cell types exhibited major differences in growth characteristics; the primary culture time of BMMSCs was significantly shorter than that of SMSCs, whereas the growth rate of BMMSCs was lower than that of SMSCs after passaging. Moreover, differences in gene expression and cytokine secretion profiles were observed. For example, secretion of proliferative cytokines was significantly higher for SMSCs than for BMMSCs. Our findings provide insights into the different biological functions of both cell types. PMID:27239202

  11. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  12. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  13. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  14. Foundations of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorav, Jean-Louis; Braslau, Alan; Goldar, Arach

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that there are no laws in biology, where everything is contingent and could have been otherwise, being solely the result of historical accidents. Furthermore, the customary introduction of fundamental biological entities such as individual organisms, cells, genes, catalysts and motors remains largely descriptive; constructive approaches involving deductive reasoning appear, in comparison, almost absent. As a consequence, both the logical content and principles of biology ne...

  15. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  16. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  17. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  18. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  19. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  20. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  1. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  2. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  3. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  4. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  5. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  6. Biology and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascompte, Jordi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Biology has become the new “physics” of mathematics, one of the areas of greatest mathematical applications. In turn, mathematics has provided powerful tools and metaphors to approach the astonishing complexity of biological systems. This has allowed the development of sound theoretical frameworks. Here, I summarize some of the most significant contributions of mathematics to biology, ranging from population genetics, to developmental biology, and to networks of species interactions.La biología se ha convertido en la nueva “física” de las matemáticas, una de las áreas con mayores aplicaciones. Las matemáticas, por su parte, han proporcionado herramientas y metáforas muy poderosas para abordar la increíble complejidad de los sistemas biológicos. Esto ha permitido la génesis de marcos conceptuales sólidos. En este artículo resumo algunas de las aplicaciones más exitosas de las matemáticas a la biología que van desde la genética de poblaciones a la biología del desarrollo y las redes de interacciones ecológicas.

  7. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  8. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  9. A Molecular Biology Database Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Kröger, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Computational Biology or Bioinformatics has been defined as the application of mathematical and Computer Science methods to solving problems in Molecular Biology that require large scale data, computation, and analysis [18]. As expected, Molecular Biology databases play an essential role in Computational Biology research and development. This paper introduces into current Molecular Biology databases, stressing data modeling, data acquisition, data retrieval, and the integration...

  10. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  11. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  12. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  13. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  14. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  15. Chemistry and biology data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  16. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  17. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  18. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean....

  19. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  20. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  1. [Systems biology of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  2. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  3. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  4. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  5. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  6. Are we giving biologics too late? The case for early versus late use

    OpenAIRE

    Ricart, Elena; García-Bosch, Orlando; Ordás, Ingrid; Panés, Julián

    2008-01-01

    Corticosteroids and immunomodulators have been the mainstay therapies for Crohn’s disease. Corticosteroids are highly effective to control symptoms in the short-term, but they are not effective in maintaining remission, they heal the mucosa in a reduced proportion of cases, and long-time exposure is associated with an increased risk of infections and mortality. Immunomodulators, azathioprine and methotrexate, heal the mucosa in a higher proportion of patients that corticosteroids but their on...

  7. Synthetic biology: A foundation for multi-scale molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K; Stephen S. Fong

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Bu...

  8. Noise in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimring, Lev S

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evol...

  9. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  10. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  11. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  12. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  13. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  14. Biological races in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  15. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  16. Informing Biological Design by Integration of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolke, Christina D.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  17. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  18. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider. PMID:22639577

  19. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  20. The biology of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R

    1992-09-01

    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  1. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  2. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  3. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  4. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  5. Chemical and Biological Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel', N. M.

    1981-10-01

    Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical kinetics in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the kinetics and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the kinetics of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological kinetics (kinetics of tumour growth, kinetic criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.

  6. Networks in Cell Biology = Modelling cell biology with networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The science of complex biological networks is transforming research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to medicine. This is the first book on the subject, providing a comprehensive introduction to complex network science and its biological applications. With contributions from key leaders in both network theory and modern cell biology, this book discusses the network science that is increasingly foundational for systems biology and the quantitative understanding of living systems. It ...

  7. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  8. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  9. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  11. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  12. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  13. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  14. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  15. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  16. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  17. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  18. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  19. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  20. Sil: a Streptococcus iniae bacteriocin with dual role as an antimicrobial and an immunomodulator that inhibits innate immune response and promotes S. iniae infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-fei Li

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe pathogen to a wide range of economically important fish species. In addition, S. iniae is also a zoonotic pathogen and can cause serious infections in humans. In this study, we identified from a pathogenic S. iniae strain a putative bacteriocin, Sil, and examined its biological activity. Sil is composed of 101 amino acid residues and shares 35.6% overall sequence identity with the lactococcin 972 of Lactococcus lactis. Immunoblot analysis showed that Sil was secreted by S. iniae into the extracellular milieu. Purified recombinant Sil (rSil exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of Bacillus subtilis but had no impact on the growths of other 16 Gram-positive bacteria and 10 Gram-negative bacteria representing 23 different bacterial species. Treatment of rSil by heating at 50°C abolished the activity of rSil. rSil bound to the surface of B. subtilis but induced no killing of the target cells. Cellular study revealed that rSil interacted with turbot (Scophthalmus maximus head kidney monocytes and inhibited the innate immune response of the cells, which led to enhanced cellular infection of S. iniae. Antibody blocking of the extracellular Sil produced by S. iniae significantly attenuated the infectivity of S. iniae. Consistent with these in vitro observations, in vivo study showed that administration of turbot with rSil prior to S. iniae infection significantly increased bacterial dissemination and colonization in fish tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that Sil is a novel virulence-associated bacteriostatic and an immunoregulator that promotes S. iniae infection by impairing the immune defense of host fish.

  1. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  2. Biological trade and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  3. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  4. Sequence analysis and identification of new isoform of EP4 receptors in different atlantic salmon tissues (Salmo salar L. and its role in PGE2 induced immunomodulation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tz Chun Guo

    Full Text Available PGE2 plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes mediated through a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR called EP receptor. In mammals, four subtypes of EP receptor (EP 1-4 are identified and each of them functions through different signal transduction pathways. Orthologous EP receptors have also been identified in other non-mammalian species, such as chicken and zebrafish. EP4 is the only identified PGE2 receptor to date in Atlantic salmon but its tissue distribution and function have not been studied in any detail. In this study, we first sequenced EP4 receptor in different tissues and found that the presence of the 3nt deletion in the 5' untranslated region was accompanied by silent mutation at nt 668. While attempting to amplify the same sequence in TO cells (an Atlantic salmon macrophage-like cell line, we failed to obtain the full-length product. Further investigation revealed different isoform of EP4 receptor in TO cells and we subsequently documented its presence in different Atlantic salmon tissues. These two isoforms of EP4 receptor share high homology in their first half of sequence but differ in the second half part with several deletion segments though the final length of coding sequence is the same for two isoforms. We further studied the immunomodulation effect of PGE2 in TO cells and found that PGE2 inhibited the induction of CXCL-10, CCL-4, IL-8 and IL-1β genes expression in a time dependent manner and without cAMP upregulation.

  5. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  6. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that...

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells in the inflammatory immunomodulation%间充质干细胞在炎症免疫调节中的作用及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑盛; 杨涓; 唐映梅

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that the main functions of mesenchymal stem cels include direct participation in wound healing, growth factor secretion, promoting angiogenesis, immune regulation and inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, which can be used to treat a variety of acute and chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE:To review advances in mesenchymal stem cels in the inflammatory immunomodulation. METHODS: A computer-based search of Wanfang, CNKI and PubMed databases was performed for articles concerning advances in mesenchymal stem cels in the inflammatory immunomodulation published from January 2005 to August 2015. The search terms were “stem cels, mesenchymal stem cels, immune regulation, inflammation, immune cels, inflammatory factors, treatment” in Chinese and English, respectively. Finaly, 40 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Because of their immunomodulation and muti-directional differentiation, mesenchymal stem cels garner increasing attentions. In addition, mesenchymal stem cels can be harvested from different tissues and have goodin vitroamplification capability, which have a broad prospect in the clinical use, including tissue repair and anti-inflammation. As the most promising cels used clinicaly, mesenchymal stem cels show their superiority in the treatment of many diseases, especialy in inflammations induced by immune modulation imbalance. We believe that mesenchymal stem cels wil play an important role in the future cel biotherapy.%背景:研究表明,间充质干细胞的主要功能有直接参与损伤修复,分泌生长因子,调节免疫和炎症,抗氧化应激等,可用于治疗多种急、慢性疾病。目的:综述间充质干细胞在炎症免疫调节中的研究进展。方法:以“干细胞,间充质干细胞,免疫调节,炎症,免疫细胞,炎症因子,治疗”为中文检索词,以“stem cels,mesenchymal stem cels,immune regulation,inflammation,immune cels

