WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioinformatics systems biology

  1. EURASIP journal on bioinformatics & systems biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    "The overall aim of "EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology" is to publish research results related to signal processing and bioinformatics theories and techniques relevant to a wide...

  2. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Bioinformatics and systems biology research update from the 15th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbach, Christian; Verma, Chandra; Bond, Peter J; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2016-12-22

    The International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) has been publishing peer-reviewed conference papers in BMC Bioinformatics since 2006. Of the 44 articles accepted for publication in supplement issues of BMC Bioinformatics, BMC Genomics, BMC Medical Genomics and BMC Systems Biology, 24 articles with a bioinformatics or systems biology focus are reviewed in this editorial. InCoB2017 is scheduled to be held in Shenzen, China, September 20-22, 2017.

  4. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i) system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii) system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii) system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv) systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24709875

  5. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

  6. Systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2013-10-11

    Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i) system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii) system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii) system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv) systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

  7. [From bioinformatics to systems biology: account of the 12th international conference on intelligent systems in molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhno, S S

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology/Third European Conference on Computational Biology 2004 that was held in Glasgow, UK, during July 31-August 4. A number of talks, papers and software demos from the conference in bioinformatics, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and systems biology are described. Recent applications of liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, comparative genomics and DNA microarrays are given along with the discussion of bioinformatics curricular in higher education.

  8. ZBIT Bioinformatics Toolbox: A Web-Platform for Systems Biology and Expression Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Michael; Eichner, Johannes; Dräger, Andreas; Wrzodek, Clemens; Wrzodek, Finja; Zell, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics analysis has become an integral part of research in biology. However, installation and use of scientific software can be difficult and often requires technical expert knowledge. Reasons are dependencies on certain operating systems or required third-party libraries, missing graphical user interfaces and documentation, or nonstandard input and output formats. In order to make bioinformatics software easily accessible to researchers, we here present a web-based platform. The Center for Bioinformatics Tuebingen (ZBIT) Bioinformatics Toolbox provides web-based access to a collection of bioinformatics tools developed for systems biology, protein sequence annotation, and expression data analysis. Currently, the collection encompasses software for conversion and processing of community standards SBML and BioPAX, transcription factor analysis, and analysis of microarray data from transcriptomics and proteomics studies. All tools are hosted on a customized Galaxy instance and run on a dedicated computation cluster. Users only need a web browser and an active internet connection in order to benefit from this service. The web platform is designed to facilitate the usage of the bioinformatics tools for researchers without advanced technical background. Users can combine tools for complex analyses or use predefined, customizable workflows. All results are stored persistently and reproducible. For each tool, we provide documentation, tutorials, and example data to maximize usability. The ZBIT Bioinformatics Toolbox is freely available at https://webservices.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/.

  9. ZBIT Bioinformatics Toolbox: A Web-Platform for Systems Biology and Expression Data Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Römer

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics analysis has become an integral part of research in biology. However, installation and use of scientific software can be difficult and often requires technical expert knowledge. Reasons are dependencies on certain operating systems or required third-party libraries, missing graphical user interfaces and documentation, or nonstandard input and output formats. In order to make bioinformatics software easily accessible to researchers, we here present a web-based platform. The Center for Bioinformatics Tuebingen (ZBIT Bioinformatics Toolbox provides web-based access to a collection of bioinformatics tools developed for systems biology, protein sequence annotation, and expression data analysis. Currently, the collection encompasses software for conversion and processing of community standards SBML and BioPAX, transcription factor analysis, and analysis of microarray data from transcriptomics and proteomics studies. All tools are hosted on a customized Galaxy instance and run on a dedicated computation cluster. Users only need a web browser and an active internet connection in order to benefit from this service. The web platform is designed to facilitate the usage of the bioinformatics tools for researchers without advanced technical background. Users can combine tools for complex analyses or use predefined, customizable workflows. All results are stored persistently and reproducible. For each tool, we provide documentation, tutorials, and example data to maximize usability. The ZBIT Bioinformatics Toolbox is freely available at https://webservices.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/.

  10. Integration of Proteomics, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology in Traumatic Brain Injury Biomarker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guingab-Cagmat, J.D.; Cagmat, E.B.; Hayes, R.L.; Anagli, J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical crisis without any FDA-approved pharmacological therapies that have been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes. It has been argued that discovery of disease-relevant biomarkers might help to guide successful clinical trials for TBI. Major advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have revolutionized the field of proteomic biomarker discovery and facilitated the identification of several candidate markers that are being further evaluated for their efficacy as TBI biomarkers. However, several hurdles have to be overcome even during the discovery phase which is only the first step in the long process of biomarker development. The high-throughput nature of MS-based proteomic experiments generates a massive amount of mass spectral data presenting great challenges in downstream interpretation. Currently, different bioinformatics platforms are available for functional analysis and data mining of MS-generated proteomic data. These tools provide a way to convert data sets to biologically interpretable results and functional outcomes. A strategy that has promise in advancing biomarker development involves the triad of proteomics, bioinformatics, and systems biology. In this review, a brief overview of how bioinformatics and systems biology tools analyze, transform, and interpret complex MS datasets into biologically relevant results is discussed. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics, bioinformatics, and systems biology in TBI biomarker discovery are presented. A brief survey of researches that utilized these three overlapping disciplines in TBI biomarker discovery is also presented. Finally, examples of TBI biomarkers and their applications are discussed. PMID:23750150

  11. Bioinformatics and Systems Biology: bridging the gap between heterogeneous student backgrounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abeln, S.; Molenaar, D.; Feenstra, K.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Teusink, B.; Heringa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching students with very diverse backgrounds can be extremely challenging. This article uses the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology MSc in Amsterdam as a case study to describe how the knowledge gap for students with heterogeneous backgrounds can be bridged. We show that a mix in backgrounds can

  12. Analyses of Brucella pathogenesis, host immunity, and vaccine targets using systems biology and bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun eHe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes zoonotic brucellosis in humans and various animals. Out of ten classified Brucella species, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis are pathogenic to humans. In the past decade, the mechanisms of Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity have been extensively investigated using the cutting edge systems biology and bioinformatics approaches. This article provides a comprehensive review of the applications of Omics (including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and bioinformatics technologies for the analysis of Brucella pathogenesis, host immune responses, and vaccine targets. Based on more than 30 sequenced Brucella genomes, comparative genomics is able to identify gene variations among Brucella strains that help to explain host specificity and virulence differences among Brucella species. Diverse transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression studies have been conducted to analyze gene expression profiles of wild type Brucella strains and mutants under different laboratory conditions. High throughput Omics analyses of host responses to infections with virulent or attenuated Brucella strains have been focused on responses by mouse and cattle macrophages, bovine trophoblastic cells, mouse and boar splenocytes, and ram buffy coat. Differential serum responses in humans and rams to Brucella infections have been analyzed using high throughput serum antibody screening technology. The Vaxign reverse vaccinology has been used to predict many Brucella vaccine targets. More than 180 Brucella virulence factors and their gene interaction networks have been identified using advanced literature mining methods. The recent development of community-based Vaccine Ontology and Brucellosis Ontology provides an efficient way for Brucella data integration, exchange, and computer-assisted automated reasoning.

  13. Analyses of Brucella Pathogenesis, Host Immunity, and Vaccine Targets using Systems Biology and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes zoonotic brucellosis in humans and various animals. Out of 10 classified Brucella species, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis are pathogenic to humans. In the past decade, the mechanisms of Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity have been extensively investigated using the cutting edge systems biology and bioinformatics approaches. This article provides a comprehensive review of the applications of Omics (including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) and bioinformatics technologies for the analysis of Brucella pathogenesis, host immune responses, and vaccine targets. Based on more than 30 sequenced Brucella genomes, comparative genomics is able to identify gene variations among Brucella strains that help to explain host specificity and virulence differences among Brucella species. Diverse transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression studies have been conducted to analyze gene expression profiles of wild type Brucella strains and mutants under different laboratory conditions. High throughput Omics analyses of host responses to infections with virulent or attenuated Brucella strains have been focused on responses by mouse and cattle macrophages, bovine trophoblastic cells, mouse and boar splenocytes, and ram buffy coat. Differential serum responses in humans and rams to Brucella infections have been analyzed using high throughput serum antibody screening technology. The Vaxign reverse vaccinology has been used to predict many Brucella vaccine targets. More than 180 Brucella virulence factors and their gene interaction networks have been identified using advanced literature mining methods. The recent development of community-based Vaccine Ontology and Brucellosis Ontology provides an efficient way for Brucella data integration, exchange, and computer-assisted automated reasoning. PMID:22919594

  14. Taking Bioinformatics to Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Antoine H C; Moerland, Perry D

    2016-01-01

    Systems medicine promotes a range of approaches and strategies to study human health and disease at a systems level with the aim of improving the overall well-being of (healthy) individuals, and preventing, diagnosing, or curing disease. In this chapter we discuss how bioinformatics critically contributes to systems medicine. First, we explain the role of bioinformatics in the management and analysis of data. In particular we show the importance of publicly available biological and clinical repositories to support systems medicine studies. Second, we discuss how the integration and analysis of multiple types of omics data through integrative bioinformatics may facilitate the determination of more predictive and robust disease signatures, lead to a better understanding of (patho)physiological molecular mechanisms, and facilitate personalized medicine. Third, we focus on network analysis and discuss how gene networks can be constructed from omics data and how these networks can be decomposed into smaller modules. We discuss how the resulting modules can be used to generate experimentally testable hypotheses, provide insight into disease mechanisms, and lead to predictive models. Throughout, we provide several examples demonstrating how bioinformatics contributes to systems medicine and discuss future challenges in bioinformatics that need to be addressed to enable the advancement of systems medicine.

  15. MEIGO: an open-source software suite based on metaheuristics for global optimization in systems biology and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Jose A; Henriques, David; Cokelaer, Thomas; Villaverde, Alejandro F; MacNamara, Aidan; Danciu, Diana-Patricia; Banga, Julio R; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2014-05-10

    Optimization is the key to solving many problems in computational biology. Global optimization methods, which provide a robust methodology, and metaheuristics in particular have proven to be the most efficient methods for many applications. Despite their utility, there is a limited availability of metaheuristic tools. We present MEIGO, an R and Matlab optimization toolbox (also available in Python via a wrapper of the R version), that implements metaheuristics capable of solving diverse problems arising in systems biology and bioinformatics. The toolbox includes the enhanced scatter search method (eSS) for continuous nonlinear programming (cNLP) and mixed-integer programming (MINLP) problems, and variable neighborhood search (VNS) for Integer Programming (IP) problems. Additionally, the R version includes BayesFit for parameter estimation by Bayesian inference. The eSS and VNS methods can be run on a single-thread or in parallel using a cooperative strategy. The code is supplied under GPLv3 and is available at http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/meigo.html. Documentation and examples are included. The R package has been submitted to BioConductor. We evaluate MEIGO against optimization benchmarks, and illustrate its applicability to a series of case studies in bioinformatics and systems biology where it outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. MEIGO provides a free, open-source platform for optimization that can be applied to multiple domains of systems biology and bioinformatics. It includes efficient state of the art metaheuristics, and its open and modular structure allows the addition of further methods.

  16. Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

  17. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun A Fatumo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  18. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  19. Strategic Integration of Multiple Bioinformatics Resources for System Level Analysis of Biological Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mark; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Wang, Sheng; Xie, Bing; Hashemifar, Somaye; Taylor, Andrew; Dubchak, Inna; Conrad Gilliam, T; Maltsev, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in genomics allow the production of biological data at unprecedented tera- and petabyte scales. Efficient mining of these vast and complex datasets for the needs of biomedical research critically depends on a seamless integration of the clinical, genomic, and experimental information with prior knowledge about genotype-phenotype relationships. Such experimental data accumulated in publicly available databases should be accessible to a variety of algorithms and analytical pipelines that drive computational analysis and data mining.We present an integrated computational platform Lynx (Sulakhe et al., Nucleic Acids Res 44:D882-D887, 2016) ( http://lynx.cri.uchicago.edu ), a web-based database and knowledge extraction engine. It provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization. It gives public access to the Lynx integrated knowledge base (LynxKB) and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. The Lynx service-oriented architecture supports annotation and analysis of high-throughput experimental data. Lynx tools assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, and in the generation of weighted hypotheses regarding the genes and molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes or conditions of interest. The goal of this integrated platform is to support the end-to-end analytical needs of various translational projects.

  20. Taking Bioinformatics to Systems Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Moerland, Perry D.

    2016-01-01

    Systems medicine promotes a range of approaches and strategies to study human health and disease at a systems level with the aim of improving the overall well-being of (healthy) individuals, and preventing, diagnosing, or curing disease. In this chapter we discuss how bioinformatics critically

  1. Bioinformatics for systems biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krawetz, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    ..., requires an unprecedented level of development to collect, manage and mine the data for interesting associations. To begin to understand this information we now rely on statistical analysis to aid in our selection of the fruit from the tree. However, this often takes us on a journey into a new field for which we are not yet prepared. Samuel Joh...

  2. Multiobjective optimization in bioinformatics and computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Julia; Kell, Douglas B; Knowles, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of multiobjective optimization in the fields of bioinformatics and computational biology. A survey of existing work, organized by application area, forms the main body of the review, following an introduction to the key concepts in multiobjective optimization. An original contribution of the review is the identification of five distinct "contexts," giving rise to multiple objectives: These are used to explain the reasons behind the use of multiobjective optimization in each application area and also to point the way to potential future uses of the technique.

  3. Planning bioinformatics workflows using an expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Chang, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-15

    Bioinformatic analyses are becoming formidably more complex due to the increasing number of steps required to process the data, as well as the proliferation of methods that can be used in each step. To alleviate this difficulty, pipelines are commonly employed. However, pipelines are typically implemented to automate a specific analysis, and thus are difficult to use for exploratory analyses requiring systematic changes to the software or parameters used. To automate the development of pipelines, we have investigated expert systems. We created the Bioinformatics ExperT SYstem (BETSY) that includes a knowledge base where the capabilities of bioinformatics software is explicitly and formally encoded. BETSY is a backwards-chaining rule-based expert system comprised of a data model that can capture the richness of biological data, and an inference engine that reasons on the knowledge base to produce workflows. Currently, the knowledge base is populated with rules to analyze microarray and next generation sequencing data. We evaluated BETSY and found that it could generate workflows that reproduce and go beyond previously published bioinformatics results. Finally, a meta-investigation of the workflows generated from the knowledge base produced a quantitative measure of the technical burden imposed by each step of bioinformatics analyses, revealing the large number of steps devoted to the pre-processing of data. In sum, an expert system approach can facilitate exploratory bioinformatic analysis by automating the development of workflows, a task that requires significant domain expertise. https://github.com/jefftc/changlab. jeffrey.t.chang@uth.tmc.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Planning bioinformatics workflows using an expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Chang, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: Bioinformatic analyses are becoming formidably more complex due to the increasing number of steps required to process the data, as well as the proliferation of methods that can be used in each step. To alleviate this difficulty, pipelines are commonly employed. However, pipelines are typically implemented to automate a specific analysis, and thus are difficult to use for exploratory analyses requiring systematic changes to the software or parameters used. Results: To automate the development of pipelines, we have investigated expert systems. We created the Bioinformatics ExperT SYstem (BETSY) that includes a knowledge base where the capabilities of bioinformatics software is explicitly and formally encoded. BETSY is a backwards-chaining rule-based expert system comprised of a data model that can capture the richness of biological data, and an inference engine that reasons on the knowledge base to produce workflows. Currently, the knowledge base is populated with rules to analyze microarray and next generation sequencing data. We evaluated BETSY and found that it could generate workflows that reproduce and go beyond previously published bioinformatics results. Finally, a meta-investigation of the workflows generated from the knowledge base produced a quantitative measure of the technical burden imposed by each step of bioinformatics analyses, revealing the large number of steps devoted to the pre-processing of data. In sum, an expert system approach can facilitate exploratory bioinformatic analysis by automating the development of workflows, a task that requires significant domain expertise. Availability and Implementation: https://github.com/jefftc/changlab Contact: jeffrey.t.chang@uth.tmc.edu PMID:28052928

  5. 2K09 and thereafter : the coming era of integrative bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing for functional genomics and personalized medicine research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Significant interest exists in establishing synergistic research in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. Supported by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF), International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine (http://www.ISIBM.org), International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design (IJCBDD) and International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalized Medicine, the ISIBM International Joint Conferences on Bioinformatics, Systems Biology and Intelligent Computing (ISIBM IJCBS 2009) attracted more than 300 papers and 400 researchers and medical doctors world-wide. It was the only inter/multidisciplinary conference aimed to promote synergistic research and education in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. The conference committee was very grateful for the valuable advice and suggestions from honorary chairs, steering committee members and scientific leaders including Dr. Michael S. Waterman (USC, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Chih-Ming Ho (UCLA, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Academician of Academia Sinica), Dr. Wing H. Wong (Stanford, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy (UC Berkeley, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Member of United States Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), Dr. Mary Qu Yang (United States National Institutes of Health and Oak Ridge, DOE), Dr. Andrzej Niemierko (Harvard), Dr. A. Keith Dunker (Indiana), Dr. Brian D. Athey (Michigan), Dr. Weida Tong (FDA, United States Department of Health and Human Services), Dr. Cathy H. Wu (Georgetown), Dr. Dong Xu (Missouri), Drs. Arif Ghafoor and Okan K Ersoy (Purdue), Dr. Mark Borodovsky (Georgia Tech, President of ISIBM), Dr. Hamid R. Arabnia (UGA, Vice-President of ISIBM), and other scientific leaders. The committee presented the 2009 ISIBM Outstanding Achievement Awards to Dr. Joydeep Ghosh (UT

  6. Microsoft Biology Initiative: .NET Bioinformatics Platform and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Acosta, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Microsoft Biology Initiative (MBI) is an effort in Microsoft Research to bring new technology and tools to the area of bioinformatics and biology. This initiative is comprised of two primary components, the Microsoft Biology Foundation (MBF) and the Microsoft Biology Tools (MBT). MBF is a language-neutral bioinformatics toolkit built as an extension to the Microsoft .NET Framework—initially aimed at the area of Genomics research. Currently, it implements a range of parsers for common bioinformatics file formats; a range of algorithms for manipulating DNA, RNA, and protein sequences; and a set of connectors to biological web services such as NCBI BLAST. MBF is available under an open source license, and executables, source code, demo applications, documentation and training materials are freely downloadable from http://research.microsoft.com/bio. MBT is a collection of tools that enable biology and bioinformatics researchers to be more productive in making scientific discoveries.

