Sample records for biologic immunomodulator hdfx

  1. Biologic treatment or immunomodulation is not associated with postoperative anastomotic complications in abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Andersen, Jens; Bisgaard, Thue


    Objectives: There are concerns that biologic treatments or immunomodulation may negatively influence anastomotic healing. This study investigates the relationship between these treatments and anastomotic complications after surgery for Crohn's disease. Patients and methods. Retrospective study on...

  2. Immunomodulation of rheumatologic disorders with non-biologic disease modifying antirheumtic drugs. (United States)

    Walker, Ulrich A


    Although biological agents have revolutionized the immunomodulation of many rheumatic disorders, conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) remain important glucocorticosteroid sparing agents and combination partners. In rheumatoid arthritis, low-dose glucocorticosteroids can be regarded as a DMARD due to preventive effects on joint erosions. Therapy with methothrexate and possibly also other DMARDs may alter the natural evolution of rheumatoid arthritis severity over time and therapy should be instituted as early as possible. Leflunomide is an equipotent alternative to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis, if methotrexate cannot be tolerated. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits toll-like receptor signaling and exerts antithrombotic and antihyperlipidemic effects, all thought to be beneficial in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine improves organ involvement in lupus, prevents lupus flares, and reduces mortality. It should be given to every lupus patient without contraindications.

  3. Biological evaluation of ferulic acid as potent immunomodulator: An in vitro study

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    Aditya Ganeshpurkar


    Full Text Available Objective: The development of immunity and suppression of undesired immune reaction are two of the strategies that are responsible to control the disease. Immunomodulators, which are devoid of any untoward effects, can be administered for a long period for prevention of variety of diseases. Ferulic acid, a hydroxylated cinnamic acid is an abundant phenolic phytochemical found in cell wall of plants. It is one of the important phyto-molecule with diverse therapeutic effects. The current work was proposed to determine in vitro immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid. Materials and Methods: Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans, neutrophil locomotion and chemotaxis test and membrane stabilisation studies were performed to determine immunomodulatory effect of ferulic acid. Results: Ferulic acid caused stimulation of neutrophils causing phagocytotic activity to significant degree. Ferulic acid aroused the process of phagocytosis of killed C. albicans and demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05 chemotactic activity at all tested concentrations. Ferulic acid at concentrations of 50-300 μg/ml demonstrated protection to goat erythrocytes membrane against lysis induced by heat solution. Conclusion: The present study suggests that ferulic acid could be regarded as potential immunomodulatory compound. However, it would be interesting to understand in vivo behaviour of ferulic acid under varied experimental conditions.

  4. The Role of Biological Agents and Immunomodulators in Treatment Strategies for Thyroid Eye Disease: An Evidence-based Review. (United States)

    Ginter, Anna; Migliori, Michael E


    Graves' Disease is an autoimmune disease where circulating antibodies bind to the thyrotropin receptors on the thyroid gland. These bound antibodies mimic thyroid stimulating hormone without the normal feedback from the anterior pituitary, causing hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. These antibodies also interact with orbital tissues and cause the characteristic orbital findings of thyroid eye disease (TED). It is not clearly understood why anatomically and physiologically distinct tissues like the thyroid gland and orbit are affected selectively, or why the orbital disease tends to be self-limited. Identifying and understanding these processes is critical to targeting therapy. In the active phase of the disease patients may experience orbital inflammation, eyelid and conjunctiva edema (chemosis), eyelid retraction, proptosis, ocular motility restriction, and optic nerve compression. Current treatment strategies for the ocular symptoms have been predominantly directed at symptomatic relief. More recently, investigators have concentrated their efforts to better understanding the underlying pathophysiologic processes to direct therapy at these processes. This review examines the current literature exploring a variety of newer therapeutic alternatives, including immunomodulative and suppressive agents, targeted at strategic points of the active-phase TED pathophysiological pathways. Specifically, biological agents including rituximab, adalimumab, intravenous immunoglobulin and others are reviewed with considerations for pathophysiology, extent of literature support, and adverse effects. [Full article available at, free with no login].

  5. Biology of Immunomodulators (United States)


    I.J., Raz, A., Fogler , W.E., Kirsh, R., Bugeiski, P. and Poste, G. Cancer Res. 40:4460, 1980. 11. Fidler, I.J., Barnes, Z., Fogler , W.E., Kirsh, R...Fidler, I.J., Sone, S., Fogler , W.E. and Barnes, Z.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:1680, 1981. 19. Sone, D. and Fidler, I.J. Cellular Immunol. 57:42, 1981

  6. Tratamento sistêmico da psoríase - Parte II: Imunomoduladores biológicos Systemic treatment of psoriasis - Part II: Biologic immunomodulator agents

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    Lúcia Arruda


    Full Text Available Em continuidade ao capítulo da edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, nesta segunda parte da EMC-D serão discutidas as novas drogas, os imunomoduladores biológicos, que agem em determinadas fases da imunopatogênese da doença, modificando fenotipicamente sua evolução. Também serão discutidos alguns aspectos imunológicos que, atualmente, são responsáveis pelo desencadeamento da doençaAs part of its continued studies of psoriasis, this second part of the Continuing Medical Education in Dermatology segment of the Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia introduces biological immunomodulators. Also known as "biologics", these drugs act on the immunopathogenetic steps of psoriasis by changing its features and progression. This paper also reviews some of the immunologic aspects of psoriasis.

  7. Immunomodulation and immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Foster, Aiden P


    This article briefly reviews the concepts of immunodeficiency and immunomodulation as they relate to selected skin diseases in the dog and cat. Immunodeficiency states are uncommon and may be associated with a subnormal or down-regulated immune system, including humoral deficiencies, such as IgA, and abnormal lymphocyte or neutrophil function. Establishing a causal relationship between a skin disease and presumed immunodeficient state has been difficult due to the rarity of such conditions, and the limited nature of the techniques used to characterise the immune system response. Severe combined immunodeficiency in dogs is a well characterised primary immunodeficiency state involving lymphocytes; retrovirus infection in cats may lead to an acquired immunodeficient state with some association with certain dermatological conditions although it remains unclear that infection is causally linked with disease. Immunomodulation usually implies stimulating the immune system along a beneficial pathway. Such a therapeutic approach may involve a wide variety of agents, for example intravenous immunoglobulin. There are few randomised controlled trials with veterinary patients that unequivocally demonstrate beneficial responses to immunomodulatory agents. Interferons are cytokines of major interest in human and veterinary medicine for their antiviral, anti-tumour and immunomodulatory effects. The advent of veterinary-licensed products containing recombinant interferon may enable demonstration of the efficacy of interferons for conditions such as canine papillomatosis and feline eosinophilic granuloma complex. Canine pyoderma has been treated with a number of presumed immunomodulatory agents with limited success. With more detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of pyoderma it may be possible to develop efficacious immunomodulators.

  8. Genuine Immunomodulation With dSLIM (United States)

    Kapp, Kerstin; Kleuss, Christiane; Schroff, Matthias; Wittig, Burghardt


    Toll-like receptors are sensing modulators of the innate immune system. One member of this protein family, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, is increasingly being investigated as therapeutic target for infectious diseases and cancer. Double-Stem Loop ImmunoModulator (dSLIM) is a new TLR-9 agonist in clinical development for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Compared with other TLR-9 ligands developed as immunomodulators, dSLIM comprises single- and double-stranded DNA, is covalently closed, and consists of natural nucleotide components only. All investigated biologic effects of dSLIM are strongly dependent on CG motifs, and the relevant cellular activation profile of dSLIM is distinct to that of other TLR-9 agonists. Here we describe the structure and biologic profile of dSLIM: in isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), dSLIM induced a unique pattern of cytokine secretion, activated within the PBMC pool particular cell subpopulations, and exhibited specific cytotoxicity on target cells. Using cellular isolation and depletion setups, the mechanism of immunoactivation by dSLIM was deduced to be dependent on, but not restricted to, TLR-9-bearing plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The dSLIM-promoted cellular stimulation directs systemic activation of the immune response as revealed in cancer patients. The observed cellular activation cascades are discussed in the context of cancer therapy. PMID:24959843

  9. Immunomodulating and anticancer agents in the realm of macromycetes fungi (macrofungi). (United States)

    Moradali, Mohammad-Fata; Mostafavi, Hossein; Ghods, Shirin; Hedjaroude, Ghorban-Ali


    Nowadays macrofungi are distinguished as important natural resources of immunomodulating and anticancer agents and with regard to the increase in diseases involving immune dysfunction, cancer, autoimmune conditions in recent years, applying such immunomodulator agents especially with the natural original is vital. These compounds belong mainly to polysaccharides especially beta-d-glucan derivates, glycopeptide/protein complexes (polysaccharide-peptide/protein complexes), proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids. Among polysaccharides, beta(1-->3)-d-glucans and their peptide/protein derivates and among proteins, fungal immunomodulatory proteins (Fips) have more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Immunomodulating and antitumor activity of these metabolites related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as hematpoietic stem cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and natural killer (NK) cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity, resulting in the production of biologic response modifiers. In this review we have introduced the medicinal mushrooms' metabolites with immunomoduling and antitumor activities according to immunological evidences and then demonstrated their effects on innate and adaptive immunity and also the mechanisms of activation of immune responses and signaling cascade. In addition, their molecular structure and their relation to these activities have been shown. The important instances of these metabolites along with their immunomodulating and/or antitumor activities isolated from putative medicinal mushrooms are also introduced.


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    A. P. Toptygina


    Full Text Available Abstract. The immune status and the level of specific antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (121 patients or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (129 patients were tested in 250 patients aged 19–56 years old. This cohort was divided for three groups. Seventy eight patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and normal rates of other parameters of immune status were jointed in Group 1. The second group was presented by 85 patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ and high level of CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes. Eighty seven patients with lymphopenia were distinguished in Group 3. All patients were treated with antiviral or antibacterial and immunomodulatory drugs. Three schemes of immunomodulatory therapy including imunofanum, polyoxidonium, cycloferonum, glutoxim, immunomax in different combination were used. In three weeks after treatment in 72,4% of patients no clinical symptoms as well as normalization of immune status indices and decrease of specific antibodies titers were observed. Sixty nine patients reported improvement of subjective health status, however they had high level of specific antibodies. Immunological examination of these patients after second course of immunomodulatory therapy confirmed their convalescence. It was shown that the condition of immune status determines effect of the different immunomodulators.

  11. Immunomodulating potential of supplementation with probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Larsen, C.N.; Kæstel, P.


    Certain probiotic microorganisms have been found beneficial in the treatment of immune-related diseases and may also affect immune function in healthy people. Intervention studies of probiotics in healthy humans are urgently required. Here, the immunomodulating potential of Bifidobacterium animalis...

  12. Antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lull Noguera, C.; Wichers, H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.


    We discuss current information on the ability of extracts and isolated metabolites from mushrooms to modulate immune responses. This can result in a more enhanced innate and acquired disease resistance. The major immunomodulating effects of these active substances derived from mushrooms include mito

  13. Natural origin immunomodulators influence on insulin content in broiler chickens blood under stress


    Степан Стефанович Грабовський


    The results of determination of protein fractions content insulin and protein concentrations in plasma of broiler chickens, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances is given. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period biologically active substances of spleen extract were obtained with and without ultrasound application. Aerosol introduction of spleen extract to the broiler chickens feed increases the insulin concentration in broile...

  14. Immunomodulators in warts: Unexplored or ineffective? (United States)

    Sinha, Surabhi; Relhan, Vineet; Garg, Vijay K


    Cutaneous warts are known to be recurrent and often resistant to therapy. Resistant warts may reflect a localized or systemic cell mediated immune (CMI) deficiency to HPV. Many modalities of treatment are in use; most of the provider-administered therapies are destructive and cause scarring, such as cryotherapy, chemical cauterisation, curettage, electrodessication and laser removal. Most patient-applied agents like podophyllotoxin have the risk of application-site reactions and recurrence. Thus immunotherapy is a promising modality which could lead to resolution of warts without any physical changes or scarring and in addition would augment the host response against the causative agent, thereby leading to complete resolution and decreased recurrences. Immunomodulators can be administered systemically, intralesionally or intradermally, and topically. A few agents have been tried and studied extensively such as cimetidine and interferons; others are new on the horizon, such as Echinacea, green tea catechins and quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and their efficacy is yet to be completely established. Though some like levamisole have shown no efficacy as monotherapy and are now used only in combination, other more recent agents require large and long term randomized placebo-controlled trials to clearly establish their efficacy or lack of it. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulators that have been used for the treatment of warts and the studies that have been conducted on them. PMID:25814698

  15. Immunomodulators in warts: Unexplored or ineffective?

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    Surabhi Sinha


    Full Text Available Cutaneous warts are known to be recurrent and often resistant to therapy. Resistant warts may reflect a localized or systemic cell mediated immune (CMI deficiency to HPV. Many modalities of treatment are in use; most of the provider-administered therapies are destructive and cause scarring, such as cryotherapy, chemical cauterisation, curettage, electrodessication and laser removal. Most patient-applied agents like podophyllotoxin have the risk of application-site reactions and recurrence. Thus immunotherapy is a promising modality which could lead to resolution of warts without any physical changes or scarring and in addition would augment the host response against the causative agent, thereby leading to complete resolution and decreased recurrences. Immunomodulators can be administered systemically, intralesionally or intradermally, and topically. A few agents have been tried and studied extensively such as cimetidine and interferons; others are new on the horizon, such as Echinacea, green tea catechins and quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and their efficacy is yet to be completely established. Though some like levamisole have shown no efficacy as monotherapy and are now used only in combination, other more recent agents require large and long term randomized placebo-controlled trials to clearly establish their efficacy or lack of it. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulators that have been used for the treatment of warts and the studies that have been conducted on them.

  16. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.


    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety


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    B. M. Kholnazarov


    Full Text Available Results of the development of an immunomodulating drug timofer based on coordination compounds isoleucyl-tryptophan dipeptide with iron (II, including the study of coordinate isoleucyl-tryptophan dipeptide with iron (II, the study of the immunostimulatory activity of the coordination compounds, the results of the preclinical and clinical studies of timotsin are presented. Method of pH titration showed that the interaction of zinc and dipeptide isoleucyltryptophan formed in solution following complex forms: [Fe (HL±]2+ (β = 1,00×1034, [Fe(HL±2]2+ (β = 6,25×1011, [Fe (HL±OH]+ (β = 4,01×1026, [Fe (L]+ (β = 8,10×1018, [Fe (L2]+ (β = 7,50×1028, [Fe (LOH]+ (β = 1,03×1029. It was shown that the immunostimulatory activity of the coordination compounds is 2 times higher than that starting dipeptide. The substance sample and standard formulation of timofer were developed and standardized. The developed immunomodulatory drug timofer showed a high therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia patients with inflammatory processes and traumatic injuries of the maxillofacial region, with chronic inflammatory diseases of the the genitals (CMV, HSV, chlamydia, chronic endometritis, chronic salpingoopharitis, ureaplasmosis with chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, chronic glomerulonephritis, and chronic renal failure complicated by anemia Bright, withrheumatic diseases, gynecological patients with anemia of moderate and severe degrees of severity, at surgical treatment of patients with suppurative lung disease, heart disease and chronic pericarditis operated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Timofer is registered in Tajikistan (registration number of medical drug №002866.

  18. Immunomodulating effect of laser therapy in patients with microbial eczema (United States)

    Dudchenko, Mycola O.; Denisenko, Olga I.


    While examining 90 patients suffering the microbial eczema (ME), we revealed disorders of the immune system in the majority of them (3/4). It was established that the inclusion of percutaneous laser irradiation of the blood in a course of multimodality treatment of patients with ME caused an immunomodulating action which resulted in an improved ME course in these patients.

  19. Topical macrolide immunomodulators: a role in the treatment of vitiligo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjioe, M.; Vissers, W.H.P.M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.


    Recently, topical macrolide immunomodulators have been successfully introduced in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. With the growing interest in this new line of topical immunosuppressants, research into the efficacy of these medicines in other T-cell-mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lic

  20. How should immunomodulators be optimized when used as combination therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in the management of inflammatory bowel disease? (United States)

    Ward, Mark G; Irving, Peter M; Sparrow, Miles P


    In the last 15 years the management of inflammatory bowel disease has evolved greatly, largely through the increased use of immunomodulators and, especially, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents. Within this time period, confidence in the use of anti-TNFs has increased, whilst, especially in recent years, the efficacy and safety of thiopurines has been questioned. Yet despite recent concerns regarding the risk: benefit profile of thiopurines, combination therapy with an immunomodulator and an anti-TNF has emerged as the recommended treatment strategy for the majority of patients with moderate-severe disease, especially those who are recently diagnosed. Concurrently, therapeutic drug monitoring has emerged as a means of optimizing the dosage of both immunomodulators and anti-TNFs. However the recommended therapeutic target levels for both drug classes were largely derived from studies of monotherapy with either agent, or studies underpowered to analyze outcomes in combination therapy patients. It has been assumed that these target levels are applicable to patients on combination therapy also, however there are few data to support this. Similarly, the timing and duration of treatment with immunomodulators when used in combination therapy remains unknown. Recent attention, including post hoc analyses of the pivotal registration trials, has focused on the optimization of anti-TNF agents, when used as either monotherapy or combination therapy. This review will instead focus on how best to optimize immunomodulators when used in combination therapy, including an evaluation of recent data addressing unanswered questions regarding the optimal timing, dosage and duration of immunomodulator therapy in combination therapy patients.

  1. Extracellular vesicles in transfusion-related immunomodulation and the role of blood component manufacturing. (United States)

    Almizraq, Ruqayyah J; Seghatchian, Jerard; Acker, Jason P


    There is an emerging interest in the risks posed by the ability of blood transfusion to modulate the immune system of recipients. Observational trials suggest that RBC transfusions may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality, however studies demonstrating the deleterious consequences of transfusion-related immunomodulation have had conflicting results. Efforts to understand the biological mechanisms responsible for TRIM are under way, and are focusing on the role that the extracellular vesicles (EVs) that accumulate in a red cell concentrate (RCC) during storage may play. EVs are heterogeneous submicron-sized vesicles that vary in size, composition and surface biomarkers. The biophysical and biochemical parameters of EVs reflect their mechanism of formation and cell sources. RCCs have been shown to contain a mixed population of EVs and not all EVs in RCC are solely from the constituent RBCs. The concentration of the different EVs (the RBC EVs and the non-RBC EVs), their composition, as well as their effects on the quality of the blood product vary depending on the manufacturing methods used to produce the RCC units. This article will review current evidence of the role of extracellular vesicles in transfusion-related immunomodulation and will discuss the impact that different methods used to collect, manufacture and store blood have on the composition and characteristics of EVs in RCCs.

  2. Immunomodulating and anticancer properties of fungi

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    Kazimierz Kopczyński


    Full Text Available Fungi contain a number of biologically active substances whose importance for human health has been confirmed in several studies. In particular, β-glucans, selenium, vitamin D, C and E should be mentioned. These substances play an important role in shaping the immune system and prevent cancer. β-Glucans reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and lower the cholesterol level.

  3. Fatos e mitos sobre imunomoduladores Facts and myths about immunomodulators

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    Hermênio Cavalcante Lima


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir alguns fatos dos imunomoduladores modernos que podem ser úteis para o dermatologista clínico. Outro objetivo importante é o de dissipar mitos que possam ter impacto negativo no uso dessas drogas pelo clínico. O foco inicial está em imunomoduladores estimuladores que podem conduzir à acentuação da resposta normal das células imunocompetentes. Para tanto, diversos aspectos associados à regulação do sistema imune e às vias regulatórias das células do sistema imune são mencionados. Discutem-se a regulação aberrante e seu impacto no sistema imune e examina-se a classe de drogas imunossupressoras que têm sua função bem estabelecida. Diversas drogas não foram mencionadas. A razão para isso é o foco do artigo que pretende cobrir os fatos bem estabelecidos ou os mitos que as novas evidências científicas modificaram. Com esse padrão em mente, é provável que exista uma quantidade considerável de similaridade nos conceitos, uma vez que descrevem drogas imunomoduladoras. Nesse contexto, a intenção de fornecer novas perspectivas de como o sistema imune pode ser modulado por essas drogas supera esse problema.The objective of this article is to discuss some facts of modern immunomodulators that might be useful for clinical dermatology. Moreover, it aims to dispel myths that might have a negative impact on the use of such drugs by clinicians. The primary focus is on immunomodulators that stimulate and may enhance the normal response of immunocompetent cells. Therefore, several aspects associated to immune system regulation, and regulatory pathways of immune cells are also mentioned. Furthermore, aberrant regulation is discussed in the context of immunomodulator use and the impact this has on the immune system. This review also examines the class of immunosuppressive drugs and their wellestablished function. Several drugs were not mentioned since the article focuses on well accepted facts or

  4. Recent advances using immunomodulators for inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Herfarth, Hans


    Use of the immunomodulators thiopurines and methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), is considered to be good clinical practice. However, despite being administered to a considerable number of IBD patients over the...... on pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics, and therapeutic blood testing, as well as the occurrence of adverse events, when using AZA, 6-MP, and MTX in an attempt to determine a more up-to-date and rational treatment regimen in IBD....

  5. Lack of immunomodulating effect of disulfiram on HIV positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørding, M; Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;


    Disulfiram (Antabuse (R)) is metabolized to two molecules of diethyldithiocarbamate, which has been reported to be an immunomodulating agent. In a double blind trial, 15 HIV antibody positive homosexual men were given daily doses of 100 mg or 400 mg of disulfiram or placebo, for 4 weeks. All had...... a CD4-count below 500 X 10(6)/l and/or a pokeweed mitogen response in a lymphocyte proliferation assay less than 50% of normal controls. None suffered from opportunistic infections. No significant effect of disulfiram on immunological, haematological, biochemical or clinical variables was observed...

  6. Cannabinoid receptor 2: potential role in immunomodulation and neuroinflammation. (United States)

    Rom, Slava; Persidsky, Yuri


    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 (CB(1), CB(2)) play a significant role in physiologic and pathologic processes, including cognitive and immune functions. While the addictive properties of marijuana, an extract from the Cannabis plant, are well recognized, there is growing appreciation of the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in multiple pathologic conditions involving chronic inflammation (inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, autoimmune disorders, multiple sclerosis, HIV-1 infection, stroke, Alzheimer's disease to name a few), mainly mediated by CB(2) activation. Development of CB(2) agonists as therapeutic agents has been hampered by the complexity of their intracellular signaling, relative paucity of highly selective compounds and insufficient data regarding end effects in the target cells and organs. This review attempts to summarize recent advances in studies of CB(2) activation in the setting of neuroinflammation, immunomodulation and HIV-1 infection.

  7. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H


    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  8. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus FIV infected cat (United States)

    FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection m...

  9. Preliminary Studies of the Immunomodulator Effect of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana Extract in a Mouse Model

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    Lluvia Arteaga Figueroa


    Full Text Available Bougainvillea xbuttiana is used as an analgesic in folk medicine in Mexico. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the ethanolic extract from B. xbuttiana on macrophages activities. The phytochemical screening was performed for determine the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and saponins. The effects of B. xbuttiana were analyzed using the macrophages activities as determined by the H2O2 release, spreading and phagocytic index, vacuoles formation percentage, and mediators production. The viability percentage was determined in live cells after fixing and staining with crystal violet. The presence of H2O2 in macrophages was performed by using the peroxidase-phenol red solution. The cytokine production was determined by two assays, ELISA for detection of IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ and biological assay for TNF detection. The results showed that the Bxb extract dose-dependent manner produces (a an increase in levels of H2O2 and spreading and vacuoles formation percentages, (b a decrease in phagocytic index and in the amounts of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ, and (c an increase significant in IL-10 and NO production. This study indicates that the ethanolic extract from Bougainvillea xbuttiana was able to activate macrophages. The combination of these results suggests that this extract has an immunomodulator effect.

  10. Preliminary Studies of the Immunomodulator Effect of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana Extract in a Mouse Model. (United States)

    Arteaga Figueroa, Lluvia; Barbosa Navarro, Leticia; Patiño Vera, Martin; Petricevich, Vera L


    Bougainvillea xbuttiana is used as an analgesic in folk medicine in Mexico. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the ethanolic extract from B. xbuttiana on macrophages activities. The phytochemical screening was performed for determine the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and saponins. The effects of B. xbuttiana were analyzed using the macrophages activities as determined by the H2O2 release, spreading and phagocytic index, vacuoles formation percentage, and mediators production. The viability percentage was determined in live cells after fixing and staining with crystal violet. The presence of H2O2 in macrophages was performed by using the peroxidase-phenol red solution. The cytokine production was determined by two assays, ELISA for detection of IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ and biological assay for TNF detection. The results showed that the Bxb extract dose-dependent manner produces (a) an increase in levels of H2O2 and spreading and vacuoles formation percentages, (b) a decrease in phagocytic index and in the amounts of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ, and (c) an increase significant in IL-10 and NO production. This study indicates that the ethanolic extract from Bougainvillea xbuttiana was able to activate macrophages. The combination of these results suggests that this extract has an immunomodulator effect.

  11. Immunomodulating and Immunoresistance Properties of Cancer-Initiating Cells: Implications for the Clinical Success of Immunotherapy. (United States)

    Maccalli, Cristina; Parmiani, Giorgio; Ferrone, Soldano


    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) represent a relatively rare subpopulation of cells endowed with self-renewal, stemness properties, tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice, and resistance to standard therapies as well as to immunotherapy. Here, we review the biological and immunological characteristics of CICs with special focus on the immunomodulating mechanisms they utilize to escape from immunosurveillance. The recently developed immunotherapeutic strategies have yielded remarkable clinical results in many types of tumors, indicating that indeed a patient's immune system can mount an immune response, which is effective in controlling tumor growth. However, a high proportion of patients is resistant or acquires resistance to these therapeutic strategies. The latter findings may reflect, at least in some cases, the inability of the immunotherapeutic strategies used to eradicate CICs. The CICs that escape immune recognition and destruction may give rise to new tumors in the same organ site or through the metastatic colonization in other anatomic sites. Identification of novel therapeutic approaches that can eradicate CICs is a major challenge in the cancer therapy area. An improved understanding of the interactions of CICs with immune system and with tumor microenvironment may contribute to optimize the available therapies and to design novel combination treatments for cancer therapy.

  12. Plant-derived immunomodulators: An insight on their preclinical evaluation and clinical trials

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    Ibrahim eJantan


    Full Text Available The phagocyte-microbe interactions in the immune system is a defence mechanism but when excessively or inappropriately deployed can harm host tissues and participate in the development of different non-immune and immune chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune problems, allergies, some rheumatoid disorders, cancers and others. Immunodrugs include organic synthetics, biological agents such as cytokines and antibodies acting on single targets or pathways have been used to treat immune-related diseases but with limited success. Most of immunostimulants and immunosuppressants in clinical use are the cytotoxic drugs which possess serious side effects. There is a growing interest to use herbal medicines as multi-component agents to modulate the complex immune system in the prevention of infections rather than treating the immune-related diseases. Many therapeutic effects of plant extracts have been suggested to be due to their wide array of immunomodulatory effects and influence on the immune system of the human body. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, polysaccharides, lactones, alkaloids, diterpenoids and glycosides, present in several plants, have been reported to be responsible for the plants immunomodulating properties. Thus the search for natural products of plant origin as new leads for development of potent and safe immunosuppressant and immunostimulant agents is gaining much major research

  13. The immunomodulation of acetylcholinesterase in zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acetycholinesterase (AChE; EC is an essential hydrolytic enzyme in the cholinergic nervous system, which plays an important role during immunomodulation in vertebrates. Though AChEs have been identified in most invertebrates, the knowledge about immunomodulation function of AChE is still quite meagre in invertebrates. METHODOLOGY: A scallop AChE gene was identified from Chlamys farreri (designed as CfAChE, and its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 522 amino acids. A signal peptide, an active site triad, the choline binding site and the peripheral anionic sites (PAS were identified in CfAChE. The recombinant mature polypeptide of CfAChE (rCfAChE was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and its activity was 71.3±1.3 U mg(-1 to catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide. The mRNA transcripts of CfAChE were detected in haemocytes, hepatopancreas, adductor muscle, mantle, gill, kidney and gonad, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. The relative expression level of CfAChE mRNA in haemocytes was both up-regulated after LPS (0.5 mg mL(-1 and human TNF-α (50 ng mL(-1 stimulations, and it reached the highest level at 12 h (10.4-fold, P<0.05 and 1 h (3.2-fold, P<0.05, respectively. After Dichlorvos (DDVP (50 mg L(-1 stimulation, the CfAChE activity in the supernatant of haemolymph decreased significantly from 0.16 U mg(-1 at 0 h to 0.03 U mg(-1 at 3 h, while the expression level of lysozyme in the haemocytes was up-regulated and reached the highest level at 6 h, which was 3.0-fold (P<0.05 of that in the blank group. CONCLUSIONS: The results collectively indicated that CfAChE had the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing activity, which was in line with the potential roles of AChE in the neuroimmune system of vertebrates which may help to re-balance the immune system after immune response.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovskyi S.


    Full Text Available The results of determination of protein fractions, cortisol content in blood of rabbits, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances are presented in the article. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period are using of spleen extract biologically active substances were obtained with ultrasound application. The purpose of research — determination of changes of protein fractions, cortisol content in rabbits blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances (spleen extract. Object and research methods. The experiment was conducted on 15 rabbits with standard diet. Three groups of rabbits five month of age (5 rabbits each was formed for research. The spleen extract were using as an biologically active substances to the feed rabbits in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. The extracts were applied to feed by aerosol method (70 °alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per rabbit (group I. The rabbits (group II received to the feed in the same way of 70 °alcohol solution in the same volume. The control group rabbits received the standard feed in the same volume. The feed eating by rabbits was exercised daily. The rabbits ate food completely. The rabbits slaughter was carried out in the morning. The blood plasma protein fractions separation was carried out by horizontal electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0 and Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Probability differences was assessed by Student t-test and results considered likely at P ≤ 0.05. Results and discussion. We measured the ratio of blood plasma protein fractions of rabbits, which in addition to the feed fed of natural origin biologically active substances. As a result of research was found that aerosol introduction of the spleen extract to the rabbits

  15. Immunomodulation in human and experimental uveitis: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vijay


    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that targets the neural retina and serves as a model of human uveitis. EAU can be induced against several retinal proteins in rats, mice, and subhuman primates. These include the S-antigen, a major protein in retinal photoreceptor cells; interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP; and rhodopsin and other antigens of retinal origin. There are many similarities between clinical uveitis and EAU, but the latter differs in being self-limited, and needs adjuvant for disease induction. The experimental disease can be induced only in susceptible animal strains. Use of the EAU model has helped investigators understand the pathophysiology of the disease and to evaluate disease-modifying strategies, which could be applied in the clinic. There has been significant progress in this field during last decade, but much more understanding is needed before the knowledge can be transferred to clinical practice. A deeper understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in the EAU model may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches targeted at various components of the immune response by immunomodulation to control uveitis. This review summarises the evidence from the EAU model, which could be of relevance to the clinical management of patients with uveitis.

  16. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu N. Yilma


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  17. Immunomodulation stimulates the innervation of engineered tooth organ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunay Kökten

    Full Text Available The sensory innervation of the dental mesenchyme is essential for tooth function and protection. Sensory innervation of the dental pulp is mediated by axons originating from the trigeminal ganglia and is strictly regulated in time. Teeth can develop from cultured re-associations between dissociated dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells from Embryonic Day 14 mouse molars, after implantation under the skin of adult ICR mice. In these conditions however, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme did not occur spontaneously. In order to go further with this question, complementary experimental approaches were designed. Cultured cell re-associations were implanted together with trigeminal ganglia for one or two weeks. Although axonal growth was regularly observed extending from the trigeminal ganglia to all around the forming teeth, the presence of axons in the dental mesenchyme was detected in less than 2.5% of samples after two weeks, demonstrating a specific impairment of their entering the dental mesenchyme. In clinical context, immunosuppressive therapy using cyclosporin A was found to accelerate the innervation of transplanted tissues. Indeed, when cultured cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in cyclosporin A-treated ICR mice, nerve fibers were detected in the dental pulp, even reaching odontoblasts after one week. However, cyclosporin A shows multiple effects, including direct ones on nerve growth. To test whether there may be a direct functional relationship between immunomodulation and innervation, cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in immunocompromised Nude mice. In these conditions as well, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme was observed already after one week of implantation, but axons reached the odontoblast layer after two weeks only. This study demonstrated that immunodepression per se does stimulate the innervation of the dental mesenchyme.