  8. Efficacy of TNF-α antagonist and other immunomodulators in the treatment of patients with ophthalmologic manifestations of Behcet's disease and HLA B51 positive vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Behcet's disease is genetically conditioned, immune-mediated multisystem occlusive vasculitis of small blood vessels, espesially venules, of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, disease activity and therapy of the patients with ophthalmologic manifestation of Behcet's disease. Methods. In this study symptoms and signs of the disease were analyzed both prospectively and retrospectively during the active manifestation of the disease. The diagnosis was reached according to the International Criteria for Behcet's Disease (2006. The treatment effects were evaluated based on the presence of the best corrected visual acuity and the inflammation of the vitreous humour before and after the application of our therapeutic method. The applied therapeutic modality consisted of the primary application of corticosteroid therapy in the active stage of the disease complemented with the choice of drugs from the immunosuppressive group. In this study there drugs were cyclosporine or methotrexate. A treatment refractory patients with poor vision prognosis were treated with a third drug, the biological preparation infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α antagonist. Results. The mean age of 11 patients with ophthalmologic manifestation of Behcet's disease was 50.6 years. HLA B-5(51 was positive in 81% of the patients while 36% of the patients had positive pathergy test. Changes in affected eyes included vitritis (100%, posterior uveitis (45%, panuveitis (54%, retinal vasculitis (54%, cystoid macular edema (54%, and cystoid degeneration (18%. Increased intraocular pressure was observed in 27% of the patients. There was no statistically significant variation in disease activity parameters in any of the patients (p > 0.05. A statistically significant improvement in visual acuity (p < 0.05 and a high statistically significant decrease of inflammation of the worst affected eyes (p = 0.001 were detected

  9. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  10. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  11. Radiation biology for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution problems such as the green-house effect by increase of CO2, acid rain caused by flue gases, and contamination of chemicals and pesticides in foods and water, have become serious in the world with the rapid development of industry and agriculture. To solve some of these problems, radiation treatment has being applied for the removal of the contaminants from flue gases and waste water from industrial plants. On the other hand, the contribution of radiation biology for these environmental pollution problems is not direct but it has contributed indirectly in many fields. This paper describes the contributions of radiation biology for environment in the following two topics: 1) control of insects and microorganisms, and 2) application of radiation for agricultural wastes

  12. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K;

    2015-01-01

    . Efforts to improve the traceability should, in the short term, be focused toward encouraging health professionals and patients to systematically record and report detailed exposure information. Long-term solutions lie in expanding the accessibility to, and increasing the electronic exchange of exposure......INTRODUCTION: Traceability is important in the postmarketing surveillance of biologicals, since changes in the manufacturing process may give rise to product- or batch-specific risks. With the expected expansion of the biosimilar market, there have been concerns about the ability to trace...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...

  13. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  14. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  15. Biological scaling and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  16. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  17. Lagrangians for biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Nucci, M C

    2011-01-01

    We show that a method presented in [S.L. Trubatch and A. Franco, Canonical Procedures for Population Dynamics, J. Theor. Biol. 48 (1974), 299-324] and later in [G.H. Paine, The development of Lagrangians for biological models, Bull. Math. Biol. 44 (1982) 749-760] for finding Lagrangians of classic models in biology, is actually based on finding the Jacobi Last Multiplier of such models. Using known properties of Jacobi Last Multiplier we show how to obtain linear Lagrangians of those first-order systems and nonlinear Lagrangian of the corresponding single second-order equations that can be derived from them, even in the case where those authors failed such as the host-parasite model.

  18. Heritability and biological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, E

    1998-10-01

    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  19. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  20. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  1. Integrative radiation systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group "Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer" of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology. PMID:24411063

  2. [Biological etiologies of transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butty, Anne-Virginie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2016-03-16

    Transsexualism or gender dysphoria is a disorder of sexual identity of unknown etiology. At the biological level, one assumes atypical brain development during certain periods of its formation (genesis) notably during embryogenesis, as a result of altered hormonal influence and a particular genetic polymorphism. This article summarizes the research conducted to date in these three areas only, excluding psycho-social and environmental factors. PMID:27149713

  3. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  4. Biology of infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H J; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5-10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic endothelium with a neural crest phenotype that possesses the capacity for endothelial, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neuronal differentiation. Current evidence suggests a putative placental chorionic mesenchymal core cell embolic origin of IH during the first trimester. This review outlines the emerging role of stem cells and their interplay with the cytokine niche that promotes a post-natal environment conducive for vasculogenesis involving VEGFR-2 and its ligand VEGF-A and the IGF-2 ligand in promoting cellular proliferation, and the TRAIL-OPG anti-apoptotic pathway in preventing cellular apoptosis in IH. The discovery of the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the biology of IH provides a plausible explanation for the programed biologic behavior and the β-blocker-induced accelerated involution of this enigmatic condition. This crucially involves the vasoactive peptide, angiotensin II, that promotes cellular proliferation in IH predominantly via its action on the ATIIR2 isoform. The role of the RAS in the biology of IH is further supported by the effect of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, in inducing accelerated involution of IH. The discovery of the critical role of RAS in IH represents a novel and fascinating paradigm shift in the understanding of human development, IH, and other tumors in general. PMID:25593962

  5. Biology of Infantile Hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H. J.; Davis, Paul F.; Tan, Swee T.

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5–10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic ...

  6. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  7. Biological Rhythms and Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Ditisheim, Agnès J.; Dibner, Charna; Philippe, Jacques; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing h...

  8. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  9. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  10. Neutrons in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  11. Biological heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  12. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  13. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular...

  14. Synthetic biology: Understanding biological design from synthetic circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherji, Shankar; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of synthetic biology is to uncover the design principles of natural biological systems through the rational design of gene and protein circuits. Here, we highlight how the process of engineering biological systems — from synthetic promoters to the control of cell–cell interactions — has contributed to our understanding of how endogenous systems are put together and function. Synthetic biological devices allow us to grasp intuitively the ranges of behaviour generated by simple...

  15. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other P...

  16. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, syst...

  17. Biological surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt

    2002-03-01

    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  18. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Feline Interleukin-2 Immunomodulator, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 ] Immunomodulator, Live... testing of the following unlicensed veterinary biological product: Requester: Merial, Inc. Product:...

  19. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  20. Is Our Biology to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  1. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...

  2. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Newsroom | Contact Us The American Institute of Biological Sciences is the national scientific organization that promotes the ... Education Research AIBS Education is dedicated to improving biological science literacy at all levels of formal and informal ...

  3. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, G.; Sadedin, S.; Paperin, G.

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in Digital Ecosystems research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of biological ecosystem...

  4. Synthetic Biology for Therapeutic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug d...

  5. Logical impossibilities in biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monendra Grover

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological networks are complex and involve several kinds of molecules. For proper biological function it is important for these biomolecules to act at an individual level and act at the level of interaction of these molecules. In this paper some of the logical impossibilities that may arise in the biological networks and their possible solutions are discussed. It may be important to understand these paradoxes and their possible solutions in order to develop a holistic view of biological function.

  6. Attitude of teenagers towards biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavtižar, Teja

    2016-01-01

    ROSE project is a comprehensive study in which students' attitudes towards Science and Technology affected by many factors have been examined. In our study, only some aspects have been focused due to a narrower field of biology which has been interested in, and the direction of the attitude between Biology to elementary school students has been checked. The purpose of the master's work has been to determine the attitude of the teenagers to Biology as science and Biology as a school subjec...

  7. The effect of TNFalpha blockade on the antinuclear antibody profile in patients with chronic arthritis: biological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rycke, L; Baeten, D; Kruithof, E; Van den Bosch, F; Veys, E M; De Keyser, F

    2005-01-01

    Since the first proof of efficacy of TNFalpha blockade, both the number of patients treated worldwide and the number of indications for treatment with TNFalpha blockers have grown steadily. Surprisingly, the profound immunomodulation induced by anti-TNFalpha therapy is associated with a relatively low incidence of immune-related complications such as lupus-like syndromes and demyelinating disease. This contrasts sharply with the prominent induction of autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies during TNFalpha blockade. Although this phenomenon has been recognized for several years, the clinical and biological implications are not yet fully understood. In this review, recent studies analysing the effect of TNFalpha blockade (infliximab and etanercept) on the ANA profile in autoimmune arthritis will be discussed. Taken together, these reports indicate that the prominent ANA and anti-dsDNA autoantibody response is 1) not a pure class effect of TNFalpha blockers, 2) independent of the disease background, 3) largely restricted to the induction of short-term IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies, and 4) not associated with other serological or clinically relevant signs of lupus. Nevertheless, a careful follow-up of patients treated with TNFalpha blockers remains mandatory, including monitoring for lupus-like characteristics.

  8. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  9. Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexson, Dimitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Chen Hongfeng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Cho, Michael [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Dutta, Mitra [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Li Yang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shi, Peng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Raichura, Amit [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Ramadurai, Dinakar [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Parikh, Shaunak [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Stroscio, Michael A [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vasudev, Milana [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2005-07-06

    Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications are discussed. Results are presented on the use of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots both as biological tags and as structures that interact with and influence biomolecules. Results are presented on the use of semiconducting carbon nanotubes in biological applications. (topical review)

  10. Biological Computing Fundamentals and Futures

    CERN Document Server

    Akula, Balaji

    2009-01-01

    The fields of computing and biology have begun to cross paths in new ways. In this paper a review of the current research in biological computing is presented. Fundamental concepts are introduced and these foundational elements are explored to discuss the possibilities of a new computing paradigm. We assume the reader to possess a basic knowledge of Biology and Computer Science

  11. ECO-BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Burak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology for computer modeling of complex eco-biological models is presented in this paper. It is based on system approach of J. Forrester. Developed methodology is universal for complex ecological and biological systems. Modeling algorithm considers specialties of eco-biological systems and shows adequate and accurate results in practice. 

  12. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  13. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  14. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  15. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  16. Biology Attitude Scale

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLYURT, Selami; GÜL, Şeyda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale determining secondary school stu- dent’s attitude towards biology. For this aim, at first, totally 92 scale items were prepared by reviewing relevant literature. 88 items in this scale were a five-point Likert type scale. 4 of 92 items consisted of demographic variables. The scale was applied to a sample of 109 students randomly selected from two secondary schools in Erzurum. At the end of this application, SPSS 12.0 Statistical Program was used to ...