  7. Bioinformatic landscapes for plant transcription factor system research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Lu, Wenjie; Deng, Dexiang

    2016-02-01

    Diverse bioinformatic resources have been developed for plant transcription factor (TF) research. This review presents the bioinformatic resources and methodologies for the elucidation of plant TF-mediated biological events. Such information is helpful to dissect the transcriptional regulatory systems in the three reference plants Arabidopsis , rice, and maize and translation to other plants. Transcription factors (TFs) orchestrate diverse biological programs by the modulation of spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression via binding cis-regulatory elements. Advanced sequencing platforms accompanied by emerging bioinformatic tools revolutionize the scope and extent of TF research. The system-level integration of bioinformatic resources is beneficial to the decoding of TF-involved networks. Herein, we first briefly introduce general and specialized databases for TF research in three reference plants Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. Then, as proof of concept, we identified and characterized heat shock transcription factor (HSF) members through the TF databases. Finally, we present how the integration of bioinformatic resources at -omics layers can aid the dissection of TF-mediated pathways. We also suggest ways forward to improve the bioinformatic resources of plant TFs. Leveraging these bioinformatic resources and methodologies opens new avenues for the elucidation of transcriptional regulatory systems in the three model systems and translation to other plants.

  8. Fundamentals of bioinformatics and computational biology methods and exercises in matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gautam B

    2015-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage of all the core topics of bioinformatics, and includes practical examples completed using the MATLAB bioinformatics toolbox™. It is primarily intended as a textbook for engineering and computer science students attending advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in bioinformatics and computational biology. The book develops bioinformatics concepts from the ground up, starting with an introductory chapter on molecular biology and genetics. This chapter will enable physical science students to fully understand and appreciate the ultimate goals of applying the principles of information technology to challenges in biological data management, sequence analysis, and systems biology. The first part of the book also includes a survey of existing biological databases, tools that have become essential in today’s biotechnology research. The second part of the book covers methodologies for retrieving biological information, including fundamental algorithms for sequence compar...

  9. Bioconductor: open software development for computational biology and bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentleman, R.C.; Carey, V.J.; Bates, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    into interdisciplinary scientific research, and promoting the achievement of remote reproducibility of research results. We describe details of our aims and methods, identify current challenges, compare Bioconductor to other open bioinformatics projects, and provide working examples.......The Bioconductor project is an initiative for the collaborative creation of extensible software for computational biology and bioinformatics. The goals of the project include: fostering collaborative development and widespread use of innovative software, reducing barriers to entry...

  10. 2nd Colombian Congress on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristancho, Marco; Isaza, Gustavo; Pinzón, Andrés; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This volume compiles accepted contributions for the 2nd Edition of the Colombian Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Congress CCBCOL, after a rigorous review process in which 54 papers were accepted for publication from 119 submitted contributions. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology are areas of knowledge that have emerged due to advances that have taken place in the Biological Sciences and its integration with Information Sciences. The expansion of projects involving the study of genomes has led the way in the production of vast amounts of sequence data which needs to be organized, analyzed and stored to understand phenomena associated with living organisms related to their evolution, behavior in different ecosystems, and the development of applications that can be derived from this analysis.  .

  11. Bioinformatics resource manager v2.3: an integrated software environment for systems biology with microRNA and cross-species analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes. Recent studies have shown miRNAs are important for controlling many biological processes, including nervous system development, and are highly conserved across species. Given their importance, computational tools are necessary for analysis, interpretation and integration of high-throughput (HTP) miRNA data in an increasing number of model species. The Bioinformatics Resource Manager (BRM) v2.3 is a software environment for data management, mining, integration and functional annotation of HTP biological data. In this study, we report recent updates to BRM for miRNA data analysis and cross-species comparisons across datasets. Results BRM v2.3 has the capability to query predicted miRNA targets from multiple databases, retrieve potential regulatory miRNAs for known genes, integrate experimentally derived miRNA and mRNA datasets, perform ortholog mapping across species, and retrieve annotation and cross-reference identifiers for an expanded number of species. Here we use BRM to show that developmental exposure of zebrafish to 30 uM nicotine from 6–48 hours post fertilization (hpf) results in behavioral hyperactivity in larval zebrafish and alteration of putative miRNA gene targets in whole embryos at developmental stages that encompass early neurogenesis. We show typical workflows for using BRM to integrate experimental zebrafish miRNA and mRNA microarray datasets with example retrievals for zebrafish, including pathway annotation and mapping to human ortholog. Functional analysis of differentially regulated (p<0.05) gene targets in BRM indicates that nicotine exposure disrupts genes involved in neurogenesis, possibly through misregulation of nicotine-sensitive miRNAs. Conclusions BRM provides the ability to mine complex data for identification of candidate miRNAs or pathways that drive phenotypic outcome and, therefore, is a useful hypothesis

  12. Bioinformatics resource manager v2.3: an integrated software environment for systems biology with microRNA and cross-species analysis tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilton Susan C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes. Recent studies have shown miRNAs are important for controlling many biological processes, including nervous system development, and are highly conserved across species. Given their importance, computational tools are necessary for analysis, interpretation and integration of high-throughput (HTP miRNA data in an increasing number of model species. The Bioinformatics Resource Manager (BRM v2.3 is a software environment for data management, mining, integration and functional annotation of HTP biological data. In this study, we report recent updates to BRM for miRNA data analysis and cross-species comparisons across datasets. Results BRM v2.3 has the capability to query predicted miRNA targets from multiple databases, retrieve potential regulatory miRNAs for known genes, integrate experimentally derived miRNA and mRNA datasets, perform ortholog mapping across species, and retrieve annotation and cross-reference identifiers for an expanded number of species. Here we use BRM to show that developmental exposure of zebrafish to 30 uM nicotine from 6–48 hours post fertilization (hpf results in behavioral hyperactivity in larval zebrafish and alteration of putative miRNA gene targets in whole embryos at developmental stages that encompass early neurogenesis. We show typical workflows for using BRM to integrate experimental zebrafish miRNA and mRNA microarray datasets with example retrievals for zebrafish, including pathway annotation and mapping to human ortholog. Functional analysis of differentially regulated (p Conclusions BRM provides the ability to mine complex data for identification of candidate miRNAs or pathways that drive phenotypic outcome and, therefore, is a useful hypothesis generation tool for systems biology. The miRNA workflow in BRM allows for efficient processing of multiple miRNA and mRNA datasets in a single

  13. Bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    , and medicine will be particularly affected by the new results and the increased understanding of life at the molecular level. Bioinformatics is the development and application of computer methods for analysis, interpretation, and prediction, as well as for the design of experiments. It has emerged...

  14. 6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Luscombe, Nicholas; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Rodríguez, Juan; Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    2012-01-01

    The growth in the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology fields over the last few years has been remarkable.. The analysis of the datasets of Next Generation Sequencing needs new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Also Systems Biology has also been emerging as an alternative to the reductionist view that dominated biological research in the last decades. This book presents the results of the  6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, 28-30th March, 2012 which brought together interdisciplinary scientists that have a strong background in the biological and computational sciences.

  15. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H

    2016-03-01

    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  16. Protecting innovation in bioinformatics and in-silico biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Commercial success or failure of innovation in bioinformatics and in-silico biology requires the appropriate use of legal tools for protecting and exploiting intellectual property. These tools include patents, copyrights, trademarks, design rights, and limiting information in the form of 'trade secrets'. Potentially patentable components of bioinformatics programmes include lines of code, algorithms, data content, data structure and user interfaces. In both the US and the European Union, copyright protection is granted for software as a literary work, and most other major industrial countries have adopted similar rules. Nonetheless, the grant of software patents remains controversial and is being challenged in some countries. Current debate extends to aspects such as whether patents can claim not only the apparatus and methods but also the data signals and/or products, such as a CD-ROM, on which the programme is stored. The patentability of substances discovered using in-silico methods is a separate debate that is unlikely to be resolved in the near future.

  17. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  18. BIRCH: a user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristensky, Brian

    2007-02-09

    Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy) is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment) graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  19. Bioinformatics training: selecting an appropriate learning content management system--an example from the European Bioinformatics Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Victoria Ann; Vaughan, Brendan W; Laurent, Thomas; Lopez, Rodrigo; Brooksbank, Cath; Schneider, Maria Victoria

    2010-11-01

    Today's molecular life scientists are well educated in the emerging experimental tools of their trade, but when it comes to training on the myriad of resources and tools for dealing with biological data, a less ideal situation emerges. Often bioinformatics users receive no formal training on how to make the most of the bioinformatics resources and tools available in the public domain. The European Bioinformatics Institute, which is part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL-EBI), holds the world's most comprehensive collection of molecular data, and training the research community to exploit this information is embedded in the EBI's mission. We have evaluated eLearning, in parallel with face-to-face courses, as a means of training users of our data resources and tools. We anticipate that eLearning will become an increasingly important vehicle for delivering training to our growing user base, so we have undertaken an extensive review of Learning Content Management Systems (LCMSs). Here, we describe the process that we used, which considered the requirements of trainees, trainers and systems administrators, as well as taking into account our organizational values and needs. This review describes the literature survey, user discussions and scripted platform testing that we performed to narrow down our choice of platform from 36 to a single platform. We hope that it will serve as guidance for others who are seeking to incorporate eLearning into their bioinformatics training programmes.

  20. 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Miguel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Paz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings presents recent practical applications of Computational Biology and  Bioinformatics. It contains the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at June 3rd-5th, 2015. The International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics (PACBB) is an annual international meeting dedicated to emerging and challenging applied research in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. Biological and biomedical research are increasingly driven by experimental techniques that challenge our ability to analyse, process and extract meaningful knowledge from the underlying data. The impressive capabilities of next generation sequencing technologies, together with novel and ever evolving distinct types of omics data technologies, have put an increasingly complex set of challenges for the growing fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The analysis o...

  1. Computer Simulation of Embryonic Systems: What can a virtual embryo teach us about developmental toxicity? (LA Conference on Computational Biology & Bioinformatics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will cover work at EPA under the CSS program for: (1) Virtual Tissue Models built from the known biology of an embryological system and structured to recapitulate key cell signals and responses; (2) running the models with real (in vitro) or synthetic (in silico...

  2. Exploiting graphics processing units for computational biology and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Moore, Jason H

    2010-09-01

    Advances in the video gaming industry have led to the production of low-cost, high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) that possess more memory bandwidth and computational capability than central processing units (CPUs), the standard workhorses of scientific computing. With the recent release of generalpurpose GPUs and NVIDIA's GPU programming language, CUDA, graphics engines are being adopted widely in scientific computing applications, particularly in the fields of computational biology and bioinformatics. The goal of this article is to concisely present an introduction to GPU hardware and programming, aimed at the computational biologist or bioinformaticist. To this end, we discuss the primary differences between GPU and CPU architecture, introduce the basics of the CUDA programming language, and discuss important CUDA programming practices, such as the proper use of coalesced reads, data types, and memory hierarchies. We highlight each of these topics in the context of computing the all-pairs distance between instances in a dataset, a common procedure in numerous disciplines of scientific computing. We conclude with a runtime analysis of the GPU and CPU implementations of the all-pairs distance calculation. We show our final GPU implementation to outperform the CPU implementation by a factor of 1700.

  3. 7th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Loris; Rocha, Miguel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    The growth in the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology fields over the last few years has been remarkable and the trend is to increase its pace. In fact, the need for computational techniques that can efficiently handle the huge amounts of data produced by the new experimental techniques in Biology is still increasing driven by new advances in Next Generation Sequencing, several types of the so called omics data and image acquisition, just to name a few. The analysis of the datasets that produces and its integration call for new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Within this scenario of increasing data availability, Systems Biology has also been emerging as an alternative to the reductionist view that dominated biological research in the last decades. Indeed, Biology is more and more a science of information requiring tools from the computational sciences. In the last few years, we ...

  4. Exploring Cystic Fibrosis Using Bioinformatics Tools: A Module Designed for the Freshman Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2011-01-01

    We incorporated a bioinformatics component into the freshman biology course that allows students to explore cystic fibrosis (CF), a common genetic disorder, using bioinformatics tools and skills. Students learn about CF through searching genetic databases, analyzing genetic sequences, and observing the three-dimensional structures of proteins…

  5. Integration of Bioinformatics into an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum and the Impact on Development of Mathematical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Bruce; Hark, Amy T.

    2012-01-01

    The development of fields such as bioinformatics and genomics has created new challenges and opportunities for undergraduate biology curricula. Students preparing for careers in science, technology, and medicine need more intensive study of bioinformatics and more sophisticated training in the mathematics on which this field is based. In this…

  6. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  7. Integration of bioinformatics into an undergraduate biology curriculum and the impact on development of mathematical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Bruce; Hark, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    The development of fields such as bioinformatics and genomics has created new challenges and opportunities for undergraduate biology curricula. Students preparing for careers in science, technology, and medicine need more intensive study of bioinformatics and more sophisticated training in the mathematics on which this field is based. In this study, we deliberately integrated bioinformatics instruction at multiple course levels into an existing biology curriculum. Students in an introductory biology course, intermediate lab courses, and advanced project-oriented courses all participated in new course components designed to sequentially introduce bioinformatics skills and knowledge, as well as computational approaches that are common to many bioinformatics applications. In each course, bioinformatics learning was embedded in an existing disciplinary instructional sequence, as opposed to having a single course where all bioinformatics learning occurs. We designed direct and indirect assessment tools to follow student progress through the course sequence. Our data show significant gains in both student confidence and ability in bioinformatics during individual courses and as course level increases. Despite evidence of substantial student learning in both bioinformatics and mathematics, students were skeptical about the link between learning bioinformatics and learning mathematics. While our approach resulted in substantial learning gains, student "buy-in" and engagement might be better in longer project-based activities that demand application of skills to research problems. Nevertheless, in situations where a concentrated focus on project-oriented bioinformatics is not possible or desirable, our approach of integrating multiple smaller components into an existing curriculum provides an alternative. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bioinformatics goes to school--new avenues for teaching contemporary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Louisa; Gebhardt, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Since 2010, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's (EMBL) Heidelberg laboratory and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) have jointly run bioinformatics training courses developed specifically for secondary school science teachers within Europe and EMBL member states. These courses focus on introducing bioinformatics, databases, and data-intensive biology, allowing participants to explore resources and providing classroom-ready materials to support them in sharing this new knowledge with their students. In this article, we chart our progress made in creating and running three bioinformatics training courses, including how the course resources are received by participants and how these, and bioinformatics in general, are subsequently used in the classroom. We assess the strengths and challenges of our approach, and share what we have learned through our interactions with European science teachers.

  9. Mathematics and evolutionary biology make bioinformatics education comprehensible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, John R; Weisstein, Anton E

    2013-09-01

    The patterns of variation within a molecular sequence data set result from the interplay between population genetic, molecular evolutionary and macroevolutionary processes-the standard purview of evolutionary biologists. Elucidating these patterns, particularly for large data sets, requires an understanding of the structure, assumptions and limitations of the algorithms used by bioinformatics software-the domain of mathematicians and computer scientists. As a result, bioinformatics often suffers a 'two-culture' problem because of the lack of broad overlapping expertise between these two groups. Collaboration among specialists in different fields has greatly mitigated this problem among active bioinformaticians. However, science education researchers report that much of bioinformatics education does little to bridge the cultural divide, the curriculum too focused on solving narrow problems (e.g. interpreting pre-built phylogenetic trees) rather than on exploring broader ones (e.g. exploring alternative phylogenetic strategies for different kinds of data sets). Herein, we present an introduction to the mathematics of tree enumeration, tree construction, split decomposition and sequence alignment. We also introduce off-line downloadable software tools developed by the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium to help students learn how to interpret and critically evaluate the results of standard bioinformatics analyses.