  18. Methisoprinol as an immunomodulator for treating infectious mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari


    Full Text Available Background: Infectious mononucleosis (IM is the self limiting disease that associated with primary Epstein Barr virus (EBV. It is a gamma herpes virus. EBV infection is follows saliva-transfer by kissing or sexual intercourse. The most clinical manifestation in IM consists mainly of the specific sign: pharyngitis, fever, and lymphadenopathy. The main therapy is supportive treatment. Actually the antiviral therapy is required for the host with high response immune. Purpose: The aimed of this study was to report the therapy of IM using methisoprinol. Case: The woman patient, 33 years old, came to hospital by suffering pharyngitis and swolen on left neck. It had been since 3 days ago. Case management: She had come to Puskesmas that were given amoxycillin capsul 500 mg three times a day for three days and paracetamol tablet 500mg three times a day for three days, but she was still ill. Then she came to RSGM Hasan Aman Banjarmasin. She was diagnosed as IM. The instruction were isolation and bed rest for a week. She had to eat sofly and drink water highly. The therapy were amoxycillin capsul 500 mg three times a day for seven days, methisoprinol caplet 500 mg three times a day for seven days, natrium dikofenak tablet 50 mg three times a day for seven days. She was asked to see the dentist next 7 days. In this case, she were not given acyclovir. Conclusion: IM is self limiting disease. IM is the disease with spesific clinical syndrome that associated with primary EBV infection. Depend on the base of clinical experiences, the supportive treatment is adviced for patient of IM. Methisoprinol has both immunomodulator and antiviral properties.

  19. ProtEx: a novel technology to display exogenous proteins on the cell surface for immunomodulation. (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Yolcu, Esma S; Askenasy, Nadir; Shirwan, Haval


    Gene therapy as an immunomodulatory approach has the potential to treat various inherited and acquired immune-based human diseases. However, its clinical application has several challenges, varying from the efficiency of gene transfer, control of gene expression, cell and tissue targeting, and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA into cells/tissues. Gene therapy is also a time- and labor-intensive procedure. As an alternative, we recently developed a novel technology, ProtEx, that allows for rapid, efficient, and durable display of exogenous proteins on the surface of cells, tissues, and organs without detectable toxicity. This technology exploits the strong binding affinity (Kd = 10(-15) M) of streptavidin with biotin and involves generation of chimeric molecules composed of the extracellular portions of immunological proteins of interest and a modified form of streptavidin, biotinylation of biological surfaces, and decoration of the modified surface with chimeric proteins. Biotin persists on the cell surface for weeks both in vitro and in vivo, thereby providing a platform to display exogenous proteins with extended cell surface kinetics. Two chimeric proteins, rat FasL (SA-FasL) and human CD80 (CD80-SA), were generated and tested for cell surface display and immunomodulatory functions. SA-FasL and CD80-SA molecules persisted on the surface of various cell types for extended periods, varying from days to weeks in vitro and in vivo. The cell surface kinetics, however, were protein and cell type dependent. SA-FasL showed potent apoptotic activity against Fas+ cells as a soluble protein or displayed on the cell surface and effectively blocked alloreactive responses. The display of CD80-SA on the surface of tumor cells, however, converted them into antigen-presenting cells for effective stimulation of autologous and allogeneic T-cell responses. ProtEx technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA

  20. Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of the Immunomodulator Organotellurium Compound Ammonium Trichloro(dioxoethylene-O,O'tellurate (AS101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Vázquez-Tato


    Full Text Available Ammonium trichloro[1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101 is the most important synthetic Te compound from the standpoint of its biological activity. It is a potent immunomodulator with a variety of potential therapeutic applications and antitumoral action in several preclinical and clinical studies. An experimental design has been used to develop and optimize a novel microwave-assisted synthesis (MAOS of the AS101. In comparison to the results observed in the literature, refluxing Te(IV chloride and ethylene glycol in acetonitrile (Method A, or by refluxing Te(IV chloride and ammonium chloride in ethylene glycol (Method B, it was found that the developed methods in the present work are an effective alternative, because although performance slightly decreases compared to conventional procedures (75% vs. 79% by Method A, and 45% vs. 51% by Method B, reaction times decreased from 4 h to 30 min and from 4 h to 10 min, by Methods A and B respectively. MAOS is proving to be of value in the rapid synthesis of compounds with new and improved biological activities, specially based on the benefit of its shorter reaction times.

  1. Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli in layer and meat-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Kramer, J.; Hulst-van Arkel, van der M.C.; Heres, L.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.; Boersma, W.J.A.


    1. The aim of the experiments was to evaluate whether selected probiotic lactobacillus strains have different immunomodulating effects in layer- and meat-type strain chickens. 2. Humoral and cellular specific and non-specific immune responses were studied by experiments on cellular proliferation, en

  2. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others


    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  3. [Influence of antioxidant phenovin and immunomodulator Una de gato on free radical oxidation at parodontitis]. (United States)

    Gogebashvili, N N; Dzhashi, L M; Datunashvili, I V; Intskirveli, N A; Kiparoidze, L I


    The aim of the research: detection of changes in free radical oxidation at treatment of parodontitis with combination of preparations - antioxidant Phenovin and immunomodulator Una de gato. Reactive compounds of nitrogen, oxygen and lipids in saliva, blood and gingival tissue of patients suffering from moderate form of parodontitis has been studied by means of the electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method and spin-traps (DETC, DMPO, PBN - Sigma). In patients with parodontitis content of free NO in saliva and blood increases, while in gingival tissue - decreases. In saliva, blood and gingival tissue of patients intense EPR signals of superoxidradicals (O2(-)) and lipoperoxides (LOO(-)) has been revealed indicating intensification of processes of lipid peroxidation in oral cavity, as well as in whole organism of patient. Exaggerated synthesis of NO in saliva and blood of patient is determined by high- expression of inducible NO-synthase triggered by oxidative stress, and increased activity of neuronal NO-synthase in saliva as a result of high concentrations of metacholine and P substance intensely secreted at parodontitis. Decreased content of free NO in gingival tissue of patients with parodontitis compared to control is the result of biological degradation of nitric oxide (conversion of NO into peroxinitrite on the background of intense oxidative stress in oral cavity) and nitrosylation of mitochondrial electron transport proteins of gingival tissue (characteristic for parodontitis) with further decrease in content of free oxide, suppression of intensity of mitochondrial respiration, energogenesis, development of ischemia in oral tissue leading to further initiation of destructive processes and progression of parodontitis. Treatment with combination of preparations - Phenovin and Una de gato decreased intensity of oxidative stress in organism of patients and reduced destructive processes of tissues in oral cavity. Relative normalization of oxidative metabolism

  4. Results of a non-specific immunomodulation therapy on chronic heart failure (ACCLAIM trial): a placebo-controlled randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre-Amione, G.; Anker, S.D.; Bourge, R.C.;


    Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled s...

  5. High-Throughput Screening Platform for the Discovery of New Immunomodulator Molecules from Natural Product Extract Libraries. (United States)

    Pérez Del Palacio, José; Díaz, Caridad; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Annang, Frederick; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de Pedro, Nuria; Tormo, José R; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; Gálvez, Julio


    It is widely accepted that central nervous system inflammation and systemic inflammation play a significant role in the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, neurotropic viral infections, stroke, paraneoplastic disorders, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose that the use of anti-inflammatory drugs might diminish the cumulative effects of inflammation. Indeed, some epidemiological studies suggest that sustained use of anti-inflammatory drugs may prevent or slow down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory drugs and biologics used clinically have the disadvantage of causing side effects and a high cost of treatment. Alternatively, natural products offer great potential for the identification and development of bioactive lead compounds into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases with an improved safety profile. In this work, we present a validated high-throughput screening approach in 96-well plate format for the discovery of new molecules with anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory activity. The in vitro models are based on the quantitation of nitrite levels in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset of 5976 noncytotoxic crude microbial extracts from the MEDINA microbial natural product collection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an high-throughput screening of microbial natural product extracts for the discovery of immunomodulators.

  6. Steroid dependency and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in the era of immunomodulators-A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Munkholm, Pia Susanne; Paerregaard, Anders;


    BACKGROUND:: The aim was to investigate the impact of systemic steroid treatment (SST) and immunomodulators (IM) on disease course in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:: All IBD patients in eastern Denmark......BACKGROUND:: The aim was to investigate the impact of systemic steroid treatment (SST) and immunomodulators (IM) on disease course in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:: All IBD patients in eastern Denmark...

  7. Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swiss albino mice respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of A. heterophyllus were administered to the experimental animals among which the methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus leaves have shown to be exhibit significant analgesic and immunomodulator effect by paw licking and increasing the swimming or survival time (P<0.001 respectively in mice.

  8. Can we change the natural history of Crohn's disease with early immunomodulation? (United States)

    Markowitz, James


    In both children and adults, the natural history of Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by relapsing and remitting bouts of intestinal inflammation, often associated with a progressive shift from inflammatory to complicated stricturing or penetrating disease behavior. The past 2 decades have seen a dramatic shift in therapeutic approach with the increasingly common use of early thiopurine immunomodulation. These maintenance medications were initially introduced primarily as corticosteroid-sparing agents capable of minimizing recurrent flares of inflammatory disease and have proven to be quite efficacious. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that thiopurines may only delay rather than prevent the development of complicated disease behavior. Data from both adult and pediatric CD populations from around the world are reviewed in terms of the effect of early immunomodulation on progression to complicated disease behavior, need for surgery, and prevention of recurrent disease after resection. The effect of thiopurines on the growth of children is also reviewed.

  9. The Immunomodulation Effect of Aronia Extract Lacks Association with Its Antioxidant Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Xu, Jin


    was developed to obtain high-purity anthocyanins in the extract. The antioxidative activity of the extract, the anthocyanin-rich fraction (AF) was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric-reducing ability of plasma along with resveratrol as a reference. The immunomodulation properties were...... assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes mono mac 6. The isolated AF, containing six different anthocyanins, exhibited a stronger antioxidative capacity compared to resveratrol. Resveratrol enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by LPS......, whereas AF only had a slight effect in reducing IL-10. These results demonstrated that there was no major relationship between the antioxidative effect and immunomodulation capacities of AF and resveratrol. The immunomodulatory activity of the extract is associated with bioactive compounds in Aronia other...

  10. Role of Natural Immunomodulator (Aloe Vera in Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari


    Full Text Available Aloe vera belongs to a group of Liliaceae family plant and cultivated worldwide. It possesses acemannan (acetylated mannan, which has a significant pharmacological property. The acemannan has an immunomodulatory activity when administered to animals. The major immunomodulating effect includes the activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of cytokines, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. In particular, this extract can modulate the differentiation capacity of CD4+T cells to mature into Th1 subsets and enhance the innate cytokine response. As a consequence, this extract will have a profound effect in controlling disease, caused by intracellular infectious agents (bacteria and viruses. However, further studies are needed to determine the immunomodulating effects of Aloe vera in multi-component extracts equivalent to what are being used commonly in traditional medicine.

  11. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernie, Kim J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Mayne, Greg [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Shutt, J. Laird [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Pekarik, Cynthia [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Grasman, Keith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States); Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Drouillard, Ken [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada)


    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 {mu}g {sigma}PBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6{+-}0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching {sigma}PBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1{+-}29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73{+-}0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and {sigma}PBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels.

  12. Addition of selenium improves immunomodulative effects of glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Vetvicka


    Full Text Available Background: Selenium (Se is an established essential nutrient that plays a role in various biological processes including cancer development. Similarly, stimulation of immune reactions by β-glucans is well-documented. Aims: In the current study, we focused on the stimulation of phagocytosis and interleukin (IL-2 production and on potentiation of anticancer immunity by a combination of glucan with two types of Se. Materials and Methods: Phagocytosis was evaluated using synthetic microspheres; cancer development was measured either using breast cancer cells or using lung cancer cells. Results: Using two different murine models of cancer, we showed that the Se/glucan combination strongly suppressed the growth of cancer, mostly probably via stimulation of immunity. Conclusions: A combination of glucan with Se offers superior stimulation of immunity and inhibition of cancer growth.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells: Emerging mechanisms of immunomodulation and therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justin; D; Glenn; Katharine; A; Whartenby


    Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) are a pleiotropic population of cells that are self-renewing and capable of differentiating into canonical cells of the mesenchyme, including adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. They employ multi-faceted approaches to maintain bone marrow niche homeostasis and promote wound healing during injury. Biomedical research has long sought to exploit their pleiotropic properties as a basis for cell therapy for a variety of diseases and to facilitate hematopoietic stem cell establishment and stromal reconstruction in bone marrow transplantation. Early results demonstrated their usage as safe, and there was little host response to these cells. The discovery of their immunosuppressive functions ushered in a new interest in MSCs as a promising therapeutic tool to suppress inflammation and down-regulate pathogenic immune responses in graft-versus-host and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. MSCs produce a large number of soluble and membrane-bound factors, some of which inhibit immune responses. However, the full range of MSC-mediated immune-modulation remains incompletely understood, as emerging reports also reveal that MSCs can adopt an immunogenic phenotype, stimulate immune cells, and yield seemingly contradictory results in experimental animal models of inflammatory disease. The present review describes the large body of literature that has been accumulated on the fascinating biology of MSCs and their complex effects on immune responses.

  14. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from the bark of Parkia biglobosa. (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; El-Zoubair, Elnour; Paulsen, Berit Smestad


    The bark of Parkia biglobosa is used in traditional medicine to cure a wide range of illnesses. Polysaccharides were extracted from the bark with 50% ethanol-water, 50°C and 100°C water, and seven active fractions obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The complement fixation and macrophage stimulating activities of the different fractions were determined. The acidic fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were the most active in the complement fixation assay, but the other fractions were also potent compared to the positive control BPII from Biophytum petersianum. Fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were also the most potent fractions in stimulating macrophages to release nitric oxide. Structural studies showed that PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were pectic type polysaccharides, containing arabinogalactan type II structures. The observed differences in biological activities among the seven purified polysaccharide sub-fractions are probably due to differences in monosaccharide compositions, linkage types and molecular sizes.

  15. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer. (United States)

    Jeff, Iteku Bekomo; Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa


    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups' mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides.

  16. Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2. (United States)

    Reis, Sonia Regina I N; Valente, Ligia M M; Sampaio, André L; Siani, Antonio C; Gandini, Mariana; Azeredo, Elzinandes L; D'Avila, Luiz A; Mazzei, José L; Henriques, Maria das Graças M; Kubelka, Claire F


    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC., a large woody vine native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests has been used medicinally by indigenous peoples since ancient times and has scientifically proven immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. Several inflammatory mediators that are implicated in vascular permeability and shock are produced after Dengue Virus (DENV) infection by monocytes, the primary targets for virus replication. Here we assessed the immunoregulatory and antiviral activities from U. tomentosa-derived samples, which were tested in an in vitro DENV infection model. DENV-2 infected human monocytes were incubated with U. tomentosa hydro-alcoholic extract or either its pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched or non-alkaloid fractions. The antiviral activity was determined by viral antigen (DENV-Ag) detection in monocytes by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated an in vitro inhibitory activity by both extract and alkaloidal fraction, reducing DENV-Ag+ cell rates in treated monocytes. A multiple microbead immunoassay was applied for cytokine determination (TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10) in infected monocyte culture supernatants. The alkaloidal fraction induced a strong immunomodulation: TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha levels were significantly decreased and there was a tendency towards IL-10 modulation. We conclude that the alkaloidal fraction was the most effective in reducing monocyte infection rates and cytokine levels. The antiviral and immunomodulating in vitro effects from U. tomentosa pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids displayed novel properties regarding therapeutic procedures in Dengue Fever and might be further investigated as a promising candidate for clinical application.

  17. Summary of ISN Forefronts Symposium 2015: ‘Immunomodulation of Cardio-Renal Function’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Z. Ruan


    Full Text Available The International Society of Nephrology Forefronts Symposium Immunomodulation of Cardio-Renal Function took place October 22 to 25, 2015, in Shenzhen, China. The program covered basic and clinical aspects of cardio-renal pathophysiology and immunity. Leading scientists from different and related disciplines of clinical and basic research described and reviewed recent discoveries, and discussed emerging topics under the headings “Immunity and Renal Pathophysiology”; “Autoimmunity and the Inflammasome”; “Immunity and the Gut Microbiome”; “Immuno-Metabolism”; “Immunogenetics, Transcriptomics and Epigenetics; “Immunity and Hypertension”; and “Immunity, Fibrosis, and Kidney Disease.”

  18. Neuroprotection without immunomodulation is not sufficient to reduce first relapse severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasseldam, Henrik; Johansen, Flemming Fryd


    at high doses, most likely due to differences in receptor affinities. In order to investigate the effects of neuroprotection and immunomodulation in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, we examined the impact of increasing concentrations of R(+)WIN55,212-2 on the inflammatory profile in CNS during first...... of the animals during relapse. Interestingly, treatment at any dosage did not affect the brain levels of TNF-alpha, IL-12 and IFN-gamma (T(H)1 response), whereas high-dose cannabinoid treatment reduced the number of T cells and microglia/macrophages in addition to the T(H)17 response. At the same time, we...

  19. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-infected cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Janet R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection may cause dysregulation of trophoblast immunomodulator expression, and aberrant expression of these molecules may potentiate inflammation and compromise pregnancy. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the expression of representative pro-(TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, and GM-CSF and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10; CD134, a secondary co-stimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells (FIV primary receptor; the chemokine receptor CXCR4 (FIV co-receptor; SDF-1α, the chemokine ligand to CXCR4; and FIV gag in trophoblasts from early-and late-term pregnancy. Methods We used an anti-cytokeratin antibody in immunohistochemistry to identify trophoblasts selectively, collected these cells using laser capture microdissection, and extracted total RNA from the captured cell populations. Real time, reverse transcription-PCR was used to quantify gene expression. Results We detected IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and CXCR4 in trophoblasts from early-and late-term pregnancy. Expression of cytokines increased from early to late pregnancy in normal tissues. A clear, pro-inflammatory microenvironment was not evident in trophoblasts from FIV-infected queens at either stage of pregnancy. Reproductive failure was accompanied by down-regulation of both pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. CD134 was not detected in trophoblasts, and FIV gag was detected in only one of ten trophoblast specimens collected from FIV-infected queens. Conclusion Feline trophoblasts express an array of pro-and anti-inflammatory immunomodulators whose expression increases from early to late pregnancy in


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuoRenxi; WangJun; 等


    The immunomodulation of several Charged synthetic polymers containing phosphorus in the backbone was studied in vitro through examining their inhibition or promotion effect on the proliferatioin of both T and B lymphocytes,It is found that polymers based on long chain alkyl ester of tyrosine exhibit immunomodulative activity.Negatively charged polymers show stimulative activity on LPS-induced B lymphocytes proliferation.Positively charged polymers exhibit inhibitory activity on both Con A-induced T lymphocytes and LPS-induced B lymplhyocytes proliferation.

  1. The cytotoxic effects of the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon differ from their immunomodulating effects. (United States)

    Oostingh, Gertie Janneke; Wichmann, Gunnar; Schmittner, Maria; Lehmann, Irina; Duschl, Albert


    Some organophosphate insecticides have immunomodulating capacities, but it is unknown whether different compounds within this class affect the immune system to the same extent. In this in vitro study, human immortalized T-lymphocytes or bronchial epithelial cells were treated with diazinon or chlorpyrifos in the absence or presence of cellular stress factors, thereby mimicking a stimulated immune system. Cytotoxicity was determined and cytokine release or cytokine-promoter studies were performed to study immunomodulatory effects of these chemicals, whereby the same concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were used. Results showed that chlor- pyrifos was cytotoxic at concentrations >/= 250 muM, whereas diazinon was not toxic at concentrations up to 1 mM. The immunomodulatory effects of these two compounds were similar for most cytokine promoters tested and induction of cellular stress enhanced these effects. The results were compared to data obtained with blood mononuclear cells, which confirmed the results of stably transfected cell lines, but refer to a higher sensitivity of primary cells. In conclusion, these two pesticides act in a different manner on cell viability and on some immune parameters, but cell viability was not linked to immunomodulation. The results also imply that healthy and diseased individuals are differentially affected by these pollutants.

  2. Treatment of Toxocara canis infections in mice with liposome-incorporated benzimidazole carbamates and immunomodulator glucan. (United States)

    Hrckova, G; Velebný, S


    Benzimidazole carbamates (mebendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole) are the most commonly used anthelmintic drugs for the treatment of larval toxocariasis (Toxocara canis) in paratenic hosts. However, the bioavailability of these drugs for tissues is very low due to their extremely low solubility, resulting in the administration of relatively high doses over a long period. To overcome this problem, neutral, negatively or positively charged and stabilized liposome drug carriers were examined in the chronic phase of T. canis infections in mice each orally inoculated with 1000 eggs. Moreover, liposomized albendazole and fenbendazole were co-administered with liposomized immunomodulator glucan. The highest efficacy of both drugs, evaluated 4 weeks after treatment, was recorded after their subcutaneous administration (ten doses of 25 mg kg(-1)) in stabilized liposomes and intramuscular co-administration of liposomized glucan (two doses of 5 mg kg(-1)). Fenbendazole was more effective in muscles (91.5%) whereas albendazole was more effective in the brain (92.2%). Liposomes with incorporated benzimidazole carbamate anthelmintics provide sustained drug-release reservoirs and can considerably enhance drug efficacy. Moreover, despite suppression by T. canis antigens, stimulation of the immune system by the immunomodulator glucan potentiates the effects of these antiparasitic drugs.

  3. Selenium-dependent antitumor immunomodulating activity of polysaccharides from roots of A. membranaceus. (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Bian, Fuling; Yue, Ling; Jin, Hua; Hong, Zongguo; Shu, Guangwen


    Roots of Astragalus membranaceus (Fish.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. membranaceus) have been long used as an auxiliary reagent supporting cancer treatment. Here, we compared the chemical composition and antitumor immunomodulating activity of polysaccharides from roots of A. membranaceus (PAMs) from five major habitats in Inner Mongolia, PR China. We revealed that compositions of monosaccharides and amino acids were comparable among PAMs from different habitats. However, amounts of selenium varied widely in roots of A. membranaceus and PAMs. PAMs selenium-dependently repressed the in vivo proliferation of transplanted H22 ascitic hepatoma and S180 sarcoma cells with low toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice. Selenium-containing PAMs ameliorated host CD4+ T cell apoptosis and serum cytokine dysregulation induced by tumor transplantation, leading to the enhancement of cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, PAMs also selenium-dependently improved the phagocytotic function of intra-abdominal macrophages and suppressed M2-like polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. These data suggested that the selenium content varies in the roots of A. membranaceus and PAMs from different geographical origins dramatically and selenium is an important contributor to the antitumor immunomodulation activities of PAMs.

  4. Immunomodulation by classical conditioning in NZB/W (F1) mice: Lifespan and diurnal variation (United States)

    Miguel, Mario André Leocadio; Menna-Barreto, Luiz


    Systemic Lupus Eritematosus (SLE) is a systemic inflammatory disease often treated with the agent cyclophosphamide (CY), known by provoking important adverse reactions to the organism. Ader and Cohen have demonstrated an alternative way of administrating this agent based on pavlovian conditioning, in order to reduce the aggression caused by CY. Considering the influence of the temporal organization on learning and memory processes, the purpose of this study was to understand the temporal aspects involved in the conditioned immunomodulation. In a search for circadian modulation, we selected NZB/W (F1) female mice, a strain that spontaneously develop SLE. Divided into two major groups, the animals were submitted, in different phases of day, to a classical conditioning immunomodulation protocol, consisting in weekly parings of saccharin solution and CY injections. The success of the paradigm was evaluated by comparing lifespan among the groups. Simultaneously, it was monitored the water intake behavior, in order to correlate the stability of two rhythmic parameters, amplitude and spectral power density of the 24-h rhythm, with the progression of SLE. Our results indicate that mice could benefit from the conditioning task performed either in the light phase or in the dark phase of the LD cycle, as expressed by an increased lifespan. Concerning the rhythmic parameters, there was evidence of association between the rhythmic stability and the evolution of SLE, demonstrated by the maintenance of healthy levels of amplitude and spectral potency of the 24-h rhythm in animals exposed to the conditioning paradigm. PMID:27226820

  5. Voluntary immunomodulation: potentiality and implications for long-duration manned space-flights (United States)

    Geuna, Stefano

    The influence of psychological and neural factors on immunologic activity has been dedicated a growing interest over the past fifteen years, since the publication ofPsychoneuroimmunology by Robert Ader in 1981. Studies on this topic gave evidence for bi-directional communication between psychosocial, behavioural, neuroanatomical and neuroendocrine processes with the immune system and the detrimental effects of various stressors, physical and psychological, on immune reactions were widely investigated with reports of stress-induced changes in immune paramenters and immunocompetence. Much of the evidence support the notion that stress is associated with an increase in those diseases against which the immune system defends. Recently, several studies showed that immune functions can be influenced voluntarily and the term voluntary immunomodulation was coined to describe the use of various hypnosis-like and relaxation/imagery techniques for the self-regulation of immune activity. Alterations in the immune regulatory system are one of the most critical issues to be addressed in relation to crew health management during space missions, especially long-term ones. Providing crewmembers with a tool to enhance immunocompetence might be of great value to defend against some severe diseases, such as cancer and infectious illness, which may be elicited in outer space. In this view, a critical assessment of the potential usefulness of voluntary immunomodulation for crew health maintenance during manned space-flight is presented and discussed.

  6. Development and hygiene of functional foods with immunomodulation activity using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)


    In searching modulators of immunity and hemopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, 6 herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and 6 exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found 4 effective Oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. The immunomodulation activity by the herb combination was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone marrow cells, the changes of cytokine expression patterns by herb mixture extracts were observed. In the further studies, we would to evaluate the effects of the herb combinations, to identify the active component, to confirm toxicological safety, and to prepare the provisional products for foods. And then, the functional foods with immunomodulation activity would be developed, and would be applied to overcoming the declined immunity and hemopoiesis caused by various factors.

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells and immunomodulation: A gathering of regulatory immune cells. (United States)

    Najar, Mehdi; Raicevic, Gordana; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Bron, Dominique; Toungouz, Michel; Lagneaux, Laurence


    Because of their well-recognized immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent an attractive cell population for therapeutic purposes. In particular, there is growing interest in the use of MSCs as cellular immunotherapeutics for tolerance induction in allogeneic transplantations and the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, multiple mechanisms have been identified to mediate the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs, sometimes with several ambiguities and inconsistencies. Although published studies have mainly reported the role of soluble factors, we believe that a sizeable cellular component plays a critical role in MSC immunomodulation. We refer to these cells as regulatory immune cells, which are generated from both the innate and adaptive responses after co-culture with MSCs. In this review, we discuss the nature and role of these immune regulatory cells as well as the role of different mediators, and, in particular, regulatory immune cell induction by MSCs through interleukin-10. Once induced, immune regulatory cells accumulate and converge their regulatory pathways to create a tolerogenic environment conducive for immunomodulation. Thus, a better understanding of these regulatory immune cells, in terms of how they can be optimally manipulated and induced, would be suitable for improving MSC-based immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies.

  8. Induction of tolerance using Fas ligand: a double-edged immunomodulator. (United States)

    Askenasy, Nadir; Yolcu, Esma S; Yaniv, Isaac; Shirwan, Haval


    Apoptosis mediated by Fas ligand (FasL) interaction with Fas receptor plays a pivotal regulatory role in immune homeostasis, immune privilege, and self-tolerance. FasL, therefore, has been extensively exploited as an immunomodulatory agent to induce tolerance to both autoimmune and foreign antigens with conflicting results. Difficulties associated with the use of FasL as a tolerogenic factor may arise from (1) its complex posttranslational regulation, (2) the opposing functions of different forms of FasL, (3) different modes of expression, systemic versus localized and transient versus continuous, (4) the level and duration of expression, (5) the sensitivity of target tissues to Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis and the efficiency of antigen presentation in these tissues, and (6) the types and levels of cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteinases in the extracellular milieu of the target tissues. Thus, the effective use of FasL as an immunomodulator to achieve durable antigen-specific immune tolerance requires careful consideration of all of these parameters and the design of treatment regimens that maximize tolerogenic efficacy, while minimizing the non-tolerogenic and toxic functions of this molecule. This review summarizes the current status of FasL as a tolerogenic agent, problems associated with its use as an immunomodulator, and new strategies to improve its therapeutic potential.

  9. [Neuroendocrine immunomodulation]. (United States)

    Uchakin, P N; Uchakina, O N; Tobin, B V; Ershov, F I


    Close interaction between the immune and nervous systems is well documented. The ability of immunocompetent cells to express receptors to neuroendocrine mediators as well as secrete many of them is proved. The current literature suggests that the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonodal axes play the most significant role in the regulation of immune responsiveness. On the other hand, the immune system communicates with the CNS directly through the cytokines that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, or directly via the nervus vagus, as well as via secondary messengers. Receptors to a number of cytokines have been found in the nervous tissue. Moreover, glial cells are able to secrete cytokines in the amount significant enough for at least autocrine action. In this article, the authors review the role of the "major" stress hormones such as cortisol, DHEA, growth hormone in the regulation of immune response, as well as neuro- and psychotropic properties of two major groups of cytokines that support cell-mediated (Type 1) and humoral (Type 2) immune reactions. This review emphasizes neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in response to infection both under laboratory and clinical conditions.

  10. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo


    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  11. Immunomodulation by the autonomic nervous system: therapeutic approach for cancer, collagen diseases, and inflammatory bowel diseases. (United States)

    Abo, Toru; Kawamura, Toshihiko


    The distribution of leukocytes is regulated by the autonomic nervous system in humans and animals. The number and function of granulocytes are stimulated by sympathetic nerves whereas those of lymphocytes are stimulated by parasympathetic nerves. This is because granulocytes bear adrenergic receptors, but lymphocytes bear cholinergic receptors on the surface. These regulations may be beneficial to protect the body of living beings. However, when the autonomic nervous system deviates too much to one direction, we fall victim to certain diseases. For example, severe physical or mental stress --> sympathetic nerve activation --> granulocytosis --> tissue damage, including collagen diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cancer. If we introduce the concept of immunomodulation by the autonomic nervous system, a new approach for collagen diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even cancer is raised. With this approach, we believe that these diseases are no longer incurable.