  17. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  18. Biology of Nanobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-12-01

    One of the more interesting recent discoveries has been the ability to design nano/microbots which catalytically harness the chemical energy in their environment to move autonomously. Their potential applications include delivery of materials, self-assembly of superstructures, and roving sensors. One emergent area of research is the study of their collective behavior and how they emulate living systems. The aim of this chapter is to describe the "biology" of nanobots, summarizing the fundamentals physics behind their motion and how the bots interact with each other to initiate complex emergent behavior.

  19. Mathematics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India and in so many other countries, the science students are generally separated into two main streams: one opting mathematical sciences, the other studying biological sciences. As a result, medicos and biologists have no adequate knowledge of mathematical sciences. It causes a great drawback to them in order to be perfect and updated in their profession, due to the tremendous application of mathematics in bio-sciences, now-a-days. The main aim of this article is to emphasize on the need of the time to produce the mathematico-biologists in abundance for the better service of mankind. (author)

  20. [Woman and race biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H

    1993-01-01

    Early 20th century race biology takes a special interest in woman as part of the "intra-racial" project of bringing forth healthy and competitive individuals. But there are other motives as well for the race biologist to take an interest in woman. She is believed to develop fewer individual characteristics and is therefore a more typical representative of her race than man. The development level of the race is also presupposed to be discernible by the degree of "gender diformism": a race of higher standing would exhibit a greater difference between the sexes. The anthropologist, anatomist, gynaecologist--or whatever guise the race biologist may adopt-- will, in principle, stress that the relation between the sexes is not a matter of "more or less", but one of differences in kind. In reality, the "more-or-less of comparison is the very cornerstone of the issue. Quantitative differences, directly observed or obtained from statistics, are construed as signs of difference in kind. 18th century medical philosophy and sex-linked anthropology laid the theoretical foundation of the 19th century essentialist conception of woman, which is also that adopted by race biology. Eugenics of social Darwinist inspiration regarded prophylactic health care and social welfare programs with scepticism. A race biology founded on the man-woman dualism could sustain altogether different conclusions. An advanced culture calls for extensive division of labour. An extended childhood renders possible higher development but will also impose higher demands on woman. The protection of the female organism is thus an exigency for any people or race striving to survive and evolve. From society's care for the female organism health care for women and preventive maternity care will emerge. Race biology has been a preeminently German concern, as indicated by the selection of works taken to represent this perspective on woman: Bartels-Ploss' Das Weib, C.H. Stratz' Die Rassenschönheit des Weibes and

  1. [The biologization of ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Lax, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics. PMID:20405971

  2. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... of nutritional research is, therefore, to borrow methods that are well established in medical and pharmacological research. In this thesis, we use advanced data-mining tools for the construction of a database with available, state-of-the-art information concerning the interaction of food and its molecular...

  3. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  4. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  5. Stem Cell and Biological Interventions to treat Allergic Airway Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate immune modulation with a particular focus on airway inflammation and allergic pathogenesis. This was probed in a model of pathogen driven immunomodulation (B. pertussis), and two models of therapeutic intervention namely immunisation (attenuated B. pertussis, BPZE1) or using a candidate cell therapy approach (mesenchymal stem cells, MSC). This work demonstrated that, in contrast to virulent B. pertussis, an attenuated, candidate vaccin...

  6. Male mating biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area.

  7. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  8. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  9. Oscillations in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...

  10. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  11. Protein microarrays for systems biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Yang; Shujuan Guo; Yang Li; Shumin Zhou; Shengce Tao

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology holds the key for understanding biological systems on a system level. It eventually holds the key for the treatment and cure of complex diseases such as cancer,diabetes, obesity, mental disorders, and many others. The '-omics' technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics,proteomics, and metabonomics, are among the major driving forces of systems biology. Featured as highthroughput, miniaturized, and capable of parallel analysis,protein microarrays have already become an important technology platform for systems biology, In this review, we will focus on the system level or global analysis of biological systems using protein microarrays. Four major types of protein microarrays will be discussed: proteome microarrays, antibody microarrays, reverse-phase protein arrays,and lectin microarrays. We will also discuss the challenges and future directions of protein microarray technologies and their applications for systems biology. We strongly believe that protein microarrays will soon become an indispensable and invaluable tool for systems biology.

  12. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  13. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  14. Neutron structural biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in protein which play important roles in physiological functions. However, there are relatively few examples of neutron crystallography in biology since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections due to the low flux of neutrons illuminating the sample. In order to overcome the flux problem, we have successfully developed the neutron IP, where the neutron converter, {sup 6}Li or Gd, was mixed with a photostimulated luminescence material on flexible plastic support. Neutron Laue diffraction 2A data from tetragonal lysozyme were collected for 10 days with neutron imaging plates, and 960 hydrogen atoms in the molecule and 157 bound water molecules were identified. These results explain the proposed hydrolysis mechanism of the sugar by the lysozyme molecule and that lysozyme is less active at pH7.0. (author)

  15. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  16. Biological effects of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiu, Toshiaki; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ishida, Yuka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (JP)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  17. The biology of strigolactones

    KAUST Repository

    Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.

    2013-02-01

    The strigolactones are rhizosphere signaling molecules as well as a new class of plant hormones with a still increasing number of biological functions being uncovered. Here, we review a recent major breakthrough in our understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, which has revealed the unexpected simplicity of the originally postulated complex pathway. Moreover, the discovery and localization of a strigolactone exporter sheds new light on putative strigolactone fluxes to the rhizosphere as well as within the plant. The combination of these data with information on the expression and regulation of strigolactone biosynthetic and downstream signaling genes provides new insights into how strigolactones control the many different aspects of plant development and how their rhizosphere signaling role may have evolved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Networks in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  19. A Biologically Inspired Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

  20. Platelets in Lung Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis, which is the intricate process by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling. PMID:23043249

  1. [Biological therapy for osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinya; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone formation and resorption balance. Advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of bone formation and resorption led to promising therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In the novel biological drugs, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been clinically applied by positive effect on bone mineral density, negative effect on bone resorption, preventive effect on fragility fractures and safety. Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor is drawing attention as an antiresorptive drug which has lower bone resorption potency than bisphosphoneate. On the other hand, BHQ-880, an anti-Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) antibody and romosozumab (AMG-785) , an anti-sclerostin antibody which activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are drawing attention as bone formation accelerators with no bone resorption acceleration. Clinical studies of these drugs are now ongoing and their clinical applications are expected. PMID:24870844

  2. Biological signals as handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A

    1990-06-21

    An ESS model of Zahavi's handicap principle is constructed. This allows a formal exposition of how the handicap principle works, and shows that its essential elements are strategic. The handicap model is about signalling, and it is proved under fairly general conditions that if the handicap principle's conditions are met, then an evolutionarily stable signalling equilibrium exists in a biological signalling system, and that any signalling equilibrium satisfies the conditions of the handicap principle. Zahavi's major claims for the handicap principle are thus vindicated. The place of cheating is discussed in view of the honesty that follows from the handicap principle. Parallel signalling models in economics are discussed. Interpretations of the handicap principle are compared. The models are not fully explicit about how females use information about male quality, and, less seriously, have no genetics. A companion paper remedies both defects in a model of the handicap principle at work in sexual selection. PMID:2402153

  3. Evolutionary biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle

    2005-10-01

    Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages that have escaped controls on replication and by the population-level evolution of genes that influence cancer risk. We describe here how recent evolutionary ecological studies have elucidated the roles of predation by the immune system and competition among normal and cancerous cells in the somatic evolution of cancer. Recent analyses of the evolution of cancer at the population level show how rapid changes in human environments have augmented cancer risk, how strong selection has frequently led to increased cancer risk as a byproduct, and how anticancer selection has led to tumor-suppression systems, tissue designs that slow somatic evolution, constraints on morphological evolution and even senescence itself. We discuss how applications of the tools of ecology and evolutionary biology are poised to revolutionize our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  4. Robust Design of Biological Circuits: Evolutionary Systems Biology Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bor-Sen Chen; Chih-Yuan Hsu; Jing-Jia Liou

    2011-01-01

    Artificial gene circuits have been proposed to be embedded into microbial cells that function as switches, timers, oscillators, and the Boolean logic gates. Building more complex systems from these basic gene circuit components is one key advance for biologic circuit design and synthetic biology. However, the behavior of bioengineered gene circuits remains unstable and uncertain. In this study, a nonlinear stochastic system is proposed to model the biological systems with intrinsic parameter ...

  5. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  6. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  7. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory respon

  8. Innate immunomodulation to trypanosomatid parasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, A L A; Carvalho-Kelly, L F; Dick, C F; Meyer-Fernandes, J R

    2016-08-01

    The recognition of invading pathogens by the innate immune system is essential for host protection against human parasites and the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Innate immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in the first line of defense against protozoan parasites via sensing the invaders through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Activation of macrophages and dendritic cells starts with the interaction between microbial ligands (pathogen-associated molecular patterns - PAMPs) and PRRs, and these activated cells influence the overall immune response. Trypanosomatid PAMPs are sensed by TLRs; for example, TLR2 recognizes alkylacylglycerol and lipophosphoglycan in Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania, respectively; TLR2/TLR4 recognize glycoisnositolphospholipids and glycosylphosphatidyl inositol in Trypanosoma species; and TLR9 recognizes genomic DNA in Trypanosoma. TLR signaling includes the recruitment of different adaptor molecules that activate various transcription factors, such as NF-kB, IRF3/7, and MAP kinases, to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. Moreover, activated macrophages and dendritic cells produce ROS and NOS, which limit pathogen survival, and large amounts of cytokines; additionally, antigen presentation enhances the adaptive immune response. In this review, we highlight the recent findings on PAMP recognition in trypanosomatid infections and the signaling pathways activated by PRRs. PMID:27223816

  9. D-43787 - A novel immunomodulating compound

    OpenAIRE

    Hille, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Asthma belongs to the most prevalent chronic airway diseases and is caused by an inadequately Th2-biased immune response to environmental allergens. Evidence has been accumulated that delayed apoptosis induction in Th2-lymphocytes occurs in asthma and potentially plays an important role in the persistent inflammatory process associated with the disease. Therefore, selective induction of apoptosis in activated Th2 lymphocytes may prove a valuable therapeutic approach in the future. In our labo...