  10. Mathematics and evolutionary biology make bioinformatics education comprehensible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstein, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of variation within a molecular sequence data set result from the interplay between population genetic, molecular evolutionary and macroevolutionary processes—the standard purview of evolutionary biologists. Elucidating these patterns, particularly for large data sets, requires an understanding of the structure, assumptions and limitations of the algorithms used by bioinformatics software—the domain of mathematicians and computer scientists. As a result, bioinformatics often suffers a ‘two-culture’ problem because of the lack of broad overlapping expertise between these two groups. Collaboration among specialists in different fields has greatly mitigated this problem among active bioinformaticians. However, science education researchers report that much of bioinformatics education does little to bridge the cultural divide, the curriculum too focused on solving narrow problems (e.g. interpreting pre-built phylogenetic trees) rather than on exploring broader ones (e.g. exploring alternative phylogenetic strategies for different kinds of data sets). Herein, we present an introduction to the mathematics of tree enumeration, tree construction, split decomposition and sequence alignment. We also introduce off-line downloadable software tools developed by the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium to help students learn how to interpret and critically evaluate the results of standard bioinformatics analyses. PMID:23821621

  11. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20?23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology,...

  12. BioSmalltalk: a pure object system and library for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Hernán F; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2013-09-15

    We have developed BioSmalltalk, a new environment system for pure object-oriented bioinformatics programming. Adaptive end-user programming systems tend to become more important for discovering biological knowledge, as is demonstrated by the emergence of open-source programming toolkits for bioinformatics in the past years. Our software is intended to bridge the gap between bioscientists and rapid software prototyping while preserving the possibility of scaling to whole-system biology applications. BioSmalltalk performs better in terms of execution time and memory usage than Biopython and BioPerl for some classical situations. BioSmalltalk is cross-platform and freely available (MIT license) through the Google Project Hosting at http://code.google.com/p/biosmalltalk hernan.morales@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  14. Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    N. Spanakis, and A. Markogian- nakis. 2006. Carriage of OXA-58 but not of OXA-51 beta - lactamase gene correlates with carbapenem resistance in...properties of A. baumannii genomes Genome Accession no. Genomesize (bp) No. of genes Source (reference) Size of RI (kb) Beta - lactamase gene(s) Plasmid...carried beta - lactamase gene Resistance gene(s) Class A Class C Class D Tetra-cycline Chloram- phenicol Trimetho- prim-sulfa gyrA/parC QRDRa AB0057

  15. Infusing Bioinformatics and Research-Like Experience into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week laboratory project designed for a sophomore level molecular biology course is described. Small groups of students (3-4 per group) choose a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) or an oncogene for this project. Each group researches the role of their TSG/oncogene from primary literature articles and uses bioinformatics engines to find the gene…

  16. 10 years for the Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (2003-2013) -- a retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaber, Frank; Sherman, Westley Arthur

    2014-06-01

    The Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (JBCB) started publishing scientific articles in 2003. It has established itself as home for solid research articles in the field (~ 60 per year) that are surprisingly well cited. JBCB has an important function as alternative publishing channel in addition to other, bigger journals.

  17. Combined Biology and Bioinformatics Approaches to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Biological Data. Based Java language, fundamental concepts related to computer software design and construction were learned, and skills to design programs...2005. Psoriasis -like skin disease and arthritis caused by inducible epidermal deletion of Jun proteins. Nature 437, 369–375. CHAO FAMILY COMPREHENSIVE

  18. SeqHound: biological sequence and structure database as a platform for bioinformatics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumontier Michel

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SeqHound has been developed as an integrated biological sequence, taxonomy, annotation and 3-D structure database system. It provides a high-performance server platform for bioinformatics research in a locally-hosted environment. Results SeqHound is based on the National Center for Biotechnology Information data model and programming tools. It offers daily updated contents of all Entrez sequence databases in addition to 3-D structural data and information about sequence redundancies, sequence neighbours, taxonomy, complete genomes, functional annotation including Gene Ontology terms and literature links to PubMed. SeqHound is accessible via a web server through a Perl, C or C++ remote API or an optimized local API. It provides functionality necessary to retrieve specialized subsets of sequences, structures and structural domains. Sequences may be retrieved in FASTA, GenBank, ASN.1 and XML formats. Structures are available in ASN.1, XML and PDB formats. Emphasis has been placed on complete genomes, taxonomy, domain and functional annotation as well as 3-D structural functionality in the API, while fielded text indexing functionality remains under development. SeqHound also offers a streamlined WWW interface for simple web-user queries. Conclusions The system has proven useful in several published bioinformatics projects such as the BIND database and offers a cost-effective infrastructure for research. SeqHound will continue to develop and be provided as a service of the Blueprint Initiative at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute. The source code and examples are available under the terms of the GNU public license at the Sourceforge site http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/ in the SLRI Toolkit.

  19. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  20. Assessing an effective undergraduate module teaching applied bioinformatics to biology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Applied bioinformatics skills are becoming ever more indispensable for biologists, yet incorporation of these skills into the undergraduate biology curriculum is lagging behind, in part due to a lack of instructors willing and able to teach basic bioinformatics in classes that don't specifically focus on quantitative skill development, such as statistics or computer sciences. To help undergraduate course instructors who themselves did not learn bioinformatics as part of their own education and are hesitant to plunge into teaching big data analysis, a module was developed that is written in plain-enough language, using publicly available computing tools and data, to allow novice instructors to teach next-generation sequence analysis to upper-level undergraduate students. To determine if the module allowed students to develop a better understanding of and appreciation for applied bioinformatics, various tools were developed and employed to assess the impact of the module. This article describes both the module and its assessment. Students found the activity valuable for their education and, in focus group discussions, emphasized that they saw a need for more and earlier instruction of big data analysis as part of the undergraduate biology curriculum.

  1. An interdepartmental Ph.D. program in computational biology and bioinformatics: the Yale perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Mark; Greenbaum, Dov; Cheung, Kei; Miller, Perry L

    2007-02-01

    Computational biology and bioinformatics (CBB), the terms often used interchangeably, represent a rapidly evolving biological discipline. With the clear potential for discovery and innovation, and the need to deal with the deluge of biological data, many academic institutions are committing significant resources to develop CBB research and training programs. Yale formally established an interdepartmental Ph.D. program in CBB in May 2003. This paper describes Yale's program, discussing the scope of the field, the program's goals and curriculum, as well as a number of issues that arose in implementing the program. (Further updated information is available from the program's website, www.cbb.yale.edu.)

  2. MACBenAbim: A Multi-platform Mobile Application for searching keyterms in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga O; Adewumi, Adewole; Esuruoso, Abimbola

    2012-01-01

    Computational biology and bioinformatics are gradually gaining grounds in Africa and other developing nations of the world. However, in these countries, some of the challenges of computational biology and bioinformatics education are inadequate infrastructures, and lack of readily-available complementary and motivational tools to support learning as well as research. This has lowered the morale of many promising undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers from aspiring to undertake future study in these fields. In this paper, we developed and described MACBenAbim (Multi-platform Mobile Application for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics), a flexible user-friendly tool to search for, define and describe the meanings of keyterms in computational biology and bioinformatics, thus expanding the frontiers of knowledge of the users. This tool also has the capability of achieving visualization of results on a mobile multi-platform context. MACBenAbim is available from the authors for non-commercial purposes.

  3. 8th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Miguel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Santana, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Biological and biomedical research are increasingly driven by experimental techniques that challenge our ability to analyse, process and extract meaningful knowledge from the underlying data. The impressive capabilities of next generation sequencing technologies, together with novel and ever evolving distinct types of omics data technologies, have put an increasingly complex set of challenges for the growing fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The analysis of the datasets produced and their integration call for new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Clearly, Biology is more and more a science of information requiring tools from the computational sciences. In the last few years, we have seen the surge of a new generation of interdisciplinary scientists that have a strong background in the biological and computational sciences. In this context, the interaction of researche...

  4. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Miguel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Mayo, Francisco; Paz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Biological and biomedical research are increasingly driven by experimental techniques that challenge our ability to analyse, process and extract meaningful knowledge from the underlying data. The impressive capabilities of next generation sequencing technologies, together with novel and ever evolving distinct types of omics data technologies, have put an increasingly complex set of challenges for the growing fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The analysis of the datasets produced and their integration call for new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Clearly, Biology is more and more a science of information requiring tools from the computational sciences. In the last few years, we have seen the surge of a new generation of interdisciplinary scientists that have a strong background in the biological and computational sciences. In this context, the interaction of researche...

  5. 11th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamad, Mohd; Rocha, Miguel; Paz, Juan; Pinto, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Biological and biomedical research are increasingly driven by experimental techniques that challenge our ability to analyse, process and extract meaningful knowledge from the underlying data. The impressive capabilities of next-generation sequencing technologies, together with novel and constantly evolving, distinct types of omics data technologies, have created an increasingly complex set of challenges for the growing fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The analysis of the datasets produced and their integration call for new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Clearly, Biology is more and more a science of information and requires tools from the computational sciences. In the last few years, we have seen the rise of a new generation of interdisciplinary scientists with a strong background in the biological and computational sciences. In this context, the interaction of r...

  6. Proceedings of the 2013 MidSouth Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Society (MCBIOS) Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Jonathan D; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Burian, Dennis; Kaundal, Rakesh; Perkins, Andy; Perkins, Ed; Kupfer, Doris M; Springer, Gordon K

    2013-01-01

    The tenth annual conference of the MidSouth Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Society (MCBIOS 2013), "The 10th Anniversary in a Decade of Change: Discovery in a Sea of Data", took place at the Stoney Creek Inn & Conference Center in Columbia, Missouri on April 5-6, 2013. This year's Conference Chairs were Gordon Springer and Chi-Ren Shyu from the University of Missouri and Edward Perkins from the US Army Corps of Engineers Engineering Research and Development Center, who is also the current MCBIOS President (2012-3). There were 151 registrants and a total of 111 abstracts (51 oral presentations and 60 poster session abstracts).

  7. Facilitating the use of large-scale biological data and tools in the era of translational bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Shublaq, Nour; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    As both the amount of generated biological data and the processing compute power increase, computational experimentation is no longer the exclusivity of bioinformaticians, but it is moving across all biomedical domains. For bioinformatics to realize its translational potential, domain experts need...... access to user-friendly solutions to navigate, integrate and extract information out of biological databases, as well as to combine tools and data resources in bioinformatics workflows. In this review, we present services that assist biomedical scientists in incorporating bioinformatics tools...... into their research.We review recent applications of Cytoscape, BioGPS and DAVID for data visualization, integration and functional enrichment. Moreover, we illustrate the use of Taverna, Kepler, GenePattern, and Galaxy as open-access workbenches for bioinformatics workflows. Finally, we mention services...

  8. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal: Computational tools to facilitate synthetic biology of secondary metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Weber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are among the most important sources of lead molecules for drug discovery. With the development of affordable whole-genome sequencing technologies and other ‘omics tools, the field of natural products research is currently undergoing a shift in paradigms. While, for decades, mainly analytical and chemical methods gave access to this group of compounds, nowadays genomics-based methods offer complementary approaches to find, identify and characterize such molecules. This paradigm shift also resulted in a high demand for computational tools to assist researchers in their daily work. In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http://www.secondarymetabolites.org is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field.

  9. From trace evidence to bioinformatics: putting bryophytes into molecular biology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, Linda; Bougary, Azhar; Malott, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Students benefit most from their science education when they participate fully in the process of science in the context of real-world problems. We describe a student-directed open-inquiry lab experience that has no predetermined outcomes and requires students to engage in all components of scientific inquiry from posing a question through evaluating and reporting results. Over 5 weeks, students learn how bryophytes are used in forensics and become proficient in important molecular biology lab skills including DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and genotyping. For this portion of the experience, there is no specialized equipment necessary outside of gel electrophoresis supplies and a thermocycler. In an optional extension of the experience, students sequence a plastid intron and use introductory bioinformatics skills to identify species related to their forensics case. Students who participated in the lab experience performed well on content-based assessment, and student attitudes toward the experience were positive and indicative of engaged learning. The lab experience is easily modified for higher or lower level courses and can be used in secondary education. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An Integrated Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Approach Identifies New BH3-Only Protein Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Robert G; Chen, Yuzhong; Riz, Irene; Zeng, Chen

    2012-05-04

    In this study, we utilized an integrated bioinformatics and computational biology approach in search of new BH3-only proteins belonging to the BCL2 family of apoptotic regulators. The BH3 (BCL2 homology 3) domain mediates specific binding interactions among various BCL2 family members. It is composed of an amphipathic α-helical region of approximately 13 residues that has only a few amino acids that are highly conserved across all members. Using a generalized motif, we performed a genome-wide search for novel BH3-containing proteins in the NCBI Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) database. In addition to known pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, 197 proteins were recovered that satisfied the search criteria. These were categorized according to α-helical content and predictive binding to BCL-xL (encoded by BCL2L1) and MCL-1, two representative anti-apoptotic BCL2 family members, using position-specific scoring matrix models. Notably, the list is enriched for proteins associated with autophagy as well as a broad spectrum of cellular stress responses such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, antiviral defense, and the DNA damage response. Several potential novel BH3-containing proteins are highlighted. In particular, the analysis strongly suggests that the apoptosis inhibitor and DNA damage response regulator, AVEN, which was originally isolated as a BCL-xL-interacting protein, is a functional BH3-only protein representing a distinct subclass of BCL2 family members.

  11. Bioinformatics strategies in life sciences: from data processing and data warehousing to biological knowledge extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Herbert; Glandorf, Jörg; Hufnagel, Peter

    2010-05-27

    With the large variety of Proteomics workflows, as well as the large variety of instruments and data-analysis software available, researchers today face major challenges validating and comparing their Proteomics data. Here we present a new generation of the ProteinScape bioinformatics platform, now enabling researchers to manage Proteomics data from the generation and data warehousing to a central data repository with a strong focus on the improved accuracy, reproducibility and comparability demanded by many researchers in the field. It addresses scientists; current needs in proteomics identification, quantification and validation. But producing large protein lists is not the end point in Proteomics, where one ultimately aims to answer specific questions about the biological condition or disease model of the analyzed sample. In this context, a new tool has been developed at the Spanish Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia Proteomics Facility termed PIKE (Protein information and Knowledge Extractor) that allows researchers to control, filter and access specific information from genomics and proteomic databases, to understand the role and relationships of the proteins identified in the experiments. Additionally, an EU funded project, ProDac, has coordinated systematic data collection in public standards-compliant repositories like PRIDE. This will cover all aspects from generating MS data in the laboratory, assembling the whole annotation information and storing it together with identifications in a standardised format.

  12. How to test bioinformatics software?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Amir Hossein; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Chen, Tsong Yueh; Charleston, Michael A; McEwan, Alistair L; Ho, Joshua W K

    2015-09-01

    Bioinformatics is the application of computational, mathematical and statistical techniques to solve problems in biology and medicine. Bioinformatics programs developed for computational simulation and large-scale data analysis are widely used in almost all areas of biophysics. The appropriate choice of algorithms and correct implementation of these algorithms are critical for obtaining reliable computational results. Nonetheless, it is often very difficult to systematically test these programs as it is often hard to verify the correctness of the output, and to effectively generate failure-revealing test cases. Software testing is an important process of verification and validation of scientific software, but very few studies have directly dealt with the issues of bioinformatics software testing. In this work, we review important concepts and state-of-the-art methods in the field of software testing. We also discuss recent reports on adapting and implementing software testing methodologies in the bioinformatics field, with specific examples drawn from systems biology and genomic medicine.

  13. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-12-12

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20-23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. Marking the 10th Anniversary of APBioNet, this InCoB 2008 meeting followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India) and Hong Kong. Additionally, tutorials and the Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) immediately prior to the 20th Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) Taipei Conference provided ample opportunity for inducting mainstream biochemists and molecular biologists from the region into a greater level of awareness of the importance of bioinformatics in their craft. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication herein, grouped into thematic areas. As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, the papers fall into thematic areas, illustrating the specific contributions made by APBioNet to global bioinformatics efforts.

  14. Biopython: freely available Python tools for computational molecular biology and bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cock, Peter J A; Antao, Tiago; Chang, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: The Biopython project is a mature open source international collaboration of volunteer developers, providing Python libraries for a wide range of bioinformatics problems. Biopython includes modules for reading and writing different sequence file formats and multiple sequence alignments...

  15. Nonlinear dynamics in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carballido-Landeira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research results relating to applications of nonlinear dynamics, focusing specifically on four topics of wide interest: heart dynamics, DNA/RNA, cell mobility, and proteins. The book derives from the First BCAM Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics in Biological Systems, held in June 2014 at the Basque Center of Applied Mathematics (BCAM). At this international meeting, researchers from different but complementary backgrounds, including molecular dynamics, physical chemistry, bio-informatics and biophysics, presented their most recent results and discussed the future direction of their studies using theoretical, mathematical modeling and experimental approaches. Such was the level of interest stimulated that the decision was taken to produce this publication, with the organizers of the event acting as editors. All of the contributing authors are researchers working on diverse biological problems that can be approached using nonlinear dynamics. The book will appeal especially to applied math...