  12. Topical therapy of atopic dermatitis: controversies from Hippocrates to topical immunomodulators. (United States)

    Tilles, Gérard; Wallach, Daniel; Taïeb, Alain


    Although atopic dermatitis can be treated efficiently, there is still much controversy about the risk/benefit ratio of both topical corticosteroids and topical immunomodulators. Conflicting data may be found about the usefulness of bathing, diet regulation, and other therapeutic interventions. These controversies result in part from the persistence of Hippocratic doctrines in modern medical thinking. Humoralist and diathetic doctrines, as they pertain to eczema, are reviewed. The paradoxical worsening of oozing and the deadly hazards of hospitalization before the era of antibiotics are brought to mind. We hope that this historical review will improve the understanding of current controversies and help dermatologists to manage patients with atopic dermatitis and other chronic skin diseases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Tuberculosis is amongst one of the major public health problems in the developing countries of the world today . Modern Chemotherapy kills most of the bacilli within days. WHO initiated DOTS for treating TB but still success rate of treatment is less. Immune response in most of the tuberculosis patients is inappropriate because of gross tissue destruction and progre ssion of the disease. The nature of an effective immune response to TB is incompletely understood but the most effective vaccination strategies is to stimulate T - cell responses, both CD4 and CD8, to produce Th - 1 associated cytokines. So rationale for TB i mmunotherapy is to replace immunopathology with protective antibacterial immunity. Mycobacter i um w. have such immunogenic properties, so it was used in clinical trial as an injectable immunomodulator adjuvant to treatment of sputum positive new Pulmonary T B cases taking Cat - 1 therapy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of Immunomodulator used as an adjuvant to treatment of newly diagnosed sputum positive cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis taking Cat - I Therapy under RNTCP. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Patients w ere selected from OPD and IPD of TB & Chest Department V.S.S. Medical College Burla. It was a Double blind randomized placebo contolled study done during Jan. 2004 to Jan. 2006. Study was conducted in30 newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis of wh ich 17 were in group A and 13 were in group B after taking informed consent. The study subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two groups (A&B.Group A was treated with Cat - I and injectable Immunomodulator and Group B received Cat - I with placebo. Ana lysis of sputum status was done at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sputum conversion, side effects, weight gain and relief of symptoms between both the groups were analysed. RESULTS: The majority of patients of new sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis were found in between the age group of 21 – 40

  14. Immunomodulation for inhibitors in hemophilia A: the important role of Treg cells. (United States)

    Miao, Carol H


    Approximately 25-30% of the hemophilia A patients develop inhibitory antibodies against Factor VIII (FVIII) following protein-replacement therapy. This problem is also thought to occur following gene-replacement therapy. Recently, many approaches have been investigated to modulate FVIII-specific immune responses in either protein-replacement or gene therapy hemophilia A mouse models. Several promising protocols have been demonstrated to successfully prevent or modulate the formation of anti-FVIII antibodies, including methods to manipulate antigen presentation, development of less immunogenic FVIII proteins, or formulations or gene therapy protocols to evade immune responses, as well as immunomodulation strategies to target either T- and/or B-cell responses. Most of these successful protocols involve the induction of activated Treg cells to create a regulatory immune environment during tolerance induction. Innovative strategies to overcome pre-existing anti-FVIII immune responses and induce long-term tolerance in primed subjects still need to be developed.

  15. Acetylation and carboxymethylation of the polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum and their antioxidant and immunomodulating activities. (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanxing; Nie, Shaoping; Li, Chang; Xie, Mingyong


    A water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma atrum was chemically modified to obtain its acetyled and carboxymethylated derivatives. The results of chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that these modifications were successful, although the molecular weight of these derivatives decreased due to slight degradation during the reaction. The antioxidant and immunomodulating activities of these derivatives were then investigated to determine the structure-bioactivity relationship. Results showed that the acetyled derivative with appropriate degree of substitution and lower molecular weight exhibited stronger antioxidant abilities on scavenging DPPH radical, and inhibitory effects in β-carotene-linoleic acid systems compared with the native polysaccharide. In addition, it also enhanced the macrophage phagocytosis capacity and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, whereas the carboxymethylated derivative was shown to be slightly less effective. These results indicated that the type of substitution group and their degree of substitution play a decisive role in the bioactivities of the derivatives.

  16. Immunomodulation in trichinellosis: does Trichinella really escape the host immune system? (United States)

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Chiumiento, Lorena


    This review describes different aspects of the host immune response to Trichinella. The role of antibodies, T cells, mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in immune reaction to this nematode is considered, in the light of the recent data derived from experimental models, both in in vivo and in vitro. The knowledge of immune response mechanisms against Trichinella is fundamental to understand how the parasite can escape such mechanisms. The principal evasion mechanisms of host immune response occurring in trichinellosis are described, some of which are shared by other parasites, some others are peculiar of this parasite, but particular attention is focused on immunomodulation and the possibilities to exploit this parasite ability to verify the effects on immuno-mediated diseases. In conclusion, some considerations on the actual ability to escape the host immune response by the parasite are discussed, taking into account the recent data that shows that the parasite might rather drive immune system of the host towards a less dangerous response.

  17. Defense peptides secreted by helminth pathogens: antimicrobial and/or immunomodulator molecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eCotton


    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all living species. They possess antimicrobial activities against a broad range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. HDPs also have the ability to enhance immune responses by acting as immunomodulators. We discovered a new family of HDPs derived from pathogenic helminthes (worms that cause enormous disease in animals and humans worldwide. The discovery of these peptides was based on their similar biochemical and functional characteristics to the human defense peptide LL-37. We propose that these new peptides modulate the immune response via molecular mimicry of mammalian HDPs thus providing a mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory properties of helminth infections.

  18. More Than Just Tumor Destruction: Immunomodulation by Thermal Ablation of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian P. Haen


    Full Text Available Over the past decades, thermoablative techniques for the therapy of localized tumors have gained importance in the treatment of patients not eligible for surgical resection. Anecdotal reports have described spontaneous distant tumor regression after thermal ablation, indicating a possible involvement of the immune system, hence an induction of antitumor immunity after thermoinduced therapy. In recent years, a growing body of evidence for modulation of both adaptive and innate immunity, as well as for the induction of danger signals through thermoablation, has emerged. Induced immune responses, however, are mostly weak and not sufficient for the complete eradication of established tumors or durable prevention of disease progression, and combination therapies with immunomodulating drugs are being evaluated with promising results. This article aims to summarize published findings on immune modulation through radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and laser-induced thermotherapy.

  19. [Immunomodulator Intensification of Etioropic Therapy in Patients with Advanced Pulmonary Tuberculosis]. (United States)

    Kolomiets, V M; Abramov, A V; Rachina, N V; Rubleva, N V


    The study was aimed at possible increase of the therapy efficacy in patients with advanced tuberculosis by including immunomodulators to the treatment schemes. The data concerning 6034 patients with advanced tuberculosis, mainly fibrocavernous tuberculosis of the lungs, were analysed. Four groups of the patients were randomized. In group 1 the management of the patients included etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures with the use of Cycloferon. The group 2 patients in addition to the etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures were given Omega-3. In group 3 the management included the etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures. In group 4 the etioropic therapy was used alone. The analysis showed that 3419 patients had primary pulmonary tuberculosis, 340 patients had relapsing tuberculosis and 2275 patients had long-term process. The etiotropic therapy efficacy was estimated after an intensive phase of not more than 3 months. In the cases with Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance and some other unfavourable factors it was estimated after a 5-month intensive phase. The results confirmed that inclusion of immunomodulators to the treatment schemes allowed to increase the therapy efficacy and the patients' adherence to the treatment, as well as to shorten the period of the bacteria carriage. Thus, the use of Cycloferon in the schemes of the treatment of the patients with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis allowed to shorten the period of the pathogen carriage (as well as the drug resistant forms) in 94.1 ± 3.33% of the patients in spite of concomitant diseases. The effect of Cycloferon in such cases was likely due to both its direct immunoprotective action and the improvement of the general state of the patients and their higher adherence to the treatment.

  20. An immunomodulator from Tinospora cordifolia with antioxidant activity in cell-free systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veena R Desai; J P Kamat; K B Sainis


    Several plant products are known to exhibit immense medicinal value against human diseases. Our earlier studies showed that dry stem crude extract (DSCE) of Tinospora cordifolia contained a polyclonal B cell mitogen, G1-4A. DSCE as well as G1-4A also enhanced immune response in mice. In order to explore the possibility of using G1-4A/PPI (partially purified immunomodulator) to modulate radiation induced immunosuppression, the antioxidant effect of PPI from this plant was examined against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), generated by photosensitization/peroxynitrite. Levels of lipid peroxidation products, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver/spleen homogenate from mouse were monitored. Photosensitization induced significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. The activities of SOD and catalase were reduced considerably. PPI, present during photosensitisation, prevented lipid peroxidation and restored the activities of both the enzymes. Likewise, oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite was inhibited by PPI. The degradation of proteins due to photosensitization as assessed by SDS-PAGE was effectively reduced by simultaneous treatment with PPI during photosensitization. Selective inhibitors of ROS like mannitol, SOD, sodium azide and antioxidants, GSH and vitamin C brought about significant inhibition of formation of TBARS suggesting possible involvement of O$_2^{-\\bullet}$,${}^{\\bullet}$OH and 1O2. Photosensitization in deuterated buffer enhanced formation of TBARS thus indicating generation of 1O2. Thus, the action of PPI may be against oxidative damage through Type I and II photosensitization mechanisms. Therefore, the immunomodulator from Tinospora cordifolia may also be beneficial as an antioxidant.

  1. Improvement in clinical signs and cellular immunity of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis using the immunomodulator P-MAPA. (United States)

    Santiago, Maria Emília B; Neto, Luiz Silveira; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Munari, Danísio Prado; Andrade, Mariana Macedo C; Somenzari, Marcos Arruda; Ciarlini, Paulo César; de Lima, V M F


    This study investigated the immunotherapeutic potential of the protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride immuno-modulator (P-MAPA) on canine visceral leishmaniasis. Twenty mongrel dogs presenting clinical symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis and diagnosis confirmed by the detection of anti-leishmania antibodies were studied. Ten dogs received 15 doses of the immunomodulator (2.0 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and 10 received saline as a placebo. Skin and peripheral blood samples were collected following administration of the immunomodulator. The groups were followed to observe for clinical signals of remission; parasite load in the skin biopsies using real-time PCR, the cytokines IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in vitro with either total promastigote antigen or phytohemagglutinin measured by capture ELISA, and changes in CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell subpopulations evaluated by flow cytometry. Comparison between the groups showed that treatment with the immunomodulator promoted improvement in clinical signs and a significant reduction in parasite load in the skin. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, supernatants showed a decrease in IL-10 levels and an increase in IL-2 and IFN-γ. An increase in CD8⁺ T cells was observed in peripheral blood. In addition, the in vitro leishmanicidal action of P-MAPA was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and no leishmanicidal activity was detected. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as an immunotherapeutic drug in canine visceral leishmaniasis, since it assists in reestablishing partial immunocompetence of infected dogs.

  2. Ex Vivo Host and Parasite Response to Antileishmanial Drugs and Immunomodulators (United States)

    McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Saravia, Nancy Gore


    Background Therapeutic response in infectious disease involves host as well as microbial determinants. Because the immune and inflammatory response to Leishmania (Viannia) species defines the outcome of infection and efficacy of treatment, immunomodulation is considered a promising therapeutic strategy. However, since Leishmania infection and antileishmanial drugs can themselves modulate drug transport, metabolism and/or immune responses, immunotherapeutic approaches require integrated assessment of host and parasite responses. Methodology To achieve an integrated assessment of current and innovative therapeutic strategies, we determined host and parasite responses to miltefosine and meglumine antimoniate alone and in combination with pentoxifylline or CpG 2006 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Parasite survival and secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-13 were evaluated concomitantly in PBMCs infected with Luc-L. (V.) panamensis exposed to meglumine antimoniate (4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 μg SbV/mL) or miltefosine (2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 μM HePC). Concentrations of 4 μM of miltefosine and 8 μg SbV/mL were selected for evaluation in combination with immunomodulators based on the high but partial reduction of parasite burden by these antileishmanial concentrations without affecting cytokine secretion of infected PBMCs. Intracellular parasite survival was determined by luminometry and cytokine secretion measured by ELISA and multiplex assays. Principal Findings Anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines characteristic of L. (V.) panamensis infection were evaluable concomitantly with viability of Leishmania within monocyte-derived macrophages present in PBMC cultures. Both antileishmanial drugs reduced the parasite load of macrophages; miltefosine also suppressed IL-10 and IL-13 secretion in a dose dependent manner. Pentoxifylline did not affect parasite survival or alter antileishmanial effects of miltefosine or meglumine

  3. Effect of uterine immunomodulation on hematobiochemical parameters in cyclic non-breeding cows

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    Saraswat Sahoo


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of uterine immunomodulation on hematobiochemical parameters and total immunoglobulin concentration in cyclic non-breeding cows. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one repeat breeding cows around Bhubaneswar area were screened by white side test to detect and treat the endometritis and were assigned to three treatment protocols with an equal number of seven animals in each group. Cows in control group were administered with 50 ml of normal saline while treatment Group I animals were given single intrauterine infusion of 20 ml of fresh colostrum and treatment Group II animals received nonpathogenic Escherichia coli in 10 ml sterile saline. The blood samples were collected from all the experimental animals, and hematobiochemical parameters and total immunoglobulin concentration were estimated. Results: A high significant difference (p<0.01 was accounted in lymphocyte count of E. coli treated group within different days of sampling. Analysis of variance recorded a highly significant difference with neutrophil percent in E. coli lavaged cows. In colostrum treated group monocyte count showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between 0 and 14th day of sampling. The analysis of hematocrit values did not show any significant difference apart from the erythrocyte sedimentation rate parameter in the colostrum infused group with the highest significant (p<0.01 variation being observed between 7th and 14th day of sampling. The analysis of aspartate amino transferase values in the colostrum lavaged cows revealed a significant difference, but that of alanine amino transferase values did not show any significant difference. Comparison of immunoglobulin values for different days in all the treatment protocol revealed a highly significant (p<0.05 difference within various days of sampling. Conclusion: In the present study, the local immunomodulation by different agents have been highlighted and which indicated potentiation of uterine immunity

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 in pregnancy and cancer: similarities in cellular invasion, cytoprotection, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation

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    Hui eZhao


    Full Text Available Pregnancy can be defined as a permissible process, where a semi-allogeneic fetus and placenta are allowed to grow and survive within the mother. Similarly, in tumor growth, antigen-specific malignant cells proliferate and evade into normal tissues of the host. The microenvironments of the placenta and tumors are amazingly comparable, sharing similar mechanisms exploited by fetal or cancer cells with regard to surviving in a hypoxic microenvironment, invading tissues via degradation and vasculogenesis, and escaping host attack through immune privilege. Heme oxygease-1 (HO-1 is a stress-response protein that has anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although a large volume of research has been published in recent years investigating the possible role(s of HO-1 in pregnancy and in cancer development, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these yin-yang processes have still not been fully elucidated. Here, we summarize and compare pregnancy and cancer development, focusing primarily on the function of HO-1 in cellular invasion, cytoprotection, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation. Due to the similarities of both processes, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of each process may reveal and guide the development of new approaches to prevent not only pregnancy disorders; but also, to study cancer.

  5. Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in autoimmune disorders. (United States)

    Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung


    Autoimmune diseases are a group of illnesses with multiple organ involvement. The prototype of this group of disorders is rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that aside from systemic organ involvement mainly presents with progressive destruction of many joints. Both activation and defective apoptosis of immune effector cells like T and B lymphocytes and macrophages play critical roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Current therapy for autoimmune diseases recommends a combination of several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that preserve different immunomodulatory mechanisms. Because of limited success in prevention of RA joint destruction for currently available DMARDs, the development of more effective and less toxic DMARDs has been one of the major goals for pharmaceutical companies. The introduction of leflunomide and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies to the market recently serves as examples. In this context, the experience from ancient Chinese medicine gives an alternative consideration looking for potential DMARDs. Two commonly prescribed Chinese antirheumatic herbs are Tripterygium wilfordii hook f (TWHf) and tetrandrine (Tet) that preserve both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Importantly, the TWHf- or Tet-mediated immunomodulatory mechanisms are evidently different from the known DMARDs. The synergistic effects have also been demonstrated between these two Chinese antirheumatic herbs and DMARDs like FK506, cyclosporin and possibly chloroquine. Another potential Chinese herb for this consideration is Ginkgo biloba. This review summarizes evidence-based in vivo and in vitro studies on Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential DMARDs.

  6. Arsenic immunotoxicity and immunomodulation by phytochemicals: potential relations to develop chemopreventive approaches. (United States)

    Ramos Elizagaray, Sabina I; Soria, Elio A


    Arsenic (As) contaminates drinking water worldwide, and As exposure, hypersensitivity and deficiency are involved in the immunopathogenesis of various health problems. Its chemoprevention thus has a high health impact. Given its oxidative potential, antioxidant compounds are good candidates to counteract arsenic's deleterious effects on humans. Phytochemicals (e.g., phenolics, carotenoids, etc.) act through free radical chelation activity and regulation of cellular targets. Consequently, they are appropriate for developing anti-As strategies derived from plants, and Argentinean flora is rich in useful species. Several molecular pathways involved in immune regulation are at the same time targets of exogenous agents, and oxidative stress itself is a modulating phenomenon of immunity. Since xenohormesis has been described as the organic enhancement of resistance to stress conditions (e.g., oxidation, pollution, etc.) by consuming xenobiotics, immunoxenohormesis implies also defense improvement. This review focuses on recent patents on the development of vegetable redox-related immunomodulating agents, which might be applied in As-induced dysfunctions, with their scientific basis being reviewed.

  7. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

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    Jennifer D Lewis

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis.

  8. Engineered Bovine Antibodies in the Development of Novel Therapeutics, Immunomodulators and Vaccines

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    Madhuri Koti


    Full Text Available Some bovine antibodies across all classes are unique, such as the CDR3 of the variable heavy-domain (VH CDR3, which is exceptionally long (up to 66 amino acids, unlike most conventional antibodies where the VH CDR3 loops range from 10 to 25 amino acids. The exceptionally long VH CDR3 is encoded by unusually long germline IGHD genes together with insertion of novel “a” nucleotide rich conserved short nucleotide sequence (CSNS specifically at the IGH V-D junction. Such an exceptionally long VH CDR3 confers unique “knob and stalk” structural architecture where the knob, formed by intra-VH CDR3 disulfide bridges, is separated by 20 Å solvent exposed stalk composed of anti-parallel beta strands. The substitution of the knob with cytokines, such as, erythropoietin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte colony stimulating factor, results in expression of functional fusion proteins with enhanced pharmacokinetics. The beta stranded stalk can be substituted with other rigid structures, for example, repeat alpha helices to form coiled-coil that mimics the beta-stranded stalk and, thus, opens opportunities for insertion of this structure in the CDRs of antibodies across species. Given the versatility of such a structural platform in bovine antibody VH CDR3, it provides the opportunity for the development of new generation of diagnostics, therapeutics, vaccines and immunomodulating drugs.

  9. Evaluation of the Intestinal Colonizing Potential and Immunomodulating Capacity of Lactobacilli Microspheres. (United States)

    Cotta, Karyn I; Addo, Richard T; D'Souza, Martin J


    Lactobacilli species get degraded by acidic conditions in the stomach. Thus, the objective of this study was to (1) formulate and characterize gastro-resistant Lactobacilli microspheres and (2) evaluate the ability of Lactobacilli microspheres to colonize the intestine and their capacity to have an immunomodulating effect in vivo. The product yield and the encapsulation efficiency were 45% and 100%, respectively. The average microsphere particle size was 5 μm. Lactobacilli microspheres were most stable at 4°C and showed a better suspendibility in distilled water. Without encapsulation, the viability of bacteria decreased within 30 min. In the case of Lactobacilli microspheres, no Lactobacilli were released in the first 3 h, and highest release was observed at 4 h, thus, suggesting the significance of encapsulation of Lactobacilli. Lactobacilli microspheres maintained intestinal colonization only during the dosing period, and the serum IgG, serum IgA, fecal, intestinal, nasal IgA, and the serum interleukin-1β levels were higher in the Lactobacilli microsphere group compared with the blank microsphere and the lactobacilli solution group, suggesting that the Lactobacilli microspheres were more gastro-resistant and, hence, showed positive effects compared with the Lactobacilli solution. However, the Lactobacilli microspheres did not have a significant effect on the tumor necrosis factor-α levels.

  10. Interference of antibacterial agents with phagocyte functions: immunomodulation or "immuno-fairy tales"? (United States)

    Labro, M T


    Professional phagocytes (polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages) are a main component of the immune system. These cells are involved in both host defenses and various pathological settings characterized by excessive inflammation. Accordingly, they are key targets for immunomodulatory drugs, among which antibacterial agents are promising candidates. The basic and historical concepts of immunomodulation will first be briefly reviewed. Phagocyte complexity will then be unravelled (at least in terms of what we know about the origin, subsets, ambivalent roles, functional capacities, and transductional pathways of this cell and how to explore them). The core subject of this review will be the many possible interactions between antibacterial agents and phagocytes, classified according to demonstrated or potential clinical relevance (e.g., neutropenia, intracellular accumulation, and modulation of bacterial virulence). A detailed review of direct in vitro effects will be provided for the various antibacterial drug families, followed by a discussion of the clinical relevance of these effects in two particular settings: immune deficiency and inflammatory diseases. The prophylactic and therapeutic use of immunomodulatory antibiotics will be considered before conclusions are drawn about the emerging (optimistic) vision of future therapeutic prospects to deal with largely unknown new diseases and new pathogens by using new agents, new techniques, and a better understanding of the phagocyte in particular and the immune system in general.

  11. CD8: Adhesion Molecule, Co-Receptor and Immuno-Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David K Cole; George F Gao


    CD8 is a cell surface glycoprotein found in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are important components in cellular immunity, esp. In the immune response to cancer and chronic infections. There are two forms of CD8,either as an αα homodimer or αβ heterodimer. It acts as an "assistant" or co-receptor in the function of cytotoxic T cells where specific immunity is mediated by interaction of specific T cell receptor (αβTCR) and its ligand peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC). CD8 also binds to pMHC but away from the interface of pMHC and TCR contact, thereof no influence on the specificity of this interaction. If the TCR and CD8 bind to the same pMHC at the same time, CD8 is defined as a co-receptor, functioning through its signalling via its cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation pathway; if CD8 binds to pMHC independently of the TCR, it is defined as an adhesion molecule. At present, the co-receptor function theory is dominated in the field.Recent study has also shown that murine CD8αα binds to TL antigen, an MHC homologue, therefore acts as an immuno-modulator. In this review, we discuss these current understandings of the three aspects of the CD8 functions and their structural basis.

  12. CD8: Adhesion Molecule, Co-Receptor and Immuno-Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DavidKCole; GeorgeFGao


    CD8 is a cell surface glycoprotein found in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are important components in cellular immunity, esp. in the immune response to cancer and chronic infections. There are two forms of CD8, either as an αα homodimer or αβ heterodimer. It acts as an "assistant" or co-receptor in the function of cytotoxic T cells where specific immunity is mediated by interaction of specific T cell receptor (αβTCR) and its ligand peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC). CD8 also binds to pMHC but away from the interface of pMHC and TCR contact, thereof no influence on the specificity of this interaction. If the TCR and CD8 bind to the same pMHC at the same time, CD8 is defined as a co-receptor, functioning through its signalling via its cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation pathway; if CD8 binds to pMHC independently of the TCR, it is defined as an adhesion molecule. At present, the co-receptor function theory is dominated in the field. Recent study has also shown that murine CD8αα binds to TL antigen, an MHC homologue, therefore acts as an immuno-modulator. In this review, we discuss these current understandings of the three aspects of the CD8 functions and their structural basis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(2):81-88.

  13. The Usage of ß-glucan Extracted from Local Mushroom as Immunomodulator

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    Mouruj A. Alaubydi


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the active compound of local cultured mushroom (β-glucan, and studied it effect immunologically on some organs (liver, spleen, small intestine. The results of drying 1 kg of fresh mushroom was 80 g dried material, the carbohydrates (polysaccharides were extracted from the dried powder of mushroom by ethanol (99%.The carbohydrate and protein concentration were 88, 1.12 mg/mL, respectively, then the purification method was done for the extracted material, which were separated in to three main peaks, the carbohydrate concentration measured which were 490, 405 and 315 mg/mL, respectively, while Lowry method was detected the protein concentration for these peaks which were 0.0038, 0.0032 and 0.0023 mg/mL, respectively. HPLC carried out to identify β-glucan for these peaks. The results showed that the first peak was close one to standard β-glucan. The three peaks were examined as immunomodulator for lab. Animals (mice that were divided into three groups according to the peaks of ion exchange diagram plus group of control. The results of immunization method showed crossly enlargement of liver, splean and small intestine, for all experimental animals groups, and microscopically changes in the tissues structure for these organs, generally there were infiltration of mononuclear cells in all these organs especially for the first group.

  14. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

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    Bo Zhang


    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  15. Effect of immunomodulator pyrimethamine and cimetidine on immunosuppression induced by burn blister fluid. (United States)

    Gharegozloo, Behnaz; Hassan, Zuhair M; K Ardestani, Sussan; Tavassoli, Nasser


    Despite recent advances in burn wound management, sepsis remains the main cause of death in patients resuscitated after major thermal injury. Increased susceptibility to infections has been related to severe suppression of the immune system.The aim of this study was to induce immune suppression with blister fluid injection, and to modulate immune response by use of cimetidine and pyrimethamine in animal model.Male Balb/c mice were injected with blister fluid intrapritoneally (ip). Fluids were collected from parital-thickness burn blisters and then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) and the effects of different doses of immunomodulators (Cimetidine and Pyrimethamine) on this response were quantitated.A marked suppression of DTH was observed in mice injected with blister fluid. Pyrimethamine and Cimetidine at all three doses caused a significant enhancement of DTH response to SRBC compared with blister fluid injected in control group.This finding represents evidence of a host defense defect within the burn wound and also indicates the blister fluid exhibit immunosuppressor factor that can modulate with immunomadulatory drugs like cimetidine and pyrimethamine.


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    Z.I, Qureshi, L.A. Lodhi, H.A. Samad, N.A. Naz1 and M. Nawaz


    Full Text Available Thirty-two adult riverine buffaloes (Buhalis bubalus in their last trimester of pregnancy were selected and randomly divided into four groups. The buffaloes of group I served as control. Animals in group II, III and IV were treated twice (7 days apart with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5mg/kg b. w. orally, Etosol (Vit E+Se, 10ml, I/m and Bacilli Calmette Guerine (BCG (0.5 ml/animal, s/c, respectively. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting day 0 untill parturition. Total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume values were higher (P<0.05 in levamisole and vit E+Se treated group of buffaloes. Haemoglobin concentration was higher (P<0.05 inVit E+Se treated group. MCV, MCH and MCHC remained unchanged among all the experimental groups. Total leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05 in levamisole treated group of buffaloes. Differential leukocyte counts (relative revealed moderate lymphocytosis in all immunomodulated groups with significantly higher counts in Vit E+Se treated buffaloes. It was inferred that levamisole and vit E-se altered some haematological values, whereas BCG did not affect the haematological parameters.

  17. Intestinal Peyer's patch-immunomodulating glucomannans from rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. (United States)

    Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiake; Yamada, Haruki


    During screening for intestinal Peyer's patch-immunomodulating polysaccharides from plant resources including medicinal herbs, a potent modulating activity was observed in a crude polysaccharide fraction (AS-1) from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. Oral administration of AS-1 (100 mg/kg/day) to aged BALB/c mice enhanced productions of IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-6 from Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells, and its oral administration to ovalbumin (OVA)-fed B10.A mice led to significant suppression on induction of OVA-specific IgE in systemic immune system. Further fractionation of the polysaccharides in the crude polysaccharide fraction, AS-1, yielded 4 polysaccharide fractions that were potently active, and contained glucomannans. Treatment of these polysaccharide fractions with endo-β-D-(1→4)-mannanase significantly decreased their activities. Mannanase digestion of the active glucomannan gave both long and short hexosyl-oligosaccharides, whereas konjac glucomannan, which was inactive, released short oligosaccharides. Structural analysis indicates that the long oligosaccharides from the active glucomannan contain mannanase-resistant complex structure comprising β-D-Man and β-D-Glc.

  18. Sulfated modification of the polysaccharides from Ganoderma atrum and their antioxidant and immunomodulating activities. (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanxing; Nie, Shaoping; Li, Chang; Xie, Mingyong


    In this study, three chemically sulfated polysaccharides (S-PSG) with different degree of sulfate substitution (DS) were derived from Ganoderma atrum. FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectra indicated that the substitution was predominantly on C-6 position compared with the C-2 position. The antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of S-PSG were further examined to determine the relationship between its structure and bioactivity. The results showed that compared with the native polysaccharide, the S-PSG-2 with moderate DS and molecular weight exhibited the highest immunomodulatory activity by increasing the macrophage phagocytosis capacity and TNF-α production. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was also greatly enhanced by S-PSG in all the groups compared with PSG. However, the reducing power and the antioxidant activities in β-carotene-linoleic acid assay were decreased. These results indicated that except for the DS, some other structural characteristics such as molecular weight, substitution position and chain conformation were also important factors affecting their bioactivities. And the S-PSG-2 we derived could be served as immunomodulator and free-radical inhibitors.

  19. The immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds in cancer chemoprevention. (United States)

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H


    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor.

  20. The immunomodulator PSK induces in vitro cytotoxic activity in tumour cell lines via arrest of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis

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    Garrido Federico


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and has shown anticancer activity in vitro and in in vivo experimental models and human cancers. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential in adjuvant cancer therapy, with positive results in the adjuvant treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as an immunomodulator of biological responses. The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for its biological activity have yet to be fully elucidated. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumour activity of PSK has been evaluated in various tumour cell lines derived from leukaemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cervix, lung, pancreas and gastric cancers. Tumour cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of PSK on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in PSK-treated cells. Results PSK showed in vitro inhibition of tumour cell proliferation as measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. The inhibition ranged from 22 to 84%. Inhibition mechanisms were identified as cell cycle arrest, with cell accumulation in G0/G1 phase and increase in apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. These results indicate that PSK has a direct cytotoxic activity in vitro, inhibiting tumour cell proliferation. In contrast, PSK shows a synergistic effect with IL-2 that increases PBL proliferation. Conclusion These results indicate that PSK has cytotoxic activity in vitro on tumour cell lines. This new cytotoxic activity of PSK on tumour cells is independent of its previously described immunomodulatory activity on NK cells.

  1. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

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    Adriana Maria Mariano Silveira e Souza


    Full Text Available Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization.

  2. Immunomodulation of Host as a Predictive Bio-Indicator of Toxicity in the Mammalian System

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    P. K. Ray


    Full Text Available Immune system is complex in nature, consisting of multi organ involvement in its activity. It is one of the most sensitive systems in the body. Any foreign material i.e. chemicals, drugs and micro-organisms, if enters in the body, may produce alteration in the function of the immune system. Only recently information has been generated that many environmental chemicals and drugs can produce modulation of the immune system in even low doses of exposure and for a short period. Some chemicals in low doses produce severe immunotoxicity well before producing any sign of overt toxicity to the other system. This can be only predicted by using immunotoxicological tests. The chemicals that enhance the immune response may predispose the host to auto-immune disease or lymphoreticular disorders resulting in allergic or hypersensitivity reactions. On the other hand, the chemicals that suppress immunity may sufficiently disrupt the immunoregulatory network, resulting in increased susceptibility to infection or to develop cancer.In the recent past toxicological assessments were done by using lethal dose (50% evaluation, use of biochemical and pathological examination of different organs, which gives information only about the cell number or degree of cellularity. The early effect of chemicals on the cell function may be missing in that type of study. Currently, the inclusion of immunological assessment parameters in toxicity evaluation of chemicals have made it possible to test the toxicity at the cellular level.It has been well known that many of the environmental chemicals at very low doses can modulate immune system without producing any clinical sign or symptoms of the disease or disorders. It is of importance that assessment of  immunomodulation can be used as a sensitive bio-indicator for predicting the toxicity caused by environmental chemicals, since immunotoxicitv can be determined with much smaller dosages of chemicals than is needed for toxicity

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy: immunomodulation and neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Stemberger

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are currently strong candidates for cell-based therapies. They are well known for their differentiation potential and immunoregulatory properties and have been proven to be potentially effective in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Currently there is no treatment that provides consistent long-term benefits for patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA, a fatal late onset α-synucleinopathy. Principally neuroprotective or regenerative strategies, including cell-based therapies, represent a powerful approach for treating MSA. In this study we investigated the efficacy of intravenously applied MSCs in terms of behavioural improvement, neuroprotection and modulation of neuroinflammation in the (PLP-αsynuclein (αSYN MSA model.MSCs were intravenously applied in aged (PLP-αSYN transgenic mice. Behavioural analyses, defining fine motor coordination and balance capabilities as well as stride length analysis, were performed to measure behavioural outcome. Neuroprotection was assessed by quantifying TH neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc. MSC treatment on neuroinflammation was analysed by cytokine measurements (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, GM-CSF, INFγ, MCP-1, TGF-β1, TNF-α in brain lysates together with immunohistochemistry for T-cells and microglia. Four weeks post MSC treatment we observed neuroprotection in the SNc, as well as downregulation of cytokines involved in neuroinflammation. However, there was no behavioural improvement after MSC application.To our knowledge this is the first experimental approach of MSC treatment in a transgenic MSA mouse model. Our data suggest that intravenously infused MSCs have a potent effect on immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Our data warrant further studies to elucidate the efficacy of systemically administered MSCs in transgenic MSA models.