  10. GABA, a natural immunomodulator of T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurstöm, Helen; Wang, Junyang; Ericsson, Ida;

    2008-01-01

    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could be...

  11. Immunomodulation by probiotics: a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen J; Herreilers M; Loveren H van; Vos J; TOX

    2004-01-01

    The primary function of food in the human diet is to provide nutrients and energy. Nutrients include macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, vitamins,and trace elements). Food also has the secondary function of giving sensory satisfaction by its flavour, taste a

  12. Immunomodulation of reproductive function in domestic ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Richard David

    2004-01-01

    Active immunisation against GnRH inhibits reproductive function by inducing a hypogonadotropic condition associated with gonadal atrophy. Despite economic, ethical and environmental advantages of GnRH immunisation in cattle over conventional castration methods, the technology has not yet been commercially adopted. Primarily because of the requirement for numerous booster vaccinations because of the reversibility of physiological effects, the commercial efficacy of immunocastration is currentl...

  13. Immunomodulating and antiviral therapy in herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topciu, V; Mihăilescu, R

    1996-01-01

    Two groups of patients with herpes zoster were followed up. The first group was subjected, beside a symptomatic therapy, to an immunological and antiviral treatment. The control group was treated only symptomatically. The immunological preparations used were: the immunostimulant SRE (Corynebacterium parvum), which stimulated the lymphocytes and macrophages, Moroxidin (Virustat-Paris) and Antiherpin (interferon inductor), which acted by blocking the virus replication. The preparations were indigenous and atoxic. A significant difference between the courses of disease in the two groups was observed, namely, the severity and duration of subjective and objective symptoms were more than double and followed by persistent neurological sequelae in the control group in comparison with the patients of the experimental group. PMID:9495784

  14. Novel Adjuvants and Immunomodulators for Veterinary Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Fang, Yongxiang; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    in the vaccine is becoming a reality with our increased understanding of innate and adaptive immune activation. This will allow future vaccines to induce immune reactivity having adequate specificity as well as protective and recallable immune effector mechanisms in appropriate body compartments, including...

  15. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  16. Immunomodulating potential of supplementation with probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Larsen, C.N.; Kæstel, P.;

    2006-01-01

    ssp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (CRL-431) was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel dose-response trial (n=71) based on five randomly assigned groups of young healthy adults supplemented for 3 weeks with 0, 10(8), 10(9), 10(10) and 10(11) CFU day(-1...... to the amount of viable BB-12 recovered from faeces, the interferon-gamma production in blood cells was significantly reduced. In conclusion, no solid effect on the immune function of young healthy adults supplemented with even high doses of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 and L. paracasei ssp. paracasei CRL-431...

  17. Glutamate joins the ranks of immunomodulators

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anna M; Caspi, Rachel R.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated amounts of glutamate, which acts as a neurotransmitter but is also a neurotoxin, are a hallmark of the autoimmune neurological disease multiple sclerosis and may contribute to its pathology. The discovery that a receptor for glutamate can inhibit the development of autoimmunity and protect from neuroinflammation in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis suggests that glutamate may also have a protective role and that its receptor may represent a therapeutic target (pages 897–902).

  18. Immunomodulation and anticancer potentials of yogurt probiotic

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Alok; Mishra, Vijendra Kumar; Mohammad, Ghulam

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microbial food ingredients that produce several beneficial ef-fects to human health. Probiotic bacteria have been mostly investigated in the prevention and treatment of different gastrointestinal diseases and allergies. Probiotic products, however, are usually consumed by the general, healthy population but not much is known on their immu-nomodulatory effects in healthy adults. It is not fully clear how probiotics exert their benefi-cial effects on health, but o...

  19. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  20. Immunomodulation by cytomegaloviruses: manipulative strategies beyond evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarski, Edward S

    2002-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains the major infectious cause of birth defects as well as an important opportunistic pathogen. Individuals infected with CMV mount a strong immune response that suppresses persistent viral replication and maintains life-long latency. Loss of immune control opens the way to virus reactivation and disease. The large number of immunomodulatory functions encoded by CMV increases the efficiency of infection, dissemination, reactivation and persistent infection in hosts with intact immune systems and could contribute to virulence in immunocompromised hosts. These functions modulate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response and appear to target cellular rather than humoral responses preferentially. CMV encodes a diverse arsenal of proteins focused on altering and/or mimicking: (1) classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein function; (2) leukocyte migration, activation and cytokine responses; and (3) host cell susceptibility to apoptosis. Evidence that the host evolves mechanisms to counteract virus immune modulation is also accumulating. Although immune evasion is certainly one clear goal of the virus, the pro-inflammatory impact of certain viral functions suggests that increased inflammation benefits viral dissemination. The ability of such viral functions to successfully 'face off' against the host immune system ensures the success of this pathogen in the human population and could provide key insights into disease mechanisms. PMID:12110212

  1. Computational Biology: A Programming Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue;

    2011-01-01

    identify some strengths and shortcomings from a programming perspective. To show concretely what one could see as programming in biocomputing, we outline (from recent work) a computation model and a small programming language that are biologically more plausible than existing silicon-inspired models....... Whether or not the model is biologically plausible in an absolute sense, we believe it sets a standard for a biological device that can be both universal and programmable....

  2. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consum...

  3. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  4. The ontology of biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelso Janet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological sequences play a major role in molecular and computational biology. They are studied as information-bearing entities that make up DNA, RNA or proteins. The Sequence Ontology, which is part of the OBO Foundry, contains descriptions and definitions of sequences and their properties. Yet the most basic question about sequences remains unanswered: what kind of entity is a biological sequence? An answer to this question benefits formal ontologies that use the notion of biological sequences and analyses in computational biology alike. Results We provide both an ontological analysis of biological sequences and a formal representation that can be used in knowledge-based applications and other ontologies. We distinguish three distinct kinds of entities that can be referred to as "biological sequence": chains of molecules, syntactic representations such as those in biological databases, and the abstract information-bearing entities. For use in knowledge-based applications and inclusion in biomedical ontologies, we implemented the developed axiom system for use in automated theorem proving. Conclusion Axioms are necessary to achieve the main goal of ontologies: to formally specify the meaning of terms used within a domain. The axiom system for the ontology of biological sequences is the first elaborate axiom system for an OBO Foundry ontology and can serve as starting point for the development of more formal ontologies and ultimately of knowledge-based applications.

  5. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  6. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  7. Ethical Issues in Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Heavey, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology has been defined as: “the design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems, and the re-design of existing, natural biological systems for useful purposes” (syntheticbiology.org). The convergence of scientific fields such as molecular biology, computer science and others have rendered it a natural progression, based on existing knowledge.The fact that humanity has reached a stage of development where it seems feasible to “create” life, or design it to a h...

  8. Crystallogenesis of biological macromolecules. Biological, microgravity and other physicochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giege, R; Drenth, J; Ducruix, A; McPherson, A; Saenger, W

    1995-01-01

    After an historical introduction and justification of the importance of proteins (as well as other macromolecules or macromolecular assemblies of biological origin) in modern biology but also in physics, this review presents the state of the field of macromolecular crystallogenesis. The basic questi

  9. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  10. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  11. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines.

  12. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management s

  13. Flotation of Biological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flotation constitutes a gravity separation process, which originated from the minerals processing field. However, it has, nowadays, found several other applications, as for example in the wastewater treatment field. Concerning the necessary bubble generation method, typically dispersed-air or dissolved-air flotation was mainly used. Various types of biological materials were tested and floated efficiently, such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, activated sludge, grape stalks, etc. Innovative processes have been studied in our Laboratory, particularly for metal ions removal, involving the initial abstraction of heavy metal ions onto a sorbent (including a biosorbent: in the first, the application of a flotation stage followed for the efficient downstream separation of metal-laden particles. The ability of microorganisms to remove metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions (as most wastewaters are is a well-known property. The second separation process, also applied effectively, was a new hybrid cell of microfiltration combined with flotation. Sustainability in this field and its significance for the chemical and process industry is commented.

  14. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  15. Biological rhythms and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eDitisheim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer.Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing hypertension have been identified, the underlying mechanism of this multi-factorial disease is yet not fully understood.The disruption of the light/dark cycle in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. Slightly increased risk for small for gestational age babies, low birth weight babies and preterm deliveries has been reported in shift working women. Whether altered circadian cycle represents a risk factor for preeclampsia or preeclampsia is itself linked with an abnormal circadian cycle is less clear. There are only few reports available, showing conflicting results. In this review, we will discuss recent observations concerning circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. We explore the hypothesis that circadian misalignments may represent a risk factor for preeclampsia. Unraveling potential link between circadian clock gene and preeclampsia could offer a novel approach to our understanding of this multi-system disease specific to pregnancy.