  16. Advance in structural bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Dongqing; Zhao, Tangzhen; Dai, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This text examines in detail mathematical and physical modeling, computational methods and systems for obtaining and analyzing biological structures, using pioneering research cases as examples. As such, it emphasizes programming and problem-solving skills. It provides information on structure bioinformatics at various levels, with individual chapters covering introductory to advanced aspects, from fundamental methods and guidelines on acquiring and analyzing genomics and proteomics sequences, the structures of protein, DNA and RNA, to the basics of physical simulations and methods for conform

  17. Systems biology: the reincarnation of systems theory applied in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, O

    2001-09-01

    With the availability of quantitative data on the transcriptome and proteome level, there is an increasing interest in formal mathematical models of gene expression and regulation. International conferences, research institutes and research groups concerned with systems biology have appeared in recent years and systems theory, the study of organisation and behaviour per se, is indeed a natural conceptual framework for such a task. This is, however, not the first time that systems theory has been applied in modelling cellular processes. Notably in the 1960s systems theory and biology enjoyed considerable interest among eminent scientists, mathematicians and engineers. Why did these early attempts vanish from research agendas? Here we shall review the domain of systems theory, its application to biology and the lessons that can be learned from the work of Robert Rosen. Rosen emerged from the early developments in the 1960s as a main critic but also developed a new alternative perspective to living systems, a concept that deserves a fresh look in the post-genome era of bioinformatics.

  18. Bioinformatics for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathy A.

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of this paper, bioinformatics is defined as the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. It can be thought of as the science of developing computer databases and algorithms to facilitate and expedite biological research. This is a crosscutting capability that supports nearly all human health areas ranging from computational modeling, to pharmacodynamics research projects, to decision support systems within autonomous medical care. Bioinformatics serves to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the life sciences research program. It provides data, information, and knowledge capture which further supports management of the bioastronautics research roadmap - identifying gaps that still remain and enabling the determination of which risks have been addressed.

  19. A Linked Series of Laboratory Exercises in Molecular Biology Utilizing Bioinformatics and GFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Carey L.; Nolin, Katie L.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biologists commonly use bioinformatics to map and analyze DNA and protein sequences and to align different DNA and protein sequences for comparison. Additionally, biologists can create and view 3D models of protein structures to further understand intramolecular interactions. The primary goal of this 10-week laboratory was to introduce…

  20. Ramping up to the Biology Workbench: A Multi-Stage Approach to Bioinformatics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kathleen; Donovan, Sam

    2005-01-01

    In the process of designing and field-testing bioinformatics curriculum materials, we have adopted a three-stage, progressive model that emphasizes collaborative scientific inquiry. The elements of the model include: (1) context setting, (2) introduction to concepts, processes, and tools, and (3) development of competent use of technologically…

  1. Ins and outs of systems biology vis-à-vis molecular biology: continuation or clear cut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Philippe; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2010-03-01

    The comprehension of living organisms in all their complexity poses a major challenge to the biological sciences. Recently, systems biology has been proposed as a new candidate in the development of such a comprehension. The main objective of this paper is to address what systems biology is and how it is practised. To this end, the basic tools of a systems biological approach are explored and illustrated. In addition, it is questioned whether systems biology 'revolutionizes' molecular biology and 'transcends' its assumed reductionism. The strength of this claim appears to depend on how molecular and systems biology are characterised and on how reductionism is interpreted. Doing credit to molecular biology and to methodological reductionism, it is argued that the distinction between molecular and systems biology is gradual rather than sharp. As such, the classical challenge in biology to manage, interpret and integrate biological data into functional wholes is further intensified by systems biology's use of modelling and bioinformatics, and by its scale enlargement.

  2. Biologically inspired intelligent decision making: a commentary on the use of artificial neural networks in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a class of powerful machine learning models for classification and function approximation which have analogs in nature. An ANN learns to map stimuli to responses through repeated evaluation of exemplars of the mapping. This learning approach results in networks which are recognized for their noise tolerance and ability to generalize meaningful responses for novel stimuli. It is these properties of ANNs which make them appealing for applications to bioinformatics problems where interpretation of data may not always be obvious, and where the domain knowledge required for deductive techniques is incomplete or can cause a combinatorial explosion of rules. In this paper, we provide an introduction to artificial neural network theory and review some interesting recent applications to bioinformatics problems.

  3. A Review of Recent Advances in Translational Bioinformatics: Bridges from Biology to Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamathevan, J; Birney, E

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To highlight and provide insights into key developments in translational bioinformatics between 2014 and 2016. Methods: This review describes some of the most influential bioinformatics papers and resources that have been published between 2014 and 2016 as well as the national genome sequencing initiatives that utilize these resources to routinely embed genomic medicine into healthcare. Also discussed are some applications of the secondary use of patient data followed by a comprehensive view of the open challenges and emergent technologies. Results: Although data generation can be performed routinely, analyses and data integration methods still require active research and standardization to improve streamlining of clinical interpretation. The secondary use of patient data has resulted in the development of novel algorithms and has enabled a refined understanding of cellular and phenotypic mechanisms. New data storage and data sharing approaches are required to enable diverse biomedical communities to contribute to genomic discovery. Conclusion: The translation of genomics data into actionable knowledge for use in healthcare is transforming the clinical landscape in an unprecedented way. Exciting and innovative models that bridge the gap between clinical and academic research are set to open up the field of translational bioinformatics for rapid growth in a digital era. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  4. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  5. Improving data workflow systems with cloud services and use of open data for bioinformatics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md Rezaul; Michel, Audrey; Zappa, Achille; Baranov, Pavel; Sahay, Ratnesh; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2017-04-16

    Data workflow systems (DWFSs) enable bioinformatics researchers to combine components for data access and data analytics, and to share the final data analytics approach with their collaborators. Increasingly, such systems have to cope with large-scale data, such as full genomes (about 200 GB each), public fact repositories (about 100 TB of data) and 3D imaging data at even larger scales. As moving the data becomes cumbersome, the DWFS needs to embed its processes into a cloud infrastructure, where the data are already hosted. As the standardized public data play an increasingly important role, the DWFS needs to comply with Semantic Web technologies. This advancement to DWFS would reduce overhead costs and accelerate the progress in bioinformatics research based on large-scale data and public resources, as researchers would require less specialized IT knowledge for the implementation. Furthermore, the high data growth rates in bioinformatics research drive the demand for parallel and distributed computing, which then imposes a need for scalability and high-throughput capabilities onto the DWFS. As a result, requirements for data sharing and access to public knowledge bases suggest that compliance of the DWFS with Semantic Web standards is necessary. In this article, we will analyze the existing DWFS with regard to their capabilities toward public open data use as well as large-scale computational and human interface requirements. We untangle the parameters for selecting a preferable solution for bioinformatics research with particular consideration to using cloud services and Semantic Web technologies. Our analysis leads to research guidelines and recommendations toward the development of future DWFS for the bioinformatics research community. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Computational biology of genome expression and regulation--a review of microarray bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junbai

    2008-01-01

    Microarray technology is being used widely in various biomedical research areas; the corresponding microarray data analysis is an essential step toward the best utilizing of array technologies. Here we review two components of the microarray data analysis: a low level of microarray data analysis that emphasizes the designing, the quality control, and the preprocessing of microarray experiments, then a high level of microarray data analysis that focuses on the domain-specific microarray applications such as tumor classification, biomarker prediction, analyzing array CGH experiments, and reverse engineering of gene expression networks. Additionally, we will review the recent development of building a predictive model in genome expression and regulation studies. This review may help biologists grasp a basic knowledge of microarray bioinformatics as well as its potential impact on the future evolvement of biomedical research fields.

  7. Bioinformatics and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers take on challenges and opportunities to mine "Big Data" for answers to complex biological questions. Learn how bioinformatics uses advanced computing, mathematics, and technological platforms to store, manage, analyze, and understand data.

  8. Systems Biology of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-06-20

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed.

  9. Role of remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics in kala-azar epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another.

  10. The next generation of training for Arabidopsis researchers: bioinformatics and quantitative biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been more than 50 years since Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was first introduced as a model organism to understand basic processes in plant biology. A well-organized scientific community has used this small reference plant species to make numerous fundamental plant biology discoveries (P...

  11. Bioinformatics meets parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantacessi, C; Campbell, B E; Jex, A R; Young, N D; Hall, R S; Ranganathan, S; Gasser, R B

    2012-05-01

    The advent and integration of high-throughput '-omics' technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics and lipidomics) are revolutionizing the way biology is done, allowing the systems biology of organisms to be explored. These technologies are now providing unique opportunities for global, molecular investigations of parasites. For example, studies of a transcriptome (all transcripts in an organism, tissue or cell) have become instrumental in providing insights into aspects of gene expression, regulation and function in a parasite, which is a major step to understanding its biology. The purpose of this article was to review recent applications of next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic tools to large-scale investigations of the transcriptomes of parasitic nematodes of socio-economic significance (particularly key species of the order Strongylida) and to indicate the prospects and implications of these explorations for developing novel methods of parasite intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. DOE EPSCoR Initiative in Structural and computational Biology/Bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Susan S.

    2008-02-21

    The overall goal of the DOE EPSCoR Initiative in Structural and Computational Biology was to enhance the competiveness of Vermont research in these scientific areas. To develop self-sustaining infrastructure, we increased the critical mass of faculty, developed shared resources that made junior researchers more competitive for federal research grants, implemented programs to train graduate and undergraduate students who participated in these research areas and provided seed money for research projects. During the time period funded by this DOE initiative: (1) four new faculty were recruited to the University of Vermont using DOE resources, three in Computational Biology and one in Structural Biology; (2) technical support was provided for the Computational and Structural Biology facilities; (3) twenty-two graduate students were directly funded by fellowships; (4) fifteen undergraduate students were supported during the summer; and (5) twenty-eight pilot projects were supported. Taken together these dollars resulted in a plethora of published papers, many in high profile journals in the fields and directly impacted competitive extramural funding based on structural or computational biology resulting in 49 million dollars awarded in grants (Appendix I), a 600% return on investment by DOE, the State and University.

  13. Teaching synthetic biology, bioinformatics and engineering to undergraduates: the interdisciplinary Build-a-Genome course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Jessica S; Scheifele, Lisa Z; Richardson, Sarah; Lee, Pablo; Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan; Bader, Joel S; Boeke, Jef D

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in undergraduate life science curricula is the continual evaluation and development of courses that reflect the constantly shifting face of contemporary biological research. Synthetic biology offers an excellent framework within which students may participate in cutting-edge interdisciplinary research and is therefore an attractive addition to the undergraduate biology curriculum. This new discipline offers the promise of a deeper understanding of gene function, gene order, and chromosome structure through the de novo synthesis of genetic information, much as synthetic approaches informed organic chemistry. While considerable progress has been achieved in the synthesis of entire viral and prokaryotic genomes, fabrication of eukaryotic genomes requires synthesis on a scale that is orders of magnitude higher. These high-throughput but labor-intensive projects serve as an ideal way to introduce undergraduates to hands-on synthetic biology research. We are pursuing synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes in an undergraduate laboratory setting, the Build-a-Genome course, thereby exposing students to the engineering of biology on a genomewide scale while focusing on a limited region of the genome. A synthetic chromosome III sequence was designed, ordered from commercial suppliers in the form of oligonucleotides, and subsequently assembled by students into approximately 750-bp fragments. Once trained in assembly of such DNA "building blocks" by PCR, the students accomplish high-yield gene synthesis, becoming not only technically proficient but also constructively critical and capable of adapting their protocols as independent researchers. Regular "lab meeting" sessions help prepare them for future roles in laboratory science.

  14. Teaching systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R; Vilaprinyo, E; Sorribas, A

    2011-03-01

    Advances in systems biology are increasingly dependent upon the integration of various types of data and different methodologies to reconstruct how cells work at the systemic level. Thus, teams with a varied array of expertise and people with interdisciplinary training are needed. So far this training was thought to be more productive if aimed at the Masters or PhD level. At this level, multiple specialised and in-depth courses on the different subject matters of systems biology are taught to already well-prepared students. This approach is mostly based on the recognition that systems biology requires a wide background that is hard to find in undergraduate students. Nevertheless, and given the importance of the field, the authors argue that exposition of undergraduate students to the methods and paradigms of systems biology would be advantageous. Here they present and discuss a successful experiment in teaching systems biology to third year undergraduate biotechnology students at the University of Lleida in Spain. The authors' experience, together with that from others, argues for the adequateness of teaching systems biology at the undergraduate level. [Includes supplementary material].

  15. Parallel workflow manager for non-parallel bioinformatic applications to solve large-scale biological problems on a supercomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Popova, Nina; Zhumatiy, Sergey; Voevodin, Vladimir; Švedas, Vytas

    2016-04-01

    Rapid expansion of online resources providing access to genomic, structural, and functional information associated with biological macromolecules opens an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes due to systematic analysis of large datasets. This, however, requires novel strategies to optimally utilize computer processing power. Some methods in bioinformatics and molecular modeling require extensive computational resources. Other algorithms have fast implementations which take at most several hours to analyze a common input on a modern desktop station, however, due to multiple invocations for a large number of subtasks the full task requires a significant computing power. Therefore, an efficient computational solution to large-scale biological problems requires both a wise parallel implementation of resource-hungry methods as well as a smart workflow to manage multiple invocations of relatively fast algorithms. In this work, a new computer software mpiWrapper has been developed to accommodate non-parallel implementations of scientific algorithms within the parallel supercomputing environment. The Message Passing Interface has been implemented to exchange information between nodes. Two specialized threads - one for task management and communication, and another for subtask execution - are invoked on each processing unit to avoid deadlock while using blocking calls to MPI. The mpiWrapper can be used to launch all conventional Linux applications without the need to modify their original source codes and supports resubmission of subtasks on node failure. We show that this approach can be used to process huge amounts of biological data efficiently by running non-parallel programs in parallel mode on a supercomputer. The C++ source code and documentation are available from http://biokinet.belozersky.msu.ru/mpiWrapper .

  16. Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

    2013-12-01

    Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In-silico prediction of drug targets, biological activities, signal pathways and regulating networks of dioscin based on bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhong; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Dong, Deshi; Han, Xu; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Yanyan; Xu, Youwei; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-03-05

    Inverse docking technology has been a trend of drug discovery, and bioinformatics approaches have been used to predict target proteins, biological activities, signal pathways and molecular regulating networks affected by drugs for further pharmacodynamic and mechanism studies. In the present paper, inverse docking technology was applied to screen potential targets from potential drug target database (PDTD). Then, the corresponding gene information of the obtained drug-targets was applied to predict the related biological activities, signal pathways and processes networks of the compound by using MetaCore platform. After that, some most relevant regulating networks were considered, which included the nodes and relevant pathways of dioscin. 71 potential targets of dioscin from humans, 7 from rats and 8 from mice were screened, and the prediction results showed that the most likely targets of dioscin were cyclin A2, calmodulin, hemoglobin subunit beta, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA polymerase lambda, nitric oxide synthase and UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pyrophosphorylase, etc. Many diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of human, temporal lobe epilepsy of rat and ankylosing spondylitis of mouse, may be inhibited by dioscin through regulating immune response alternative complement pathway, G-protein signaling RhoB regulation pathway and immune response antiviral actions of interferons, etc. The most relevant networks (5 from human, 3 from rat and 5 from mouse) indicated that dioscin may be a TOP1 inhibitor, which can treat cancer though the cell cycle- transition and termination of DNA replication pathway. Dioscin can down regulate EGFR and EGF to inhibit cancer, and also has anti-inflammation activity by regulating JNK signaling pathway. The predictions of the possible targets, biological activities, signal pathways and relevant regulating networks of dioscin provide valuable information to guide further investigation of dioscin on pharmacodynamics and

  18. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  19. A Bioinformatics Facility for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Karl; Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Building on an existing prototype, we have fielded a facility with bioinformatics technologies that will help NASA meet its unique requirements for biological research. This facility consists of a cluster of computers capable of performing computationally intensive tasks, software tools, databases and knowledge management systems. Novel computational technologies for analyzing and integrating new biological data and already existing knowledge have been developed. With continued development and support, the facility will fulfill strategic NASA s bioinformatics needs in astrobiology and space exploration. . As a demonstration of these capabilities, we will present a detailed analysis of how spaceflight factors impact gene expression in the liver and kidney for mice flown aboard shuttle flight STS-108. We have found that many genes involved in signal transduction, cell cycle, and development respond to changes in microgravity, but that most metabolic pathways appear unchanged.

  20. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  2. Interdisciplinary Introductory Course in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Morris, Robert W.; Utell, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Bioinformatics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science, mathematics, biology, and information technology to manage, analyze, and understand biological, biochemical and biophysical information. We present our experience in teaching an interdisciplinary course, Introduction to Bioinformatics, which was developed…

  3. Ergatis: a web interface and scalable software system for bioinformatics workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvis, Joshua; Crabtree, Jonathan; Galens, Kevin; Gussman, Aaron; Inman, Jason M.; Lee, Eduardo; Nampally, Sreenath; Riley, David; Sundaram, Jaideep P.; Felix, Victor; Whitty, Brett; Mahurkar, Anup; Wortman, Jennifer; White, Owen; Angiuoli, Samuel V.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The growth of sequence data has been accompanied by an increasing need to analyze data on distributed computer clusters. The use of these systems for routine analysis requires scalable and robust software for data management of large datasets. Software is also needed to simplify data management and make large-scale bioinformatics analysis accessible and reproducible to a wide class of target users. Results: We have developed a workflow management system named Ergatis that enables users to build, execute and monitor pipelines for computational analysis of genomics data. Ergatis contains preconfigured components and template pipelines for a number of common bioinformatics tasks such as prokaryotic genome annotation and genome comparisons. Outputs from many of these components can be loaded into a Chado relational database. Ergatis was designed to be accessible to a broad class of users and provides a user friendly, web-based interface. Ergatis supports high-throughput batch processing on distributed compute clusters and has been used for data management in a number of genome annotation and comparative genomics projects. Availability: Ergatis is an open-source project and is freely available at http://ergatis.sourceforge.net Contact: jorvis@users.sourceforge.net PMID:20413634

  4. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  5. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  6. 4273π: Bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. Results We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012–2013. Conclusions 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost. PMID:23937194

  7. 4273π: bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David Ek; Holland, Peter Wh; Mitchell, John Bo; Plaisier, Heleen; Ritchie, Michael G; Smart, Steven D

    2013-08-12

    Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012-2013. 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost.