  4. Immunomodulation targeting abnormal protein conformation reduces pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Goñi

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the conformational change of normal self-proteins into amyloidogenic, pathological conformers, which share structural properties such as high β-sheet content and resistance to degradation. The most common is Alzheimer's disease (AD where the normal soluble amyloid β (sAβ peptide is converted into highly toxic oligomeric Aβ and fibrillar Aβ that deposits as neuritic plaques and congophilic angiopathy. Currently, there is no highly effective treatment for AD, but immunotherapy is emerging as a potential disease modifying intervention. A major problem with most active and passive immunization approaches for AD is that both the normal sAβ and pathogenic forms are equally targeted with the potential of autoimmune inflammation. In order to avoid this pitfall, we have developed a novel immunomodulatory method that specifically targets the pathological conformations, by immunizing with polymerized British amyloidosis (pABri related peptide which has no sequence homology to Aβ or other human proteins. We show that the pABri peptide through conformational mimicry induces a humoral immune response not only to the toxic Aβ in APP/PS1 AD transgenic mice but also to paired helical filaments as shown on AD human tissue samples. Treated APP/PS1 mice had a cognitive benefit compared to controls (p<0.0001, associated with a reduction in the amyloid burden (p = 0.0001 and Aβ40/42 levels, as well as reduced Aβ oligomer levels. This type of immunomodulation has the potential to be a universal β-sheet disrupter, which could be useful for the prevention or treatment of a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms. (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Yong Tae; Song, Chi Hyun; Pang, Gerald


    Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) is widely consumed in most countries for its culinary properties. Recently, its dietary intake has been shown to protect against breast cancer. Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties; however, little is known regarding the properties of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Using size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude extract of A. bisporus, two polysaccharide fractions (designated as ABP-1 and ABP-2) were obtained. The estimated molecular masses of ABP-1 and ABP-2 were 2,000 kDa and 40-70 kDa, respectively, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of glucose, mannose, xylose, and fructose. Analysis of the effects of the polysaccharides on murine macrophages demonstrated that both fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Modulation of macrophage function by A. bisporus polysaccharides was mediated in part through activation of nuclear factor-κB with the production p50/105 heterodimers. Both ABP-1 and ABP-2 had the ability to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells but had little effect on the growth of human colon, prostate, gastric cancer, and murine Sarcoma 180 cells as assessed by a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based assay. However, when murine Sarcoma 180 cells exposed to ABP-1 or ABP-2 were implanted subcutaneously into mice, a reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with that observed in control mice. Taken together, our data provide a molecular basis to explain in part the reported beneficial therapeutic effects of A. bisporus WBM intake and suggest that macrophages likely contribute to the antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides.

  6. Antimicrobial Properties of an Immunomodulator - 15 kDa Human Granulysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Mu Wei

    Full Text Available Granulysin, a cationic protein expressed by human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, is a mediator for drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and graft-versus-host disease. Some 15 kDa granulysin are processed into 9 kDa forms and sequestered in cytolytic granules, while others are constitutively secreted into body fluids. Both 9 and 15 kDa granulysin have been shown to be a serum marker for cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, 15 kDa is able to activate monocyte differentiation. However, its antimicrobial properties have not been clearly addressed. Here, we report a novel method to prepare both the soluble 9 and 15 kDa granulysin and show that the 15 kDa form is more effective than the 9 kDa form in exerting specific antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a range of few micromolars. We also show that the 15 kDa granulysin is able to hyperpolarize the membrane potential and increase membrane permeability of treated bacteria. Interestingly, the bactericidal activity and membrane permeability of the granulysins were markedly reduced at lower pH (pH 5.4 as a result of probable increase in hydrophobicity of the granulysins. Additionally, we've also shown the granulysin to inhibit biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that the 15 kDa granulysin exhibits a novel mechanism in bacteria killing in a way that's different from most antimicrobial peptides. Our novel granulysin preparation methodology will be useful for further study of action mechanisms of other antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulating properties in granulysin-mediated diseases.

  7. Immunomodulating Effect of Cyclophosphamide on the Mice Infected with Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz japoni


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent that stops the replication of DNA, which is used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. This study was aimed at then evaluating the immunomodulating effect of cyclophosphamide (Cy on the immune system of vaccinated and non-vaccinated mice.Materials & Methods: The  study was performed on three groups of mice consisting of vaccinated, non-vaccinated and control groups. Vaccination was carried out by three separated courses of C. albicans injection intraperitoneally.  Then,  the  vaccinated group  received Cy  on  day  zero  and  were  challenged  with  lethal  doses of  C. albicans  on  days  zero, one, 3, 6 and 12 post-Cy injection. Non-vaccinated group received Cy on day zero and similar to vaccinated ones were challenged with lethal doses of the organism. The control groups received  just  Cy  on  day  zero  and  were  sacrificed  on days  post-Cy injection. Then, the hemogram and the spleen and the renal tissues were studied microscopically and macroscopically.Results: In the vaccinated group, an increase in survival time, the number of polymorphonuclear and the significant hyperplasia in the white pulp on days 6 and 12 post-Cy injection were noticed. In non-vaccinated ones, these factors had significant decrease on days 1 and 3. Conclusion: It is concluded that the hyperplasia in the white pulp of spleen and an increasing in peripheral polymorphonuclear due to the selective effects of Cy could effectively protect the animal against C. albicans infection.

  8. Effects of Canned Pineapple Consumption on Nutritional Status, Immunomodulation, and Physical Health of Selected School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavil May C. Cervo


    Full Text Available This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of canned pineapple consumption on immunomodulation, nutritional status, and physical health of ninety-eight (98 school children with mean age of 8.44±0.20. The study participants were divided into three groups: Group A (33 includes subjects who were not given canned pineapple, Group B (33 includes those who were given 140 g, and Group C (32 includes those given 280 g of canned pineapple for nine weeks. Each major group was further divided into two groups: normal (N and underweight (U based on 2007 WHO Growth Reference Standards. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical examination, dietary intake, hemoglobin level, and immunological data were analyzed. Results showed a decrease in incidence of viral and bacterial infections for both Group B and Group C (normal and underweight after canned pineapple consumption. Granulocyte production increased by 0.77–26.61% for normal weight subjects and 14.95–34.55% for underweight. CD16+56 count augmented by 20.44–22.13% for normal weight and 3.57–15.89% for underweight subjects. Thus, intake of both one can (140 g and two cans (280 g of canned pineapple may shorten the duration and incidence of infection and may increase the production of granulocytes and CD16+56, but intake of two cans (280 g demonstrated higher granulocyte and CD16+56 production. This trial is registered with Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140826-000225.

  9. In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IFN-γ release assay enhances T cell responses in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv L Gaur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of innate immunity via pathogen recognition receptors (PRR modulates adaptive immune responses. PRR ligands are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants and as therapeutics, but their utility in diagnostics has not been explored. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs are functional T cell assays used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI; however, novel approaches are needed to improve their sensitivity. METHODS: In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IGRA (QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD In-Tube with Toll-like receptor agonists poly(I:C, LPS, and imiquimod was performed on blood from subjects with LTBI and negative controls. RESULTS: In vitro immunomodulation significantly enhanced the response of T cells stimulated with M. tuberculosis antigens from subjects with LTBI but not from uninfected controls. Immunomodulation of IGRA revealed T cell responses in subjects with LTBI whose T cells otherwise do not respond to in vitro stimulation with antigens alone. Similar to their in vivo functions, addition of poly(I:C and LPS to whole blood induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and IFN-α and enhanced the surface expression of antigen presenting and costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro immunomodulation of whole blood IGRA may be an effective strategy for enhancing the sensitivity of T cells for diagnosis of LTBI.

  10. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Korthout, H.A.A.J.; Meeteren-Kreikamp, A.P. van; Ehlert, K.A.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Witkamp, R.F.


    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extrac

  11. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated bu CB1 en CB2 receptor coupled pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Korthout, H.A.A.J.; Meeteren-Kreikamp, van A.P.; Ehlert, K.A.; Wang, M.; Greef, de J.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Witkamp, R.F.


    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extrac

  12. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.; Korthout, H.A.; Meeteren-Kreikamp, A.P. van; Ehlert, K.A.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Witkamp, R.F.


    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa

  13. Influence of immunomodulators of natural origin on cellular immunity indices in blood of broiler chicken under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grabovskyi


    Full Text Available The paper deals with researching of T- and B-lymphocytes relative quantity and functional activity in broiler chicken blood after using of animal origin immunomodulators in conditions of pre-slaughter stress. The authors determined the relative amount of T- and B-lymphocytes and their individual populations in the reaction of spontaneous rоsetting with the sheep erythrocytes in blood. Besides, the differentiated count of rоsetting lymphocytes with the various degree of functional activity was conducted. The spleen extract (70% alcohol solution in volume of 1.4 ml per chicken was added to the diet of broiler chicken of experimental groups by aerosol method. This extract was obtained with/ without ultrasound application. 70% alcohol solution in the same volume and using the same method was added to the diet of broiler chicken of the control group five days before slaughter. The authors have not established probable increase of T-lymphocytes general quantity in broiler chicken blood in both experimental groups. It is shown that pre-slaughter stress in broiler chicken caused by weaning has immuno-suppressive effect on T- and B-lymphocytes in blood, which is accompanied by their quantity and functional activity decrease. T- and B-lymphocytes amount and functional activity of T- and B-cell immunity was stimulated after adding immunomodulators of natural origin to broiler chicken diet. Spleen extract polyamines as immunomodulators and antistressors most effectively influenced on some of cell immunity indices before slaughter – it is necessary to note the increase in T-helper lymphocytes in the broiler chickens blood caused by lymphocytes with medium (6–10 – by 18% (Р < 0.05 and high density receptors (М – by 35% (Р < 0.05 compared to the control. It is shown that decrease of T-lymphocytes quantity in broiler chicken blood is caused by lymphocytes with law (3–5 – by 22% (Р < 0.01 and high (M – by 11% (Р < 0.05 density receptors with

  14. Statins: from cholesterol-lowering drugs to novel immunomodulators for the treatment of Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. (United States)

    Ulivieri, Cristina; Baldari, Cosima T


    Statins, a class of drugs that act as inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis and protein isoprenylation, have been proposed as immunomodulatory agents due to their potent effects both on T lymphocytes and on antigen presenting cells. Unfortunately to date the benefits of statin therapy have not been unequivocally established due to contrasting results obtained in the setting of several autoimmune diseases. A major hurdle is our limited mechanistic understanding of the pleiotropic mechanisms underlying statin-mediated immunomodulation. Accumulating evidence has highlighted two CD4(+) T cell subsets, the Th17 and Treg cells, as important disease-related targets of statins. Here we shall review recent findings on the activity of statins on Th17 and Treg differentiation and effector function. Statin-based therapies of multiple sclerosis, a Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune disease, and of Systemic Lupus Erithematosus, characterized by a Th17/Treg imbalance, will be also discussed, based on animal models and clinical trials.

  15. The Role of Human Milk Immunomodulators in Protecting Against Viral Bronchiolitis and Development of Chronic Wheezing Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani-Louise Dixon


    Full Text Available Infants who are breastfed are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula fed infants, evidenced by decreased incidence of infections and diminished propensity for long term conditions, including chronic wheeze and/or asthma. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the duration of hospital admission, risk of respiratory failure and requirement for supplemental oxygen in infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis suggesting a potentially protective mechanism. This review examines the evidence and potential pathways for protection by immunomodulatory factors in human milk against the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, and subsequent recurrent wheeze in infants. Further investigations into the interplay between respiratory virus infections such as RSV and how they affect, and are affected by, human milk immunomodulators is necessary if we are to gain a true understanding of how breastfeeding protects many infants but not all against infections, and how this relates to long-term protection against conditions such as chronic wheezing illness or asthma.

  16. The Role of Human Milk Immunomodulators in Protecting Against Viral Bronchiolitis and Development of Chronic Wheezing Illness. (United States)

    Dixon, Dani-Louise


    Infants who are breastfed are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula fed infants, evidenced by decreased incidence of infections and diminished propensity for long term conditions, including chronic wheeze and/or asthma. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the duration of hospital admission, risk of respiratory failure and requirement for supplemental oxygen in infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis suggesting a potentially protective mechanism. This review examines the evidence and potential pathways for protection by immunomodulatory factors in human milk against the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and subsequent recurrent wheeze in infants. Further investigations into the interplay between respiratory virus infections such as RSV and how they affect, and are affected by, human milk immunomodulators is necessary if we are to gain a true understanding of how breastfeeding protects many infants but not all against infections, and how this relates to long-term protection against conditions such as chronic wheezing illness or asthma.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.I.


    groups of animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension treated with PO 0,5 ml 3- month rats (IIIb group n = 6 and 1 ml 22-month rats (IVb group n = 6. Control animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation on 3rd day - n = 12. Infected animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation on 3rd day - n = 12 and 7th day - n = 12. Results and discussion. One of the biological functions of the immunoglobulins is neutralization antigens to form circulating immune complexes. In the work it was shown that the induction of inflammation of P.aeruginosa and E.coli suspension in experimental animals of two age groups led to the increase of the CEC in serum compared to control animals. After administration experimental composite preparation comprising amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes and vitamins (MF in young animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension was revealed an increase the CEC, compared with an older group of animals throughout the experiment. When adding formulation containing mannitol and natural antioxidant betacarotene (РО, in the animals two age groups intensity CEC formation depended on the sequence of adding of suspension E. coli and immunomodulator PО. Was revealed elevated levels of CEC only, in those animals which immunocorrector PО was given to induce an inflammatory response. Conclusion. In the control group of animals older age (22 months the CEC concentration was 2 times lower than in the young (3 months control animals. After the action of bacterial suspensions P.aeruginosa and E.coli formation CEC intensity was significantly increased in both age groups of experimental animals, indicating the activation of antigen binding immunoglobulin infection. The action of the immunocorrective composite peptide drug MF significantly inhibited the formation of the CEC only in older animals throughout the experiment. With the addition of immunocorrector PО revealed increase of the CEC in young and old animals to induce inflammatory

  18. Heavy metal mediated immunomodulation of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura:Ranidae) in urban wetlands. (United States)

    Priyadarshani, S; Madhushani, W A N; Jayawardena, U A; Wickramasinghe, D D; Udagama, P V


    Impacts of heavy metal toxicity on the immune system of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, in Bellanwila Attidiya, an urban wetland polluted with high levels of heavy metals, compared to the reference site in Bolgoda, in Sri Lanka was investigated. Significantly higher accumulation of selected heavy metals, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were detected by AAS in frog liver and gastrocnemius muscle, in the polluted site than in the reference site. Non-functional immunotoxicity tests; total WBC, splenocyte and bone marrow cell counts, spleen weight/body weight ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and basal immunoglobulin levels, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages (immune functional test) were carried out using standard methodology. Test parameters recorded significantly lower values for frogs of the polluted site compared with their reference site counterparts, indicative of lowered immune response of frogs in the former site. In vitro phagocytic assay based on NBT dye reduction, measured the stimulation index (SI) of E. hexadactylus blood leukocytes, splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, where SIs of frogs in the polluted site were significantly lower. Also, in vitro exposure of frog phagocytes to Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at 10(-2)-10(-10)M, showed immunomodulation i.e. low concentrations stimulated phagocytosis while increased concentrations showed a trend towards immunosuppression. IC50 values indicated Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb as the decreasing order of the potential of phagocytosis inhibition. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated immunomodulation of E. hexadactylus, stimulated by heavy metals. In-vitro studies evidently suggested the use of phagocytosis as a biomarker in Ecoimmunotoxicology to detect aquatic heavy metal pollution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ivanushko


    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative study was carried out, aiming to assess immunostimulatory properties of high-molecular chitosan (Ch-HM and its derivatives, i.e., low molecular weight chitosan (Ch-LM, N-3-hydroxymyristoyl (Ch-LM at a low acylation ratio, N-3-hydroxymyristoylchitooligosaccharides (N-acylchito-biose, -triose, -tetraose, N-, O-carboxyalkylchitosans (carboxymethyl, -ethyl, -propyl derivates. It was established, that the chemical modifications of chitosan influenced its biological activity. The derivatives of chitosan were found to have improved physical properties (good solubility in neutral and alkaline solutions, low viscosity in acidic solutions, good absorption from a gastrointestinal compartment, as compared with initial (high molecular weight chitosan formula. They possess immunomodulatory properties and may be regarded as promising substances for preparation of medical drugs and biologically active food additives (BAFA.

  20. Increased mRNA expression of interferon-induced Mx1 and immunomodulation following oral administration of IFN-alpha2b-transformed B. longum to mice. (United States)

    Yu, Zhijian; Zeng, Zhongming; Huang, Zhen; Lian, Jie; Yang, Jin; Deng, Qiwen; Zeng, Weiseng


    We previously constructed an arabinose-inducible recombinant Bifidobacterium longum that could efficiently express secreted IFN-alpha2b in vitro (Deng et al. in Arch Microbiol 191:681-686, 2009). Here, we investigated the influence of oral pBAD-SPIFN-transformed B. longum on immunomodulation and IFN-induced Mx1 gene transcription in mice. We observed enhanced serum and fecal IFN-alpha2b concentrations in mice orally administered recombinant B. longum, suggesting a possible Th1 pattern of induction in the spleen and Peyer's patches. Transcription of the typically IFN-induced antiviral Mx1 gene in the hepatic and intestinal tissues of these mice was also markedly enhanced. In conclusion, oral administration of the recombinant B. longum expressing IFN-alpha2b might play its roles in the immunomodulation of the mice, and the potential clinical value of this bacterium in the treatment of viral infections needs to be further studied.

  1. Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado. (United States)

    Williams, J E


    Viral diseases, including emerging and chronic viruses, are an increasing worldwide health concern. As a consequence, the discovery of new antiviral agents from plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. A number of native Amazonian medicines of plant origin are known to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, although only a few have been studied for their antiviral properties and immunomodulating effects. Those most studied include: Sangre de Grado (drago) (Croton lechleri) in the Euphorbiaceae family and Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa) in the Rubiaceae family. This article reviews the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, state of current research, clinical use, and potential antiviral and immunomodulating activity of these and other plants from the Peruvian Amazon.

  2. Umbilical cord-derived stem cells (MODULATISTTM show strong immunomodulation capacity compared to adipose tissue-derived or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Phuc Van Pham


    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show great promise in regenerative medicine. Clinical applications of MSCs have recently increased significantly, especially for immune diseases. Autologous transplantation is considered a safe therapy. However, its main disadvantages are poor stability and quality of MSCs from patient to patient, and labor-intensive and time-consuming culture procedures. Therefore, allogeneic MSC transplantation has recently emerged as a potential replacement for autologous transplantation. and ldquo;Off the shelf and rdquo; MSC products, or so-called and ldquo;stem cell drugs and rdquo;, have rapidly developed; these products have already been approved in various countries, including Canada, Korea and Japan. This study aims to evaluate a new stem cell product or and ldquo;drug and rdquo;, termed ModulatistTM, derived from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs, which have strong immunomodulatory properties, compared to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs. Methods: ModulatistTM was produced from MSCs derived from whole umbilical cord (UC tissue (which includes Wharton's jelly and UC, according to GMP compliant procedures. Bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were isolated and proliferated in standard conditions, according to GMP compliant procedures. Immunomodulation mediated by MSCs was assessed by allogenic T cell suppression and cytokine release; role of prostaglandin E2 in the immunomodulation was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that ModulatistTM exhibited stronger immunomodulation than BMMSC and ADSC in vitro. ModulatistTM strongly suppressed allogeneic T cells proliferation and decreased cytokine production, compared to BMMSCs and ADSCs. Conclusion: ModulatistTM is a strong immunomodulator and promising MSC product. It may be useful to modulate or treat autoimmune diseases. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 687-696

  3. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.


    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  4. Recent advances in mesenchymal stem cell immunomodulation: the role of microvesicles. (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra; Del Fattore, Andrea; Luciano, Rosa; Muraca, Marta; Teti, Anna; Muraca, Maurizio


    Mesenchymal stem cells are the most widely used cell phenotype for therapeutic applications, the main reasons being their well-established abilities to promote regeneration of injured tissues and to modulate immune responses. Efficacy was reported in the treatment of several animal models of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and, in clinical settings, for the management of disorders such as GVHD, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The effects of mesenchymal stem cells are believed to be largely mediated by paracrine signals, and several secreted molecules have been identified as contributors to the net biological effect. Recently, it has been recognized that bioactive molecules can be shuttled from cell to cell packed in microvesicles, tiny portions of cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane. Coding and noncoding RNAs are also carried in such microvesicles, transferring relevant biological activity to target cells. Several reports indicate that the regenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells can be reproduced by microvesicles isolated from their culture medium. More recent evidence suggests that the immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells are also at least partially mediated by secreted microvesicles. These findings allow better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell interaction and may have interesting implications for the development of novel therapeutic tools in place of the parent cells.

  5. All biology is computational biology (United States)


    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  6. Nutrición enteral con dieta inmunomoduladora perioperatoria Enteral nutrition with peri-surgery immunomodulating diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdel-lah Fernández


    ía postoperatorio respecto del 5º día. Las diferencias son en la mayoría de los casos estadísticamente significativas. Resultaron ser partícipes en la ecuación de predicción de la morbimortalidad las variables, colesterol, enfermedades asociadas, PCR, IgM y sexo varón. Conclusiones: Las variables analizadas, excepto el sexo, parecen ser indicadores adecuados para el estudio de la respuesta a la agresión quirúrgica y así mismo a la nutrición enteral. La nutrición perioperatoria inmunomoduladora creemos que recupera las cifras de parámetros nutricionales postoperatorios.La nutrición enteral por yeyunostomía es bien tolerada y con morbilidad baja y poco severa.Objective: To assess the nutritional peri-surgical status of patients suffering from esophageal or gastric cancer, treated with esophagectomy and total gastrectomy, respectively, and to analyze the impact of an enteral immunomodulating diet on postsurgical complications. Setting: Patients admitted to the Surgery Department of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. Patients and methods: Patients submitted to esophagectomy and/or total gastrectomy to whom early enteral nutrition (EN is provided with an immunomodulating diet. Interventions: All patients were prescribed an immunomodulating diet of 1000 Kcal/day p.o. plus a normal grinded diet that they started on the 5th presurgical day and pursued during the immediate postsurgical period (within the first 24 hours with EN through a jejunostomy catheter, in a progressive way until reaching 25 kcal/kg/day at days 4-5. EN was kept in place for at least the first 10 days after surgery and laboratory checkups were done before surgery and at days 5 and 10 after surgery. We also performed a prediction equation, with morbidity as the dependent variable and the remaining as independent variables. Results: Sixty-eight patients were studied of whom 36 (35 men and 1 women suffered from esophageal cancer and 32 (21 men and 11 women from gastric cancer. Mean age of

  7. Immunomodulative effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou TAN; Zhong-yuan SU; Rong-rong WU; Bin GU; Yu-kan LIU; Xiao-li ZHAO; Ming ZHANG


    Objective: Human embryonic stem cells(hESCs)have recently been reported as an unlimited source of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs).The present study not only provides an identical and clinically compliant MSC source derived from hESCs(hESC-MSCs),but also describes the immunomodulative effects of hESC-MSCs in vitro and in vivo for a carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver inflammation model.Methods: Undifferentiated hESCs were treated with Rho-associated kinase(ROCK)inhibitor and induced to fibroblast-looking cells.These cells were tested for their surface markers and multilineage differentiation capability.Further more,we analyzed their immune characteristics by mixed lymphocyte reactions(MLRs)and animal experiments.Results: hESC-MSCs show a homogenous fibroblastic morphology that resembles bone marrow-derived MSCs(BM-MSCs).The cell markers and differentiation potential of hESC-MSCs are also similar to those of BM-MSCs.Unlike their original cells,hESC-MSCs possess poor immunogenicity and can survive and be engrafted into a xenogenic immunocompetent environment.Conclusions: The hESC-MSCs demonstrate strong inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and anti-inflammatory infiltration properties in vivo.This study offers information essential to the applications of hESC-MSC-based therapies and evidence for the therapeutic mechanisms of action.

  8. The enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas. (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng


    Enkephalinergic neuroendocrine-immune regulatory system is one of the most important neuroendocrine-immune systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates for its significant role in the immune regulation. In the present study, the early onset of enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to illustrate the function of neural regulation on the innate immune system in oyster larvae. [Met(5)]-enkephalin (Met-ENK) was firstly observed on the marginal of the dorsal half of D-hinged larvae. Six immune-related molecules, including four PRRs (CgCTL-1, CgCTL-2, CgCTL-4, CgNatterin-3) and two immune effectors (CgTNF-1 and CgEcSOD) were detected in the early developmental stages of trochophore, D-hinged and umbo larvae of oyster. After incubated with [Met(5)]-enkephalin, the mRNA expression level of all the PRRs changed significantly (p nervous system of oyster was firstly appeared in D-hinged larvae, while the primitive immune defense system existed in the region of prototroch in trochophore larvae and developed maturely after D-hinged larvae. The developing immune system could be regulated by the neurotransmitter [Met(5)]-enkephalin released by the neuroendocrine system in oyster C. gigas.

  9. Immunomodulation and T helper TH₁/TH₂ response polarization by CeO₂ and TiO₂ nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Schanen

    Full Text Available Immunomodulation by nanoparticles, especially as related to the biochemical properties of these unique materials, has scarcely been explored. In an in vitro model of human immunity, we demonstrate two catalytic nanoparticles, TiO₂ (oxidant and CeO₂ (antioxidant, have nearly opposite effects on human dendritic cells and T helper (T(H cells. For example, whereas TiO₂ nanoparticles potentiated DC maturation that led towards T(H1-biased responses, treatment with antioxidant CeO₂ nanoparticles induced APCs to secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, and induce a T(H2-dominated T cell profile. In subsequent studies, we demonstrate these results are likely explained by the disparate capacities of the nanoparticles to modulate ROS, since TiO₂, but not CeO₂ NPs, induced inflammatory responses through an ROS/inflammasome/IL-1β pathway. This novel capacity of metallic NPs to regulate innate and adaptive immunity in profoundly different directions via their ability to modulate dendritic cell function has strong implications for human health since unintentional exposure to these materials is common in modern societies.

  10. A biotechnological product and its potential as a new immunomodulator for treatment of animal phlebovirus infection: Punta Toro virus. (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Gowen, Brian B; Costa, Fabio T M; Justo, Giselle Z; Brocchi, Marcelo; Nunes, Odilon S; Nunes, Iseu S


    Intracellular pathogens with widespread drug-resistance contribute substantially to the increasing rates in morbidity and mortality due to emerging and reemerging diseases. Thus, the development of new drugs, including those that can enhance the immune response, is urgently needed. The immunomodulator, P-MAPA, a proteinaceous aggregate of ammonium and magnesium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride derived from Aspergillus oryzae, have been shown to induce antitumor activities. The ability of this compound to elicit protective immunity against viral infections has not been fully explored. Here, we report findings on the use of P-MAPA as an antiviral agent in a mouse model of acute phleboviral (Punta Toro virus) disease. A dose administered i.p. 24h post-infectious challenge (100mg/kg dose of P-MAPA) was remarkably effective at preventing death due to Punta Toro virus infection. This dose also reduced systemic viral burden and liver discoloration assayed on day 3 of infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that non-specific immunotherapy with P-MAPA appears to be an effective treatment for blocking Punta Toro virus-induced disease and suggest that further exploration with other viral disease models is warranted.

  11. Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and immunomodulator on cytokines levels: an alternative therapy for patients with major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Mendieta, Danelia; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Bojalil, Rafael; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin


    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric illness that presents as a deficit of serotonergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. MDD patients also experience alterations in cortisol and cytokines levels. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is the first-line antidepressant regimen for MDD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of SSRIs and an immunomodulator-human dialyzable leukocyte extract (hDLE)-on cortisol and cytokines levels. Patients received SSRIs or SSRIs plus hDLE. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β , IL-2, and IFN- γ ; anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-13 and IL-10; and 24-h urine cortisol were measured at weeks (W) 0, 5, 20, 36, and 52 of treatment. The reduction in cortisol levels in the SSRI-treated group was 30% until W52, in contrast, the combined treatment induced a 54% decrease at W36. The decline in cortisol in patients who were treated with SSRI plus hDLE correlated with reduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines and increases levels of proinflammatory cytokines at the study conclusion. These results suggest that the immune-stimulating activity of hDLE, in combination with SSRIs, restored the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance and cortisol levels in depressed patients versus those who were given SSRIs alone.

  12. Killer Treg cells ameliorate inflammatory insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice through local and systemic immunomodulation. (United States)

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Yolcu, Esma S; Mizrahi, Keren; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir


    Treg cells endowed with enhanced killing activity through decoration with Fas-ligand (FasL) protein (killer Treg) have been effective in delay of hyperglycemia in prediabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of these cells, harvested from age-matched euglycemic NOD donors, on the course of disease in new-onset diabetics. One dose of 4 × 10(6) killer Treg cells stabilized blood glucose associated with increased insulin levels in 5 of 9 mice and partially reversed the severity of islet inflammation, whereas naive Treg cells did not modulate the course of disease significantly. Killer Treg cells were shown to operate through induction of cell apoptosis within the pancreatic lymph nodes, resulting in reduced efficiency of adoptive disease transfer to NOD/SCID recipients. A second mechanism of action consisted of increased fractions of CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) T cells in the pancreas and all lymphoid organs. Immunomodulation with FasL rather than Treg cells enhanced the expression of CD25 and FoxP3 in the thymus, suggesting a possible contribution of thymic output to prolonged stabilization of the glucose levels. Autologous Treg cells evolve as excellent vehicles for targeted delivery of FasL as an immunomodulatory protein, which delete pathogenic cells at the site of inflammation and induce systemic dominance of suppressor subsets.

  13. Immunomodulation with donor regulatory T cells armed with Fas-ligand alleviates graft-versus-host disease. (United States)

    Yolcu, Esma S; Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Ash, Shifra; Yaniv, Isaac; Stein, Jerry; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir


    Infusion of large numbers of donor regulatory T cells (Tregs) is an effective approach to suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). We have reported previously that enhancing the killing activity of CD25(+) Tregs by decoration with short-lived Fas-ligand (FasL) protein (killer Tregs) is effective in abrogation of autoimmunity. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of killer Tregs in murine models of lethal GvHD. In a model in which disease-associated mortality was not prevented by infusion of naive donor Tregs (3 days after transplant) at an effector:suppressor ratio of 10:1, killer Tregs rescued 70% of the mice and improved the clinical and histologic scores. We found that both effector lymphocytes and therapeutic Tregs migrate to and proliferate in the mesenteric lymph nodes of irradiated recipients; however, only killer Tregs increased fractional apoptosis of effector lymphocytes. Although the lymphoid organs were primarily reconstituted from the bone marrow with little contribution of the infused effector and suppressor subsets, immunomodulation with FasL caused a durable rise in fractions of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs. Our findings demonstrate that a short-lived apoptotic protein increases the suppressive activity of Tregs and ameliorates GvHD severity.