  16. [Hemodialysis with biological object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eventov, V L; Maksimenko, V A; Zhidkov, I L; Andrianova, M Iu

    2005-01-01

    The essence of the method of biodialysis (hemodialysis with biological object) developed and suggested by the authors for clinical use consists in that the healthy organism exerts, through a system of mass transfer, a therapeutic action on the sick organism. Blood from the affected and healthy organisms is perfused through individual mass exchangers (dialyzers, hemodiafilters and hemofilters), which are hydraulically connected by a circulating transport medium. Metabolites that accumulate in blood of the affected organism diffuse into the transport medium and, from there, into blood of the healthy organism, which metabolizes them. The reverse process occurs simultaneously: substances, whose concentration in blood of the sick organism is less versus the healthy organism, diffuse from blood of the healthy organism to blood of patient. The method suggested by us can be used in clinical practice for normalizing a variety of parameters in patients with hepatic and renal insufficiency. Besides, a number of substances can be transferred from the healthy donor to patient in the process of biodialysis, which opens promising potentialities for the treatment of many diseases.

  17. Biological dosimetry; Dosimetria biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C., E-mail: citlali.guerrero@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) the works to establish a laboratory of biological dosimetry were initiated in 1998, with the purpose that could assist any situation with respect to the exposition to radiation, so much of the occupational exposed personnel as of individuals not related with the handling of radio-active material. The first activity that was realized was to develop the corresponding curves in vitro of dose response for different qualities and radiation types. In the year 2000 the curve corresponding to the gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co was published and up to 2002 the curve corresponding to the X rays of 58 KeV, 120 and 250 kVp. In all the cases, the curves contain the requirements to be used in the determination of the exposition dose. At the present time the curves dose-response are developing for neutrons take place in the reactor Triga Mark III of ININ. Additionally to these activities, cases of suspicion of accidental exposition to radiation have been assisted, using in a beginning the curves published by the IAEA and, from the year 2000, the curves developed in the ININ. (Author)

  18. Eosinophils in glioblastoma biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Colleen S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The development of this malignant glial lesion involves a multi-faceted process that results in a loss of genetic or epigenetic gene control, un-regulated cell growth, and immune tolerance. Of interest, atopic diseases are characterized by a lack of immune tolerance and are inversely associated with glioma risk. One cell type that is an established effector cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease is the eosinophil. In response to various stimuli, the eosinophil is able to produce cytotoxic granules, neuromediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-fibrotic and angiogenic factors involved in pathogen clearance and tissue remodeling and repair. These various biological properties reveal that the eosinophil is a key immunoregulatory cell capable of influencing the activity of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Of central importance to this report is the observation that eosinophil migration to the brain occurs in response to traumatic brain injury and following certain immunotherapeutic treatments for GBM. Although eosinophils have been identified in various central nervous system pathologies, and are known to operate in wound/repair and tumorstatic models, the potential roles of eosinophils in GBM development and the tumor immunological response are only beginning to be recognized and are therefore the subject of the present review.

  19. Biological Rhythms and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditisheim, Agnès J.; Dibner, Charna; Philippe, Jacques; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing hypertension have been identified, the underlying mechanism of this multi-factorial disease is yet not fully understood. The disruption of the light/dark cycle in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. Slightly increased risk for “small for gestational age” babies, “low birth weight” babies, and preterm deliveries has been reported in shift working women. Whether altered circadian cycle represents a risk factor for preeclampsia or preeclampsia is itself linked with an abnormal circadian cycle is less clear. There are only few reports available, showing conflicting results. In this review, we will discuss recent observations concerning circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. We explore the hypothesis that circadian misalignments may represent a risk factor for preeclampsia. Unraveling potential link between circadian clock gene and preeclampsia could offer a novel approach to our understanding of this multi-system disease specific to pregnancy. PMID:23579266

  20. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies of the molecular biology and functional changes in cultured mammalian cells following exposure to x radiation, uv radiation, fission neutrons, or various chemical environmental pollutants alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the separate and combined effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons released during combustion of fossil fuels and ionizing and nonionizing radiations. Sun lamps, which emit a continuous spectrum of near ultraviolet light of 290 nm to 315 nm were used for studies of predictive cell killing due to sunlight. Results showed that exposure to uv light (254 nm) may not be adequate to predict effects produced by sunlight. Data are included from studies on single-strand breaks and repair in DNA of cultured hamster cells exposed to uv or nearultraviolet light. The possible interactions of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DmBA) alone or combined with exposure to x radiation, uv radiation (254 nm) or near ultraviolet simulating sunlight were compared for effects on cell survival

  1. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  2. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  3. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  4. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  5. ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHERS ON TEACHING EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the attitudes of teachers and high school biology in public schools in Cuiabá about the theory of biological evolution, characterizing its proximity to biological evolution and its opposite perspective to the presence of this theory in science curriculum. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire-type Likert scale of 4 points, descriptive analyzes were made, represented by absolute data, with the aid of Excel 2010. The results show that the theory of biological evolution is highly accepted by the teachers, even considering religious people or people of faith. Furthermore, they indicate that they do not feel prepared to teach and know how few strategies to encourage dialogue between these beliefs and concepts of biological evolution bases.

  6. ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHERS ON TEACHING EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the attitudes of teachers and high school biology in public schools in Cuiabá about the theory of biological evolution, characterizing its proximity to biological evolution and its opposite perspective to the presence of this theory in science curriculum. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire-type Likert scale of 4 points, descriptive analyzes were made, represented by absolute data, with the aid of Excel 2010. The results show that the theory of biological evolution is highly accepted by the teachers, even considering religious people or people of faith. Furthermore, they indicate that they do not feel prepared to teach and know how few strategies to encourage dialogue between these beliefs and concepts of biological evolution bases.

  7. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  8. Biological clocks: riding the tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-10-21

    Animals with habitats in the intertidal zone often display biological rhythms that coordinate with both the tidal and the daily environmental cycles. Two recent studies show that the molecular components of the biological clocks mediating tidal rhythms are likely different from the phylogenetically conserved components that mediate circadian (daily) rhythms.

  9. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.;

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  10. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  11. From Biology to Quality (BQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    2011-01-01

    “Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skilful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives.” (William A. Foster) The quality of fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological ...

  12. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da;

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  13. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  14. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  15. Do-it-yourself biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golinelli, Stefano; Ruivenkamp, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Do-it-yourself biology, or garage biology, is a set of practices through which lay people can practice biotechnology and thus also challenge the exclusive control exercised on biotech R&D by Big Bio. This article describes how garage biologists aim to radically transform biotechnological soci

  16. Virtual Environments in Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Katsikis, Apostolos; Nikolou, Eugenia; Tsakalis, Panayiotis

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the design, development and evaluation of an educational virtual environment for biology teaching. In particular it proposes a highly interactive three-dimensional synthetic environment involving certain learning tasks for the support of teaching plant cell biology and the process of photosynthesis. The environment has been…

  17. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man

  18. Medical-biological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains data on operational and emergency staff of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant who were exposed to radiation as a consequence of the reactor accident, the size of the doses received and consequences for health. 203 persons were found to have acute radiation sickness. Of the 22 patients suffering from an extremely severe degree of acute radiation sickness, 19 died. Of the 23 patients with severe bone marrow syndrome, 7 died. For the majority of patients, clinical recovery occurred toward the end of the second month following the accident. The main harmful factor for all victims was the relatively uniform gamma- and beta-radiation effect in a dosage exceeding 1 Gy and, in the case of 35 people exceeding 4 Gy. Radiation damage to wide areas of the skin was one of the main factors contributing to the overall severe condition of the patients, and was a determining factor in the main fatal complications. A preliminary evaluation of the use of some biochemical and immunological tests in the event of accidental exposure to radiation and the methods of treatment and preliminary assessment of their effectiveness are presented. Another part of the report contains data on the doses from radiation exposure to the population of the town of Pripyat' until the time of evacuation and to the population in the 30 km zone around Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and radiation consequences of the accident for the population of different regions in the European part of the USSR, especially the problems related to the contamination of food products. The last part of the report gives some data on the organization of medical examinations of the population from the region around the Chernobyl' plant and on the long-term programmes for the medical and biological monitoring of the population and personnel

  19. Engineering life through Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Kamma, Akhil

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is a field involving synthesis of novel biological systems which are not generally found in nature. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to create life from the scratch, hence helping better understand the principles of biology. The viability of living organisms that use unnatural molecules is also being explored. Unconventional projects such as DNA playing tic-tac-toe, bacterial photographic film, etc. are taking biology to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of cheap drugs and programming bacteria to seek-and-destroy tumors in the body. However, the complexity of biological systems make the field a challenging one. In addition to this, there are other major technical and ethical challenges which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential.

  20. Engineering life through Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Kamma, Akhil

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is a field involving synthesis of novel biological systems which are not generally found in nature. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to create life from the scratch, hence helping better understand the principles of biology. The viability of living organisms that use unnatural molecules is also being explored. Unconventional projects such as DNA playing tic-tac-toe, bacterial photographic film, etc. are taking biology to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of cheap drugs and programming bacteria to seek-and-destroy tumors in the body. However, the complexity of biological systems make the field a challenging one. In addition to this, there are other major technical and ethical challenges which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential. PMID:17274769

  1. Synthetic biology and genetic causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems. PMID:23591049

  2. Biology and Economics: Metaphors that Economists usually take from Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny García Callejas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Stanley Jevons, Karl Marx, Francois Quesnay and Joseph Schumpeter all have at least one thing in common: they used biological metaphors when speaking about economics. Nonetheless, today, this relation subsists and biology and economics are viewed as complementary sciences that have a lot to gain from joint research in fields like: evolutionary economics, economic growth, cognitive economics and environmental and ecological economics, among others. This paper, divided in four sections, will show this conclusion and explain that biology and economics are more sisters than strangers

  3. The Relationships between Epistemic Beliefs in Biology and Approaches to Learning Biology among Biology-Major University Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and…

  4. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kathrin

    2013-06-01

    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities.