  8. MODELING HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS: COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY AND BIOINFORMATICS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE RESEARCH (Session introduction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Braun, Pascal; Bonneau, Richard A.; Hyduke, Daniel R.

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic infections are a major cause of both human disease and loss of crop yields and animal stocks and thus cause immense damage to the worldwide economy. The significance of infectious diseases is expected to increase in an ever more connected warming world, in which new viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens can find novel hosts and ecologic niches. At the same time, the complex and sophisticated mechanisms by which diverse pathogenic agents evade defense mechanisms and subvert their hosts networks to suit their lifestyle needs is still very incompletely understood especially from a systems perspective [1]. Thus, understanding host-pathogen interactions is both an important and a scientifically fascinating topic. Recently, technology has offered the opportunity to investigate host-pathogen interactions on a level of detail and scope that offers immense computational and analytical possibilities. Genome sequencing was pioneered on some of these pathogens, and the number of strains and variants of pathogens sequenced to date vastly outnumbers the number of host genomes available. At the same time, for both plant and human hosts more and more data on population level genomic variation becomes available and offers a rich field for analysis into the genetic interactions between host and pathogen.

  9. OPTSDNA: Performance evaluation of an efficient distributed bioinformatics system for DNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ibrahim; Sheel, Chotan

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sequence data is a big concern as the amount of data generated is exponential in nature at several locations. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques to store data using compression algorithm. Here we describe optimal storage algorithm (OPTSDNA) for storing large amount of DNA sequences of varying length. This paper provides performance analysis of optimal storage algorithm (OPTSDNA) of a distributed bioinformatics computing system for analysis of DNA sequences. OPTSDNA algorithm is used for storing various sizes of DNA sequences into database. DNA sequences of different lengths were stored by using this algorithm. These input DNA sequences are varied in size from very small to very large. Storage size is calculated by this algorithm. Response time is also calculated in this work. The efficiency and performance of the algorithm is high (in size calculation with percentage) when compared with other known with sequential approach.

  10. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  11. The 2015 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomi L Harris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC is organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF, a nonprofit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of open source software development and open science within the biological research community. Since its inception in 2000, BOSC has provided bioinformatics developers with a forum for communicating the results of their latest efforts to the wider research community. BOSC offers a focused environment for developers and users to interact and share ideas about standards; software development practices; practical techniques for solving bioinformatics problems; and approaches that promote open science and sharing of data, results, and software. BOSC is run as a two-day special interest group (SIG before the annual Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB conference. BOSC 2015 took place in Dublin, Ireland, and was attended by over 125 people, about half of whom were first-time attendees. Session topics included "Data Science;" "Standards and Interoperability;" "Open Science and Reproducibility;" "Translational Bioinformatics;" "Visualization;" and "Bioinformatics Open Source Project Updates". In addition to two keynote talks and dozens of shorter talks chosen from submitted abstracts, BOSC 2015 included a panel, titled "Open Source, Open Door: Increasing Diversity in the Bioinformatics Open Source Community," that provided an opportunity for open discussion about ways to increase the diversity of participants in BOSC in particular, and in open source bioinformatics in general. The complete program of BOSC 2015 is available online at http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2015_Schedule.

  12. The 2015 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Lapp, Hilmar; Chapman, Brad; Davey, Rob; Fields, Christopher; Hokamp, Karsten; Munoz-Torres, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a nonprofit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of open source software development and open science within the biological research community. Since its inception in 2000, BOSC has provided bioinformatics developers with a forum for communicating the results of their latest efforts to the wider research community. BOSC offers a focused environment for developers and users to interact and share ideas about standards; software development practices; practical techniques for solving bioinformatics problems; and approaches that promote open science and sharing of data, results, and software. BOSC is run as a two-day special interest group (SIG) before the annual Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference. BOSC 2015 took place in Dublin, Ireland, and was attended by over 125 people, about half of whom were first-time attendees. Session topics included "Data Science;" "Standards and Interoperability;" "Open Science and Reproducibility;" "Translational Bioinformatics;" "Visualization;" and "Bioinformatics Open Source Project Updates". In addition to two keynote talks and dozens of shorter talks chosen from submitted abstracts, BOSC 2015 included a panel, titled "Open Source, Open Door: Increasing Diversity in the Bioinformatics Open Source Community," that provided an opportunity for open discussion about ways to increase the diversity of participants in BOSC in particular, and in open source bioinformatics in general. The complete program of BOSC 2015 is available online at http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2015_Schedule.

  13. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  14. Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2004-01-01

    Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

  15. Yeast systems biology to unravel the network of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustacchi, Roberta; Hohmann, S; Nielsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Systems biology focuses on obtaining a quantitative description of complete biological systems, even complete cellular function. In this way, it will be possible to perform computer-guided design of novel drugs, advanced therapies for treatment of complex diseases, and to perform in silico design....... Furthermore, it serves as an industrial workhorse for production of a wide range of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Systems biology involves the combination of novel experimental techniques from different disciplines as well as functional genomics, bioinformatics and mathematical modelling, and hence no single...... laboratory has access to all the necessary competences. For this reason the Yeast Systems Biology Network (YSBN) has been established. YSBN will coordinate research efforts, in yeast systems biology and, through the recently obtained EU funding for a Coordination Action, it will be possible to set...

  16. Aptamer Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Kinghorn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acid sequences capable of specific, high-affinity molecular binding. They are isolated via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment, an evolutionary process that involves iterative rounds of selection and amplification before sequencing and aptamer characterization. As aptamers are genetic in nature, bioinformatic approaches have been used to improve both aptamers and their selection. This review will discuss the advancements made in several enclaves of aptamer bioinformatics, including simulation of aptamer selection, fragment-based aptamer design, patterning of libraries, identification of lead aptamers from high-throughput sequencing (HTS data and in silico aptamer optimization.

  17. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes

  18. ebTrack: an environmental bioinformatics system built upon ArrayTrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjun; Martin, Jackson; Fang, Hong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Welsh, William J; Tong, Weida

    2009-03-10

    ebTrack is being developed as an integrated bioinformatics system for environmental research and analysis by addressing the issues of integration, curation, management, first level analysis and interpretation of environmental and toxicological data from diverse sources. It is based on enhancements to the US FDA developed ArrayTrack system through additional analysis modules for gene expression data as well as through incorporation and linkages to modules for analysis of proteomic and metabonomic datasets that include tandem mass spectra. ebTrack uses a client-server architecture with the free and open source PostgreSQL as its database engine, and java tools for user interface, analysis, visualization, and web-based deployment. Several predictive tools that are critical for environmental health research are currently supported in ebTrack, including Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM). Furthermore, new tools are under continuous integration, and interfaces to environmental health risk analysis tools are being developed in order to make ebTrack widely usable. These health risk analysis tools include the Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk studies (MENTOR) for source-to-dose exposure modeling and the DOse Response Information ANalysis system (DORIAN) for health outcome modeling. The design of ebTrack is presented in detail and steps involved in its application are summarized through an illustrative application.

  19. Network Reconstruction of Dynamic Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi, Behrang

    2013-01-01

    Inference of network topology from experimental data is a central endeavor in biology, since knowledge of the underlying signaling mechanisms a requirement for understanding biological phenomena. As one of the most important tools in bioinformatics area, development of methods to reconstruct biological networks has attracted remarkable attention in the current decade. Integration of different data types can lead to remarkable improvements in our ability to identify the connectivity of differe...

  20. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  1. Information Visualization Techniques in Bioinformatics during the Postgenomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Friedman, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Information visualization techniques, which take advantage of the bandwidth of human vision, are powerful tools for organizing and analyzing a large amount of data. In the postgenomic era, information visualization tools are indispensable for biomedical research. This paper aims to present an overview of current applications of information visualization techniques in bioinformatics for visualizing different types of biological data, such as from genomics, proteomics, expression profiling and structural studies. Finally, we discuss the challenges of information visualization in bioinformatics related to dealing with more complex biological information in the emerging fields of systems biology and systems medicine. PMID:20976032

  2. XML schemas for common bioinformatic data types and their application in workflow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Philipp N; Krüger, Jan; Hartmeier, Sven; Schwarzer, Knut; Löwenthal, Kai; Mersch, Henning; Dandekar, Thomas; Giegerich, Robert

    2006-11-06

    Today, there is a growing need in bioinformatics to combine available software tools into chains, thus building complex applications from existing single-task tools. To create such workflows, the tools involved have to be able to work with each other's data--therefore, a common set of well-defined data formats is needed. Unfortunately, current bioinformatic tools use a great variety of heterogeneous formats. Acknowledging the need for common formats, the Helmholtz Open BioInformatics Technology network (HOBIT) identified several basic data types used in bioinformatics and developed appropriate format descriptions, formally defined by XML schemas, and incorporated them in a Java library (BioDOM). These schemas currently cover sequence, sequence alignment, RNA secondary structure and RNA secondary structure alignment formats in a form that is independent of any specific program, thus enabling seamless interoperation of different tools. All XML formats are available at http://bioschemas.sourceforge.net, the BioDOM library can be obtained at http://biodom.sourceforge.net. The HOBIT XML schemas and the BioDOM library simplify adding XML support to newly created and existing bioinformatic tools, enabling these tools to interoperate seamlessly in workflow scenarios.

  3. The Physics behind Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radde Nicole E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems Biology is a young and rapidly evolving research field, which combines experimental techniques and mathematical modeling in order to achieve a mechanistic understanding of processes underlying the regulation and evolution of living systems. Systems Biology is often associated with an Engineering approach: The purpose is to formulate a data-rich, detailed simulation model that allows to perform numerical (‘in silico’ experiments and then draw conclusions about the biological system. While methods from Engineering may be an appropriate approach to extending the scope of biological investigations to experimentally inaccessible realms and to supporting data-rich experimental work, it may not be the best strategy in a search for design principles of biological systems and the fundamental laws underlying Biology. Physics has a long tradition of characterizing and understanding emergent collective behaviors in systems of interacting units and searching for universal laws. Therefore, it is natural that many concepts used in Systems Biology have their roots in Physics. With an emphasis on Theoretical Physics, we will here review the ‘Physics core’ of Systems Biology, show how some success stories in Systems Biology can be traced back to concepts developed in Physics, and discuss how Systems Biology can further benefit from its Theoretical Physics foundation.

  4. Mammalian Synthetic Biology: Engineering Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joshua B; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Gersbach, Charles A

    2017-06-21

    The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. These tools have been critical for the expansion of synthetic biology techniques from prokaryotic and lower eukaryotic hosts to mammalian systems. Recent progress in the development of genome and epigenome editing tools and in the engineering of designer cells with programmable genetic circuits is expanding approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease and to establish personalized theranostic strategies for next-generation medicines. This review summarizes the development of these enabling technologies and their application to transforming mammalian synthetic biology into a distinct field in research and medicine.

  5. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  6. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  7. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  8. Excited states in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Teaching bioinformatics to engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, George I; Tudor, Anca; Paralescu, Sorin; Andor, Minodora; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara

    2014-01-01

    The paper refers to our methodology and experience in establishing the content of the course in bioinformatics introduced to the school of "Information Systems in Healthcare" (SIIS), master level. The syllabi of both lectures and laboratory works are presented and discussed.

  10. Systems Biology and Livestock Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Woelders, H.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems Biology is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of life made possible through the explosion of molecular data made available through the genome revolution and the simultaneous development of computational technologies that allow us to interpret these large data sets. Systems Biology

  11. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  12. The potential of translational bioinformatics approaches for pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lang

    2015-10-01

    The field of bioinformatics has allowed the interpretation of massive amounts of biological data, ushering in the era of 'omics' to biomedical research. Its potential impact on pharmacology research is enormous and it has shown some emerging successes. A full realization of this potential, however, requires standardized data annotation for large health record databases and molecular data resources. Improved standardization will further stimulate the development of system pharmacology models, using translational bioinformatics methods. This new translational bioinformatics paradigm is highly complementary to current pharmacological research fields, such as personalized medicine, pharmacoepidemiology and drug discovery. In this review, I illustrate the application of transformational bioinformatics to research in numerous pharmacology subdisciplines. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  14. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, James C

    2016-01-01

    As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosi...

  15. Validation of systems biology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasdemir, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm shift from qualitative to quantitative analysis of biological systems brought a substantial number of modeling approaches to the stage of molecular biology research. These include but certainly are not limited to nonlinear kinetic models, static network models and models obtained by the

  16. Software that goes with the flow in systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Novère Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent article in BMC Bioinformatics describes new advances in workflow systems for computational modeling in systems biology. Such systems can accelerate, and improve the consistency of, modeling through automation not only at the simulation and results-production stages, but also at the model-generation stage. Their work is a harbinger of the next generation of more powerful software for systems biologists. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/11/582/abstract/ Ever since the rise of systems biology at the end of the last century, mathematical representations of biological systems and their activities have flourished. They are being used to describe everything from biomolecular networks, such as gene regulation, metabolic processes and signaling pathways, at the lowest biological scales, to tissue growth and differentiation, drug effects, environmental interactions, and more. A very active area in the field has been the development of techniques that facilitate the construction, analysis and dissemination of computational models. The heterogeneous, distributed nature of most data resources today has increased not only the opportunities for, but also the difficulties of, developing software systems to support these tasks. The work by Li et al. 1 published in BMC Bioinformatics represents a promising evolutionary step forward in this area. They describe a workflow system - a visual software environment enabling a user to create a connected set of operations to be performed sequentially using seperate tools and resources. Their system uses third-party data resources accessible over the Internet to elaborate and parametrize (that is, assign parameter values to computational models in a semi-automated manner. In Li et al.'s work, the authors point towards a promising future for computational modeling and simultaneously highlight some of the difficulties that need to be overcome before we get there.

  17. Systems biology of human atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Sikkel, Markus B; Davies, Kerry J; Vorkas, Panagiotis A; Want, Elizabeth J; Davies, Alun H

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology describes a holistic and integrative approach to understand physiology and pathology. The "omic" disciplines include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolic profiling (metabonomics and metabolomics). By adopting a stance, which is opposing (yet complimentary) to conventional research techniques, systems biology offers an overview by assessing the "net" biological effect imposed by a disease or nondisease state. There are a number of different organizational levels to be understood, from DNA to protein, metabolites, cells, organs and organisms, even beyond this to an organism's context. Systems biology relies on the existence of "nodes" and "edges." Nodes are the constituent part of the system being studied (eg, proteins in the proteome), while the edges are the way these constituents interact. In future, it will be increasingly important to collaborate, collating data from multiple studies to improve data sets, making them freely available and undertaking integrative analyses.

  18. Text mining for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Student Understanding of the "New Biology": Development and Evaluation of a Criterion-Referenced Genomics and Bioinformatics Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chad Edward

    Over the past decade, hundreds of studies have introduced genomics and bioinformatics (GB) curricula and laboratory activities at the undergraduate level. While these publications have facilitated the teaching and learning of cutting-edge content, there has yet to be an evaluation of these assessment tools to determine if they are meeting the quality control benchmarks set forth by the educational research community. An analysis of these assessment tools indicated that valid and reliable inferences about student learning. To remedy this situation the development of a robust GB assessment aligned with the quality control benchmarks was undertaken in order to ensure evidence-based evaluation of student learning outcomes. Content validity is a central piece of construct validity, and it must be used to guide instrument and item development. This study reports on: (1) the correspondence of content validity evidence gathered from independent sources; (2) the process of item development using this evidence; (3) the results from a pilot administration of the assessment; (4) the subsequent modification of the assessment based on the pilot administration results and; (5) the results from the second administration of the assessment. Twenty-nine different subtopics within GB (Appendix B: Genomics and Bioinformatics Expert Survey) were developed based on preliminary GB textbook analyses. These subtopics were analyzed using two methods designed to gather content validity evidence: (1) a survey of GB experts (n=61) and (2) a detailed content analyses of GB textbooks (n=6). By including only the subtopics that were shown to have robust support across these sources, 22 GB subtopics were established for inclusion in the assessment. An expert panel subsequently developed, evaluated, and revised two multiple-choice items to align with each of the 22 subtopics, producing a final item pool of 44 items. These items were piloted with student samples of varying content exposure levels

  20. Compositional Modeling of Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zámborszky, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Molecular interactions are wired in a fascinating way resulting in complex behavior of bio-logical systems. Theoretical modeling provides us a useful framework for understanding the dynamics and the function of such networks. The complexity of the biological systems calls for conceptual tools that manage the combinatorial explosion of the set of possible interac-tions. A suitable conceptual tool to attack complexity is compositionality, already success-fully used in the process algebra field ...