  14. Immunomodulators as Therapeutic Agents in Mitigating the Progression of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Grimmig


    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disorder that primarily afflicts the elderly. It is characterized by motor dysfunction due to extensive neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. There are multiple biological processes that are negatively impacted during the pathogenesis of PD, and are implicated in the cell death in this region. Neuroinflammation is evidently involved in PD pathology and mitigating the inflammatory cascade has been a therapeutic strategy. Age is the number one risk factor for PD and thus needs to be considered in the context of disease pathology. Here, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation within the context of aging as it applies to the development of PD, and the potential for two representative compounds, fractalkine and astaxanthin, to attenuate the pathophysiology that modulates neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson’s disease.

  15. Specificity of the Immunomodulating Activity of Sasa veitchii (Japanese Folk Medicine Kumazasa) to Fungal Polysaccharides. (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Takeshita, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Masamichi; Kanamori, Masato; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito


    Many plant extracts are used as well-known folk medicines and exhibit various biological activities that are beneficial to human health. These extracts contain polysaccharides, and some are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that stimulate innate as well as acquired immune systems. In the present study, the cooperative effects of PAMPs and bamboo water-soluble methanol precipitation (BWMP) in a macromolecular fraction of the hot water extract of Sasa veitchii (in Japanese folk medicine, known as Kumazasa; family Poaceae) were analyzed in vitro using the spleen or bone marrow cells of mice. The splenocytes of male DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice were cultured with BWMP in the presence or absence of PAMPs, and responses were assessed by measuring cytokines. BWMP inhibited the production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by not only toll like receptors (TLRs), but also the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) dectin-1 and dectin-2. BWMP also inhibited the autologous production of IFN-γ in the splenocyte culture. These results suggested that BWMP may inhibit the signaling pathways of PAMPs, but not ligand-receptor interactions. In contrast, BWMP did not inhibit the production of cytokines by dendritic cells. These results indicated that the inhibition of IFN-γ by BWMP was mediated through the cell-to-cell interactions of splenic cells during cultivation.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of the herbal preparation indicated for prevention and treatment of alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkin AY


    exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. It is promising for the prevention and treatment of alopecia.Keywords: herbal preparation, Arctium lappa, Sophora japonica, Acorus calamus, Urtica dioica, Humulus lupulus

  17. Using recombinant Lactococci as an approach to dissect the immunomodulating capacity of surface piliation in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Pietilä, Taija E; Rintahaka, Johanna; Nummenmaa, Elina; Mäkinen, Veli-Matti; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Ilkka; Palva, Airi


    Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA), we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted) SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG probiosis within the

  18. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Bergamo Estrela

    Full Text Available Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5'-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT, leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado.

  19. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation. (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam


    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation.

  20. Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.). (United States)

    Lee, Ji Sun; Synytsya, Andriy; Kim, Hyun Bok; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Seul; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Woo Jung; Jang, Seongjae; Park, Yong Il


    A water-soluble polysaccharide (JS-MP-1) was isolated and purified from the Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.) by crushing the fresh fruits then performing ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The neutral monosaccharide composition of the purified JS-MP-1 was determined to be composed mainly of galactose (37.6%, in mole percent), arabinose (36.3%), and rhamnose (18.4%), while other major sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose, and fucose were present as minor components. HPLC analysis revealed that JS-MP-1 contains both galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) at approximately 4:1 in mole percent. Monosaccharide composition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, biochemical analysis, and elemental analysis suggested that JS-MP-1 is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, most likely a rhamnoarabinogalacturonan type plant pectic polysaccharide, with an apparent molecular mass of 1600 kDa containing no, or if any, negligible level of sulfate esters and proteins. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that JS-MP-1 significantly stimulates murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells to release chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1α) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and to induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and prostaglandin PGE2, respectively. These results suggest that the mulberry fruit-derived polysaccharide JS-MP-1 can act as a potent immunomodulator, and these observations may support the applicability of this polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant or the water extracts of the mulberry fruit as a beneficial health food.

  1. Interaction involving the thymus and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, immunomodulation by hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana 2


    Full Text Available Perfectly projected and impeccably created, the endocrine system precisely regulates the most delicate immune processes. The immune and neuroendocrine systems are two essential physiological components of mammalian organisms important for protection from the infection and disease on one hand, and on the other, for regulation of metabolism and other physiological activities; namely, the evidence has been found indicating that there is active and dynamic collaboration of these systems in the execution of their designated functions [1, 2,4]. These interactions occur at many stages of embryonic and neonatal development, and they are a continual part of normal homeostatic balance necessary to preserve health. There is communication between neuroendocrine and immune system via cytokines, neurotransmitters and peptide hormones which act, in both systems, through the same receptor molecules (Scheme 1. Many investigators have reported the increased thymic weight in experimental animals due to both castration and adrenalectomy [4]. The discovery from 1898 revealing that thymus was enlarged in castrated rabbits has been considered the embryo of hybrid medical discipline, i.e. the immunoendocrinology [1]. In the actual literature, at least in that available to us, it has not been noted that the appearance of the eunuchs, i.e. the castrates, stimulated the analytical approach to this phenomenon. Endocrine influences appear to be a part of bidirectional circuitry, namely, thymic hormones also regulate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. Physiologically, thymus is under neuroendocrine control. It is apparent that the circulating levels of distinct peptide hormones are necessary to maintain a series of biological functions related both to micro environmental and lymphoid cells of the organ. The neuroendocrine control of the thymus appears to be extremely complex, with apparent presence of complete intrathymic biological circuitry involving the

  2. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud


    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  3. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules. (United States)

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V


    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  4. Are we giving biologics too late? The case for early versus late use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena Ricart; Orlando García-Bosch; Ingdd Ordás; Julián Panés


    Corticosteroids and immunomodulators have been the mainstay therapies for Crohn's disease. Corticosteroids are highly effective to control symptoms in the shortterm, but they are not effective in maintaining remission, they heal the mucosa in a reduced proportion of cases, and long-time exposure is associated with an increased risk of infections and mortality. Immunomodulators, azathioprine and methotrexate, heal the mucosa in a higher proportion of patients that corticosteroids but their onset of action is slow and they benefit less than half of patients with Crohn's disease. In the last decade, medical therapy for Crohn's disease has experienced a remarkable change due to the introduction of biologic therapy, and particularly the use of anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha agents. Infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol have demonstrated efficacy for induction and maintenance of remission in active Crohn's disease. These agents have raised the bar for what is a suitable symptomatic response in Crohn's disease and modification of the natural history of the disease has become a major goal in the treatment of Crohn's disease. There are several data in the literature that suggest that early use of biologic therapy and achievement of mucosal healing contribute to disease course modification. However, many questions on early biological therapy for Crohn's disease remain still unanswered.

  5. [Biological weapons]. (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D


    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  6. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP) and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development. (United States)

    Kovsca Janjatovic, A; Valpotic, H; Kezic, D; Lacković, G; Gregorovic, G; Sladoljev, S; Mršić, G; Popovic, M; Valpotic, I


    Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP)] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS), were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc) but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP). Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days), reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs) between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95), SP (rs=0.97/0.97) and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95), respectively, showed positive correlations (Psecretion of

  7. Using recombinant Lactococci as an approach to dissect the immunomodulating capacity of surface piliation in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar von Ossowski

    Full Text Available Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA, we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG

  8. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies. (United States)

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H


    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  9. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kovsca Janjatovic


    Full Text Available Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP and substance P (SP] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS, were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP. Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days, reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95, SP (rs=0.97/0.97 and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95, respectively, showed positive correlations (P<0

  10. Investigations of the Biologic Activity and Structure Function Relationships of Synthetic Polymers Which Act as Hormones, Behavior Modifiers and Thymic Immunomodulators (United States)


    human peripheral blood basophils . The polyphores produces an energy dependent active release of histamine from both types of cells. The polyphores...demonstrable affinity for calcium, calcium in the medium was required for release of histamine . Each of the hydrophobic copolymers tested had...itr demonstrated that polyphores were ionophores with selectivity for monovalent cations and that they were potent stimulators of histamine release from

  11. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology (United States)


    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  12. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology? (United States)

    Holm, Sune


    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  13. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  14. Effect of immunomodulation on the fate of tumor cells in the central nervous system and systemic organs of mice. Distribution of (/sup 125/I)5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled KHT tumor cells after left intracardial injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, F.K.


    The effect of systemic immunomodulation on tumor cell arrest and retention in the central nervous system was studied by following radioactively labeled tumor cells. KHT mouse sarcoma tumor cells were labeled in vitro with (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, and 1x10/sup 5/ tumor cells were injected into the left side of the hearts of syngeneic C3H mice. Experimental groups consisted of untreated normal mice, mice pretreated iv with Corynebacterium parvum, and mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii; in this model both groups of immunomodulated mice are protected from developing systemic metastatic tumor, but only Toxoplasma-infected mice have protection against metastatic brain tumor. At time intervals from 1 to 96 hours, groups of mice from each experimental group were killed, and the brain and other organs were monitored for radioactivity to determine the number of viable tumor cells that had been present at the time of death. Normal mice demonstrated significant retention of tumor cells in the brain and kidneys plus adrenals at 96 hours. By contrast, in both groups of immunomodulated mice tumor cells were rapidly eliminated from systemic organs, but tumor cells were significantly retained in the central nervous system even at 96 hours after tumor cell injections. The results indicated that generalized immunomodulation had more effect in elimination of tumor cells from systemic organs than from the brain and that the elimination of tumor cells from the brain in Toxoplasma-infected mice was a delayed phenomenon.

  15. Impact of postoperative omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes and immunomodulations in colorectal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liang; Shan Wang; Ying-Jiang Ye; Xiao-Dong Yang; You-Li Wang; Jun Qu; Qi-Wei Xie; Mu-Jun Yin


    AIM: To investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid parenteral supplementation postoperatively on clinical outcomes and immunomodulation in colorectal cancer patients.METHODS: Forty-two patients undergoing radical colorectal cancer resection with an indication for total parenteral nutrition postoperatively were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study.Patients received total parenteral nutrition supplemented with either soybean oil (LCT; Intralipid(R), Fresenius-Kabi,SO group, n = 21) or a combination of omega-3 fish oil and soybean oil (LCT:fish oil = 5:1, fish oil; Omegaven(R),Fresenius-Kabi, FO group, n = 21), up to a total of 1.2 g lipid/kg per day for 7 d postoperatively. A same volume calorie and nitrogen was administrated.Routine blood test, biochemistry, systemic levels ofIL-6 and TNF-α, percentage of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+lymphocytes were evaluated preoperatively and on postoperative d 1 and 8. Patient outcome was evaluated considering mortality during the hospital stay, length ofpostoperative hospital stay, and occurrence of infectiouscomplications.RESULTS: Both lipid regimens were well tolerated.No differences between the two groups were noticedin demographics, baseline blood test, biochemistry,serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-o~, percentage of CD4+,CD8+ lymphocytes, and ratios of CD4+/CD8+. Comparedwith those on postoperative d 1, serum IL-6 levels onpostoperative d 8 were significantly depressed in the FO group than in the reference group (-44.43 ± 30.53 vs-8.39 ± 69.08, P = 0.039). Simultaneously, the ratios of CD4+/CD+ were significantly increased in the FO group (0.92± 0.62 vs 0.25± 1.22, P = 0.035). In addition,depression of serum TNF-α levels (-0.82 ± 2.71 vs0.27 ± 1.67, P = 0.125) and elevation of CD3+ and CD4+lymphocyte percentage (12.85 ±11.61 vs 3.84 ± 19.62,P = 0.081, 17.80 ±10.86 vs 9.66 ± 17.55, P = 0.084,respectively) were higher in the FO group than in the reference group. Patients in the FO group

  16. Use of immunomodulators in infectious diseases of domestic animals/ Uso de imunomoduladores nas enfermidades infecciosas dos animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid


    Full Text Available Immunomodulators are substances that act in the immune system providing, increase of the organic answer against microorganisms, including virus, bacteria and protozoa, by inducing the production of interferon and its inducers. There are a lot of situations in veterinary medicine where it is usefull to potencialize the immune response of individuals, mainly when is desired to increase the resistance to infections and the treatment of immunossupressing or multifactorials infectious diseases. In veterinary medicine some of more used immunomodulators are interferons and interferon inducers, interleukines, Baccilus of Calmett-Guérin (BCG and its derivated, Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium parvum, mixed bacterial vaccine, PIND-ORF, Phosprenyl, Quillja Saponis, Bordetella pertussis, avridine and the levamizole. The present work review the available scientific literature, regarding the use of different immunomodulators in the prophylaxis and in the therapeutics of infectious diseases in domestic animals.Imunomoduladores são substâncias que atuam no sistema imunológico conferindo aumento da resposta orgânica contra determinados microorganismos, incluindo vírus, bactérias e protozoários, mediante à produção de interferon e seus indutores. Existem muitas situações na medicina veterinária em que se torna desejável potencializar a resposta imune, principalmente quando se pretende aumentar a resistência às infecções e no tratamento de enfermidades imunossupressoras ou de doenças infecciosas multifatorias, ou seja, nas quais vários agentes estão envolvidos e devido a isso, dificilmente obtêm-se sucesso no emprego de tratamentos convencionais. Na medicina veterinária alguns imunomoduladores utilizados são interferons , interleucinas, Bacilo de Calmett-Guérin (BCG e seus derivados, Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium parvum, vacina bacteriana mista, PIND-ORF, Phosprenyl, Quillaja saponis, Bordetella pertussis, avridina e

  17. Biological Oceanography (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya


    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  18. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi


    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  19. Foldit Biology (United States)


    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  20. Characterization and biological activity of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide in vitro. (United States)

    Yang, Shifa; Wei, Kai; Jia, Fengjuan; Zhao, Xue; Cui, Guolin; Guo, Fanxia; Zhu, Ruiliang


    Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) improves cellular and humoral immune responses of animals and is a novel potential immunomodulator. However, the components of TPPPS have not been recognized. To investigate the composition of TPPPS, crude polysaccharide was obtained from Taishan P. massoniana pollen through water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (TPPPS1, TPPPS2, and TPPPS3) were purified from TPPPS by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The average molecular weights of the three polysaccharides were 56, 25, and 128 kDa, respectively. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that TPPPS comprised mannose, ribose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The biological activity assays showed that TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 significantly promoted spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and that TPPPS3 showed better effect than TPPPS2. TPPPS3 enhanced the secretion of cytokine IL-2 and TNF, whereas TPPPS2 mainly elevated IL-2 secretion. By contrast, TPPPS1 exhibited other effects, and it induced the highest amount of NO production, thereby indicating that TPPPS1 had the best antioxidant activity. TPPPS3 at 50 μg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of subgroup B Avian Leukosis virus (ALV-B) through virus adsorption interference in vitro. Results indicated that TPPPS comprised three main components, among which, TPPPS1 mainly showed antioxidant effects, whereas TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 played key roles in immunomodulation, especially TPPPS3. Further studies on the use of a reasonable proportion of TPPPS1-3 may facilitate the development of an effective immunomodulator.

  1. Characterization and biological activity of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifa Yang

    Full Text Available Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS improves cellular and humoral immune responses of animals and is a novel potential immunomodulator. However, the components of TPPPS have not been recognized. To investigate the composition of TPPPS, crude polysaccharide was obtained from Taishan P. massoniana pollen through water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (TPPPS1, TPPPS2, and TPPPS3 were purified from TPPPS by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The average molecular weights of the three polysaccharides were 56, 25, and 128 kDa, respectively. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC showed that TPPPS comprised mannose, ribose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The biological activity assays showed that TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 significantly promoted spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and that TPPPS3 showed better effect than TPPPS2. TPPPS3 enhanced the secretion of cytokine IL-2 and TNF, whereas TPPPS2 mainly elevated IL-2 secretion. By contrast, TPPPS1 exhibited other effects, and it induced the highest amount of NO production, thereby indicating that TPPPS1 had the best antioxidant activity. TPPPS3 at 50 μg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of subgroup B Avian Leukosis virus (ALV-B through virus adsorption interference in vitro. Results indicated that TPPPS comprised three main components, among which, TPPPS1 mainly showed antioxidant effects, whereas TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 played key roles in immunomodulation, especially TPPPS3. Further studies on the use of a reasonable proportion of TPPPS1-3 may facilitate the development of an effective immunomodulator.

  2. Immunomodulation of bone marrow macrophages by GLIS, a proteoglycan fraction from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidium (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhang, Jingsong; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Pan, Ying-Jie


    The immunomodulatory effect of GLIS (Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum immunomodulating substance) on macrophages has been investigated as part of ongoing research into the anticancer properties of this mushroom. Proliferation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) was enhanced by GLIS in a dose-dependent manner. Microscopic examination revealed that numerous GLIS-treated BMMs were enlarged and formed pseudopodia. Exposure of BMMs to GLIS resulted in significant increases in NO production, induction of cellular respiratory burst activity, and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, and TNF-α gene expression and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 secretion. Our data indicate that GLIS activates the immune system by modulating cytokine production.

  3. The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Djekic


    Full Text Available VacA is a pore-forming toxin that has long been known to induce vacuolization in gastric epithelial cells and to be linked to gastric disorders caused by H. pylori infection. Its role as a major colonization and persistence determinant of H. pylori is less well-understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various target cell types of VacA and its mechanism of action; specifically, we focus on the evidence showing that VacA targets myeloid cells and T-cells to directly and indirectly prevent H. pylori-specific T-cell responses and immune control of the infection. In particular, the ability of VacA-proficient H. pylori to skew T-cell responses towards regulatory T-cells and the effects of Tregs on H. pylori chronicity are highlighted. The by-stander effects of VacA-driven immunomodulation on extragastric diseases are discussed as well.

  4. Cell membrane modification for rapid display of proteins as a novel means of immunomodulation: FasL-decorated cells prevent islet graft rejection. (United States)

    Yolcu, Esma S; Askenasy, Nadir; Singh, Narendra P; Cherradi, Salah-Eddine Lamhamedi; Shirwan, Haval


    Long-term display of exogenous proteins on the cell surface may have important research and therapeutic implications. We report a novel method for the cell-surface display of proteins that involves generation of a chimeric protein with core streptavidin, biotinylation of cells, and "decoration" with the protein. A chimeric protein with the extracellular portions of FasL (SA-FasL) was efficiently displayed on the cell surface within 2 hr without detectable cellular toxicity. Biotin and SA-FasL persisted on the cell surface for weeks in vitro and in vivo. Immunomodulation with SA-FasL-decorated splenocytes effectively blocked alloreactive responses in naive and presensitized rodents and prevented the rejection of allogeneic pancreatic islets. This approach may serve as an alternative to gene transfer-based expression with broad research and therapeutic applications.

  5. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity. (United States)

    Patakova, Petra


    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  6. Biological preconcentrator (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.


    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  7. Concepts of neuroendocrine cardiology and neuroendocrine immunology, chemistry and biology of signal molecules. (United States)

    Galoyan, Armen


    Discovery of neurosecretion of cardioactive neurohormones produced by hypothalamic nuclei (NSO and NPV), as well as the biosynthesis of several immunomodulators (signal molecules of the neuroendocrine immune system of brain), deciphering of their chemical structure and study of their biological properties led to the foundation of two important trends of neurobiology: neuroendocrine immunology and cardiology. Hormone formation by atrium ganglionary nerve cells and auriculum establishment of neurohumoral interactions between hypothalamic and atrium neurosecretion indicated the existence of the system neuroendocrine hypothalamus--endocrine heart. Study of their biological properties promoted creation of powerful neurohormonal preparations for the treatment of immune, cardio-vascular, neurodegenerative, infectious and tumor diseases. Concepts suggested by us on neuroendocrine cardiology and immunology, create large perspectives for development of the theory and its implementation in medicine.

  8. Biology Notes. (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981


    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  9. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.


    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  10. Marine Biology (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.


    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  11. Scaffolded biology. (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro


    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  12. Biology Notes. (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984


    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  13. Selective Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected CD4+ Lymphocytes by a Synthetic Immunomodulator Leads to Potent Virus Suppression In Vitro and in hu-PBL-SCID Mice


    Bahr, George M.; Darcissac, Edith C. A.; Castéran, Nathalie; Amiel, Corinne; Cocude, Cécile; Truong, Marie-José; Dewulf, Joëlle; Capron, André; Mouton, Yves


    We have previously observed that the synthetic immunomodulator Murabutide inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple levels in macrophages and dendritic cells. The present study was designed to profile the activity of Murabutide on CD8-depleted phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected subjects and on the outcome of HIV-1 infection in severe combined immunodeficiency mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID mic...

  14. Immunomodulation and Nigerian mistletoe immunomodula-tory activities of n-hexane and methanol extracts of Loran-thus micranthus Linn.parasitic on Parkia biglobosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EOOmeje; POOsadebe; FBCOkoyea; AKAgwu; COEsimone


    Loranthus micranthus is the species of mistletoe peculiar to the eastern province of Nigeria.It has been shown to possess anti-diabetic,antimotility,antimicrobial and antihypertensive activities which are host-tree depend-ent.The antimicrobial activity was found to vary with the season during which the plant was harvested.We are of the opinion that this species should possess immunomodulating potentials as have been reported for the Euro-pean species,Viscum album.In our efforts to establish the bio-activities and active principles in our local mis-tletoe,the immunomodulatory activity of n-hexane and methanol extracts from Loranthus micranthus parasitic on Persea americana was assessed at three dose levels ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg body weight using de-layed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR)and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression models in mice.This was compared with responses from a standard immunostimulatory drug,levamisole.Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant showed the presence of tannins,flavonoids,alkaloids,terpenoids,carbo-hydrates and saponins.Regression analysis indicated a dose-dependent response relationship in the parameters measured with over 170 % increase for both extracts at the highest dose level.The one way ANOVA test showed significant variation in the parameters between the controls and the different dose levels.However,at 95 % confidence level,(P <0.05),there was no statistically significant difference between the two extracts, an indication that the active immunomodulant(s)could be both in the polar and non-polar crude extract.In conclusion,the present results have established some immune stimulating actions of the Eastern Nigeria mistle-toe,Loranthus micranthus thus indicating that this variant of the semi parasitic plant holds a strong promise as an immunostimulatory candidate.There is therefore,a basis for further detailed investigation on the fractions and specific constituents.Thus,these extracts from Loranthus

  15. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar


    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  16. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.


    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  17. Selective Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected CD4+ Lymphocytes by a Synthetic Immunomodulator Leads to Potent Virus Suppression In Vitro and in hu-PBL-SCID Mice (United States)

    Bahr, George M.; Darcissac, Edith C. A.; Castéran, Nathalie; Amiel, Corinne; Cocude, Cécile; Truong, Marie-José; Dewulf, Joëlle; Capron, André; Mouton, Yves


    We have previously observed that the synthetic immunomodulator Murabutide inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple levels in macrophages and dendritic cells. The present study was designed to profile the activity of Murabutide on CD8-depleted phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected subjects and on the outcome of HIV-1 infection in severe combined immunodeficiency mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID mice). Maintaining cultures of CD8-depleted blasts from 36 patients in the presence of Murabutide produced dramatically reduced levels of viral p24 protein in the supernatants. This activity correlated with reduced viral transcripts and proviral DNA, was evident in cultures harboring R5, X4-R5, or X4 HIV-1 isolates, was not linked to inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis, and did not correlate with β-chemokine release. Moreover, c-myc mRNA expression was down-regulated in Murabutide-treated cells, suggesting potential interference of the immunomodulator with the nuclear transport of viral preintegration complexes. On the other hand, daily treatment of HIV-1-infected hu-PBL-SCID mice with Murabutide significantly reduced the viral loads in plasma and the proviral DNA content in human peritoneal cells. These results are the first to demonstrate that a clinically acceptable synthetic immunomodulator with an ability to enhance the host's nonspecific immune defense mechanisms against infections can directly regulate cellular factors in infected lymphocytes, leading to controlled HIV-1 replication. PMID:11435574

  18. [The use of immunomodulating therapy as part of complex treatment of secondary peritonitis induces reduction of inflammation in patients of different age]. (United States)

    Epifanova, N Iu; Koniaev, I G; Epifanov, Iu A; Golubeva, V L; Serova, L D


    We present experience of using anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) in complex therapy of patients with extensive secondary peritonitis at the age of 29-83 years. The research was based on 60 patient cases: 29 (48%) of whom were given anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) Antilymfolin in post operative period and 31 patient of the control group who did not receive immunomodulating therapy within the complex treatment. The received data clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) usage for normalization of innate immunity indices and inflammation reduction. Immunostimulating effect in patients given anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) could be seen on the fourth day of the threatment. The drug is equally effective in patients of young and middle age as well as in patients of elderly and senility age. The positive influence of anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) on inflammation is shown with the reduction of CRP, gamma-globuline, alpha1-protein fraction serum levels normalization. The use of Antilymfolin induces the regression of inflammation and apparently improves the quality and duration of treatment and rehabilitation.

  19. Acid phosphatase activity in liver macrophage aggregates as a marker for pollution-induced immunomodulation of the non-specific immune response in fish (United States)

    Broeg, Katja


    The activity of acid phosphatase in liver macrophage aggregates (MA-AP) of different fish species was used as a marker for a pollution-induced modulation of the digestive capacity of phagocytes, since functions of the non-specific immune response play a central role in the maintenance of animals' health. Based upon the investigation of more than 900 individual flounders (Platichthys flesus) and mullets (Liza aurata), natural variations, gender-specific differences and pollution-induced alterations in AP activity are demonstrated in this study. MA-AP activity was dependent on temperature and season but, nevertheless, distinctions between differently polluted areas were visible in all sampling campaigns with lowest MA-AP activity in fish from the polluted areas of the German Bight and the Israeli coast of the Mediterranean Sea. For organochlorine contaminants, as well as for mercury and copper, a significant correlation could be observed between residue concentrations in fish tissues and MA-AP activity. In all cases, except mercury which showed a positive correlation, AP activity was suppressed in animals with a high contaminant burden. MA-AP activity turned out to give reliable and consistent results for a quantification of immunomodulation in both fish species.

  20. Immunomodulation and neuroprotection with mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells (MSCs): a proposed treatment for multiple sclerosis and other neuroimmunological/neurodegenerative diseases. (United States)

    Karussis, Dimitrios; Kassis, Ibrahim; Kurkalli, Basan Gowda S; Slavin, Shimon


    Bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (non-hematopoietic, stromal cells) can differentiate under certain circumstances into cells from various neuronal and glial type lineages; they also exert immunomodulatory effects. For potential clinical applications, BM-MSCs offer significant practical advantages over other types of stem cells, since they can be obtained from the adult BM (the patient himself being the donor) and can be easily cultured and expanded posing in parallel a very low risk for development of malignancies. We have shown that BM-MSCs cultured with a cocktail of growth factors (containing FGF and BDNF) differentiate into neuronal/glial lineage cells with a predominance of cells expressing astrocytes' markers. BM-MSCs were effective in suppression of chronic EAE in mice and induced neuroprotection, preserving most of the axons in the CNS of successfully-treated animals. Histopathological studies revealed that MSCs could efficiently migrate into the CNS inflamed tissue (both when administered intravenously and intraventricularly) and differentiated into cells expressing neural-glial lineage markers. Our preclinical results indicate that bone marrow can provide a source of stem cells with a potential for migration into inflamed CNS tissue and differentiation into cells expressing neuronal and glial cell markers. Such an approach may provide a feasible and practical way for in situ immunomodulation, neuroprotection and possibly remyelination/regeneration in diseases like multiple sclerosis. We therefore developed a explorative protocol for the evaluation of this therapeutic approach in a small group of patients with MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. 维生素D的免疫调节作用与儿童疾病%Immunomodulating effect of vitamin D and children's diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    维生素D不仪参与钙磷代谢,而且还是一类重要的免疫功能凋节剂.维生素D主要通过调节各种免疫细胞的生长、分化和功能,影响细胞因子和抗微生物肽的分泌,在固有性免疫和适应性免疫中发挥重要作用.研究发现,维生素D缺乏与儿科急性下呼吸道感染、糖尿病和哮喘等疾病的发生发展相关. 文章就维生素D的免疫调节作用及其与儿童疾病的相关性作一综述.%Vitamin D, participating in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, is an important functional immune regulator. Vitamin D plays an important role in modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses, mainly through the modulation of growth, differentiation and function of a variety of immune cells, and the influence of secretion of eytokines and antimicrobial peptides. Studies show a close, association between vitamin D deficiency and pediutric diseases such as acute lower respiratory infection, diabetes and asthma. The purpose of this paper is to review immunomod-ulating effect of vitamin D and the correlation between vitamin D and children's diseases.

  2. Research Advances in Immunomodulation of Echinacea purpurea. in China%国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京城; 李洪; 付京花


    紫锥菊属植物,是原产于美洲的一类菊科野生花卉。紫锥菊以其免疫调节作用闻名于世。近年来,国内引种成功,其各种药理作用在人类、畜牧业以及水产养殖业有了广泛的研究。综述国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用在不同行业的研究进展,为紫锥菊在国内的应用提供参考。%The Echinacea purpurea., one of the plants of Compositae originated from America, has been widely used for centuries in North America and later in Europe for many therapeutic purposes. In resent years, the Echinacea purpurea. was introduced successfully in China and the pharmacological effects were widely researched in human, animal husbandry and aquiculture respectively. The advances in immunomodulation studies on Echinacea purpurea. in China were reviewed to provide the references for application of Echinacea purpurea .

  3. Immunomodulating and Antiprotozoal Effects of Different Extracts of the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Coccidiosis in Broiler. (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Akhtar, Masood; Iqbal, Zafar; Shahid, Muhammad; Awais, Mian Muhammad


    The culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, procured from local sources, was processed for hot water and methanolic extraction. Extracts obtained were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the amount of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, ether, and nitrogen-free extracts. These extracts were evaluated for immunomodulating and antiprotozoal effects against coccidiosis in a broiler. Cellular immune investigation revealed significantly higher (P ostreatus extracts compared with controls. Humoral immune investigation revealed higher immunoglobulin (total Ig, IgG, and IgM) titers against sheep red blood cells in treated groups compared with controls. However, nonsignificant (P > 0.05) findings were observed in investigations of lymphoid organs. Antiprotozoal studies revealed a significantly higher (P ostreatus extracts when compared with controls. Moreover, lesion scoring and oocysts per gram of droppings observed in the control group were significantly higher (P ostreatus. Results concluded that hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus had strong immune-enhancing activities. Further, these extracts also had excellent antiprotozoal activities against coccidiosis in a broiler.