  5. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. PMID:26056745

  6. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D

    2015-08-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship.

  7. Biology and Economics: Metaphors that Economists usually take from Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Danny García Callejas

    2007-01-01

    Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Stanley Jevons, Karl Marx, Francois Quesnay and Joseph Schumpeter all have at least one thing in common: they used biological metaphors when speaking about economics. Nonetheless, today, this relation subsists and biology and economics are viewed as complementary sciences that have a lot to gain from joint research in fields like: evolutionary economics, economic growth, cognitive economics and environmental and ecological economics, among others. This paper, divi...

  8. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  9. Rethinking biologics in lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuturupalli, S

    2016-09-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a chronic and devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. Despite advances in our understanding of LN and the availability of effective therapies, LN remains a difficult clinical problem, and progression to end stage renal disease remains a significant challenge. Though the advent of biologics has revolutionized the treatment of many rheumatological conditions, and several clinical trials of biologics have been conducted in LN, the promise of biologics remains unfulfilled. The experience gained from these initial clinical trials can help tailor approaches in future clinical trials, and the lessons learned can be applied to find a cure for this condition. PMID:27497255

  10. Biological Optimisation for Nurse Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems (AISs) to date have generally been inspired by naive biological metaphors. This has limited the effectiveness of these systems. In this position paper two ways in which AISs could be made more biologically realistic are discussed. We propose that AISs should draw their inspiration from organisms which possess only innate immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure their overall design. An outline of plant and invertebrate immune systems is presented, and a number of contemporary research that more biologically-realistic AISs could have is also discussed.

  11. The renaissance of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance.

  12. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  13. Bilingual teaching of molecular biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recently bilingual teaching in China's universities has been widely carried out and become a popular subject for study. In this paper, the reasons for bilingual teaching of molecular biology are pointed out, the textbook of molecular biology and teaching method in bilingual teaching classes are determined after investigation and the practice of bilingually teaching molecular biology use both English and Chinese in a class. The effect has proved good. The bilingual teaching methods, the problem of bilingual teaching, the importance of understanding its significance and the possibilities of improving such teaching of the subject are also discussed.

  14. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  15. The biology of plant metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following a general introduction, this book includes details of metabolomics of model species including Arabidopsis and tomato. Further chapters provide in-depth coverage of abiotic stress, data integration, systems biology, genetics, genomics, chemometrics and biostatisitcs. Applications of plant m

  16. Biological Sample Monitoring Database (BSMDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biological Sample Monitoring Database System (BSMDBS) was developed for the Northeast Fisheries Regional Office and Science Center (NER/NEFSC) to record and...

  17. The relativity of biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail. PMID:26449352

  18. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  19. Biology is the new physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The application of mathematics and computer science to biology is changing the nature of research. Philip Hunter explores the cross-fertilization of ideas between the disciplines and how it creates new job opportunities for biologists and mathematicians

  20. Inference problems in structural biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Simon

    The structure and dynamics of biological molecules are essential for their function. Consequently, a wealth of experimental techniques have been developed to study these features. However, while experiments yield detailed information about geometrical features of molecules, this information is of...

  1. Aging and computational systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kathleen M; Morgan, Amy E; Mc Auley, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is undergoing a paradigm shift, which has led to new and innovative methods of exploring this complex phenomenon. The systems biology approach endeavors to understand biological systems in a holistic manner, by taking account of intrinsic interactions, while also attempting to account for the impact of external inputs, such as diet. A key technique employed in systems biology is computational modeling, which involves mathematically describing and simulating the dynamics of biological systems. Although a large number of computational models have been developed in recent years, these models have focused on various discrete components of the aging process, and to date no model has succeeded in completely representing the full scope of aging. Combining existing models or developing new models may help to address this need and in so doing could help achieve an improved understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms which underpin aging.

  2. The relativity of biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  3. Biology and treatment of myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioli, Annamaria; Melchor, Lorenzo; Walker, Brian A; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J

    2014-09-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in the understanding of multiple myeloma (MM) biology and its treatment. Current strategies for the treatment of MM involve the concept of sequential blocks of therapy given as an induction followed by consolidation and maintenance. In an age characterized by emerging and more powerful laboratory techniques, it is of primary importance to understand the biology of MM and how this biology can guide the development of new treatment strategies. This review focuses on the genetic basis of myeloma, including the most common genetic abnormalities and pathways affected and the effects that these have on MM treatment strategies. MM biology is discussed also in the light of more recent theory of intraclonal heterogeneity. PMID:25486959

  4. Synthetic Biology: Integrated Gene Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Nandagopal, Nagarajan; Michael B Elowitz

    2011-01-01

    A major goal of synthetic biology is to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles from the bottom up, by building circuits and studying their behavior in cells. Investigators initially sought to design circuits “from scratch” that functioned as independently as possible from the underlying cellular system. More recently, researchers have begun to develop a new generation of synthetic circuits that integrate more closely with endogenous cellular processes. These approaches...

  5. Modelling coordination in biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David; Oliveira Costa, de, David; Arbab, Farhad

    2004-01-01

    We present an application of the Reo coordination paradigm to provide a compositional formal model for describing and reasoning about the behaviour of biological systems, such as regulatory gene networks. Reo governs the interaction and flow of data between components by allowing the construction of connector circuits which have a precise formal semantics. When applied to systems biology, the result is a graphical model, which is comprehensible, mathematically precise, and flexible

  6. Nanoscale technology in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Ralph S; Smith, R Lane

    2004-01-01

    Reviewing recent accomplishments in the field of nanobiology Nanoscale Technology in Biological Systems introduces the application of nanoscale matrices to human biology. It focuses on the applications of nanotechnology fabrication to biomedical devices and discusses new physical methods for cell isolation and manipulation and intracellular communication at the molecular level. It also explores the application of nanobiology to cardiovascular diseases, oncology, transplantation, and a range of related disciplines. This book build a strong background in nanotechnology and nanobiology ideal for

  7. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  8. THE BIOLOGY OF FRACTURE HEALING

    OpenAIRE

    Marsell, Richard; Einhorn, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The biology of fracture healing is a complex biological process that follows specific regenerative patterns and involves changes in the expression of several thousand genes. Although there is still much to be learned to fully comprehend the pathways of bone regeneration, the over-all pathways of both the anatomical and biochemical events have been thoroughly investigated. These efforts have provided a general understanding of how fracture healing occurs. Following the initial trauma, bone hea...

  9. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized. PMID:26690379

  10. The aesthetics of chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and philosophers have long reflected on the place of aesthetics in science. In this essay, I review these discussions, identifying work of relevance to chemistry and, in particular, to the field of chemical biology. Topics discussed include the role of aesthetics in scientific theory choice, the aesthetics of molecular images, the beauty-making features of molecules, and the relation between the aesthetics of chemical biology and the aesthetics of industrial design.

  11. Optimization in computational systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Banga Julio R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Optimization aims to make a system or design as effective or functional as possible. Mathematical optimization methods are widely used in engineering, economics and science. This commentary is focused on applications of mathematical optimization in computational systems biology. Examples are given where optimization methods are used for topics ranging from model building and optimal experimental design to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Finally, several perspectives for ...

  12. Systems biology and cancer, [Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C; Maini, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The systems approach to complex biological problems has rapidly gained ground during the first decade of this century. There are several reasons for this development. An important one is that while the achievement of sequencing the complete human genome, and those of other species, has been of great benefit to fundamental science, for example in comparative genomics and evolutionary biology, it has not led to the expected quick and simple solutions to multifactorial diseases (2010). On the co...

  13. How physics can inspire biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei

    2009-07-01

    In July 1997 Adrian Parsegian, a biophysicist at the National Institutes of Health in the US and a former president of the Biophysical Society, published an article in Physics Today in which he outlined his thoughts about the main obstacles to a happy marriage between physics and biology. Parsegian started his article with a joke about a physicist talking to his biology-trained friend.

  14. Prostate cancer stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhi; Jiang, Yuan; Keller, Evan T.

    2012-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model provides insights into pathophysiology of cancers and their therapeutic response. The CSC model has been both controversial, yet provides a foundation to explore cancer biology. In this review, we provide an overview of CSC concepts, biology and potential therapeutic avenues. We then focus on prostate CSC including (1) their purported origin as either basal-derived or luminal-derived cells; (2) markers used for prostate CSC identification; (3) alterations of s...

  15. Language from a biological perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohinish Shukla

    2005-02-01

    The faculty of language is unique to the human species. This implies that there are human-specific biological changes that lie at the basis of human language. However, it is not clear what the nature of such changes are, and how they could be shaped by evolution. In this paper, emphasis is laid on describing language in a Chomskyan manner, as a mental object. This serves as a standpoint to speculate about the biological basis of the emergence and evolution of language.

  16. Theoretical principles for biology: organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mossio, Matteo; Montévil, Maël; Longo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    International audience In the search of a theory of biological organisms, we propose to adopt organization as a theoretical principle. Organization constitutes an overarching hypothesis that frames the intelligibility of biological objects, by characterizing their relevant aspects. After a succinct historical survey on the understanding of organization in the organicist tradition, we offer a specific characterization in terms of closure of constraints. We then discuss some implications of ...

  17. Biologic therapies for juvenile arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, N; Jackson, G.; Gardner-Medwin, J.