  1. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  2. An object-oriented programming system for the integration of internet-based bioinformatics resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Allan

    2006-01-01

    The Internet consists of a vast inhomogeneous reservoir of data. Developing software that can integrate a wide variety of different data sources is a major challenge that must be addressed for the realisation of the full potential of the Internet as a scientific research tool. This article presents a semi-automated object-oriented programming system for integrating web-based resources. We demonstrate that the current Internet standards (HTML, CGI [common gateway interface], Java, etc.) can be exploited to develop a data retrieval system that scans existing web interfaces and then uses a set of rules to generate new Java code that can automatically retrieve data from the Web. The validity of the software has been demonstrated by testing it on several biological databases. We also examine the current limitations of the Internet and discuss the need for the development of universal standards for web-based data.

  3. Crowdsourcing for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I

    2013-08-15

    Bioinformatics is faced with a variety of problems that require human involvement. Tasks like genome annotation, image analysis, knowledge-base population and protein structure determination all benefit from human input. In some cases, people are needed in vast quantities, whereas in others, we need just a few with rare abilities. Crowdsourcing encompasses an emerging collection of approaches for harnessing such distributed human intelligence. Recently, the bioinformatics community has begun to apply crowdsourcing in a variety of contexts, yet few resources are available that describe how these human-powered systems work and how to use them effectively in scientific domains. Here, we provide a framework for understanding and applying several different types of crowdsourcing. The framework considers two broad classes: systems for solving large-volume 'microtasks' and systems for solving high-difficulty 'megatasks'. Within these classes, we discuss system types, including volunteer labor, games with a purpose, microtask markets and open innovation contests. We illustrate each system type with successful examples in bioinformatics and conclude with a guide for matching problems to crowdsourcing solutions that highlights the positives and negatives of different approaches.

  4. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-03-18

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RNA Systems Biology for Cancer: From Diagnosis to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhah, Raheleh; Farazmand, Ali; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Schmitz, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    It is due to the advances in high-throughput omics data generation that RNA species have re-entered the focus of biomedical research. International collaborate efforts, like the ENCODE and GENCODE projects, have spawned thousands of previously unknown functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with various but primarily regulatory roles. Many of these are linked to the emergence and progression of human diseases. In particular, interdisciplinary studies integrating bioinformatics, systems biology, and biotechnological approaches have successfully characterized the role of ncRNAs in different human cancers. These efforts led to the identification of a new tool-kit for cancer diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment, which is now starting to enter and impact on clinical practice. This chapter is to elaborate on the state of the art in RNA systems biology, including a review and perspective on clinical applications toward an integrative RNA systems medicine approach. The focus is on the role of ncRNAs in cancer.

  6. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Anna C.; Giffin, Kristine A.; Greene, Casey S.

    2016-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs. PMID:25829469

  7. Development trend of radiation biology research-systems radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation biology research has past 80 years. We have known much more about fundamentals, processes and results of biology effects induced by radiation and various factors that influence biology effects wide and deep, however many old and new scientific problems occurring in the field of radiation biology research remain to be illustrated. To explore and figure these scientific problems need systemic concept, methods and multi dimension view on the base of considerations of complexity of biology system, diversity of biology response, temporal and spatial process of biological effects during occurrence, and complex feed back network of biological regulations. (authors)

  8. Inverse problems in systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Heinz W; Lu, James; Müller, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Schuster, Peter; Kügler, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior. (topical review)

  9. Nanoscale technology in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Ralph S; Smith, R Lane

    2004-01-01

    Reviewing recent accomplishments in the field of nanobiology Nanoscale Technology in Biological Systems introduces the application of nanoscale matrices to human biology. It focuses on the applications of nanotechnology fabrication to biomedical devices and discusses new physical methods for cell isolation and manipulation and intracellular communication at the molecular level. It also explores the application of nanobiology to cardiovascular diseases, oncology, transplantation, and a range of related disciplines. This book build a strong background in nanotechnology and nanobiology ideal for

  10. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This first volume presents the basic principles...... and concepts of systems biology with theoretical foundations including genetic, co-expression and metabolic networks. It will introduce to multi omics components of systems biology from genomics, through transcriptomics, proteomics to metabolomics. In addition it will highlight statistical methods...... and (bioinformatic) tools available to model and analyse these data sets along with phenotypes in animal production and health. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal sciences and veterinary medicine as well as to researchers in this discipline....

  11. Online Bioinformatics Tutorials | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioinformatics is a scientific discipline that applies computer science and information technology to help understand biological processes. The NIH provides a list of free online bioinformatics tutorials, either generated by the NIH Library or other institutes, which includes introductory lectures and "how to" videos on using various tools.

  12. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  13. Extending Asia Pacific bioinformatics into new realms in the "-omics" era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Eisenhaber, Frank; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2009-12-03

    The 2009 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation dating back to 1998, was organized as the 8th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), Sept. 7-11, 2009 at Biopolis, Singapore. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB has actively engaged clinicians and researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. InCoB2009 followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India), Hong Kong and Taipei (Taiwan), with InCoB2010 scheduled to be held in Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 26-28, 2010. The Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) and symposia on Clinical Bioinformatics (CBAS), the Singapore Symposium on Computational Biology (SYMBIO) and training tutorials were scheduled prior to the scientific meeting, and provided ample opportunity for in-depth learning and special interest meetings for educators, clinicians and students. We provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed bioinformatics manuscripts accepted for publication in this supplement, grouped into thematic areas. In order to facilitate scientific reproducibility and accountability, we have, for the first time, introduced minimum information criteria for our pubilcations, including compliance to a Minimum Information about a Bioinformatics Investigation (MIABi). As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, we have delineated a minimum set of bioinformatics skills required for addressing the computational challenges of the "-omics" era.

  14. Bioinformatics and the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Mark; Parker, Jeffrey; LeBlanc, Mark; Woodard, Craig T.; Glackin, Mary; Hanrahan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances involving high-throughput techniques for data generation and analysis have made familiarity with basic bioinformatics concepts and programs a necessity in the biological sciences. Undergraduate students increasingly need training in methods related to finding and retrieving information stored in vast databases. The rapid rise of…

  15. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K Karikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.

  16. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.

  17. Systems biology of cellular rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, A; Gérard, C; Gonze, D; Leloup, J-C; Dupont, G

    2012-08-31

    Rhythms abound in biological systems, particularly at the cellular level where they originate from the feedback loops present in regulatory networks. Cellular rhythms can be investigated both by experimental and modeling approaches, and thus represent a prototypic field of research for systems biology. They have also become a major topic in synthetic biology. We review advances in the study of cellular rhythms of biochemical rather than electrical origin by considering a variety of oscillatory processes such as Ca++ oscillations, circadian rhythms, the segmentation clock, oscillations in p53 and NF-κB, synthetic oscillators, and the oscillatory dynamics of cyclin-dependent kinases driving the cell cycle. Finally we discuss the coupling between cellular rhythms and their robustness with respect to molecular noise.

  18. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  19. Radiation interactions with biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Torequl

    2017-05-01

    The use of radiation, especially ionizing radiation (IR), is currently attracting great attention in the field of medical sciences. However, it should be mentioned that IR has both beneficial and harmful effects in biological systems. This review aims to focus on IR-mediated physiological events in a mechanistic way. Evidence from the databases, mainly from PUBMED and SCIENCE DIRECT were considered. IR directly and/or with their lyses products (indirect) causes oxidative stresses to biological systems. These activities may be localized and systematic. Otherwise, IR-induced non-/multi-targeted effects are also evident. IR in diagnosis and cancer radiotherapy is well-known. Reactive species produced by IR are not only beneficial, but also can exert harmful effects in a biological system such as aging, genetic instability and mutagenicity, membrane lysis and cell death, alteration of enzymatic activity and metabolic events, mitochondrial dysfunction, and even cancer. Additionally, DNA adducts formation, after IR-induced DNA breakage, is a cause of blockage of DNA repair capability with an increase in cellular radiosensitivity. These may allow cellular ruin even at low IR levels. Dependent on the dose, duration of action and quality, IR plays diverse roles in biological systems.

  20. Tunable promoters in systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    The construction of synthetic promoter libraries has represented a major breakthrough in systems biology, enabling the subtle tuning of enzyme activities. A number of tools are now available that allow the modulation of gene expression and the detection of changes in expression patterns. But, how...

  1. ballaxy: web services for structural bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anna Katharina; Stöckel, Daniel; Fischer, Nina M; de la Garza, Luis; Krüger, Jens; Nickels, Stefan; Röttig, Marc; Schärfe, Charlotta; Schumann, Marcel; Thiel, Philipp; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Web-based workflow systems have gained considerable momentum in sequence-oriented bioinformatics. In structural bioinformatics, however, such systems are still relatively rare; while commercial stand-alone workflow applications are common in the pharmaceutical industry, academic researchers often still rely on command-line scripting to glue individual tools together. In this work, we address the problem of building a web-based system for workflows in structural bioinformatics. For the underlying molecular modelling engine, we opted for the BALL framework because of its extensive and well-tested functionality in the field of structural bioinformatics. The large number of molecular data structures and algorithms implemented in BALL allows for elegant and sophisticated development of new approaches in the field. We hence connected the versatile BALL library and its visualization and editing front end BALLView with the Galaxy workflow framework. The result, which we call ballaxy, enables the user to simply and intuitively create sophisticated pipelines for applications in structure-based computational biology, integrated into a standard tool for molecular modelling.  ballaxy consists of three parts: some minor modifications to the Galaxy system, a collection of tools and an integration into the BALL framework and the BALLView application for molecular modelling. Modifications to Galaxy will be submitted to the Galaxy project, and the BALL and BALLView integrations will be integrated in the next major BALL release. After acceptance of the modifications into the Galaxy project, we will publish all ballaxy tools via the Galaxy toolshed. In the meantime, all three components are available from http://www.ball-project.org/ballaxy. Also, docker images for ballaxy are available at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/anhi/ballaxy/dockerfile/. ballaxy is licensed under the terms of the GPL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  2. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2016-01-01

    . In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http......://www.secondarymetabolites.org) is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field....

  3. Computational intelligence approaches for pattern discovery in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Gary B

    2008-07-01

    Biology, chemistry and medicine are faced by tremendous challenges caused by an overwhelming amount of data and the need for rapid interpretation. Computational intelligence (CI) approaches such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems and evolutionary computation are being used with increasing frequency to contend with this problem, in light of noise, non-linearity and temporal dynamics in the data. Such methods can be used to develop robust models of processes either on their own or in combination with standard statistical approaches. This is especially true for database mining, where modeling is a key component of scientific understanding. This review provides an introduction to current CI methods, their application to biological problems, and concludes with a commentary about the anticipated impact of these approaches in bioinformatics.

  4. Flow cytometry bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran O'Neill

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry bioinformatics is the application of bioinformatics to flow cytometry data, which involves storing, retrieving, organizing, and analyzing flow cytometry data using extensive computational resources and tools. Flow cytometry bioinformatics requires extensive use of and contributes to the development of techniques from computational statistics and machine learning. Flow cytometry and related methods allow the quantification of multiple independent biomarkers on large numbers of single cells. The rapid growth in the multidimensionality and throughput of flow cytometry data, particularly in the 2000s, has led to the creation of a variety of computational analysis methods, data standards, and public databases for the sharing of results. Computational methods exist to assist in the preprocessing of flow cytometry data, identifying cell populations within it, matching those cell populations across samples, and performing diagnosis and discovery using the results of previous steps. For preprocessing, this includes compensating for spectral overlap, transforming data onto scales conducive to visualization and analysis, assessing data for quality, and normalizing data across samples and experiments. For population identification, tools are available to aid traditional manual identification of populations in two-dimensional scatter plots (gating, to use dimensionality reduction to aid gating, and to find populations automatically in higher dimensional space in a variety of ways. It is also possible to characterize data in more comprehensive ways, such as the density-guided binary space partitioning technique known as probability binning, or by combinatorial gating. Finally, diagnosis using flow cytometry data can be aided by supervised learning techniques, and discovery of new cell types of biological importance by high-throughput statistical methods, as part of pipelines incorporating all of the aforementioned methods. Open standards, data

  5. International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Debra; Hibbs, Matthew; Kall, Lukas; Komandurglayavilli, Ravikumar; Mahony, Shaun; Marinescu, Voichita; Mayrose, Itay; Minin, Vladimir; Neeman, Yossef; Nimrod, Guy; Novotny, Marian; Opiyo, Stephen; Portugaly, Elon; Sadka, Tali; Sakabe, Noboru; Sarkar, Indra; Schaub, Marc; Shafer, Paul; Shmygelska, Olena; Singer, Gregory; Song, Yun; Soumyaroop, Bhattacharya; Stadler, Michael; Strope, Pooja; Su, Rong; Tabach, Yuval; Tae, Hongseok; Taylor, Todd; Terribilini, Michael; Thomas, Asha; Tran, Nam; Tseng, Tsai-Tien; Vashist, Akshay; Vijaya, Parthiban; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ting; Wei, Lai; Woo, Yong; Wu, Chunlei; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Yan, Changhui; Yang, Jack; Yang, Mary; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Miao

    2009-12-29

    The Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference has provided a general forum for disseminating the latest developments in bioinformatics on an annual basis for the past 13 years. ISMB is a multidisciplinary conference that brings together scientists from computer science, molecular biology, mathematics and statistics. The goal of the ISMB meeting is to bring together biologists and computational scientists in a focus on actual biological problems, i.e., not simply theoretical calculations. The combined focus on "intelligent systems" and actual biological data makes ISMB a unique and highly important meeting, and 13 years of experience in holding the conference has resulted in a consistently well organized, well attended, and highly respected annual conference. The ISMB 2005 meeting was held June 25-29, 2005 at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan. The meeting attracted over 1,730 attendees. The science presented was exceptional, and in the course of the five-day meeting, 56 scientific papers, 710 posters, 47 Oral Abstracts, 76 Software demonstrations, and 14 tutorials were presented. The attendees represented a broad spectrum of backgrounds with 7% from commercial companies, over 28% qualifying for student registration, and 41 countries were represented at the conference, emphasizing its important international aspect. The ISMB conference is especially important because the cultures of computer science and biology are so disparate. ISMB, as a full-scale technical conference with refereed proceedings that have been indexed by both MEDLINE and Current Contents since 1996, bridges this cultural gap.

  6. Survey of MapReduce frame operation in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Quan; Li, Xu-Bin; Jiang, Wen-Rui; Lin, Zi-Yu; Li, Gui-Lin; Chen, Ke

    2014-07-01

    Bioinformatics is challenged by the fact that traditional analysis tools have difficulty in processing large-scale data from high-throughput sequencing. The open source Apache Hadoop project, which adopts the MapReduce framework and a distributed file system, has recently given bioinformatics researchers an opportunity to achieve scalable, efficient and reliable computing performance on Linux clusters and on cloud computing services. In this article, we present MapReduce frame-based applications that can be employed in the next-generation sequencing and other biological domains. In addition, we discuss the challenges faced by this field as well as the future works on parallel computing in bioinformatics. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Circadian rhythms and systems biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, Albert; Gérard, Claude; Leloup, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Cellular rhythms represent a field of choice for studies in system biology. The examples of circadian rhythms and of the cell cycle show how the experimental and modeling approaches contribute to clarify the conditions in which periodic behavior spontaneously arises in regulatory networks at the cellular level. Circadian rhythms originate from intertwined positive and negative feedback loops controlling the expression of several clock genes. Models can be used to address the dynamical bases of physiological disorders related to dysfunctions of the mammalian circadian clock. The cell cycle is driven by a network of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Modeled in the form of four modules coupled through multiple regulatory interactions, the Cdk network operates in an oscillatory manner in the presence of sufficient amounts of growth factor. For circadian rhythms and the cell cycle, as for other recently observed cellular rhythms, periodic behavior represents an emergent property of biological systems related to their regulatory structure.

  8. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason 'omics' has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools...... common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current...

  9. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu Chun Ke [Laboratory of Single-Molecule Biophysics and Polymer Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Qiao Rui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2007-09-19

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  10. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Chun Ke; Qiao Rui

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  11. Bioinformatics in the information age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spengler, Sylvia J.

    2000-02-01

    There is a well-known story about the blind man examining the elephant: the part of the elephant examined determines his perception of the whole beast. Perhaps bioinformatics--the shotgun marriage between biology and mathematics, computer science, and engineering--is like an elephant that occupies a large chair in the scientific living room. Given the demand for and shortage of researchers with the computer skills to handle large volumes of biological data, where exactly does the bioinformatics elephant sit? There are probably many biologists who feel that a major product of this bioinformatics elephant is large piles of waste material. If you have tried to plow through Web sites and software packages in search of a specific tool for analyzing and collating large amounts of research data, you may well feel the same way. But there has been progress with major initiatives to develop more computing power, educate biologists about computers, increase funding, and set standards. For our purposes, bioinformatics is not simply a biologically inclined rehash of information theory (1) nor is it a hodgepodge of computer science techniques for building, updating, and accessing biological data. Rather bioinformatics incorporates both of these capabilities into a broad interdisciplinary science that involves both conceptual and practical tools for the understanding, generation, processing, and propagation of biological information. As such, bioinformatics is the sine qua non of 21st-century biology. Analyzing gene expression using cDNA microarrays immobilized on slides or other solid supports (gene chips) is set to revolutionize biology and medicine and, in so doing, generate vast quantities of data that have to be accurately interpreted (Fig. 1). As discussed at a meeting a few months ago (Microarray Algorithms and Statistical Analysis: Methods and Standards; Tahoe City, California; 9-12 November 1999), experiments with cDNA arrays must be subjected to quality control

  12. When cloud computing meets bioinformatics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuigeng; Liao, Ruiqi; Guan, Jihong

    2013-10-01

    In the past decades, with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, biology research has generated an unprecedented amount of data. In order to store and process such a great amount of data, cloud computing and MapReduce were applied to many fields of bioinformatics. In this paper, we first introduce the basic concepts of cloud computing and MapReduce, and their applications in bioinformatics. We then highlight some problems challenging the applications of cloud computing and MapReduce to bioinformatics. Finally, we give a brief guideline for using cloud computing in biology research.