  4. Biological targets in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a comprehensive review of current and in-development biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manil Kukar


    Full Text Available Manil Kukar1, Olga Petryna1, Petros Efthimiou21Rheumatology Division, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Enhanced understanding of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathophysiology and the role of cytokines has enabled the development of innovative biological agents in the last 10 years that target specific parts of the immune response. Failure to achieve adequate response with traditional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and increasing evidence of ongoing radiographic deterioration of the affected joints despite seemingly clinical response were essential stimuli for the development of biologics. The current and upcoming biological agents are primarily aimed at neutralizing circulating and cell-bound pro-inflammatory cytokines, interfering in the interaction of antigen-presenting and T-lymphocytes, eliminating circulating B-lymphocytes or by interfering with the intracellular signaling mechanisms of immuno-competent cells that lead to inflammation. These agents have improved the currently available treatments due to greater efficacy, fast action and greater tolerability. However, use of these agents has also been associated with significant, although rare, adverse events and considerable cost. Therefore, these agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present work aims to provide a global and updated review of the current and in-development biological DMARDs for the treatment of RA.Keywords: biological agents, rheumatoid arthritis, immunomodulators, treatment, cytokines

  5. 兔肠致病性大肠杆菌lifA基因的免疫调节和黏附特性%Lymphostatin (lifA) of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli possesses both immunomodulation and adhesion properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Cheng-ru; MAO Ying; Edgar C. Boedeker; 冯书章


    兔肠致病性大肠杆菌(rEPEC)菌株RDEC-1的基因组中lifA基因与LEE(Locus for enterocyte effacement)致病岛相毗邻.本试验通过DNA序列分析、基因打靶技术、细胞因子检测以及动物试验,分析lifA基因完整核苷酸序列及其生物学功能.结果表明,RDEC-1的lifA基因的核苷酸序列与人肠致病性大肠杆菌的完全相同;ifA基因具有降低家兔外周血单核细胞IL-2表达的作用.与野生型菌株RDEC-1相比,被定点敲除lifA基因的RDEC-1突变株(RDEC-1△lifA)口服接种家兔后,排菌量明显降低.利用野生型RDEC-1和RDEC-1△lifA基因缺失菌株同时口服接种家兔,从粪便中分离细菌,结果显示野生型RDEC-1是优势菌,而RDEC-1△lifA基因缺失菌数量极少.RDEC-1△lifA基因缺失菌株和野生型RDEC-1都能引起特征性家兔肠道上皮的黏附与细胞脱落病变(A/Elesion).表明rEPEC的lifA基因在免疫调节和细菌的肠道定居中起重要作用,这为研究lifA基因的生物学功能提供了直接证据.%The rabbit enteropathogenic E. coli (rEPEC) strain RDEC-1 possesses a lifA homologue adjacent to the LEE pathogenicity island. To study the entire nucleotide sequence and biological function of lifA,the DNA sequence and biological function of RDEC-1 lifA were analysed with gene cloning,gene knock-out and in vivo virulence examination. The result showed that the entire coding sequence of the lifA of RDEC-1 shares nearly absolute homology with the lifA of human isolates. RDEC-1 lifA inhibited IL-2 expression in stimulated rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We further demonstrated significant reduction in fecal bacterial shedding by RDEC-1 derivative lifA mutant when compared with its parent strain. In a competitive study when rabbits were inoculated with a combination of the WT and the mutant, the WT was the predominant bacteria recovered from fecal samples, while fewer mutant bacteria were recovered. However,the lifA mutant is able to

  6. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran


    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  7. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)


    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  8. Monitoring the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of immunomodulators by time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muddiman, D.C.; Gusev, A.I.; Proctor, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others


    Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion (TOF-SIMS) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry are emerging as useful methods for the investigation of drugs and metabolites in real biological systems. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the analysis of drugs and metabolites that may prove to be a viable alternative to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and immunoassays (e.g. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA)) in the clinical laboratory. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well characterized and extensively used anti-rejection drug with newer agents, such as FK-506, undergoing clinical trials. The therapeutic index of these agents can be improved by understanding the nature of their metabolism and pharmacokinetics. This report expands upon the initial CsA study by monitoring the in vivo metabolism of the drug and quantifying the major metabolite, AMI (M17) in whole blood extracts. Initial MALDI results of the in vitro metabolism of FK-506 using a hepatic microsomal system are also presented. FK-506 metabolism was investigated using Baboon microsomes because FK-506 will be used in xenotransplantation; thus it is important to understand how the drug is metabolized by other species that may serve as donors.

  9. Enhancing effect by electron beam irradiation on immunomodulating and antitumor activity of b-glucan in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, A Reum; Lee, Jung Lim; Park, Seok Rae; Yoo, Yung Choon [Konyang Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, in order to investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation to b-glucan on its biological activities, we compared anti-allergic and antitumor activity between non-irradiated and electron beam-irradiated b-glucan. EDB-glucan was irradiated by electron beam with 50 kGy. Treatment of EDB-glucan, but not NCI-glucan also significantly inhibited T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to the same allergen Ova. However EDB-glucan did not affect the production of Ova-specific IgG, IgA and IgM. In experiments of antitumor activity, EDB-glucan treated with 50 kGy prior to tumor inoculation inhibited an experimental lung metastasis produced by B/E-B/L melanoma cells in mice. The same effect of EDB-glucan treated with 50 kGy induced a decrease of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Collective, these results indicates that electron beam irradiation to b-glucan leads to inhibit allergic responses, and enhance antitumor activity.

  10. Structural Biology Fact Sheet (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  11. Immunomodulation by different types of N-oxides in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ciacci

    Full Text Available The potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs for humans and the environment represents an emerging issue. Since the aquatic environment represents the ultimate sink for NP deposition, the development of suitable assays is needed to evaluate the potential impact of NPs on aquatic biota. The immune system is a sensitive target for NPs, and conservation of innate immunity represents an useful basis for studying common biological responses to NPs. Suspension-feeding invertebrates, such as bivalves, are particularly at risk to NP exposure, since they have extremely developed systems for uptake of nano and microscale particles integral to intracellular digestion and cellular immunity. Evaluation of the effects of NPs on functional parameters of bivalve immunocytes, the hemocytes, may help understanding the major toxic mechanisms and modes of actions that could be relevant for different NP types in aquatic organisms.In this work, a battery of assays was applied to the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to compare the in vitro effects of different n-oxides (n-TiO(2, n-SiO(2, n-ZnO, n-CeO(2 chosen on the basis of their commercial and environmental relevance. Physico-chemical characterization of both primary particles and NP suspensions in artificial sea water-ASW was performed. Hemocyte lysosomal and mitochondrial parameters, oxyradical and nitric oxide production, phagocytic activity, as well as NP uptake, were evaluated. The results show that different n-oxides rapidly elicited differential responses hemocytes in relation to their chemical properties, concentration, behavior in sea water, and interactions with subcellular compartments. These represent the most extensive data so far available on the effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic organisms. The results indicate that Mytilus hemocytes can be utilized as a suitable model for screening the potential effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic invertebrates, and may

  12. Evidence for immunomodulation and apoptotic processes induced by cationic polystyrene nanoparticles in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus. (United States)

    Canesi, L; Ciacci, C; Bergami, E; Monopoli, M P; Dawson, K A; Papa, S; Canonico, B; Corsi, I


    Polymeric nanoparticles can reach the marine environment from different sources as weathering of plastic debris and nanowaste. Nevertheless, few data are available on their fate and impact on marine biota. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) can be considered as a model for studying the effects of nanoplastics in marine organisms: recent data on amino-modified PS NPs (PS-NH2) toxicity in sea urchin embryos underlined that marine invertebrates can be biological targets of nanoplastics. Cationic PS NPs have been shown to be toxic to mammalian cells, where they can induce apoptotic processes; however, no information is available on their effects and mechanisms of action in the cells of marine organisms. In this work, the effects of 50 nm PS-NH2 were investigated in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Hemocytes were exposed to different concentrations (1, 5, 50 μg/ml) of PS-NH2 suspension in ASW. Clear signs of cytoxicity were evident only at the highest concentrations (50 μg/ml). On the other hand, a dose dependent decrease in phagocytic activity and increase in lysozyme activity were observed. PS-NH2 NPs also stimulated increase in extracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide) production, with maximal effects at lower concentrations. Moreover, at the highest concentration tested, PS-NH2 NPs induced apoptotic process, as evaluated by Flow cytometry (Annexin V binding and mitochondrial parameters). The results demonstrate that in marine invertebrates the immune function can represent a significant target for PS-NPs. Moreover, in Mytilus hemocytes, PS-NH2 NPs can act through mechanisms similar to those observed in mammalian cells. Further research is necessary on specific mechanisms of toxicity and cellular uptake of nanoplastics in order to assess their impact on marine biota.

  13. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas


    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  14. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  15. Prophylactic and therapeutic intranasal administration with an immunomodulator, Hiltonol(®) (Poly IC:LC), in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Salazar, Andres M; Wandersee, Miles K; Barnard, Dale L


    Hiltonol(®), (Poly IC:LC), a potent immunomodulator, is a synthetic, double-stranded polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly IC) stabilized with Poly-L-lysine and carboxymethyl cellulose (LC). Hiltonol(®) was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. Hiltonol(®) at 5, 1, 0.5 or 0.25 mg/kg/day by intranasal (i.n.) route resulted in significant survival benefit when administered at selected times 24 h prior to challenge with a lethal dose of mouse-adapted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The infected BALB/c mice receiving the Hiltonol(®) treatments were also significantly effective in protecting mice against weight loss due to infection (p < 0.001). Groups of 20 mice were dosed with Hiltonol(®) at 2.5 or 0.75 mg/kg by intranasal instillation 7, 14, and 21 days before virus exposure and a second dose was given 24 h later, prophylactic Hiltonol(®) treatments (2.5 mg/kg/day) were completely protective in preventing death, and in causing significant reduction in lung hemorrhage scores, lung weights and lung virus titers. Hiltonol(®) was also effective as a therapeutic when give up to 8 h post virus exposure; 100% of the-infected mice were protected against death when Hiltonol(®) was administered at 5 mg/kg/day 8 h after infection. Our data suggest that Hiltonol(®) treatment of SARS-CoV infection in mice leads to substantial prophylactic and therapeutic effects and could be used for treatment of other virus disease such as those caused by MERS-CoV a related coronavirus. These properties might be therapeutically advantageous if Hiltonol(®) is considered for possible clinical use.

  16. Evaluation of follow-up of therapy with fenbendazole incorporated into stabilized liposomes and immunomodulator glucan in mice infected with Toxocara canis larvae. (United States)

    Hrckova, G; Velebný, S; Obwaller, A; Auer, H; Kogan, G


    Anthelmintic activity of benzimidazole carbamate anthelmintics is low against dormant Toxocara canis larvae during late infections in paratenic hosts. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy of pure fenbendazole, or drug incorporated into sterically stabilized liposomes (SL-FBZ) administered to T. canis-infected mice alone and after its co-administration with the immunomodulator (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan against larvae localized in muscles and brains. Therapy with either drug forms (in total 250 mg/kg in 10 doses) commenced on day 28 post-infection (p.i.) and the efficacy of treatment, examined on day 30 after the last dose of drug, was the highest in groups of mice treated with SL-FBZ in combination with glucan (89.5+/-5.8% in the muscles, 66.1+/-8.1% in brains). During 56 days of follow-up after termination of therapy, serum levels of anti-TES IgG antibodies, circulating IgG-TES immune complexes (CIC) as well as IgG antibodies to the most immunogenic part of recombinant myosin antigen of T. canis larvae were investigated. In contrast to anti-TES IgG antibodies, levels of CIC and anti-myosin antibodies were in the linear correlation with the efficacy of treatments beginning from day 38 post-therapy. We also showed that the serum levels of CIC as well as anti-myosin IgG antibodies seem to be the suitable serological markers for the monitoring of progress in larval destruction and TES resorption from the tissues.

  17. Anti-Lung Cancer Activity through Enhancement of Immunomodulation and Induction of Cell Apoptosis of Total Triterpenes Extracted from Ganoderma luncidum (Leyss. ex Fr. Karst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao


    Full Text Available Ganoderma luncidum (Leyss. ex Fr. Karst. (GLK has been used traditionally for the prevention and treatment of cancers or tumors for a long time in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The triterpenes as main effective components of GLK have been found to be beneficial for the efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-lung cancer activity of triterpenes of GLK in vitro and in vivo and to explore their anti-lung cancer effects and potential mechanisms. A549 cells and Lewis tumor-bearing mice were used to evaluate the inhibition effects of triterpenes on cell proliferation and tumor growth. The IC50 of triterpenes of GLK on A549 cells was 24.63 μg/mL. Triterpenes of GLK could significantly inhibit tumor growth in mice (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg. The immune organs indexes including spleen and thymus were increased remarkedly by the treatment with triterpenes. Moreover, they were able to stimulate the immune response by increasing the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that cell arrest caused by triterpenes treatment (7.5, 15 and 30 μg/mL was in the G2/M phase in A549 cells. Triterpenes induced apoptosis by decreasing the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 9 and increasing the levels of cleaved-caspase 9. Our findings suggested that the triterpenes of GLK have anti-lung cancer activity in vitro and in vivo via enhancement of immunomodulation and induction of cell apoptosis. The study provides insights into the mechanism of GLK in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.

  18. Effects of P-MAPA immunomodulator on Toll-like receptor 2, ROS, nitric oxide, MAPKp38 and IKK in PBMC and macrophages from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Melo, L M; Perosso, J; Almeida, B F M; Silva, K L O; Somenzari, M A; de Lima, V M F


    Leishmania (L.) chagasi is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that can be transmitted to humans and dogs. VL in Brazil represents a serious public health problem; therefore, it is important to study new alternatives to treat infected dogs. In dogs, the therapeutic arsenal against canine VL is limited. The immunomodulator protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) improves immunocompetence when the immune system is impaired, but its dependence on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the mechanisms involved in immune response remain unclear. The in vitro action of P-MAPA on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and IKK phosphorylation was studied in mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and macrophages from healthy and Leishmania-infected dogs. The PBMC or macrophages were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of P-MAPA (20,100 and 200 μg/ml) in a humid environment at 37°C with 5% CO(2). Observation revealed that Leishmania-infected dogs showed a decrease in TLR2 in macrophages compared with healthy dogs and in induction with P-MAPA. ROS were increased in PBMCs from Leishmania spp.-infected dogs compared with healthy dogs and P-MAPA improved ROS production. NO production was increased in culture supernatant from macrophages stimulated by P-MAPA in both healthy and Leishmania spp. infected dogs. Treatment of macrophages from healthy dogs with immunomodulatory P-MAPA induced p38 MAPK and IKK phosphorylation, suggesting signal transduction by this pathway. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as a therapeutic drug in the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  19. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel’eva NN


    Full Text Available Introduction. Due to the high prevalence of chronic generalized periodontitis there is a need for a broader analysis of the causes and development of diseases, as well as the search for effective treatments for etiopathogenetical. The aim of this work was to study the effect of newly developed therapy on local immunity in patients CGP I and II severity with enterobiasis. Material & methods. The main group consisted of 32 people with СGP I degree and 60 people with СGP II severity who were treated according to our scheme. The control group consisted of 30 people with СGP I degree and 58 people with СGP II severity, treated with conventional treatment. The control group consisted of 30 people without periodontal disease and chronic diseases of other systems. All patients were studied the main group and the comparison group conducted a basic local therapeutic treatment of periodontal disease, including professional oral hygiene, temporary splinting of teeth, selective prishlifovyvanie teeth. For medical treatment of periodontal tissues using 0.05% - 0.2% solution of chlorhexidine bigluconate. Further treatment of patients of the main group carried out in 2 stages. At the first stage the main group received: irrigation and instillation of periodontal tissue in periodontal pockets antiseptic preparation "Dekasan" application keratoplastic drug "Katomas". Systemically administered drug tonic "Sage oil" probiotic "Kvertulin" immunomodulator "Erbisol". In the second phase, patients received: applications on the gums periodontal gel "Lizomukoid" systemically complex preparation "Оil extract from pumpkin seeds." All patients of the main group used toothpaste "Lacalut flora" and rinse "grapefruit". In the comparison group, patients received applications in periodontal pockets (drug Dalatsin C application to the gums (keratoplastic drug Aekol system - a probiotic Linex, immunomodulator "Echinacea compositum С". All patients with the comparison group

  1. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology. (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille


    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  2. Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Fatima, Farah; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C.; Penfornis, Patrice; Valadi, Hadi; Ekström, Karin; Kholia, Sharad; Whitt, Jason D.; Fernandes, Joseph D.; Pochampally, Radhika; Squire, Jeremy A.; Camussi, Giovanni


    Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies. PMID:26649044

  3. Pharmacology and toxicology of diphenyl diselenide in several biological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Rosa


    Full Text Available The pharmacology of synthetic organoselenium compounds indicates that they can be used as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors, neuroprotectors, anti-tumor and anti-infectious agents, and immunomodulators. In this review, we focus on the effects of diphenyl diselenide (DPDS in various biological model organisms. DPDS possesses antioxidant activity, confirmed in several in vitro and in vivo systems, and thus has a protective effect against hepatic, renal and gastric injuries, in addition to its neuroprotective activity. The activity of the compound on the central nervous system has been studied since DPDS has lipophilic characteristics, increasing adenylyl cyclase activity and inhibiting glutamate and MK-801 binding to rat synaptic membranes. Systemic administration facilitates the formation of long-term object recognition memory in mice and has a protective effect against brain ischemia and on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. On the other hand, DPDS may be toxic, mainly because of its interaction with thiol groups. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the molecule acts as a pro-oxidant by depleting free glutathione. Administration to mice during cadmium intoxication has the opposite effect, reducing oxidative stress in various tissues. DPDS is a potent inhibitor of d-aminolevulinate dehydratase and chronic exposure to high doses of this compound has central effects on mouse brain, as well as liver and renal toxicity. Genotoxicity of this compound has been assessed in bacteria, haploid and diploid yeast and in a tumor cell line.

  4. Biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil


    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  5. Recent Advances in Peptide Immunomodulators. (United States)

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Gao, Jianmin


    With the continued rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an immense need for the development of new therapeutic agents. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer a unique alternative to many of the current approved antibiotics. By targeting the host rather than the pathogen, HDPs offer several benefits over traditional small molecule drug treatments, such as a slower propensity towards resistance, broad-spectrum activity and lower risk of patients developing sepsis. However, natural peptide structures have many disadvantages as well, including susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, significant costs of synthesis and host toxicity. For this reason, much work has been done to examine peptidomimetic structures, in the hopes of finding a structure with all of the desired qualities of an antibiotic drug. Recently, this research has included synthetic constructs that mimic the behavior of HDPs but have no structural similarity to peptides. This review article focuses on the progression of this field of research, beginning with an analysis of a few prominent examples of natural HDPs and moving on to describe how the information learned by studying them have led to the current design platforms.

  6. Immunomodulators to treat recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R.; Kieffer, Tom E. C.; Scherjon, Sicco A.


    Recurrent miscarriage is a reproductive disorder affecting many couples. Although several factors are associated with recurrent miscarriage, in more than 50% of the cases the cause is unknown. Maladaptation of the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent miscarriage and could explain part

  7. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with the use of biologic and other investigational agents: the importance of long-term post-marketing safety surveillance. (United States)

    Goddard, Allison; Borovicka, Judy H; West, Dennis P; Evens, Andrew M; Laumann, Anne


    This case report describes a patient who developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after receiving courses of two investigational biologic agents and cyclosporine followed by more than four years of subcutaneous efalizumab for the treatment of extensive chronic plaque psoriasis. Three years later, the patient remains free of lymphoma and his psoriasis is well controlled with thrice-weekly narrow-band ultraviolet phototherapy. This case emphasizes the importance of continued long-term post-marketing safety surveillance and the early reporting of all possible serious side effects, including cancers, related to the use of any newly available product. In particular, surveillance should focus on the immunomodulating biologic agents in order to identify possible dangerous sequelae.

  8. Biological conversion system (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  9. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation. (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc


    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  10. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation. (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R


    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  11. Computational Systems Chemical Biology


    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  12. The immunomodulation of leptin resistance and its relationship with the development of tumor%瘦素抵抗的免疫调节作用及其与肿瘤发生的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程欢欢; 王华阳; 曲迅


    Leptin is a multifunctional hormone that regulates energy balance, appetite, reproduction, hematogene-sis et al. Its action is mediated by leptin receptor. Leptin resistance is related with the tumorigenesis and tumor development. Leptin resistance not only plays an important role in the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, but also regulates the quantity and function of variable kinds of immunocytes in tumor microenvironment. The immunomodulation of leptin resistance is vital for the development of cancer. Up to now, the immunomodulation of leptin resistance has been found to act in many kinds of tumors. To elucidate its mechanism might prove effective in cancer diagnosis and prevention.%瘦素是一种内分泌激素,与受体结合后发挥调节食欲、能量代谢、生殖和造血等多种生物学作用.瘦素抵抗与肿瘤发生发展密切相关,除对肿瘤细胞的增殖及凋亡等发挥作用外,还参与调节肿瘤局部微环境中多种免疫细胞的数目与功能,通过调控抗肿瘤免疫活性参与肿瘤发生发展.目前已发现瘦素抵抗的免疫调节作用在多种类型肿瘤中发挥功能,对肿瘤的诊断与防治具有重要意义.

  13. Resetting Biological Clocks (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.


    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  14. Biology is simple. (United States)

    Newman, Tim


    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  15. Biology of Blood (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  16. Designing synthetic biology. (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M


    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.




  18. Biology Myth-Killers (United States)

    Lampert, Evan


    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  19. Computational systems chemical biology. (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  20. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B


    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  1. Roles of host and viral microRNAs in human cytomegalovirus biology (United States)

    Dhuruvasan, Kavitha; Sivasubramanian, Geetha; Pellett, Philip E.


    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a relatively large and complex genome, a protracted lytic replication cycle, and employs a strategy of replicational latency as part of its lifelong persistence in the infected host. An important form of gene regulation in plants and animals revolves around a type of small RNA known as microRNA (miRNA). miRNAs can serve as major regulators of key developmental pathways, as well as provide subtle forms of regulatory control. The human genome encodes over 900 miRNAs, and miRNAs are also encoded by some viruses, including HCMV, which encodes at least 14 miRNAs. Some of the HCMV miRNAs are known to target both viral and cellular genes, including important immunomodulators. In addition to expressing their own miRNAs, infections with some viruses, including HCMV, can result in changes in the expression of cellular miRNAs that benefit virus replication. In this review, we summarize the connections between miRNAs and HCMV biology. We describe the nature of miRNA genes, miRNA biogenesis and modes of action, methods for studying miRNAs, HCMV-encoded miRNAs, effects of HCMV infection on cellular miRNA expression, roles of miRNAs in HCMV biology, and possible HCMV-related diagnostic and therapeutic applications of miRNAs. PMID:20969901

  2. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF): Biological Activities and Relation with Cancer. (United States)

    Nobre, Camila Cristina Guimarães; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Lanza, Daniel Carlos Ferreira; Andrade, Vânia Sousa; Fernandes, José Veríssimo


    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) emerged in recent years as an important inflammation mediator, playing a prominent role in the pathogenesis of various types of malignant neoplasm. MIF is a glycoprotein that presents a wide spectrum of biological activities and exerts a complex interaction with various cellular signaling pathways, causing imbalance of homeostasis. Experimental and clinical studies show that high levels of MIF are found in almost all types of human cancers and are implicated in seemingly all stages of development of the tumors. The production of MIF is triggered through an autocrine signal emitted by tumor cells, and stimulates the production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth as well as angiogenic factors that lead to growth of the tumor, increasing its aggressiveness and metastatic potential. MIF is produced by virtually all types of human body cells, in response to stress caused by different factors, leading to pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and immunomodulation with suppression of immune surveillance and of immune response against tumors, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. In this review, we present recent advances on the biological activity of MIF, the signaling pathways with which it is involved and their role in tumorigenesis.

  3. Standard biological parts knowledgebase. (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H


    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  4. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  5. Plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal


    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  6. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek


    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  7. Chemical Biology is.....



    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  8. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  9. Biological detector and method (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  10. Biological Individuality of Man (United States)


    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  11. Biological detector and method (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  12. Chemical space and biology. (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M


    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  13. Polythiophenes in biological applications. (United States)

    Sista, Prakash; Ghosh, Koushik; Martinez, Jennifer S; Rocha, Reginaldo C


    Polythiophene and its derivatives have shown tremendous potential for interfacing electrically conducting polymers with biological applications. These semiconducting organic polymers are relatively soft, conduct electrons and ions, have low cytotoxicity, and can undergo facile chemical modifications. In addition, the reduction in electrical impedance of electrodes coated with polythiophenes may prove to be invaluable for a stable and permanent connection between devices and biological tissues. This review article focuses on the synthesis and some key applications of polythiophenes in multidisciplinary areas at the interface with biology. These polymers have shown tremendous potential in biological applications such as diagnostics, therapy, drug delivery, imaging, implant devices and artificial organs.

  14. Immunomodulator therapy migration in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a study of 152 cases Migração medicamentosa de imunomoduladores em esclerose múltipla: estudo em 152 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Semeraro Jordy


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1997, immunological modulators have been used for treatment of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS in the Multiple Sclerosis Attendance and Treatment Center (CATEM with significant alterations in this disease natural history. AIM: To add data on the experience of CATEM for the treatment of RRMS patients that had immunomodulators. METHOD: RRMS patients that received continuously immunomodulator drugs were evaluated on adherence, migration, withdrawal and progression rates. The patients were divided in three groups by the period of immunomodulators intake. RESULTS: There were registered in Group 1 withdrawal in 98 patients (25% and adherence in 292 cases (74%; Group 2 interruption of therapy in 140 patients, 92 (31% due to progression for PSMS, 14 (5% for pregnancy, withdrawal in 34 (11%, adherence in 88%; Group 3 progression in 41 (26%, pregnancy in 3 (2% withdrawal in 42 (27% and adherence in 72%. The migration rate was about one third (31.57% and the principal cause was therapeutic failure; the mean migrating time was 0.5-2.5 years in group 3. CONCLUSION: Immunomodulatory treatment for RRMS patients may have significant levels of failure and side effects; the adherence was compatible with the international literature.INTRODUÇÃO: Na última década foram introduzidos os imunomoduladores para o tratamento da esclerose múltipla (EM forma remitente-recorrente (RR. OBJETIVO: Complementar o relato anterior da experiência de centro brasileiro no acompanhamento dos pacientes em uso dos imunomoduladores. MÉTODO: 390 pacientes que faziam uso de imunomoduladores no Centro de Atendimento à Esclerose Múltipla (CATEM, foram subdivididos por tempo de uso em três grupos, avaliando-se as ocorrências de: abandono, gravidez, conversão da forma RR para secundária progressiva (SP e da aderência. RESULTADOS: No Grupo 1, foram observados abandono do uso de imunomoduladores em 98 pacientes (25% e aderência de 292 casos (74%; no

  15. Biology Library Workbook. (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  16. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology. (United States)

    Haumann, G


    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  17. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  18. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne


    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  19. Introduction to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, F.J.; Hornberg, J.J.; Boogerd, F.C.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Westerhoff, H.V.


    The developments in the molecular biosciences have made possible a shift to combined molecular and system-level approaches to biological research under the name of Systems Biology. It integrates many types of molecular knowledge, which can best be achieved by the synergistic use of models and experi

  20. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server


    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  1. Space biology research development (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.


    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  2. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden


    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  3. Biological sample collector (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.


    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  4. Managing biological diversity (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.


    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  5. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J


    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  6. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVII. Immunomodulating activities of carboxymethylated derivatives of linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans extracted from the fruiting bodies of Agrocybe cylindracea and Amanita muscaria. (United States)

    Yoshida, I; Kiho, T; Usui, S; Sakushima, M; Ukai, S


    Immunomodulating activities of three carboxymethylated derivatives (AG-AL-CMS, AG-AL-CMI, and AM-APP-CM) of linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans from Agrocybe cylindracea and Amanita muscaria were evaluated with murine peritoneal macrophages playing an important role in tumor immunity. The ratio of macrophages in peritoneal exudate cells increased more than 50% after the administration of three carboxymethylated (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans. These carboxymethylated (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans exhibited higher potentiating activities for macrophages than carboxymethylated linear (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (CMPS) in the potency of reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium, products of nitric oxide and the soluble cytotoxic factor, the amount of glucose consumption, and the activation of acid phosphatase. AG-AL-CMS, AG-AL-CMI, and AM-APP-CM were found to induce the tumor regressing factor in mouse serum, although the ability of the induction of this factor was weaker than that of CMPS. The reticuloendothelial system-potentiating activation of three carboxymethylated alpha-D-glucans was similar to that of the carboxymethylated beta-D-glucan. AG-AL-CMS and AG-AL-CMI, but not AM-APP-CM, were suggested to possess a higher-order structure, resulting from the formation of a fluorescent complex with aniline blue.

  7. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob


    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  8. Hammond Bay Biological Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  9. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  10. Chemistry and biology data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  11. Laboratory of Biological Modeling (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  12. Laboratory of Biological Modeling (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  13. Precision Measurement in Biology (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  14. Biological satellite Kosmos-936 (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.


    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  15. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  16. Large Pelagics Biological Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  17. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F


    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  18. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment......The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  19. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    example of biological design. We investigated the architecture of A. simplex and found that an advanced hierarchical biomineralized structure acts as the interface between soft musculature and a stiff substrate, thus securing underwater attachment. In bone, the mechanical properties of the material......, and the nanoscale response of bone in compression. Lastly, a framework for the investigation of biological design principles has been developed. The framework combines parametric modeling, multi-material 3D-printing, and direct mechanical testing to efficiently screen large parameter spaces of biological design. We......Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...

  20. [Systems biology of cancer]. (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei


    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  1. Insecticides and Biological Control (United States)

    Furness, G. O.


    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  2. Nestedness across biological scales (United States)

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.


    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  3. Biological Parameters of Impact (United States)


    zone between no effect and gross injury or death . For example, the pilot who survives an aircraft crash, but who is injured or unconscious so that he...Biological effects were limited to one incidence of bradycardia (116 t36 t and three instances of premature ventricular contractions. However. subjeCtiY" I...R.F.Chandler INTRODUCTION -Investigation of the biological effects of abrupt acceleration (impact) was stimulated by the advent of technical advances

  4. Systems cell biology. (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D


    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  5. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... field. back to top What biological products does FDA regulate? The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research ( ...

  6. Structural diversity and biological significance of lipoteichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria: focusing on beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yokota, Shinichi; Fukiya, Satoru; Yokota, Atsushi


    Bacterial cell surface molecules are at the forefront of host-bacterium interactions. Teichoic acids are observed only in Gram-positive bacteria, and they are one of the main cell surface components. Teichoic acids play important physiological roles and contribute to the bacterial interaction with their host. In particular, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) anchored to the cell membrane has attracted attention as a host immunomodulator. Chemical and biological characteristics of LTA from various bacteria have been described. However, most of the information concerns pathogenic bacteria, and information on beneficial bacteria, including probiotic lactic acid bacteria, is insufficient. LTA is structurally diverse. Strain-level structural diversity of LTA is suggested to underpin its immunomodulatory activities. Thus, the structural information on LTA in probiotics, in particular strain-associated diversity, is important for understanding its beneficial roles associated with the modulation of immune response. Continued accumulation of structural information is necessary to elucidate the detailed physiological roles and significance of LTA. In this review article, we summarize the current state of knowledge on LTA structure, in particular the structure of LTA from lactic acid bacteria. We also describe the significance of structural diversity and biological roles of LTA.

  7. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki


    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  8. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam


    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  9. Information Complexity and Biology (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  10. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology



    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules; predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes; generating hypotheses...

  11. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology. (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A


    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  12. Biological applications of nanobiotechnology. (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Martins, Vilásia Guimarães; Steffens, Daniela; Pranke, Patricia; da Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira


    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology has opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creating new opportunities for advances in the fields of medicine, electronics, foods, and the environment. Nanoscale structures and materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanofibers, nanotubes) have been explored in many biological applications (biosensing, biological separation, molecular imaging, anticancer therapy) because their novel properties and functions differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Their high volume/surface ratio, improved solubility, and multifunctionality open many new possibilities. The objective of this review is to describe the potential benefits and impacts of the nanobiotechnology in different areas.

  13. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen


    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  14. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics. (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A


    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  15. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...... number of thoroughly selected targets. Our need for fundamental understanding of the building blocks of the complex biological systems had been the main reason for the reductionist approach that was mainly applied in the past to elucidate these systems. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that systems...... components with biological systems and their connection to health and disease. The database will be enriched with predicted interactions between food components and protein targets, based on their structural and pharmacophore similarity with known small molecule ligands. Further to this, the associations...

  16. [Biologics in SLE]. (United States)

    Karonitsch, Thomas; Aringer, Martin


    Biologics have become indispensable in the last decade in the treatment of the more common rheumatic diseases. For treating systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), B-cell depletion, albeit off-label, has been a well-accepted strategy in severe and refractory disease. Unexpectedly, however, the results of the first randomized controlled rituximab trials in SLE were negative. New trials with improved study protocols are ongoing, which should resolve this issue. In 2012, with the approval of belimumab, SLE finally entered the era of approved biological therapies. The anti-Blys/BAFF antibody belimumab showed prevention of SLE flares, glucocorticoid sparing, and significant improvement in the quality of life of SLE patients, in part by drastically reducing immune complex mediated fatigue. Positive reports on further targeting approaches give hope that additional biological agents will be available for SLE therapy soon.