    2003-01-01

    A group of therapies with exciting potential has emerged for children and young people with severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) uncontrolled by conventional disease modifying drugs. Theoretical understanding from molecular biologic research has identified specific targets within pathophysiological pathways that control rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and JIA. This review identifies the pathways of autoimmunity to begin to show how biologic agents have been produced to replicate, mimic, or bl...

  18. Researchers Discover Plants Biological Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全良

    1996-01-01

    Scientists who created glow-in-the-dark plants by shooting up seedlingswith firefly DNA have identified the first biological clock gene in plants. Discovery of the timepiece gene, which controls such biological rhythmsas daily leaf movements and proe openings, flower-blooming schedules andphotosynthesis cycles, could lead to a host of applications in ornamental horti-culture, agriculture and even human health. Many researchers believe that

  19. Biological markets explain human ultrasociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Lambert, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The evidence Gowdy & Krall (G&K) provide is more consistent with a biological markets explanation of human ultrasociality than a group selection explanation. Specifically, large-scale societies provide a better biological market for cooperation than do small-scale societies, allowing individuals to increase their fitness. Importantly, many of the quality-of-life costs G&K discuss (e.g., patriarchy) are not fitness costs.

  20. Psychiatry Today : Biology vs. Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, I; Fried, W; Berman, S M; Lengua, J A; Alpert, M

    1995-06-01

    This research addresses preferences and theoretical leanings of present-day psychiatrists along the continuum defined at one end by biology and at the other by psychology. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 5,702 randomly selected members of the American Psychiatric Association in 1990. The response rate was 307%. The results were analyzed for two groups: psychiatrists with fewer than 15 years of practice since residency and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of practice since graduation. Although the great majority of psychiatrists in both groups equally valued psychology and biology, the senior group attributed a greater importance to psychological methods, whereas the younger group stressed equally the importance of biology and psychology. This suggests that psychiatry has evolved over the years from a predominantly psychological practice to one with a more equal emphasis on psychology and biology. Recent advances in neuroscience may have shifted the pendulum toward a more balanced willingness of clinicians to consider the broad armamentarium of psychosocial and biological treatments. The results point to the need for further conceptualization into the relationship between biology and psychology and its incorporation into the psychiatric residency curriculum. PMID:24442524

  1. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  2. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  3. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyman, O.; Kaegi, C.; Akdis, M.; Bavbek, S.; Bossios, A.; Chatzipetrou, A.; Eiwegger, T.; Firinu, D.; Harr, T.; Knol, E.; Matucci, A.; Palomares, O.; Schmidt-Weber, C.; Simon, H. U.; Steiner, U. C.; Vultaggio, A.; Akdis, C. A.; Spertini, F.

    2015-01-01

    Biologic agents (also termed biologicals or biologics) are therapeutics that are synthesized by living organisms and directed against a specific determinant, for example, a cytokine or receptor. In inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, biologicals have revolutionized the treatment of several immune-

  4. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M.; Meier, W. P.; Sinner, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology -about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal an...

  5. Biological couplings: Classification and characteristic rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The phenomena that biological functions originate from biological coupling are the important biological foundation of multiple bionics and the significant discoveries in the bionic fields. In this paper, the basic concepts related to biological coupling are introduced from the bionic viewpoint. Constitution, classification and characteristic rules of biological coupling are illuminated, the general modes of biological coupling studies are analyzed, and the prospects of multi-coupling bionics are predicted.

  6. Biologic therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanov Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid arthritis (JIA are chronic, inflammatory, systemic, auto-immune diseases characterized by chronic arthritis leading to progressive joint erosions. The individual functional and social impact of rheumatoid arthritis is of great importance. Disability and joint damage occur rapidly and early in the course of the disease. The remarkably improved outcomes have been achieved initiating biologic therapy with close monitoring of disease progression. Biologic agents are drugs, usually proteins, which can influence chronic immune dysregulation resulting in chronic arthritis. According to the mechanism of action these drugs include: 1 anti-TNF drugs (etanercept, infiximab, adalimumab; 2 IL-1 blocking drugs (anakinra; 3 IL-6 blocking drugs (tocilizumab; 4 agents blocking selective co-stimulation modulation (abatacept; 5 CD 20 blocking drugs (rituximab. Biologics targeting TNF-alpha with methotrexate have revolutionized the treatment of RA, producing significant improvement in clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes not seen previously. The new concept of rheumatoid arthritis treatment defines early diagnosis, early aggressive therapy with optimal doses of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs and, if no improvement has been achieved during six months, early introduction of biologic drugs. The three-year experience of biologic therapy in Serbia has shown a positive effect on disease outcome.

  7. Biological width: No violation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of gingival health is one of the keys for the longevity of teeth, as well as for the longevity of restorations. The concept of Biologic width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. This review gives the wide aspect of the complex question of biologic width and represents an attempt to answer some of the demands in relation to it. The article also discusses the possible methods to assess biologic width, problems that occur after improper margin placement in the periodontium and the alternative procedures for prevention of biological width violation.

  8. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  9. Mathematical models in biological discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Charles

    1977-01-01

    When I was asked to help organize an American Association for the Advancement of Science symposium about how mathematical models have con­ tributed to biology, I agreed immediately. The subject is of immense importance and wide-spread interest. However, too often it is discussed in biologically sterile environments by "mutual admiration society" groups of "theoreticians", many of whom have never seen, and most of whom have never done, an original scientific experiment with the biolog­ ical materials they attempt to describe in abstract (and often prejudiced) terms. The opportunity to address the topic during an annual meeting of the AAAS was irresistable. In order to try to maintain the integrity ;,f the original intent of the symposium, it was entitled, "Contributions of Mathematical Models to Biological Discovery". This symposium was organized by Daniel Solomon and myself, held during the 141st annual meeting of the AAAS in New York during January, 1975, sponsored by sections G and N (Biological and Medic...

  10. Circadian systems biology in Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ling; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-11-01

    Systems biology, which can be defined as integrative biology, comprises multistage processes that can be used to understand components of complex biological systems of living organisms and provides hierarchical information to decoding life. Using systems biology approaches such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, it is now possible to delineate more complicated interactions between circadian control systems and diseases. The circadian rhythm is a multiscale phenomenon existing within the body that influences numerous physiological activities such as changes in gene expression, protein turnover, metabolism and human behavior. In this review, we describe the relationships between the circadian control system and its related genes or proteins, and circadian rhythm disorders in systems biology studies. To maintain and modulate circadian oscillation, cells possess elaborative feedback loops composed of circadian core proteins that regulate the expression of other genes through their transcriptional activities. The disruption of these rhythms has been reported to be associated with diseases such as arrhythmia, obesity, insulin resistance, carcinogenesis and disruptions in natural oscillations in the control of cell growth. This review demonstrates that lifestyle is considered as a fundamental factor that modifies circadian rhythm, and the development of dysfunctions and diseases could be regulated by an underlying expression network with multiple circadian-associated signals.

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resat, Haluk; Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.

    2009-04-21

    The dynamics of how its constituent components interact define the spatio-temporal response of a natural system to stimuli. Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic kinetic simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing kinetic simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available kinetic simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided.

  12. Thermodynamical journey in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin eBarbacci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium irreversible thermodynamics constitute a meaningful point of view suitable to explore life with a rich paradigm. This analytical framework can be used to span the gap from molecular processes to plant function and shows great promise to create a holistic description of life. Since living organisms dissipate energy, exchange entropy and matter with their environment, they can be assimilated to dissipative structures. This concept inherited from nonequilibrium thermodynamics has four properties which defines a scale independent framework suitable to provide a simpler and more comprehensive view of the highly complex plant biology. According to this approach, a biological process is modeled as an avalanche of dissipative structures. Each dissipative structure, corresponds to an unitary biological process, which is initiated by the amplification of a fluctuation. Evolution of the process leads to the breakage of the system symmetry and to the export of entropy. Exporting entropy to the surrounding environment corresponds to collecting information about it. Biological actors which break the symmetry of the system and which store information are by consequence, key actors on which experiments and data analysis focus most. This paper aims at illustrating properties of dissipative structure through familiar examples and thus initiating the dialogue between nonequilibrium thermodynamics and plant biology.

  13. Biologics in the management of ulcerative colitis – comparative safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausel R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Fausel,1 Anita Afzali1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program, UW Medicine – Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms, healing of colonic mucosa, and prevention of disease complications. Our treatment armamentarium has expanded dramatically over the past 10 years, and we now have multiple biologic agents approved for the treatment of moderate-severe disease, in addition to conventional therapies such as 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, and corticosteroids. In this review, we will provide a detailed discussion of the three tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α inhibitors currently approved for treatment of ulcerative colitis: infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. All three agents are effective for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in patients with ulcerative colitis, and they have comparable safety profiles. There are no head-to-head trials comparing their efficacy, and the choice of agent is most often based on insurance coverage, route of administration, and patient preference. Combination therapy with an immunomodulator is proven to be more effective than anti-TNF monotherapy, and patients who lose response to an anti-TNF agent should undergo dose intensification in order to regain clinical response. Despite therapeutic optimization, a significant percentage of patients will not achieve clinical remission with anti-TNF agents, and so newer therapies are on the horizon. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab

  14. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE IN BIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androes, G.M.; Calvin, Melvin.

    1961-08-15

    A review of the theories of electron paramagnetic resonance in biology is presented, including a discussion of the nature of the physical observation, followed by examples of materials of biological interest. Iq discussing these examples, information is presented in terms of the nature of the starting material under observation rather than the nature of the magnetic entities observed. The examples proceed from the simpler molecules of biological interest (metabolites, vitamins, cofactors) into the more complex materials (polymers, proteins, nucleic acids) toward cellular organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts) and, finally, to whole cells, organisms and organs. The observation of photoinduced unpaired electrons in photosynthetic material is described and the various parameters controlling it are discussed. The basic observation is interpreted in terms of a primary photophysical act of quantum conversion.