  13. Biological Potential in Serpentinizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of the microbial substrate hydrogen during serpentinization, the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks, has focused interest on the potential of serpentinizing systems to support biological communities or even the origin of life. However the process also generates considerable alkalinity, a challenge to life, and both pH and hydrogen concentrations vary widely across natural systems as a result of different host rock and fluid composition and differing physical and hydrogeologic conditions. Biological potential is expected to vary in concert. We examined the impact of such variability on the bioenergetics of an example metabolism, methanogenesis, using a cell-scale reactive transport model to compare rates of metabolic energy generation as a function of physicochemical environment. Potential rates vary over more than 5 orders of magnitude, including bioenergetically non-viable conditions, across the range of naturally occurring conditions. In parallel, we assayed rates of hydrogen metabolism in wells associated with the actively serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite, which includes conditions more alkaline and considerably less reducing than is typical of serpentinizing systems. Hydrogen metabolism is observed at pH approaching 12 but, consistent with the model predictions, biological methanogenesis is not observed.

  14. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  15. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  16. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  17. Emergent Computation Emphasizing Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Emergent Computation is concerned with recent applications of Mathematical Linguistics or Automata Theory. This subject has a primary focus upon "Bioinformatics" (the Genome and arising interest in the Proteome), but the closing chapter also examines applications in Biology, Medicine, Anthropology, etc. The book is composed of an organized examination of DNA, RNA, and the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Rather than examine these areas from a purely mathematical viewpoint (that excludes much of the biochemical reality), the author uses scientific papers written mostly by biochemists based upon their laboratory observations. Thus while DNA may exist in its double stranded form, triple stranded forms are not excluded. Similarly, while bases exist in Watson-Crick complements, mismatched bases and abasic pairs are not excluded, nor are Hoogsteen bonds. Just as there are four bases naturally found in DNA, the existence of additional bases is not ignored, nor amino acids in addition to the usual complement of...

  18. Bioinformatics as a pedagogical resource for the biology course in the State University of Ceara - UECE - Fortaleza, Ceará State - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.14584

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Lopes Ribeiro Junior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and apply the Bioinformatics theoretical contents and practical for the course students in Biological Sciences Degree Fully enrolled in the disciplines of General Genetics and Molecular Biology, State University of Ceara in 2010. The theoretical approach previously tested (RIBEIRO JUNIOR, 2011 consisted of a presentation of historical concepts, basic and specific to current advances in research involved the areas of molecular biology. The practice of "Building a Molecular Phylogeny in Silico" is designed to become functional in practice the concepts presented above, using the database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI, and their sequence alignment tool, the BLASTp (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool Protein-Protein. positive results obtained with the application of the lecture Introduction to Bioinformatics and practical activities were highlighted with the characterizations of molecular phylogenies of the sequences hypothetical proposals for the implementation of the alignments and the statements of students mentioned above. These activities were seen as essential so that students could experience step by step to a better understanding of the emerging field of life sciences: the Bioinformatics

  19. Adding biological meaning to human protein-protein interactions identified by yeast two-hybrid screenings: A guide through bioinformatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Juliana; Silva, Joana Vieira; Fardilha, Margarida

    2018-01-16

    "A man is known by the company he keeps" is a popular expression that perfectly fits proteins. A common approach to characterize the function of a target protein is to identify its interacting partners and thus infer its roles based on the known functions of the interactors. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) have been created for several organisms, including humans, primarily as results of high-throughput screenings, such as yeast two-hybrid (Y2H). Their unequivocal use to understand events underlying human pathophysiology is promising in identifying genes and proteins associated with diseases. Therefore, numerous opportunities have emerged for PPINs as tools for clinical management of diseases: network-based disease classification systems, discovery of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets. Despite the great advantages of PPINs, their use is still unrecognised by several researchers who generate high-throughput data to generally characterize interactions in a certain model or to select an interaction to study in detail. We strongly believe that both approaches are not exclusive and that we can use PPINs as a complementary methodology and rich-source of information to the initial study proposal. Here, we suggest a pipeline to deal with Y2H results using bioinformatics tools freely available for academics. Yeast two-hybrid is widely-used to identify protein-protein interactions. Conventionally, the positive clones that result from a yeast two-hybrid screening are sequenced to identify the interactors of the protein of interest (also known as bait protein), and few interactions, thought as potentially relevant for the model in study, are selected for further validation using biochemical methods (e.g. co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization). The huge amount of data that is potentially lost during this conservative approach motivated us to write this tutorial-like review, so that researchers feel encouraged to take advantage of

  20. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology: Status and Developments in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Gleeson, Padraig; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Keating, Sarah M; Novère, Nicolas Le; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-03-29

    Standards are essential to the advancement of Systems and Synthetic Biology. COMBINE provides a formal body and a centralised platform to help develop and disseminate relevant standards and related resources. The regular special issue of the Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics aims to support the exchange, distribution and archiving of these standards by providing unified, easily citable access. This paper provides an overview of existing COMBINE standards and presents developments of the last year.

  1. Bioinformatics clouds for big data manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin; Gao, Xin; Guo, Yan; Xiao, Jingfa; Zhang, Zhang

    2012-11-28

    As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor.

  2. The 2016 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Chapman, Brad; Fields, Christopher J; Hokamp, Karsten; Lapp, Hilmar; Muñoz-Torres, Monica; Wiencko, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Message from the ISCB: The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a yearly meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. BOSC has been run since 2000 as a two-day Special Interest Group (SIG) before the annual ISMB conference. The 17th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2016) took place in Orlando, Florida in July 2016. As in previous years, the conference was preceded by a two-day collaborative coding event open to the bioinformatics community. The conference brought together nearly 100 bioinformatics researchers, developers and users of open source software to interact and share ideas about standards, bioinformatics software development, and open and reproducible science.

  3. Bioinformatics clouds for big data manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS, Software as a Service (SaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS, and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor.

  4. Bioinformatics clouds for big data manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor. PMID:23190475

  5. Bioinformatics clouds for big data manipulation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Lin

    2012-11-28

    As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics.This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor. 2012 Dai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Bioinformatics: A History of Evolution "In Silico"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrej, Vladan; Dvorak, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Bioinformatics, biological databases, and the worldwide use of computers have accelerated biological research in many fields, such as evolutionary biology. Here, we describe a primer of nucleotide sequence management and the construction of a phylogenetic tree with two examples; the two selected are from completely different groups of organisms:…

  7. Tunable promoters in systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    The construction of synthetic promoter libraries has represented a major breakthrough in systems biology, enabling the subtle tuning of enzyme activities. A number of tools are now available that allow the modulation of gene expression and the detection of changes in expression patterns. But, how...... does one choose the correct promoter and what are the appropriate methods for reading promoter strength? Furthermore, how fine should the tuning of gene expression be for some specific applications and how can the simultaneous and individual tuning of multiple genes be achieved? Some recent studies...

  8. Decision Making in Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Chengzhe

    -dormancy transition is primarily mediated by (p)ppGpp fluctuation. In the second topic, we discuss the transition paths between two stable steady states. We construct a simple model of coupled bistable gene circuits and demonstrate the possibility of bifurcation of transition path in biology. We then construct...... a theory to predict whether a general coupled bistable system exhibits bifurcated path or not and verify the theory through numerical simulation. We also show that a primary function of bifurcated paths is to facilitate transition by lowering the associated action. In the third topic, we discuss...

  9. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  10. e-BioFlow: improving practical use of workflow systems in bioinformatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, I.; Ooms, M.; Neerincx, P.; Rauwerda, H.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Breit, T.M.; Nijholt, A.; Vet, van der P.

    2010-01-01

    Workflow management systems (WfMSs) are useful tools for bioinformaticians. As experiences with using WfMSs accumulate, shortcomings of current systems become apparent. In this paper, we focus on practical issues that hinder WfMS users and that arise in the design and execution of workflows, and in

  11. Clonal Selection Versus Idiotypic Network Models of the Immune System : A Bioinformatic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de

    1989-01-01

    Immune systems function by means of complex "networks" of interactions between various cell types and/or molecules. These interactions vary from specific to non-specific, from local to systemic, are positive or negative (or bimodal), and are generally non-linear (involving positive or negative

  12. Systems biology and biomarker discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-12-01

    Medical practitioners have always relied on surrogate markers of inaccessible biological processes to make their diagnosis, whether it was the pallor of shock, the flush of inflammation, or the jaundice of liver failure. Obviously, the current implementation of biomarkers for disease is far more sophisticated, relying on highly reproducible, quantitative measurements of molecules that are often mechanistically associated with the disease in question, as in glycated hemoglobin for the diagnosis of diabetes [1] or the presence of cardiac troponins in the blood for confirmation of myocardial infarcts [2]. In cancer, where the initial symptoms are often subtle and the consequences of delayed diagnosis often drastic for disease management, the impetus to discover readily accessible, reliable, and accurate biomarkers for early detection is compelling. Yet despite years of intense activity, the stable of clinically validated, cost-effective biomarkers for early detection of cancer is pathetically small and still dominated by a handful of markers (CA-125, CEA, PSA) first discovered decades ago. It is time, one could argue, for a fresh approach to the discovery and validation of disease biomarkers, one that takes full advantage of the revolution in genomic technologies and in the development of computational tools for the analysis of large complex datasets. This issue of Disease Markers is dedicated to one such new approach, loosely termed the 'Systems Biology of Biomarkers'. What sets the Systems Biology approach apart from other, more traditional approaches, is both the types of data used, and the tools used for data analysis - and both reflect the revolution in high throughput analytical methods and high throughput computing that has characterized the start of the twenty first century.

  13. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Akabani, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  14. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  15. A knowledge-based decision support system in bioinformatics: an application to protein complex extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiannaca Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce a Knowledge-based Decision Support System (KDSS in order to face the Protein Complex Extraction issue. Using a Knowledge Base (KB coding the expertise about the proposed scenario, our KDSS is able to suggest both strategies and tools, according to the features of input dataset. Our system provides a navigable workflow for the current experiment and furthermore it offers support in the configuration and running of every processing component of that workflow. This last feature makes our system a crossover between classical DSS and Workflow Management Systems. Results We briefly present the KDSS' architecture and basic concepts used in the design of the knowledge base and the reasoning component. The system is then tested using a subset of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Protein-Protein interaction dataset. We used this subset because it has been well studied in literature by several research groups in the field of complex extraction: in this way we could easily compare the results obtained through our KDSS with theirs. Our system suggests both a preprocessing and a clustering strategy, and for each of them it proposes and eventually runs suited algorithms. Our system's final results are then composed of a workflow of tasks, that can be reused for other experiments, and the specific numerical results for that particular trial. Conclusions The proposed approach, using the KDSS' knowledge base, provides a novel workflow that gives the best results with regard to the other workflows produced by the system. This workflow and its numeric results have been compared with other approaches about PPI network analysis found in literature, offering similar results.

  16. Dynamical systems in population biology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph provides an introduction to the theory of nonautonomous semiflows with applications to population dynamics. It develops dynamical system approaches to various evolutionary equations such as difference, ordinary, functional, and partial differential equations, and pays more attention to periodic and almost periodic phenomena. The presentation includes persistence theory, monotone dynamics, periodic and almost periodic semiflows, basic reproduction ratios, traveling waves, and global analysis of prototypical population models in ecology and epidemiology. Research mathematicians working with nonlinear dynamics, particularly those interested in applications to biology, will find this book useful. It may also be used as a textbook or as supplementary reading for a graduate special topics course on the theory and applications of dynamical systems. Dr. Xiao-Qiang Zhao is a University Research Professor at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. His main research interests involve applied...

  17. Investigating CRISPR-Cas systems in Clostridium botulinum via bioinformatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdaripour, Manica; Nezafat, Navid; Hajighahramani, Nasim; Rahmatabadi, Seyyed Soheil; Ghasemi, Younes

    2017-10-01

    The Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems are a type of innate immunity found in some prokaryotes, which protect them against alien genetic elements by targeting foreign nucleic acids. Some other functions are also attributed to these systems. Clostridium botulinum bacteria produce botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT), one of the deadliest known toxins for humans and some animals. Food poisoning due to these bacteria is still a challenge in food industries. On the other hand, BoNT has been widely investigated for therapeutic applications including different muscle disorders. Bont genes may be located on bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, or even prophages. Generally, the genomes of Cl. botulinum show a high level of plasticity. In order to investigate the presence and characteristics of CRISPRs in these anaerobe bacteria, an in silico study on 113 CRISPR arrays identified in 38 Cl. botulinum strains was performed. A high occurrence of CRISPR arrays (80%) were found, with a remarkable frequency on plasmids. Several (CRISPR-associated) Cas proteins from different types were recognized in the studied strains, which were mostly Cas6. The CRISPR-Cas systems were identified as type I or III, but no type II. The spacers showed more homology with bacterial plasmids than phages. Active CRISPR-Cas systems can prevent the transfer of foreign genes, which may also include bont genes. This study provides the first insight into the probable roles of CRISPR-Cas systems in Cl. botulinum strains such as toxigenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A quick guide for building a successful bioinformatics community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Aidan; Corpas, Manuel; Brazas, Michelle D; Fuller, Jonathan C; Goecks, Jeremy; Mulder, Nicola J; Michaut, Magali; Ouellette, B F Francis; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Blomberg, Niklas

    2015-02-01

    "Scientific community" refers to a group of people collaborating together on scientific-research-related activities who also share common goals, interests, and values. Such communities play a key role in many bioinformatics activities. Communities may be linked to a specific location or institute, or involve people working at many different institutions and locations. Education and training is typically an important component of these communities, providing a valuable context in which to develop skills and expertise, while also strengthening links and relationships within the community. Scientific communities facilitate: (i) the exchange and development of ideas and expertise; (ii) career development; (iii) coordinated funding activities; (iv) interactions and engagement with professionals from other fields; and (v) other activities beneficial to individual participants, communities, and the scientific field as a whole. It is thus beneficial at many different levels to understand the general features of successful, high-impact bioinformatics communities; how individual participants can contribute to the success of these communities; and the role of education and training within these communities. We present here a quick guide to building and maintaining a successful, high-impact bioinformatics community, along with an overview of the general benefits of participating in such communities. This article grew out of contributions made by organizers, presenters, panelists, and other participants of the ISMB/ECCB 2013 workshop "The 'How To Guide' for Establishing a Successful Bioinformatics Network" at the 21st Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) and the 12th European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB).

  19. BIOINFORMATICS SOFTWARE FROM INDIA: CURRENT STATUS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti D. Deobagkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics software and visualisation tools have been a key factor in the rapid and phenomenal advances in genomics, proteomics, medicine, drug discovery, systems approaches and in fact in every area of new development. Indian scientists have also made a mark in a few specific areas. India has an advantage of an early start and extensive and organised network in the Bioinformatics education and research with substantial inputs from the Indian government. India has a strong hold in computation and IT and has a pool of bright and young talent with demographic dividend along with experienced and excellent mentors and researchers. Although small in number and scale, Bioinformatics Industry also has a presence and is making its mark in India. There are a number of high throughput and extremely useful resources available which are critical in biological data analysis and interpretation. This has made a paradigm shift in the way research can be carried out and discoveries can be made in any area of biological, biochemical and chemical research. This article summarises the current status and contributions from India in the development of software and web servers for Bioinformatics applications.

  20. Green genes: bioinformatics and systems-biology innovations drive algal biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, M.J.M.F.; Heck, van R.G.A.; Lam, C.M.C.; Scaife, M.A.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Smith, A.G.; Schaap, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of microalgae produce hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other valuable products in significant amounts. However, large-scale production of algal products is not yet competitive against non-renewable alternatives from fossil fuel. Metabolic engineering approaches will help to improve

  1. BioSig: A bioinformatic system for studying the mechanism of intra-cell signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, B.; Cong, G.; Fontenay, G.; Taylor, J.; Henshall, R.; Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    2000-12-15

    Mapping inter-cell signaling pathways requires an integrated view of experimental and informatic protocols. BioSig provides the foundation of cataloging inter-cell responses as a function of particular conditioning, treatment, staining, etc. for either in vivo or in vitro experiments. This paper outlines the system architecture, a functional data model for representing experimental protocols, algorithms for image analysis, and the required statistical analysis. The architecture provides remote shared operation of an inverted optical microscope, and couples instrument operation with images acquisition and annotation. The information is stored in an object-oriented database. The algorithms extract structural information such as morphology and organization, and map it to functional information such as inter-cellular responses. An example of usage of this system is included.