  17. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja


    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  18. Biological Soft Robotics. (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W


    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  19. Biological therapy and dentistry (United States)

    Radfar, Lida; Ahmadabadi, Roshanak E; Masood, Farah; Scofield, R Hal


    In recent years, a new class of drugs has revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune, allergic, infectious and many more diseases. These drugs are classified into three groups, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Biological drugs have less side effects compared to conventional drugs, and may target special damaged cells, but not all the cells. There may be side effects such as infection, hypersensitivity, hematological disorders, cancer, hepatotoxicity and neurological disorders, but there is not enough evidence or long term studies of the mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs. Patients on biological therapy may need some special consideration in dentistry. This paper is a review regarding the classification, mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs, and dental consideration for patients on biological therapy. PMID:26372436

  20. The biology of personality. (United States)

    Mulder, R


    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  1. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.


    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  2. [Cybernetics and biology]. (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F


    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  3. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)


    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  4. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.


    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  5. Sequence analysis and identification of new isoform of EP4 receptors in different atlantic salmon tissues (Salmo salar L. and its role in PGE2 induced immunomodulation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tz Chun Guo

    Full Text Available PGE2 plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes mediated through a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR called EP receptor. In mammals, four subtypes of EP receptor (EP 1-4 are identified and each of them functions through different signal transduction pathways. Orthologous EP receptors have also been identified in other non-mammalian species, such as chicken and zebrafish. EP4 is the only identified PGE2 receptor to date in Atlantic salmon but its tissue distribution and function have not been studied in any detail. In this study, we first sequenced EP4 receptor in different tissues and found that the presence of the 3nt deletion in the 5' untranslated region was accompanied by silent mutation at nt 668. While attempting to amplify the same sequence in TO cells (an Atlantic salmon macrophage-like cell line, we failed to obtain the full-length product. Further investigation revealed different isoform of EP4 receptor in TO cells and we subsequently documented its presence in different Atlantic salmon tissues. These two isoforms of EP4 receptor share high homology in their first half of sequence but differ in the second half part with several deletion segments though the final length of coding sequence is the same for two isoforms. We further studied the immunomodulation effect of PGE2 in TO cells and found that PGE2 inhibited the induction of CXCL-10, CCL-4, IL-8 and IL-1β genes expression in a time dependent manner and without cAMP upregulation.

  6. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.


    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  7. Efficacy of TNF-α antagonist and other immunomodulators in the treatment of patients with ophthalmologic manifestations of Behcet's disease and HLA B51 positive vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Gordana


    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Behcet's disease is genetically conditioned, immune-mediated multisystem occlusive vasculitis of small blood vessels, espesially venules, of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, disease activity and therapy of the patients with ophthalmologic manifestation of Behcet's disease. Methods. In this study symptoms and signs of the disease were analyzed both prospectively and retrospectively during the active manifestation of the disease. The diagnosis was reached according to the International Criteria for Behcet's Disease (2006. The treatment effects were evaluated based on the presence of the best corrected visual acuity and the inflammation of the vitreous humour before and after the application of our therapeutic method. The applied therapeutic modality consisted of the primary application of corticosteroid therapy in the active stage of the disease complemented with the choice of drugs from the immunosuppressive group. In this study there drugs were cyclosporine or methotrexate. A treatment refractory patients with poor vision prognosis were treated with a third drug, the biological preparation infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α antagonist. Results. The mean age of 11 patients with ophthalmologic manifestation of Behcet's disease was 50.6 years. HLA B-5(51 was positive in 81% of the patients while 36% of the patients had positive pathergy test. Changes in affected eyes included vitritis (100%, posterior uveitis (45%, panuveitis (54%, retinal vasculitis (54%, cystoid macular edema (54%, and cystoid degeneration (18%. Increased intraocular pressure was observed in 27% of the patients. There was no statistically significant variation in disease activity parameters in any of the patients (p > 0.05. A statistically significant improvement in visual acuity (p < 0.05 and a high statistically significant decrease of inflammation of the worst affected eyes (p = 0.001 were detected

  8. Plant Systems Biology (editorial) (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  9. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob


    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  10. Doublethink in Biological Education (United States)

    Cox, Donald D.


    Presents the material given in a talk at the 1974 convention of the National Science Teachers Association in which the author compares practices in biology education to George Orwell's concept of "doublethink," i.e., the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and to accept both of them. Developments in curriculum…

  11. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;


    As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question, ...

  12. Openers for Biology Classes. (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  13. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj


    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  14. Diversity in Biological Molecules (United States)

    Newbury, H. John


    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  15. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz


    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  16. Bayes in biological anthropology. (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R


    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  17. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia


    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  18. Biology Curriculum Support Document. (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  19. Biological Isolation Garment (United States)


    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  20. Commercializing Biological Control (United States)

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.


    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  1. Biological trade and markets. (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald


    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  2. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism. (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan


    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  3. Quantum physics meets biology

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko


    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...

  4. [Cell biology and cosmetology]. (United States)

    Traniello, S; Cavalletti, T


    Cellular biology can become the natural support of research in the field of cosmetics because it is able to provide alternative experimental models which can partially replace the massive use of laboratory animals. Cultures of human skin cells could be used in tests investigating irritation of the skin. We have developed an "in vitro" experimental model that allows to evaluate the damage caused by the free radicals to the fibroblasts in culture and to test the protective action of the lipoaminoacids. Experimenting on human cell cultures presents the advantage of eliminating the extrapolation between the different species, of allowing a determination of the biological action of a substance and of evaluating its dose/response effect. This does not mean that "in vitro" experimenting could completely replace experimenting on living animals, but the "in vitro" model can be introduced in the realisation of preliminary screenings.

  5. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau


    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  6. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;


    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing......As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question......, a limited budget, and challenging sample material. Furthermore, although recent advances in technology offer unprecedented opportunities for research in non-model organisms, they also demand unprecedented awareness from the researcher regarding the assumptions and limitations of each method. In this review...

  7. Quantum physics meets biology. (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko


    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  8. Biological scaling and physics. (United States)

    Rau, A R P


    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  9. Heritability and biological explanation. (United States)

    Turkheimer, E


    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  10. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych


    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  11. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    not support the routine recording of batch information. Expected changes in supply chain standards provide opportunities to systematically record detailed exposure information. Spontaneous reporting systems are the most vulnerable link in ensuring traceability, due to the manual nature of data transfer...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...

  12. Milli-Biology (United States)


    inefficient at low RPM because power is wasted as heat in the coils, requiring gearing at low RPM, and power is required to maintain static position...soldering to join metal parts, epoxy to join the heat -sensitive permanent magnets, and screws to reversibly fasten subassemblies that might require...aerospace, and heliostat pointing for solar power. These are now transitioning to commercial development. The milli-biology workflow for coded

  13. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology



    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  14. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral


    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  15. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis


    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario


    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to tr...

  16. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  17. Quantum Effects in Biology (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.


    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  18. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems


    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D.


    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  19. Biological heart valves. (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel


    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  20. Absolute biological needs. (United States)

    McLeod, Stephen


    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  1. Biologics for tendon repair. (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H


    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  2. Biological surface science (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt


    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  3. Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixation (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. T.; Valentine, Raymond C.


    Reports that as a result of our increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation it might eventually be possible to increase the biological production of nitrogenous fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen. (GS)

  4. Is Our Biology to Blame? (United States)

    Schneider, Scott


    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  5. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian


    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  6. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict


    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...

  7. Logical impossibilities in biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monendra Grover


    Full Text Available Biological networks are complex and involve several kinds of molecules. For proper biological function it is important for these biomolecules to act at an individual level and act at the level of interaction of these molecules. In this paper some of the logical impossibilities that may arise in the biological networks and their possible solutions are discussed. It may be important to understand these paradoxes and their possible solutions in order to develop a holistic view of biological function.

  8. Biological Computing Fundamentals and Futures


    Akula, Balaji; Cusick, James


    The fields of computing and biology have begun to cross paths in new ways. In this paper a review of the current research in biological computing is presented. Fundamental concepts are introduced and these foundational elements are explored to discuss the possibilities of a new computing paradigm. We assume the reader to possess a basic knowledge of Biology and Computer Science

  9. Functions in Biological Kind Classification (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob


    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  10. Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexson, Dimitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Chen Hongfeng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Cho, Michael [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Dutta, Mitra [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Li Yang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shi, Peng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Raichura, Amit [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Ramadurai, Dinakar [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Parikh, Shaunak [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Stroscio, Michael A [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vasudev, Milana [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)


    Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications are discussed. Results are presented on the use of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots both as biological tags and as structures that interact with and influence biomolecules. Results are presented on the use of semiconducting carbon nanotubes in biological applications. (topical review)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Burak


    Full Text Available The methodology for computer modeling of complex eco-biological models is presented in this paper. It is based on system approach of J. Forrester. Developed methodology is universal for complex ecological and biological systems. Modeling algorithm considers specialties of eco-biological systems and shows adequate and accurate results in practice. 

  12. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences. (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G


    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  13. NASA Biological Specimen Repository (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.


    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  14. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  15. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun


    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  16. Illuminating Cell Biology (United States)


    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  17. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  18. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E


    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  19. Systems biology: experimental design. (United States)

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens


    Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biology, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on experimental planning. A maximum informative investigation of the dynamic behavior of cellular systems is achieved by an optimal combination of stimulations and observations over time. In this minireview, the existing approaches concerning this optimization for parameter estimation and model discrimination are summarized. Furthermore, the relevant classical aspects of experimental design, such as randomization, replication and confounding, are reviewed.

  20. Biology of Nanobots (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman


    One of the more interesting recent discoveries has been the ability to design nano/microbots which catalytically harness the chemical energy in their environment to move autonomously. Their potential applications include delivery of materials, self-assembly of superstructures, and roving sensors. One emergent area of research is the study of their collective behavior and how they emulate living systems. The aim of this chapter is to describe the "biology" of nanobots, summarizing the fundamentals physics behind their motion and how the bots interact with each other to initiate complex emergent behavior.

  1. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.


    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutations (galactosemia) also contribute to perturbations of the menstrual cycle. Although not perfect, mouse model have helped to identify and confirm additional components and pathways in menstrual cycle function and dysfunction in humans. PMID:18574203

  2. [Tuberculosis and molecular biology]. (United States)

    Andersen, Ase Bengård; Lillebaek, Troels; Søborg, Christian; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) hunting millions worldwide, is a challenge to work with in the laboratory. Modern molecular biology has provided extremely useful tools which have changed conventional diagnostic procedures in the TB laboratories. Research in molecular epidemiology is currently expanding our knowledge of the natural history of TB. Access to the genome sequence has opened new avenues for research in drug development and new vaccines. However, we are still awaiting the impact of these efforts in the resource-poor TB endemic countries.

  3. Biology of Bilirubin Photoisomers. (United States)

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud


    Phototherapy is the main treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In acute treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, intensive phototherapy may have a role in 'detoxifying' the bilirubin molecule to more polar photoisomers, which should be less prone to crossing the blood-brain barrier, providing a 'brain-sparing' effect. This article reviews the biology of bilirubin isomers. Although there is evidence supporting the lower toxicity of bilirubin photoisomers, there are studies showing the opposite. There are methodologic weaknesses in most studies and better-designed experiments are needed. In an infant acutely threatened by bilirubin-induced brain damage, intensified phototherapy should be used expediently and aggressively.

  4. Nanoindentation of biological composites (United States)

    Dickinson, M.


    This investigation studied the effect of storage conditions on the mechanical properties as measured by nanoindentation of mineralised tissue samples. The three storage solutions were Hanks balanced salt solution, phosphate buffered saline and deionised water and all had a significant effect on the surface properties, namely hardness and modulus of enamel, dentin and bone tested. The effect was significant with a greater than 70% reduction in surface mechanical properties after 8 days immersion in the solutions. This study highlights the importance of testing biological tissues immediately after extraction, and the possible structural and chemistry changes that may occur by artificially storing the tissues.

  5. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2... (United States)


    ... Feline Interleukin-2 Immunomodulator, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 ] Immunomodulator, Live... testing of the following unlicensed veterinary biological product: Requester: Merial, Inc. Product:...

  6. Low-dose rituximab in adult patients with idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia: clinical efficacy and biologic studies. (United States)

    Barcellini, Wilma; Zaja, Francesco; Zaninoni, Anna; Imperiali, Francesca Guia; Battista, Marta Lisa; Di Bona, Eros; Fattizzo, Bruno; Consonni, Dario; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Fanin, Renato; Zanella, Alberto


    This prospective study investigated the efficacy, safety, and response duration of low-dose rituximab (100 mg fixed dose for 4 weekly infusions) together with a short course of steroids as first- or second-line therapy in 23 patients with primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The overall response was 82.6% at month +2, and subsequently stabilized to ∼ 90% at months +6 and +12; the response was better in warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA; overall response, 100% at all time points) than in cold hemagglutinin disease (CHD; average, 60%); the relapse-free survival was 100% for WAIHA at +6 and +12 months versus 89% and 59% in CHD, respectively, and the estimated relapse-free survival at 2 years was 81% and 40% for the warm and cold forms, respectively. The risk of relapse was higher in CHD and in patients with a longer interval between diagnosis and enrollment. Steroid administration was reduced both as cumulative dose (∼ 50%) and duration compared with the patient's past history. Treatment was well tolerated and no adverse events or infections were recorded; retreatment was also effective. The clinical response was correlated with amelioration biologic markers such as cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-17), suggesting that low-dose rituximab exerts an immunomodulating activity. This study is registered at as NCT01345708.

  7. The effect of TNFalpha blockade on the antinuclear antibody profile in patients with chronic arthritis: biological and clinical implications. (United States)

    De Rycke, L; Baeten, D; Kruithof, E; Van den Bosch, F; Veys, E M; De Keyser, F


    Since the first proof of efficacy of TNFalpha blockade, both the number of patients treated worldwide and the number of indications for treatment with TNFalpha blockers have grown steadily. Surprisingly, the profound immunomodulation induced by anti-TNFalpha therapy is associated with a relatively low incidence of immune-related complications such as lupus-like syndromes and demyelinating disease. This contrasts sharply with the prominent induction of autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies during TNFalpha blockade. Although this phenomenon has been recognized for several years, the clinical and biological implications are not yet fully understood. In this review, recent studies analysing the effect of TNFalpha blockade (infliximab and etanercept) on the ANA profile in autoimmune arthritis will be discussed. Taken together, these reports indicate that the prominent ANA and anti-dsDNA autoantibody response is 1) not a pure class effect of TNFalpha blockers, 2) independent of the disease background, 3) largely restricted to the induction of short-term IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies, and 4) not associated with other serological or clinically relevant signs of lupus. Nevertheless, a careful follow-up of patients treated with TNFalpha blockers remains mandatory, including monitoring for lupus-like characteristics.

  8. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth


    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  9. [Biological activity of Spirulina]. (United States)

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P


    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  10. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)


    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  11. Synthetic biology in plastids. (United States)

    Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph


    Plastids (chloroplasts) harbor a small gene-dense genome that is amenable to genetic manipulation by transformation. During 1 billion years of evolution from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont to present-day chloroplasts, the plastid genome has undergone a dramatic size reduction, mainly as a result of gene losses and the large-scale transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Thus the plastid genome can be regarded as a naturally evolved miniature genome, the gradual size reduction and compaction of which has provided a blueprint for the design of minimum genomes. Furthermore, because of the largely prokaryotic genome structure and gene expression machinery, the high transgene expression levels attainable in transgenic chloroplasts and the very low production costs in plant systems, the chloroplast lends itself to synthetic biology applications that are directed towards the efficient synthesis of green chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and other metabolites of commercial interest. This review describes recent progress with the engineering of plastid genomes with large constructs of foreign or synthetic DNA, and highlights the potential of the chloroplast as a model system in bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology approaches.

  12. Oscillations in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server


    The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...

  13. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)


    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  14. Industrial systems biology. (United States)

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens


    The chemical industry is currently undergoing a dramatic change driven by demand for developing more sustainable processes for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. In biotechnological processes different microorganisms can be exploited, and the large diversity of metabolic reactions represents a rich repository for the design of chemical conversion processes that lead to efficient production of desirable products. However, often microorganisms that produce a desirable product, either naturally or because they have been engineered through insertion of heterologous pathways, have low yields and productivities, and in order to establish an economically viable process it is necessary to improve the performance of the microorganism. Here metabolic engineering is the enabling technology. Through metabolic engineering the metabolic landscape of the microorganism is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of the raw material, typically glucose, to the product of interest. This process may involve both insertion of new enzymes activities, deletion of existing enzyme activities, but often also deregulation of existing regulatory structures operating in the cell. In order to rapidly identify the optimal metabolic engineering strategy the industry is to an increasing extent looking into the use of tools from systems biology. This involves both x-ome technologies such as transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome analysis, and advanced mathematical modeling tools such as genome-scale metabolic modeling. Here we look into the history of these different techniques and review how they find application in industrial biotechnology, which will lead to what we here define as industrial systems biology.

  15. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner


    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  16. Protein microarrays for systems biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Yang; Shujuan Guo; Yang Li; Shumin Zhou; Shengce Tao


    Systems biology holds the key for understanding biological systems on a system level. It eventually holds the key for the treatment and cure of complex diseases such as cancer,diabetes, obesity, mental disorders, and many others. The '-omics' technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics,proteomics, and metabonomics, are among the major driving forces of systems biology. Featured as highthroughput, miniaturized, and capable of parallel analysis,protein microarrays have already become an important technology platform for systems biology, In this review, we will focus on the system level or global analysis of biological systems using protein microarrays. Four major types of protein microarrays will be discussed: proteome microarrays, antibody microarrays, reverse-phase protein arrays,and lectin microarrays. We will also discuss the challenges and future directions of protein microarray technologies and their applications for systems biology. We strongly believe that protein microarrays will soon become an indispensable and invaluable tool for systems biology.

  17. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  18. Synthetic biology: ethical ramifications 2009. (United States)

    Rabinow, Paul; Bennett, Gaymon


    During 2007 and 2008 synthetic biology moved from the manifesto stage to research programs. As of 2009, synthetic biology is ramifying; to ramify means to produce differentiated trajectories from previous determinations. From its inception, most of the players in synthetic biology agreed on the need for (a) rationalized design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems as well as (b) the re-design of natural biological systems for specified purposes, and that (c) the versatility of designed biological systems makes them suitable to address such challenges as renewable energy, the production of inexpensive drugs, and environmental remediation, as well as providing a catalyst for further growth of biotechnology. What is understood by these goals, however, is diverse. Those assorted understandings are currently contributing to different ramifications of synthetic biology. The Berkeley Human Practices Lab, led by Paul Rabinow, is currently devoting its efforts to documenting and analyzing these ramifications as they emerge.

  19. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong


    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, systems biology provides the knowledge necessary for the development of synthetic biology tools, which in turn facilitates the manipulation and understanding of complex biological systems. Thus, the combination of systems and synthetic biology has huge potential for studying and engineering microbes, especially to perform advanced tasks, such as producing biofuels. Although there have been very few studies in integrating systems and synthetic biology, existing examples have demonstrated great power in extending microbiological capabilities. This review focuses on recent efforts in microbiological genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, aiming to fill the gap between systems and synthetic biology.

  20. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.


    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory respon

  1. Immunomodulation and anticancer potentials of yogurt probiotic


    Jha, Alok; Mishra, Vijendra Kumar; Mohammad, Ghulam


    Probiotics are defined as live microbial food ingredients that produce several beneficial ef-fects to human health. Probiotic bacteria have been mostly investigated in the prevention and treatment of different gastrointestinal diseases and allergies. Probiotic products, however, are usually consumed by the general, healthy population but not much is known on their immu-nomodulatory effects in healthy adults. It is not fully clear how probiotics exert their benefi-cial effects on health, but o...

  2. Harnessing the Helminth Secretome for Therapeutic Immunomodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ditgen


    Full Text Available Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed.

  3. IDO2 in immunomodulation and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George ePrendergast


    Full Text Available IDO2 is a relative of IDO1 implicated in tryptophan catabolism and immune modulation but its specific contributions to normal physiology and pathophysiology are not known. Evolutionary genetic studies suggest that IDO2 has a unique function ancestral to IDO1. In mice, IDO2 gene deletion does not appreciably affect embryonic development or hematopoiesis, but it leads to defects in allergic or autoimmune responses and in the ability of IDO1 to influence the generation of T regulatory cells. Gene expression studies indicate that IDO2 is a basally and more narrowly expressed gene than IDO1 and that IDO2 is uniquely regulated by AhR, which serves as a physiological receptor for the tryptophan catabolite kynurenine. In the established KRN transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, where IDO1 gene deletion has no effect, IDO2 deletion selectively blunts responses to autoantigen but has no effect on responses to neoantigen challenge. In human populations, natural variations in IDO2 gene sequence that attenuate enzymatic activity have been reported to influence brain cancer control and adaptive immune responses to the IDO2 protein itself, consistent with the concept that IDO2 is involved in shaping immune tolerance in humans. Biochemical and pharmacological studies provide further evidence of differences in IDO2 enzymology and function relative to IDO1. We suggest that IDO2 may act in a distinct manner from IDO1 as a set-point for tolerance to ‘altered-self’ antigens along the self-nonself continuum where immune challenges from cancer and autoimmunity may arise.

  4. Honey: an immunomodulator in wound healing. (United States)

    Majtan, Juraj


    Honey is a popular natural product that is used in the treatment of burns and a broad spectrum of injuries, in particular chronic wounds. The antibacterial potential of honey has been considered the exclusive criterion for its wound healing properties. The antibacterial activity of honey has recently been fully characterized in medical-grade honeys. Recently, the multifunctional immunomodulatory properties of honey have attracted much attention. The aim of this review is to provide closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory effects of honey in wound healing. Honey and its components are able to either stimulate or inhibit the release of certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) from human monocytes and macrophages, depending on wound condition. Similarly, honey seems to either reduce or activate the production of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils, also depending on the wound microenvironment. The honey-induced activation of both types of immune cells could promote debridement of a wound and speed up the repair process. Similarly, human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cell responses (e.g., cell migration and proliferation, collagen matrix production, chemotaxis) are positively affected in the presence of honey; thus, honey may accelerate reepithelization and wound closure. The immunomodulatory activity of honey is highly complex because of the involvement of multiple quantitatively variable compounds among honeys of different origins. The identification of these individual compounds and their contributions to wound healing is crucial for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind honey-mediated healing of chronic wounds.

  5. Antibiotics as immunomodulant agents in COPD. (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Mantero, Marco; Aliberti, Stefano


    It is widely accepted that some antibiotics have activities beyond their direct antibacterial effects. Macrolide is the antibiotic class with more convincing studies and evidence on its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Different clinical studies have shown that macrolide prophylaxis in patients with moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can have a significant impact on the exacerbation rate reducing morbidity and, potentially, mortality of the disease. Other antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, demonstrate a variety of immunomodulatory effects but only few clinical data are available in COPD. New macrolide derivatives devoid of antibacterial activity have been synthetized. This review analyses the relevance of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of antibiotics in the management of COPD.

  6. GABA, a natural immunomodulator of T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurstöm, Helen; Wang, Junyang; Ericsson, Ida


    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could......M and higher GABA concentrations decreased T cell proliferation. The results are consistent with GABA being immunomodulatory....

  7. Immunomodulation by probiotics: a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen J; Herreilers M; Loveren H van; Vos J; TOX


    The primary function of food in the human diet is to provide nutrients and energy. Nutrients include macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, vitamins,and trace elements). Food also has the secondary function of giving sensory satisfaction by its flavour, taste a

  8. Immunomodulation by probiotics: efficacy and safety evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam J; Opperhuizen A; Loveren H van; TOX


    Probiotics are non-pathogenic bacteria that are used as functional food components with claimed health-promoting effects. In the European Union probiotics are regulated via the Novel Foods Regulation (258/97/EC). This regulation is only applied to strains that were not used before 1997 and concerns

  9. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A


    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  10. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice. (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A


    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.

  11. Immunomodulation by Proteins of Bordetella Pertussis (United States)


    York, NT 10016 Dr. Alvin L. Winters Lyn Yaffe, M.D. Department of Microbiology Research Support Center University of Alabama Naval Medical Research Inst. University, AL 35486 National Naval Medical Center Bethesda, MD 20814

  12. Novel Adjuvants and Immunomodulators for Veterinary Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Fang, Yongxiang; Jungersen, Gregers


    Adjuvants are crucial for efficacy of vaccines, especially subunit and recombinant vaccines. Rational vaccine design, including knowledge-based and molecularly defined adjuvants tailored for directing and potentiating specific types of host immune responses towards the antigens included in the va...

  13. Immunomodulation of Hyperthermia for Recurrent Prostate Cancer (United States)


    hr.) or untreated RM1 cells were co-incubated with immature BMDC . FACS analysis demonstrated that there is only 10% increase in CD80+ DCs when they...propose an in situ tumor vaccination approach where irradiated/heated tumor cells release peptides/antigens following localized treatment while in vivo...cytokine-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) or intratumoral injection of in vitro derived autologous DCs (bone marrow generated) harvest these antigens

  14. Molecular biology of potyviruses. (United States)

    Revers, Frédéric; García, Juan Antonio


    Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses.

  15. Networks in Cell Biology (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele


    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  16. The biology of strigolactones

    KAUST Repository

    Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.


    The strigolactones are rhizosphere signaling molecules as well as a new class of plant hormones with a still increasing number of biological functions being uncovered. Here, we review a recent major breakthrough in our understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, which has revealed the unexpected simplicity of the originally postulated complex pathway. Moreover, the discovery and localization of a strigolactone exporter sheds new light on putative strigolactone fluxes to the rhizosphere as well as within the plant. The combination of these data with information on the expression and regulation of strigolactone biosynthetic and downstream signaling genes provides new insights into how strigolactones control the many different aspects of plant development and how their rhizosphere signaling role may have evolved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao


    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  18. A Biologically Inspired Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco


    We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

  19. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj


    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  20. Evolutionary biology of cancer. (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle


    Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages that have escaped controls on replication and by the population-level evolution of genes that influence cancer risk. We describe here how recent evolutionary ecological studies have elucidated the roles of predation by the immune system and competition among normal and cancerous cells in the somatic evolution of cancer. Recent analyses of the evolution of cancer at the population level show how rapid changes in human environments have augmented cancer risk, how strong selection has frequently led to increased cancer risk as a byproduct, and how anticancer selection has led to tumor-suppression systems, tissue designs that slow somatic evolution, constraints on morphological evolution and even senescence itself. We discuss how applications of the tools of ecology and evolutionary biology are poised to revolutionize our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  1. Biology of Schwann cells. (United States)

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D


    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate.

  2. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun


    This dissertation considers the ontology of stem cells as a future-oriented life form characterized by its potentiality in relation to the anticipatory mode of living in contemporary Korea. The biological notion that stem cells have the potential for differentiation and the capacity for self-rene...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  3. Systems biology: a biologist's viewpoint. (United States)

    Bose, Biplab


    The debate over reductionism and antireductionism in biology is very old. Even the systems approach in biology is more than five decades old. However, mainstream biology, particularly experimental biology, has broadly sidestepped those debates and ideas. Post-genome data explosion and development of high-throughput techniques led to resurfacing of those ideas and debates as a new incarnation called Systems Biology. Though experimental biologists have co-opted systems biology and hailed it as a paradigm shift, it is practiced in different shades and understood with divergent meanings. Biology has certain questions linked with organization of multiple components and processes. Often such questions involve multilevel systems. Here in this essay we argue that systems theory provides required framework and abstractions to explore those questions. We argue that systems biology should follow the logical and mathematical approach of systems theory and transmogrification of systems biology to mere collection of higher dimensional data must be avoided. Therefore, the questions that we ask and the priority of those questions should also change. Systems biology should focus on system-level properties and investigate complexity without shying away from it.

  4. Biology of biological meshes used in hernia repair. (United States)

    Novitsky, Yuri W


    Successful repair of most hernias requires the use of a prosthetic implant for reinforcement of the defect. Because of the need for prosthetic implants to resist infections as well to support repairs in contaminated or potentially contaminated fields, biological meshes have been developed to take the place of nondegradable synthetic meshes in cases where mesh infection is of high concern. The ideal is a biological matrix that resists infection while providing durable reinforcement of a hernia repair. This article reviews the validity of assumptions that support the purported notion of the biological behavior of biological meshes.

  5. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee


    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  6. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server


    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  7. Values, Advocay and Conservation Biology



    In this essay, I examine the controversy concerning the advocacy of ethical values in conservation biology. First, I argue, as others have, that conservation biology is a science laden with values both ethical and non-ethical. Second, after clarifying the notion of advocacy at work, I contend that conservation biologists should advocate the preservation of biological diversity. Third, I explore what ethical grounds should be used for advocating the preservation of ecological systems by conser...

  8. Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors. (United States)

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly


    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions.

  9. NASA space biology accomplishments, 1982 (United States)

    Halstead, T. W.; Pleasant, L. G.


    Summaries of NASA's Space Biology Program projects are provided. The goals, objectives, accomplishments, and future plans of each project are described in this publication as individual technical summaries.

  10. Engineering Nanoscale Biological Molecular Motors


    Korosec, Chapin; Forde, Nancy R.


    Understanding the operation of biological molecular motors, nanoscale machines that transduce electrochemical energy into mechanical work, is enhanced by bottom-up strategies to synthesize novel motors.

  11. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak


    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  12. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof


    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  13. American Institute of Biological Sciences (United States)

    ... organizations advancing biology through membership in AIBS News Trump's FY 2018 Budget Request Would Slash Most Science Programs President Trump's first budget request seeks historically deep budget cuts ...

  14. Synthetic biology for therapeutic applications. (United States)

    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin


    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug discovery and production, as well as vaccine development and treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  15. Computer algebra in systems biology

    CERN Document Server

    Laubenbacher, Reinhard


    Systems biology focuses on the study of entire biological systems rather than on their individual components. With the emergence of high-throughput data generation technologies for molecular biology and the development of advanced mathematical modeling techniques, this field promises to provide important new insights. At the same time, with the availability of increasingly powerful computers, computer algebra has developed into a useful tool for many applications. This article illustrates the use of computer algebra in systems biology by way of a well-known gene regulatory network, the Lac Operon in the bacterium E. coli.

  16. Bioinspired materials: Boosting plant biology (United States)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Sargent, Edward H.


    Chloroplasts with extended photosynthetic activity beyond the visible absorption spectrum, and living leaves that perform non-biological functions, are made possible by localizing nanoparticles within plant organelles.

  17. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control. (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  18. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.


    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  19. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences. (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija


    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines.

  20. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.


    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management s

  1. Crystallogenesis of biological macromolecules. Biological, microgravity and other physicochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giege, R; Drenth, J; Ducruix, A; McPherson, A; Saenger, W


    After an historical introduction and justification of the importance of proteins (as well as other macromolecules or macromolecular assemblies of biological origin) in modern biology but also in physics, this review presents the state of the field of macromolecular crystallogenesis. The basic questi

  2. [Hemodialysis with biological object]. (United States)

    Eventov, V L; Maksimenko, V A; Zhidkov, I L; Andrianova, M Iu


    The essence of the method of biodialysis (hemodialysis with biological object) developed and suggested by the authors for clinical use consists in that the healthy organism exerts, through a system of mass transfer, a therapeutic action on the sick organism. Blood from the affected and healthy organisms is perfused through individual mass exchangers (dialyzers, hemodiafilters and hemofilters), which are hydraulically connected by a circulating transport medium. Metabolites that accumulate in blood of the affected organism diffuse into the transport medium and, from there, into blood of the healthy organism, which metabolizes them. The reverse process occurs simultaneously: substances, whose concentration in blood of the sick organism is less versus the healthy organism, diffuse from blood of the healthy organism to blood of patient. The method suggested by us can be used in clinical practice for normalizing a variety of parameters in patients with hepatic and renal insufficiency. Besides, a number of substances can be transferred from the healthy donor to patient in the process of biodialysis, which opens promising potentialities for the treatment of many diseases.