  15. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Identification: psychoanalytic and biological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, David D

    2006-01-01

    In recent attempts to bring psychoanalysis into greater contact with other sciences, a number of works have explicated neural science concepts and phenomena--affect, memory, consciousness--for the psychoanalyst. These efforts have helped analysts build a more scientific foundation for their theory and practice. A related task remains--namely, to take psychoanalytic concepts and see how they relate to other sciences. The concept of identification has a long history in psychoanalytic theory. It is seen in parent-child interactions, in teaching and mentoring relationships, and in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Neuropsychology and evolutionary biology have explored the phylogenetic precursors of identification, while genetics and infant observation provide insights into individual processes of identification. Finally, neuroscience, particularly recent studies of mirror neurons, offers information about the biological mechanisms of imitation and the relationship of imitation to identification. Findings from these sciences are presented in an effort to further the psychoanalytic understanding of identification, especially its biological underpinnings. PMID:16602344

  17. Deuteration in Biological Neutron Reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry (NR) is uniquely positioned in structural biology, because of its ability to characterize biomolecular interfacial architectures like lipid membranes and membrane-associated proteins nondestructively and in their native environment. Mimicking biological processes, samples can be manipulated and their structural response can be measured. Specific deuteration is an integral part of biological NR as it is essential for resolving, for example, individual components of membrane-bound protein-protein complexes. Data analysis techniques have been developed in the past decade that extract the maximum structural detail from reflectivity data obtained from samples with complex deuteration schemes while avoiding overinterpretation. This is achieved by employing robust methods for the determination of modeling uncertainties. Integrative modeling approaches for NR are emerging as an essential part of the technique. PMID:26791980

  18. The Dark Matter of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The inside of the cell is full of important, yet invisible species of molecules and proteins that interact weakly but couple together to have huge and important effects in many biological processes. Such "dark matter" inside cells remains mostly hidden, because our tools were developed to investigate strongly interacting species and folded proteins. Example dark-matter species include intrinsically disordered proteins, posttranslational states, ion species, and rare, transient, and weak interactions undetectable by biochemical assays. The dark matter of biology is likely to have multiple, vital roles to regulate signaling, rates of reactions, water structure and viscosity, crowding, and other cellular activities. We need to create new tools to image, detect, and understand these dark-matter species if we are to truly understand fundamental physical principles of biology.

  19. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  20. Radiometry in medicine and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Kie-Bong; Choi, Eui Y.

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostics in medicine plays a critical role in helping medical professionals deliver proper diagnostic decisions. Most samples in this trade are of the human origin and a great portion of methodologies practiced in biology labs is shared in clinical diagnostic laboratories as well. Most clinical tests are quantitative in nature and recent increase in interests in preventive medicine requires the determination of minimal concentration of target analyte: they exist in small quantities at the early stage of various diseases. Radiometry or the use of optical radiation is the most trusted and reliable means of converting biologic concentrations into quantitative physical quantities. Since optical energy is readily available in varying energies (or wavelengths), the appropriate combination of light and the sample absorption properties provides reliable information about the sample concentration through Beer-Lambert law to a decent precision. In this article, the commonly practiced techniques in clinical and biology labs are reviewed from the standpoint of radiometry.

  1. The Dark Matter of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The inside of the cell is full of important, yet invisible species of molecules and proteins that interact weakly but couple together to have huge and important effects in many biological processes. Such "dark matter" inside cells remains mostly hidden, because our tools were developed to investigate strongly interacting species and folded proteins. Example dark-matter species include intrinsically disordered proteins, posttranslational states, ion species, and rare, transient, and weak interactions undetectable by biochemical assays. The dark matter of biology is likely to have multiple, vital roles to regulate signaling, rates of reactions, water structure and viscosity, crowding, and other cellular activities. We need to create new tools to image, detect, and understand these dark-matter species if we are to truly understand fundamental physical principles of biology. PMID:27602719

  2. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason 'omics' has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  3. Agriculture and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. N.; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This six-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on agriculture and the teaching of this subject area. Major topic areas considered in the first five chapters are: (1) the development of agriculture; (2) agricosystems (considering agriculture as an ecosystem, land utilization and soils, soils and food production,…

  4. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This student manual provides the textual material for a unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's). Topic areas considered include: (1) flow patterns of water through RBC installations; (2) basic concepts (shaft and stage); (3) characteristics of biomass; (4) mechanical features (bearings, mechanical drive systems, and air drive systems); (5)…

  5. Integrating Functional, Developmental and Evolutionary Biology into Biology Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A complete understanding of life involves how organisms are able to function in their environment and how they arise. Understanding how organisms arise involves both their evolution and development. Thus to completely comprehend living things, biology must study their function, development and evolution. Previous proposals for standardized…

  6. Artful interfaces within biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W.C. Dunlop

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological materials have a wide range of mechanical properties matching their biological function. This is achieved via complex structural hierarchies, spanning many length scales, arising from the assembly of different sized building blocks during growth. The interfaces between these building blocks can increase resistance to fracture, join materials of different character, make them deform more easily and provide motility. While they represent only a tiny fraction of the overall volume, interfaces are essential for the integrity and function of the overall tissue. Understanding their construction principles, often based on specialized molecular assemblies, may change our current thinking about composite materials.

  7. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  8. Rhomboids, signalling and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew

    2016-06-15

    Here, I take a somewhat personal perspective on signalling control, focusing on the rhomboid-like superfamily of proteins that my group has worked on for almost 20 years. As well as describing some of the key and recent advances, I attempt to draw out signalling themes that emerge. One important message is that the genetic and biochemical perspective on signalling has tended to underplay the importance of cell biology. There is clear evidence that signalling pathways exploit the control of intracellular trafficking, protein quality control and degradation and other cell biological phenomena, as important regulatory opportunities.

  9. System biology of gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitaluk, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A famous joke story that exhibits the traditionally awkward alliance between theory and experiment and showing the differences between experimental biologists and theoretical modelers is when a University sends a biologist, a mathematician, a physicist, and a computer scientist to a walking trip in an attempt to stimulate interdisciplinary research. During a break, they watch a cow in a field nearby and the leader of the group asks, "I wonder how one could decide on the size of a cow?" Since a cow is a biological object, the biologist responded first: "I have seen many cows in this area and know it is a big cow." The mathematician argued, "The true volume is determined by integrating the mathematical function that describes the outer surface of the cow's body." The physicist suggested: "Let's assume the cow is a sphere...." Finally the computer scientist became nervous and said that he didn't bring his computer because there is no Internet connection up there on the hill. In this humorous but explanatory story suggestions proposed by theorists can be taken to reflect the view of many experimental biologists that computer scientists and theorists are too far removed from biological reality and therefore their theories and approaches are not of much immediate usefulness. Conversely, the statement of the biologist mirrors the view of many traditional theoretical and computational scientists that biological experiments are for the most part simply descriptive, lack rigor, and that much of the resulting biological data are of questionable functional relevance. One of the goals of current biology as a multidisciplinary science is to bring people from different scientific areas together on the same "hill" and teach them to speak the same "language." In fact, of course, when presenting their data, most experimentalist biologists do provide an interpretation and explanation for the results, and many theorists/computer scientists aim to answer (or at least to fully describe

  10. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  11. Introduction: Biological Constraints on Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, José E

    2015-01-01

    This special section stemmed from a symposium on biological constraints on learning that was organized for the XVII Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Comparative Psychology in Bogotá, Colombia, September 2014.  The symposium sought to revisit the topic of biological constraints on learning.  Such is the aim of this special section as well, guided by the conviction that the topic demands further study.  Some of the most important researchers in the area were invited to contribu...

  12. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  13. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  14. Mitochondria in biology and medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2012-01-01

    pathologies (Luft, 1994). Since 1959, the understanding of mitochondrial cytopathies has evolved immensely and mitochondrial cytopathies are now known to be the largest group of metabolic diseases and to be resulting in a wide variety of pathologies. "Mitochondria in Biology and Medicine" was the title...... of the first annual conference of Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine - India. The conference was organized by A. S. Sreedhar, Keshav Singh and Kumarasamy Thangaraj, and was held at The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) Hyderabad, India, during 9-10 December 2011. The conference...

  15. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  16. Towards quasi-biological nanodosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hajek, M

    2009-01-01

    The increasing utilization of charged particle beams for therapeutic purposes requires designing novel detector systems which shall be capable of assessing radiation quality for a diversity of ion species. It is shown that the pattern of energy deposition in thermoluminescent phosphors and biological tissue contains conceptual parallels. The correlation of physical and radiobiological parameters observed experimentally for specific endpoints (single- and double-strand breaks of DNA) opens the possibility of realizing successfully quasi-biological solid-state nanodosimetry on the basis of thermoluminescence.

  17. The Role of Biology in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingcun, Lu

    2004-01-01

    The principal mode of environmental education is to integrate environmental education into science classes. Biology is a life science. To study biology it is necessary to talk about the living environment and the relationship between biological organisms and their environment. Studying biology not only enables students to learn a great deal of…

  18. Synthetic Biology in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Lam, C.M.C.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Suarez Diez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology draws on the understanding from genetics, biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computational sciences to (re-)design and (re-)engineer biological functions. Here we address how synthetic biology can be possibly deployed to promote health and tackle disease. We discuss how

  19. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  20. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.