  3. Consciousness and biological evolution. (United States)

    Lindahl, B I


    It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind-brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C.D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion.

  4. Flotation of Biological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas


    Full Text Available Flotation constitutes a gravity separation process, which originated from the minerals processing field. However, it has, nowadays, found several other applications, as for example in the wastewater treatment field. Concerning the necessary bubble generation method, typically dispersed-air or dissolved-air flotation was mainly used. Various types of biological materials were tested and floated efficiently, such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, activated sludge, grape stalks, etc. Innovative processes have been studied in our Laboratory, particularly for metal ions removal, involving the initial abstraction of heavy metal ions onto a sorbent (including a biosorbent: in the first, the application of a flotation stage followed for the efficient downstream separation of metal-laden particles. The ability of microorganisms to remove metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions (as most wastewaters are is a well-known property. The second separation process, also applied effectively, was a new hybrid cell of microfiltration combined with flotation. Sustainability in this field and its significance for the chemical and process industry is commented.

  5. [Biology molecular of glioblastomas]. (United States)

    Franco-Hernández, C; Martínez-Glez, V; Rey, J A


    Glioblastomas, the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anapalsic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). The molecular alteration most frequent in these tumor-like types is the loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10, in which several genes have been identified as tumors suppressor. The TP53/MDM2/P14arf and CDK4/RB1/ P16ink4 genetic pathways involved in cycle control are deregulated in the majority of gliomas as well as genes that promote the cellular division, EGFR. Finally the increase of growth and angiogenics factors is also involved in the development of glioblastomas. One of the objectives of molecular biology in tumors of glial ancestry is to try to find the genetic alterations that allow to approach better the classification of glioblastomas, its evolution prediction and treatment. The new pathmolecular classification of gliomas should improve the old one, especially being concerned about the oncogenesis and heterogeneity of these tumors. It is desirable that this classification had clinical applicability and integrates new molecular findings with some known histological features with pronostic value. In this paper we review the most frequent molecular mechanisms involved in the patogenesis of glioblastomas.

  6. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail:


    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  7. Biological rhythms and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eDitisheim


    Full Text Available The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer.Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing hypertension have been identified, the underlying mechanism of this multi-factorial disease is yet not fully understood.The disruption of the light/dark cycle in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. Slightly increased risk for small for gestational age babies, low birth weight babies and preterm deliveries has been reported in shift working women. Whether altered circadian cycle represents a risk factor for preeclampsia or preeclampsia is itself linked with an abnormal circadian cycle is less clear. There are only few reports available, showing conflicting results. In this review, we will discuss recent observations concerning circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. We explore the hypothesis that circadian misalignments may represent a risk factor for preeclampsia. Unraveling potential link between circadian clock gene and preeclampsia could offer a novel approach to our understanding of this multi-system disease specific to pregnancy.

  8. Biological control of ticks (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.


    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  9. Aristotle's biopolitics: a defense of biological teleology against biological nihilism. (United States)

    Arnhart, L


    Modern Darwinian biology seems to promote nihilism, for it seems to teach that there is no rationally discoverable standard in nature for giving meaning to life. The purpose of this article is to argue for a revival of Aristotle's biological teleology as a reasonable alternative to biological nihilism. The article begins with Edward Wilson's vain struggle against nihilism. Then it is argued that a teleological understanding of nature is assumed in the practice of medicine, as illustrated by one case from Oliver Sacks' neurological practice. The article then considers the importance of biological teleology for Aristotle's moral and political philosophy, and attention is given to some points of agreement and disagreement with contemporary sociobiologists. The main part of the article is then devoted to a defense of Aristotle's biology against the five objections that might be made by a Darwinian biologist. Finally, the article illustrates the practical implications of this issue for bioethics by considering the recent work of Engelhardt.

  10. Introduction to Biology, Tropical Edition. (United States)

    Mackean, D. G.

    This pupil's reference book is intended to provide biological information, using plants and animals which are suitable for study over a wide range of tropical countries. Its topics are taken mostly from the biology syllabi for the British General Certification of Education at the Ordinary Level and are written principally for pupils in the last…

  11. Biology and Water Pollution Control. (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  12. Space Biology: Patterns of Life (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.


    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  13. Marine Biology and Human Affairs (United States)

    Russell, F. S.


    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  14. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets (United States)

    Gulsoy, Gunhan


    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  15. Validation of systems biology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasdemir, D.


    The paradigm shift from qualitative to quantitative analysis of biological systems brought a substantial number of modeling approaches to the stage of molecular biology research. These include but certainly are not limited to nonlinear kinetic models, static network models and models obtained by the

  16. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery (United States)

    Polyak, Steven


    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  17. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.;


    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  18. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da


    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  19. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen


    in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular...... environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology....

  20. From Biology to Quality (BQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian


    “Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skilful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives.” (William A. Foster) The quality of fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological ...

  1. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  2. Biological clocks: riding the tides. (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Johnson, Carl Hirschie


    Animals with habitats in the intertidal zone often display biological rhythms that coordinate with both the tidal and the daily environmental cycles. Two recent studies show that the molecular components of the biological clocks mediating tidal rhythms are likely different from the phylogenetically conserved components that mediate circadian (daily) rhythms.

  3. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.


    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  4. Virtual Environments in Biology Teaching (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Katsikis, Apostolos; Nikolou, Eugenia; Tsakalis, Panayiotis


    This article reports on the design, development and evaluation of an educational virtual environment for biology teaching. In particular it proposes a highly interactive three-dimensional synthetic environment involving certain learning tasks for the support of teaching plant cell biology and the process of photosynthesis. The environment has been…

  5. An Exercise in Biological Control. (United States)

    Lennox, John; Duke, Michael


    Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…

  6. Vitalism in Naive Biological Thinking. (United States)

    Morris, Suzanne C.; Taplin, John E.; Gelman, Susan A.


    Three experiments investigated use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-olds and by adults. Results replicated the original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking among English-speaking 5-year-olds, identified the more active component of vitalism as a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes,…

  7. Synthetic biology and genetic causation. (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka


    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems.

  8. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology. (United States)

    Uhlenheuer, Dana A; Petkau, Katja; Brunsveld, Luc


    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic supramolecular elements with biomolecules for the study of biological phenomena. This tutorial review focuses on the possibilities of the marriage of synthetic supramolecular architectures and biological systems. It highlights that synthetic supramolecular elements are for example ideal platforms for the recognition and modulation of proteins and cells. The unique features of synthetic supramolecular systems with control over size, shape, valency, and interaction strength allow the generation of structures fitting the demands to approach the biological problems at hand. Supramolecular chemistry has come full circle, studying the biology and its molecules which initially inspired its conception.

  9. Engineering life through Synthetic Biology. (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Kamma, Akhil


    Synthetic Biology is a field involving synthesis of novel biological systems which are not generally found in nature. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to create life from the scratch, hence helping better understand the principles of biology. The viability of living organisms that use unnatural molecules is also being explored. Unconventional projects such as DNA playing tic-tac-toe, bacterial photographic film, etc. are taking biology to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of cheap drugs and programming bacteria to seek-and-destroy tumors in the body. However, the complexity of biological systems make the field a challenging one. In addition to this, there are other major technical and ethical challenges which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential.

  10. Grand challenges for biological engineering. (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Riley, Mark R


    Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society.

  11. Grand challenges for biological engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Mark R


    Full Text Available Abstract Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society.

  12. Hierarchical structure of biological systems (United States)

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M


    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems. PMID:24145961

  13. The role of Nicotiana gluca Graham (paraguayan herbs as an adjuvant in immunomodulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for broilers Estudo da ação de Nicotiana glauca Graham (erva paraguaia como coadjuvante em vacina contra a doença de Newcastle em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini


    Full Text Available The Nicotiana glauca is a native plant species from Argentina, but found all over South América, being used against headaches, rheumatism, injuries, ulcers, and so on. Researchers have considered it as having immunomodulation effect. This study was conducted to investigate the use of a aqueous extract of Nicotiana glauca Graham as an immunomodulator (adjuvant of a Newcastle disease vaccine.. A total of 56 broilers were distributed into 4 experimental groups. Each one of them received 3 dosages of this vaccine with or without the addition of different concentrations of the extract Using hemmoaglutination inhibition techniques , the results have shown differences (P<0.05 in the third sera collection. An increase in the antibody titer with the inclusion of 5 mg/dosage of the extract (Treatment 3 as compared to 1 mg/dosage (Treatment 2 and 10 mg/dosage of the extract (Treatment 4 was observed, However, birds from Treatment 3 did not differ (P> 0.05 from Treatment 1. These results indicated that further investigations are required, including the use of cytotoxicity tests in vitro, to evaluate the immunomodulation effect of this extract.


    KEY WORDS: Immunomodulation effect, Nicotiana glauca Graham, vaccine.

    A Nicotiana glauca Graham é uma espécie nativa da Argentina, bem distribuída na América do Sul, sendo empregada, popularmente, contra dores de cabeça, dores reumáticas, cicatrização de feridas e úlceras, entre outros. Pesquisas têm avaliado a sua ação na potencialização da resposta imune. Assim, com este estudo, buscou-se avaliar a ação de um extrato aquoso de Nicotiana glauca Graham como coadjuvante imunológico em uma vacina contra a doença de Newcastle (DNC. Utilizaram-se 56 frangos de corte, distribuídos em quatro grupos experimentais, que receberam tr

  14. Loop Quantum Theory Applied to Biology and Nonlinear Whole Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Fang


    The loop quantum theory, which constitutes a very small discontinuous space, as new method is applied to biology. The model of protein folding and lungs is proposed. In the model, some known results are used, and four approximate conclusions are obtained: their structures are quantized, their space regions are finite, various singularities correspond to folding and crossed points, and different types of catastrophe exist. Further, based on the inseparability and correlativity of the biological systems, the nonlinear whole biology is proposed, and four basic hypotheses are formed. It may unify reductionism and holism, structuralism and functionalism. Finally, the medical meaning of the theory is discussed briefly.

  15. Biology and Economics: Metaphors that Economists usually take from Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny García Callejas


    Full Text Available Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Stanley Jevons, Karl Marx, Francois Quesnay and Joseph Schumpeter all have at least one thing in common: they used biological metaphors when speaking about economics. Nonetheless, today, this relation subsists and biology and economics are viewed as complementary sciences that have a lot to gain from joint research in fields like: evolutionary economics, economic growth, cognitive economics and environmental and ecological economics, among others. This paper, divided in four sections, will show this conclusion and explain that biology and economics are more sisters than strangers

  16. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare. (United States)

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  17. Biological modulation of tectonics (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.


    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  18. The Relationships between Epistemic Beliefs in Biology and Approaches to Learning Biology among Biology-Major University Students in Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and…

  19. The meaning of biological information. (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V


    Biological information encoded in genomes is fundamentally different from and effectively orthogonal to Shannon entropy. The biologically relevant concept of information has to do with 'meaning', i.e. encoding various biological functions with various degree of evolutionary conservation. Apart from direct experimentation, the meaning, or biological information content, can be extracted and quantified from alignments of homologous nucleotide or amino acid sequences but generally not from a single sequence, using appropriately modified information theoretical formulae. For short, information encoded in genomes is defined vertically but not horizontally. Informally but substantially, biological information density seems to be equivalent to 'meaning' of genomic sequences that spans the entire range from sharply defined, universal meaning to effective meaninglessness. Large fractions of genomes, up to 90% in some plants, belong within the domain of fuzzy meaning. The sequences with fuzzy meaning can be recruited for various functions, with the meaning subsequently fixed, and also could perform generic functional roles that do not require sequence conservation. Biological meaning is continuously transferred between the genomes of selfish elements and hosts in the process of their coevolution. Thus, in order to adequately describe genome function and evolution, the concepts of information theory have to be adapted to incorporate the notion of meaning that is central to biology.

  20. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology. (United States)

    Friedrich, Kathrin


    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities.

  1. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory


    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  2. Synthetic biology as red herring. (United States)

    Preston, Beth


    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy.

  3. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology. (United States)

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D


    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship.

  4. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian


    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  5. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    to tackle problems associated with global climate changes, bio- diversity, environmental quality and use of marine living re- sources (Molecular biology in marine science, 1994). Marine biologists study oceanic life in relation to marine environment... that often range from small to global scale, whereas, molecular biologist study biological events in terms of the physiochemical properties of molecules. The immediate benefits of the collab- orative research between these two disciplines could include...

  6. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang


    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  7. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially......) popular responsesto them succeed, and whether the objections are ultimately persuasive.2. Given that synthetic biology is a new technology, there is a certain degree of uncertainty about its ultimate effects, and many perceive the technology as risky. I discuss two common approaches in risk regulation...

  8. Bilingual teaching of molecular biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Recently bilingual teaching in China's universities has been widely carried out and become a popular subject for study. In this paper, the reasons for bilingual teaching of molecular biology are pointed out, the textbook of molecular biology and teaching method in bilingual teaching classes are determined after investigation and the practice of bilingually teaching molecular biology use both English and Chinese in a class. The effect has proved good. The bilingual teaching methods, the problem of bilingual teaching, the importance of understanding its significance and the possibilities of improving such teaching of the subject are also discussed.

  9. The renaissance of developmental biology. (United States)

    St Johnston, Daniel


    Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance.

  10. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K


    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  11. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R


    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  12. Biological Optimisation for Nurse Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie


    Artificial immune systems (AISs) to date have generally been inspired by naive biological metaphors. This has limited the effectiveness of these systems. In this position paper two ways in which AISs could be made more biologically realistic are discussed. We propose that AISs should draw their inspiration from organisms which possess only innate immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure their overall design. An outline of plant and invertebrate immune systems is presented, and a number of contemporary research that more biologically-realistic AISs could have is also discussed.

  13. Robust design of biological circuits: evolutionary systems biology approach. (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Liou, Jing-Jia


    Artificial gene circuits have been proposed to be embedded into microbial cells that function as switches, timers, oscillators, and the Boolean logic gates. Building more complex systems from these basic gene circuit components is one key advance for biologic circuit design and synthetic biology. However, the behavior of bioengineered gene circuits remains unstable and uncertain. In this study, a nonlinear stochastic system is proposed to model the biological systems with intrinsic parameter fluctuations and environmental molecular noise from the cellular context in the host cell. Based on evolutionary systems biology algorithm, the design parameters of target gene circuits can evolve to specific values in order to robustly track a desired biologic function in spite of intrinsic and environmental noise. The fitness function is selected to be inversely proportional to the tracking error so that the evolutionary biological circuit can achieve the optimal tracking mimicking the evolutionary process of a gene circuit. Finally, several design examples are given in silico with the Monte Carlo simulation to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the robust performance of the proposed design method. The result shows that the designed gene circuits can robustly track desired behaviors with minimal errors even with nontrivial intrinsic and external noise.

  14. Systems biology of human atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Sikkel, Markus B; Davies, Kerry J; Vorkas, Panagiotis A; Want, Elizabeth J; Davies, Alun H


    Systems biology describes a holistic and integrative approach to understand physiology and pathology. The "omic" disciplines include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolic profiling (metabonomics and metabolomics). By adopting a stance, which is opposing (yet complimentary) to conventional research techniques, systems biology offers an overview by assessing the "net" biological effect imposed by a disease or nondisease state. There are a number of different organizational levels to be understood, from DNA to protein, metabolites, cells, organs and organisms, even beyond this to an organism's context. Systems biology relies on the existence of "nodes" and "edges." Nodes are the constituent part of the system being studied (eg, proteins in the proteome), while the edges are the way these constituents interact. In future, it will be increasingly important to collaborate, collating data from multiple studies to improve data sets, making them freely available and undertaking integrative analyses.

  15. VT Biodiversity Project - Biological Hotspots (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset is the result of an effort to map biological "hotspots" in Vermont based on the "element occurrences" in the Nongame and Natural...

  16. Quivira NWR biological baseline data (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  17. Sex and the Biology Teacher (United States)

    Keller, Dolores Elaine


    Summarizes evidence that mammals are basically female, with masculine characteristics being imposed by hormonal changes in embryos or post-natally. Advocates the removal of male-dominant terminology in biological research and teaching. (AL)

  18. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals. (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S


    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  19. Systems biology and cardiac arrhythmias. (United States)

    Grace, Andrew A; Roden, Dan M


    During the past few years, the development of effective, empirical technologies for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias has exceeded the pace at which detailed knowledge of the underlying biology has accumulated. As a result, although some clinical arrhythmias can be cured with techniques such as catheter ablation, drug treatment and prediction of the risk of sudden death remain fairly primitive. The identification of key candidate genes for monogenic arrhythmia syndromes shows that to bring basic biology to the clinic is a powerful approach. Increasingly sophisticated experimental models and methods of measurement, including stem cell-based models of human cardiac arrhythmias, are being deployed to study how perturbations in several biologic pathways can result in an arrhythmia-prone heart. The biology of arrhythmia is largely quantifiable, which allows for systematic analysis that could transform treatment strategies that are often still empirical into management based on molecular evidence.

  20. Aging and computational systems biology. (United States)

    Mooney, Kathleen M; Morgan, Amy E; Mc Auley, Mark T


    Aging research is undergoing a paradigm shift, which has led to new and innovative methods of exploring this complex phenomenon. The systems biology approach endeavors to understand biological systems in a holistic manner, by taking account of intrinsic interactions, while also attempting to account for the impact of external inputs, such as diet. A key technique employed in systems biology is computational modeling, which involves mathematically describing and simulating the dynamics of biological systems. Although a large number of computational models have been developed in recent years, these models have focused on various discrete components of the aging process, and to date no model has succeeded in completely representing the full scope of aging. Combining existing models or developing new models may help to address this need and in so doing could help achieve an improved understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms which underpin aging.

  1. Inference problems in structural biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Simon

    The structure and dynamics of biological molecules are essential for their function. Consequently, a wealth of experimental techniques have been developed to study these features. However, while experiments yield detailed information about geometrical features of molecules, this information is of...

  2. The relativity of biological function. (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja


    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  3. Text mining for systems biology. (United States)

    Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin


    Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future.

  4. Language from a biological perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohinish Shukla


    The faculty of language is unique to the human species. This implies that there are human-specific biological changes that lie at the basis of human language. However, it is not clear what the nature of such changes are, and how they could be shaped by evolution. In this paper, emphasis is laid on describing language in a Chomskyan manner, as a mental object. This serves as a standpoint to speculate about the biological basis of the emergence and evolution of language.

  5. Feller's Contributions to Mathematical Biology


    Baake, Ellen; Wakolbinger, Anton


    This is a review of William Feller's important contributions to mathematical biology. The seminal paper [Feller1951] "Diffusion processes in genetics" was particularly influential on the development of stochastic processes at the interface to evolutionary biology, and interesting ideas in this direction (including a first characterization of what is nowadays known as "Feller's branching diffusion") already shaped up in the paper [Feller 1939] (written in German) "The foundations of a probabis...

  6. How physics can inspire biology (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei


    In July 1997 Adrian Parsegian, a biophysicist at the National Institutes of Health in the US and a former president of the Biophysical Society, published an article in Physics Today in which he outlined his thoughts about the main obstacles to a happy marriage between physics and biology. Parsegian started his article with a joke about a physicist talking to his biology-trained friend.

  7. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation (United States)


    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  8. Researchers Discover Plants Biological Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Scientists who created glow-in-the-dark plants by shooting up seedlingswith firefly DNA have identified the first biological clock gene in plants. Discovery of the timepiece gene, which controls such biological rhythmsas daily leaf movements and proe openings, flower-blooming schedules andphotosynthesis cycles, could lead to a host of applications in ornamental horti-culture, agriculture and even human health. Many researchers believe that

  9. Nanoscale technology in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Ralph S; Smith, R Lane


    Reviewing recent accomplishments in the field of nanobiology Nanoscale Technology in Biological Systems introduces the application of nanoscale matrices to human biology. It focuses on the applications of nanotechnology fabrication to biomedical devices and discusses new physical methods for cell isolation and manipulation and intracellular communication at the molecular level. It also explores the application of nanobiology to cardiovascular diseases, oncology, transplantation, and a range of related disciplines. This book build a strong background in nanotechnology and nanobiology ideal for

  10. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology. (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik


    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  11. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appear......This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  12. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology (United States)


    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative—additional investments will expand markets—but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized. PMID:26690379

  13. The aesthetics of chemical biology. (United States)

    Parsons, Glenn


    Scientists and philosophers have long reflected on the place of aesthetics in science. In this essay, I review these discussions, identifying work of relevance to chemistry and, in particular, to the field of chemical biology. Topics discussed include the role of aesthetics in scientific theory choice, the aesthetics of molecular images, the beauty-making features of molecules, and the relation between the aesthetics of chemical biology and the aesthetics of industrial design.

  14. Market study: Biological isolation garment (United States)


    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  15. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel


    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  16. Biological markets explain human ultrasociality. (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Lambert, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas


    The evidence Gowdy & Krall (G&K) provide is more consistent with a biological markets explanation of human ultrasociality than a group selection explanation. Specifically, large-scale societies provide a better biological market for cooperation than do small-scale societies, allowing individuals to increase their fitness. Importantly, many of the quality-of-life costs G&K discuss (e.g., patriarchy) are not fitness costs.

  17. Biological atomism and cell theory. (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel J


    Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, together with the theory's conceptual development and eventual consolidation. This paper then examines the major criticisms that have been waged against cell theory, and argues that these too can be interpreted through the prism of biological atomism as attempts to relocate the true biological atom away from the cell to a level of organization above or below it. Overall, biological atomism provides a useful perspective through which to examine the history and philosophy of cell theory, and it also opens up a new way of thinking about the epistemic decomposition of living organisms that significantly departs from the physicochemical reductionism of mechanistic biology.

  18. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.


    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  19. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian


    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  20. Synthetic biology and personalized medicine. (United States)

    Jain, K K


    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task.

  1. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer (United States)

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  2. A bridge between chemistry and biology. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kazuya; Kakeya, Hideaki


    Chemical biology is an interdisciplinary field that is undergoing rapid expansion around the globe. Recently, the Japanese Society for Chemical Biology sponsored its inaugural scientific meeting to discuss research at the interface of chemistry and biology.

  3. Biological couplings: Classification and characteristic rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The phenomena that biological functions originate from biological coupling are the important biological foundation of multiple bionics and the significant discoveries in the bionic fields. In this paper, the basic concepts related to biological coupling are introduced from the bionic viewpoint. Constitution, classification and characteristic rules of biological coupling are illuminated, the general modes of biological coupling studies are analyzed, and the prospects of multi-coupling bionics are predicted.

  4. Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology. (United States)

    Benson, Keith R


    At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology.

  5. In silico cell biology and biochemistry: a systems biology approach


    Camacho, Diogo Mayo


    In the post-"omic" era the analysis of high-throughput data is regarded as one of the major challenges faced by researchers. One focus of this data analysis is uncovering biological network topologies and dynamics. It is believed that this kind of research will allow the development of new mathematical models of biological systems as well as aid in the improvement of already existing ones. The work that is presented in this dissertation addresses the problem of the analysis of highly complex ...

  6. Biological pest control in Mexico. (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A


    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  7. Biologic therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanov Nemanja


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid arthritis (JIA are chronic, inflammatory, systemic, auto-immune diseases characterized by chronic arthritis leading to progressive joint erosions. The individual functional and social impact of rheumatoid arthritis is of great importance. Disability and joint damage occur rapidly and early in the course of the disease. The remarkably improved outcomes have been achieved initiating biologic therapy with close monitoring of disease progression. Biologic agents are drugs, usually proteins, which can influence chronic immune dysregulation resulting in chronic arthritis. According to the mechanism of action these drugs include: 1 anti-TNF drugs (etanercept, infiximab, adalimumab; 2 IL-1 blocking drugs (anakinra; 3 IL-6 blocking drugs (tocilizumab; 4 agents blocking selective co-stimulation modulation (abatacept; 5 CD 20 blocking drugs (rituximab. Biologics targeting TNF-alpha with methotrexate have revolutionized the treatment of RA, producing significant improvement in clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes not seen previously. The new concept of rheumatoid arthritis treatment defines early diagnosis, early aggressive therapy with optimal doses of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs and, if no improvement has been achieved during six months, early introduction of biologic drugs. The three-year experience of biologic therapy in Serbia has shown a positive effect on disease outcome.

  8. Mathematical models in biological discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Charles


    When I was asked to help organize an American Association for the Advancement of Science symposium about how mathematical models have con­ tributed to biology, I agreed immediately. The subject is of immense importance and wide-spread interest. However, too often it is discussed in biologically sterile environments by "mutual admiration society" groups of "theoreticians", many of whom have never seen, and most of whom have never done, an original scientific experiment with the biolog­ ical materials they attempt to describe in abstract (and often prejudiced) terms. The opportunity to address the topic during an annual meeting of the AAAS was irresistable. In order to try to maintain the integrity ;,f the original intent of the symposium, it was entitled, "Contributions of Mathematical Models to Biological Discovery". This symposium was organized by Daniel Solomon and myself, held during the 141st annual meeting of the AAAS in New York during January, 1975, sponsored by sections G and N (Biological and Medic...

  9. Biological width: No violation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Sharma


    Full Text Available Maintenance of gingival health is one of the keys for the longevity of teeth, as well as for the longevity of restorations. The concept of Biologic width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. This review gives the wide aspect of the complex question of biologic width and represents an attempt to answer some of the demands in relation to it. The article also discusses the possible methods to assess biologic width, problems that occur after improper margin placement in the periodontium and the alternative procedures for prevention of biological width violation.

  10. Circadian systems biology in Metazoa. (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ling; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen


    Systems biology, which can be defined as integrative biology, comprises multistage processes that can be used to understand components of complex biological systems of living organisms and provides hierarchical information to decoding life. Using systems biology approaches such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, it is now possible to delineate more complicated interactions between circadian control systems and diseases. The circadian rhythm is a multiscale phenomenon existing within the body that influences numerous physiological activities such as changes in gene expression, protein turnover, metabolism and human behavior. In this review, we describe the relationships between the circadian control system and its related genes or proteins, and circadian rhythm disorders in systems biology studies. To maintain and modulate circadian oscillation, cells possess elaborative feedback loops composed of circadian core proteins that regulate the expression of other genes through their transcriptional activities. The disruption of these rhythms has been reported to be associated with diseases such as arrhythmia, obesity, insulin resistance, carcinogenesis and disruptions in natural oscillations in the control of cell growth. This review demonstrates that lifestyle is considered as a fundamental factor that modifies circadian rhythm, and the development of dysfunctions and diseases could be regulated by an underlying expression network with multiple circadian-associated signals.

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resat, Haluk; Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.


    The dynamics of how its constituent components interact define the spatio-temporal response of a natural system to stimuli. Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic kinetic simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing kinetic simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available kinetic simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided.

  12. Theoretical aspects of Systems Biology. (United States)

    Bizzarri, Mariano; Palombo, Alessandro; Cucina, Alessandra


    The natural world consists of hierarchical levels of complexity that range from subatomic particles and molecules to ecosystems and beyond. This implies that, in order to explain the features and behavior of a whole system, a theory might be required that would operate at the corresponding hierarchical level, i.e. where self-organization processes take place. In the past, biological research has focused on questions that could be answered by a reductionist program of genetics. The organism (and its development) was considered an epiphenomenona of its genes. However, a profound rethinking of the biological paradigm is now underway and it is likely that such a process will lead to a conceptual revolution emerging from the ashes of reductionism. This revolution implies the search for general principles on which a cogent theory of biology might rely. Because much of the logic of living systems is located at higher levels, it is imperative to focus on them. Indeed, both evolution and physiology work on these levels. Thus, by no means Systems Biology could be considered a 'simple' 'gradual' extension of Molecular Biology.

  13. [Biological experiments on "Kosmos-1887"]. (United States)

    Alpatov, A M; I'lin, E A; Antipov, V V; Tairbekov, M G


    In the 13-ray space flight on Kosmos-1887 various experiments in the field of cell biology, genetics, biorhythm, developmental biology and regeneration were performed using bacteria, protozoa, plants, worms, insects, fish and amphibia. Paramecia showed enhanced cell proliferation, spheroidization and diminished protein content. Experiments on fruit-flies, newt oocytes and primate lymphocytes confirmed involvement of the cell genetic apparatus in responses to microgravity. Beetles exhibited a reduction of the length of the spontaneous period of freely running circadian rhythms. Carausius morosus developed latent changes in early embryogenesis which manifested at later stages of ontogenesis. Exposure to microgravity did not prevent recovery of injured tissues; moreover their regeneration may be accelerated after recovery. Biology research programs in future biosatellite flights are discussed.

  14. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R


    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  15. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  16. The Dark Matter of Biology. (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer L


    The inside of the cell is full of important, yet invisible species of molecules and proteins that interact weakly but couple together to have huge and important effects in many biological processes. Such "dark matter" inside cells remains mostly hidden, because our tools were developed to investigate strongly interacting species and folded proteins. Example dark-matter species include intrinsically disordered proteins, posttranslational states, ion species, and rare, transient, and weak interactions undetectable by biochemical assays. The dark matter of biology is likely to have multiple, vital roles to regulate signaling, rates of reactions, water structure and viscosity, crowding, and other cellular activities. We need to create new tools to image, detect, and understand these dark-matter species if we are to truly understand fundamental physical principles of biology.

  17. Vitalism in naive biological thinking. (United States)

    Morris, S C; Taplin, J E; Gelman, S A


    Vitalism is the belief that internal bodily organs have agency and that they transmit or exchange a vital force or energy. Three experiments investigated the use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-old English-speaking children and adults, focusing on 2 components: the notion that bodily organs have intentions and the notion that some life force or energy is transmitted. The original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking was replicated in Experiment 1 with English-speaking 5-year-olds. Experiment 2 indicated that the more active component of vitalism for these children is a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes, and Experiment 3 suggested an additional, albeit lesser, role for organ intentionality. A belief in vital energy may serve a causal placeholder function within a naive theory of biology until a more precisely formulated mechanism is known.

  18. Teaching biology with engineering practices (United States)

    Potter, Stephen

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) expresses a vision of science education that requires students to not only have an understanding of science concepts but be able to investigate the natural world through process of science inquiry or to solve meaningful problems though the practices of engineering design. While incorporating engineering practices into our science curriculum will soon be requirement of the new state standards, there is little research published as to how this should be implemented in a biology classroom. The goal of this study was to measure the effectiveness of incorporating engineering design into a biology curriculum on student understanding of engineering practices and science content knowledge. The results of this study indicate that the integration of engineering design in a biology curriculum has a positive effect on student's science content knowledge as well as their understanding of engineering design principles.

  19. Biologics in the management of ulcerative colitis – comparative safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausel R


    Full Text Available Rebecca Fausel,1 Anita Afzali1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program, UW Medicine – Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms, healing of colonic mucosa, and prevention of disease complications. Our treatment armamentarium has expanded dramatically over the past 10 years, and we now have multiple biologic agents approved for the treatment of moderate-severe disease, in addition to conventional therapies such as 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, and corticosteroids. In this review, we will provide a detailed discussion of the three tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α inhibitors currently approved for treatment of ulcerative colitis: infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. All three agents are effective for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in patients with ulcerative colitis, and they have comparable safety profiles. There are no head-to-head trials comparing their efficacy, and the choice of agent is most often based on insurance coverage, route of administration, and patient preference. Combination therapy with an immunomodulator is proven to be more effective than anti-TNF monotherapy, and patients who lose response to an anti-TNF agent should undergo dose intensification in order to regain clinical response. Despite therapeutic optimization, a significant percentage of patients will not achieve clinical remission with anti-TNF agents, and so newer therapies are on the horizon. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab

  20. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control. (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This student manual provides the textual material for a unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's). Topic areas considered include: (1) flow patterns of water through RBC installations; (2) basic concepts (shaft and stage); (3) characteristics of biomass; (4) mechanical features (bearings, mechanical drive systems, and air drive systems); (5)…