  2. Bioinformatics and microbial biodiversity: analysis of vibrios by the GenEnv system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, A; Santoni, D; Romano Spica, V

    2006-09-01

    Sequence-based approaches to prokaryotic systematics and typing represent a modern and promising strategy in epidemiology and environmental microbiology. GenEnv, a database-driven system for bacterial typing, was developed in order to provide user friendly tools for supporting biomolecular analysis of bacteria. The family Vibrionaceae represents a heterogeneous taxon of aquatic microrganisms, harbouring a plethora of genomes currently analyzed by different molecular techniques. Under the query "Vibrio", GenEnv retrieved 256 organisms, included in a total number of 19 families. Overall, 548 sequences, comprising 16S rRNA (n=402), rpoB (n=1), gyrB (n=145) were available. In addition, GenEnv system allowed primer design, homology analysis and restriction maps, for immediate applications to the study of Vibrionaceae.

  3. Closha: bioinformatics workflow system for the analysis of massive sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, GunHwan; Kim, Pan-Gyu; Yoon, Jongcheol; Han, Gukhee; Park, Seong-Jin; Song, Wangho; Lee, Byungwook

    2018-02-19

    While next-generation sequencing (NGS) costs have fallen in recent years, the cost and complexity of computation remain substantial obstacles to the use of NGS in bio-medical care and genomic research. The rapidly increasing amounts of data available from the new high-throughput methods have made data processing infeasible without automated pipelines. The integration of data and analytic resources into workflow systems provides a solution to the problem by simplifying the task of data analysis. To address this challenge, we developed a cloud-based workflow management system, Closha, to provide fast and cost-effective analysis of massive genomic data. We implemented complex workflows making optimal use of high-performance computing clusters. Closha allows users to create multi-step analyses using drag and drop functionality and to modify the parameters of pipeline tools. Users can also import the Galaxy pipelines into Closha. Closha is a hybrid system that enables users to use both analysis programs providing traditional tools and MapReduce-based big data analysis programs simultaneously in a single pipeline. Thus, the execution of analytics algorithms can be parallelized, speeding up the whole process. We also developed a high-speed data transmission solution, KoDS, to transmit a large amount of data at a fast rate. KoDS has a file transfer speed of up to 10 times that of normal FTP and HTTP. The computer hardware for Closha is 660 CPU cores and 800 TB of disk storage, enabling 500 jobs to run at the same time. Closha is a scalable, cost-effective, and publicly available web service for large-scale genomic data analysis. Closha supports the reliable and highly scalable execution of sequencing analysis workflows in a fully automated manner. Closha provides a user-friendly interface to all genomic scientists to try to derive accurate results from NGS platform data. The Closha cloud server is freely available for use from http://closha.kobic.re.kr/ .

  4. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    cancer immunotherapies has yet to be fulfilled. The insufficient efficacy of existing treatments can be attributed to a number of biological and technical issues. In this review, we detail the current limitations of immunotherapy target selection and design, and review computational methods to streamline...... therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of RNA-like replicator systems: A bioinformatic approach to the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nobuto; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2012-09-01

    We review computational studies on prebiotic evolution, focusing on informatic processes in RNA-like replicator systems. In particular, we consider the following processes: the maintenance of information by replicators with and without interactions, the acquisition of information by replicators having a complex genotype-phenotype map, the generation of information by replicators having a complex genotype-phenotype-interaction map, and the storage of information by replicators serving as dedicated templates. Focusing on these informatic aspects, we review studies on quasi-species, error threshold, RNA-folding genotype-phenotype map, hypercycle, multilevel selection (including spatial self-organization, classical group selection, and compartmentalization), and the origin of DNA-like replicators. In conclusion, we pose a future question for theoretical studies on the origin of life.

  6. Evolutionary Dynamics of RNA-like Replicator Systems: A Bioinformatic Approach to the Origin of Life✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nobuto; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2012-01-01

    We review computational studies on prebiotic evolution, focusing on informatic processes in RNA-like replicator systems. In particular, we consider the following processes: the maintenance of information by replicators with and without interactions, the acquisition of information by replicators having a complex genotype-phenotype map, the generation of information by replicators having a complex genotype-phenotype-interaction map, and the storage of information by replicators serving as dedicated templates. Focusing on these informatic aspects, we review studies on quasi-species, error threshold, RNA-folding genotype-phenotype map, hypercycle, multilevel selection (including spatial self-organization, classical group selection, and compartmentalization), and the origin of DNA-like replicators. In conclusion, we pose a future question for theoretical studies on the origin of life. PMID:22727399

  7. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D

    2015-08-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Editorial overview : Systems biology for biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    About 15 years ago, systems biology was introduced as a novel approach to biological research. On the one side, its introduction was a result of the recognition that through solely the reductionist approach, we would ulti- mately not be able to understand how biological systems function as a whole.

  9. Magnetic Actuation of Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauback, Stephanie D.

    Central to the advancement of many biomedical and nanotechnology capabilities is the capacity to precisely control the motion of micro and nanostructures. These applications range from single molecule experiments to cell isolation and separation, to drug delivery and nanomachine manipulation. This dissertation focuses on actuation of biological micro- and nano-entities through the use of weak external magnetic fields, superparamagnetic beads, and ferromagnetic thin films. The magnetic platform presents an excellent method for actuation of biological systems due to its ability to directly control the motion of an array of micro and nanostructures in real-time with calibrated picoNewton forces. The energy landscape of two ferromagnetic thin film patterns (disks and zigzag wires) is experimentally explored and compared to corresponding theoretical models to quantify the applied forces and trajectories of superparamagnetic beads due to the magnetic traps. A magnetic method to directly actuate DNA nanomachines in real-time with nanometer resolution and sub-second response times using micromagnetic control was implemented through the use of stiff DNA micro-levers which bridged the large length scale mismatch between the micro-actuator and the nanomachine. Compared to current alternative methods which are limited in the actuation speeds and the number of reconfiguration states of DNA constructs, this magnetic approach enables fast actuation (˜ milliseconds) and reconfigurable conformations achieved through a continuous range of finely tuned steps. The system was initially tested through actuation of the stiff arm tethered to the surface, and two prototype DNA nanomachines (rotor and hinge) were successfully actuated using the stiff mechanical lever. These results open new possibilities in the development of functional robotic systems at the molecular scale. In exploiting the use of DNA stiff levers, a new technique was also developed to investigate the emergence of the

  10. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-04-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held on 18th October 2012, at Heidelberg University, Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the 'Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a 'World Café' style event.

  11. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-01-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held in October at Heidelberg University in Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the ‘Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a ‘World Café' style event.

  12. Applicability of Computational Systems Biology in Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning; Hadrup, Niels; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2014-01-01

    be used to establish hypotheses on links between the chemical and human diseases. Such information can also be applied for designing more intelligent animal/cell experiments that can test the established hypotheses. Here, we describe how and why to apply an integrative systems biology method......Systems biology as a research field has emerged within the last few decades. Systems biology, often defined as the antithesis of the reductionist approach, integrates information about individual components of a biological system. In integrative systems biology, large data sets from various sources...... and databases are used to model and predict effects of chemicals on, for instance, human health. In toxicology, computational systems biology enables identification of important pathways and molecules from large data sets; tasks that can be extremely laborious when performed by a classical literature search...

  13. Introducing systems biology for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, Sandra A

    2009-07-01

    Systems biology expands on general systems theory as the "omics'' era rapidly progresses. Although systems biology has been institutionalized as an interdisciplinary framework in the biosciences, it is not yet apparent in nursing. This article introduces systems biology for nursing science by presenting an overview of the theory. This framework for the study of organisms from molecular to environmental levels includes iterations of computational modeling, experimentation, and theory building. Synthesis of complex biological processes as whole systems rather than isolated parts is emphasized. Pros and cons of systems biology are discussed, and relevance of systems biology to nursing is described. Nursing research involving molecular, physiological, or biobehavioral questions may be guided by and contribute to the developing science of systems biology. Nurse scientists can proactively incorporate systems biology into their investigations as a framework for advancing the interdisciplinary science of human health care. Systems biology has the potential to advance the research and practice goals of the National Institute for Nursing Research in the National Institutes of Health Roadmap initiative.

  14. Component-Based Approach for Educating Students in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, D.; Venkatraman, N.; Hansen, C.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an effective method of teaching bioinformatics. Increased progress and availability of computer-based tools for educating students have led to the implementation of a computer-based system for teaching bioinformatics as described in this paper. Bioinformatics is a recent, hybrid field of study combining elements of…

  15. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... computational approaches, about the relation between living and artificial systems, and about the implications of interdisciplinary research for science and society. The entry can be openly accessed at the webpage of the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/systems-synthetic-biology/...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...

  16. What is bioinformatics? A proposed definition and overview of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, N M; Greenbaum, D; Gerstein, M

    2001-01-01

    The recent flood of data from genome sequences and functional genomics has given rise to new field, bioinformatics, which combines elements of biology and computer science. Here we propose a definition for this new field and review some of the research that is being pursued, particularly in relation to transcriptional regulatory systems. Our definition is as follows: Bioinformatics is conceptualizing biology in terms of macromolecules (in the sense of physical-chemistry) and then applying "informatics" techniques (derived from disciplines such as applied maths, computer science, and statistics) to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large-scale. Analyses in bioinformatics predominantly focus on three types of large datasets available in molecular biology: macromolecular structures, genome sequences, and the results of functional genomics experiments (e.g. expression data). Additional information includes the text of scientific papers and "relationship data" from metabolic pathways, taxonomy trees, and protein-protein interaction networks. Bioinformatics employs a wide range of computational techniques including sequence and structural alignment, database design and data mining, macromolecular geometry, phylogenetic tree construction, prediction of protein structure and function, gene finding, and expression data clustering. The emphasis is on approaches integrating a variety of computational methods and heterogeneous data sources. Finally, bioinformatics is a practical discipline. We survey some representative applications, such as finding homologues, designing drugs, and performing large-scale censuses. Additional information pertinent to the review is available over the web at http://bioinfo.mbb.yale.edu/what-is-it.

  17. Introduction to Network Analysis in Systems Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma’ayan, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a problem set for a set of three lectures from a course entitled “Systems Biology: Biomedical Modeling.” The materials are from three separate lectures introducing applications of graph theory and network analysis in systems biology. The first lecture describes different types of intracellular networks, methods for constructing biological networks, and different types of graphs used to represent regulatory intracellular networks. The ...

  18. Deciphering psoriasis. A bioinformatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Juan L; Andrades, Sergi; Arola, Lluís; Romeu, Antoni

    2018-02-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, inflammatory and hyperproliferative disease of the skin and joints. The cause of psoriasis is still unknown. The fundamental feature of the disease is the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and the recruitment of cells from the immune system in the region of the affected skin, which leads to deregulation of many well-known gene expressions. Based on data mining and bioinformatic scripting, here we show a new dimension of the effect of psoriasis at the genomic level. Using our own pipeline of scripts in Perl and MySql and based on the freely available NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database: DataSet Record GDS4602 (Series GSE13355), we explore the extent of the effect of psoriasis on gene expression in the affected tissue. We give greater insight into the effects of psoriasis on the up-regulation of some genes in the cell cycle (CCNB1, CCNA2, CCNE2, CDK1) or the dynamin system (GBPs, MXs, MFN1), as well as the down-regulation of typical antioxidant genes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutases, SOD1-3; and glutathione reductase, GSR). We also provide a complete list of the human genes and how they respond in a state of psoriasis. Our results show that psoriasis affects all chromosomes and many biological functions. If we further consider the stable and mitotically inheritable character of the psoriasis phenotype, and the influence of environmental factors, then it seems that psoriasis has an epigenetic origin. This fit well with the strong hereditary character of the disease as well as its complex genetic background. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological Systems Thinking for Control Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Murray-Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are often quoted in discussions about the contribution of biological systems thinking to engineering design. This paper reviews work on the neuromuscular system, a field in which biological systems thinking could make specific contributions to the development and design of automatic control systems for mechatronics and robotics applications. The paper suggests some specific areas in which a better understanding of this biological control system could be expected to contribute to control engineering design methods in the future. Particular emphasis is given to the nonlinear nature of elements within the neuromuscular system and to processes of neural signal processing, sensing and system adaptivity. Aspects of the biological system that are of particular significance for engineering control systems include sensor fusion, sensor redundancy and parallelism, together with advanced forms of signal processing for adaptive and learning control. 

  20. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-09-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Marine biological data and information management system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.

    Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC) is engaged in developing a marine biological data and information management system (BIODIMS). This system will contain the information on zooplankton in the water column, zoobenthic biomass...

  2. Systems biology in critical-care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallom, Lynn; Thimmesch, Amanda R; Pierce, Janet D

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology applies advances in technology and new fields of study including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to the development of new treatments and approaches of care for the critically ill and injured patient. An understanding of systems biology enhances a nurse's ability to implement evidence-based practice and to educate patients and families on novel testing and therapies. Systems biology is an integrated and holistic view of humans in relationship with the environment. Biomarkers are used to measure the presence and severity of disease and are rapidly expanding in systems biology endeavors. A systems biology approach using predictive, preventive, and participatory involvement is being utilized in a plethora of conditions of critical illness and injury including sepsis, cancer, pulmonary disease, and traumatic injuries.

  3. Plant systems biology: insights, advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-07-01

    Plants dwelling at the base of biological food chain are of fundamental significance in providing solutions to some of the most daunting ecological and environmental problems faced by our planet. The reductionist views of molecular biology provide only a partial understanding to the phenotypic knowledge of plants. Systems biology offers a comprehensive view of plant systems, by employing a holistic approach integrating the molecular data at various hierarchical levels. In this review, we discuss the basics of systems biology including the various 'omics' approaches and their integration, the modeling aspects and the tools needed for the plant systems research. A particular emphasis is given to the recent analytical advances, updated published examples of plant systems biology studies and the future trends.

  4. The Technical and Biological Reproducibility of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS Based Typing: Employment of Bioinformatics in a Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberle

    Full Text Available The technical, biological, and inter-center reproducibility of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS typing data has not yet been explored. The aim of this study is to compare typing data from multiple centers employing bioinformatics using bacterial strains from two past outbreaks and non-related strains.Participants received twelve extended spectrum betalactamase-producing E. coli isolates and followed the same standard operating procedure (SOP including a full-protein extraction protocol. All laboratories provided visually read spectra via flexAnalysis (Bruker, Germany. Raw data from each laboratory allowed calculating the technical and biological reproducibility between centers using BioNumerics (Applied Maths NV, Belgium.Technical and biological reproducibility ranged between 96.8-99.4% and 47.6-94.4%, respectively. The inter-center reproducibility showed a comparable clustering among identical isolates. Principal component analysis indicated a higher tendency to cluster within the same center. Therefore, we used a discriminant analysis, which completely separated the clusters. Next, we defined a reference center and performed a statistical analysis to identify specific peaks to identify the outbreak clusters. Finally, we used a classifier algorithm and a linear support vector machine on the determined peaks as classifier. A validation showed that within the set of the reference center, the identification of the cluster was 100% correct with a large contrast between the score with the correct cluster and the next best scoring cluster.Based on the sufficient technical and biological reproducibility of MALDI-TOF MS based spectra, detection of specific clusters is possible from spectra obtained from different centers. However, we believe that a shared SOP and a bioinformatics approach are required to make the analysis robust and reliable.

  5. Feedback dynamics and cell function: Why systems biology is called Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Mesarovic, Mihajlo

    2005-05-01

    A new paradigm, like Systems Biology, should challenge the way research has been conducted previously. This Opinion article aims to present Systems Biology, not as the application of engineering principles to biology but as a merger of systems- and control theory with molecular- and cell biology. In our view, the central dogma of Systems Biology is that it is system dynamics that gives rise to the functioning and function of cells. The concepts of feedback regulation and control of pathways and the coordination of cell function are emphasized as an important area of Systems Biology research. The hurdles and risks for this area are discussed from the perspective of dynamic pathway modelling. Most of all, the aim of this article is to promote mathematical modelling and simulation as a part of molecular- and cell biology. Systems Biology is a success if it is widely accepted that there is nothing more practical than a good theory.

  6. SYMBIOmatics: Synergies in Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics – exploring current scientific literature for emerging topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhman, Dietrich; Cameron, Graham; Clark, Dominic; van Mulligen, Erik; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Del Hoyo Barbolla, Eva; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Milanesi, Luciano; Porro, Ivan; Beltrame, Francesco; Tollis, Ioannis; Van der Lei, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background The SYMBIOmatics Specific Support Action (SSA) is "an information gathering and dissemination activity" that seeks "to identify synergies between the bioinformatics and the medical informatics" domain to improve collaborative progress between both domains (ref. to ). As part of the project experts in both research fields will be identified and approached through a survey. To provide input to the survey, the scientific literature was analysed to extract topics relevant to both medical informatics and bioinformatics. Results This paper presents results of a systematic analysis of the scientific literature from medical informatics research and bioinformatics research. In the analysis pairs of words (bigrams) from the leading bioinformatics and medical informatics journals have been used as indication of existing and emerging technologies and topics over the period 2000–2005 ("recent") and 1990–1990 ("past"). We identified emerging topics that were equally important to bioinformatics and medical informatics in recent years such as microarray experiments, ontologies, open source, text mining and support vector machines. Emerging topics that evolved only in bioinformatics were system biology, protein interaction networks and statistical methods for microarray analyses, whereas emerging topics in medical informatics were grid technology and tissue microarrays. Conclusion We conclude that although both fields have their own specific domains of interest, they share common technological developments that tend to be initiated by new developments in biotechnology and computer science. PMID:17430562

  7. Dimensionality reduction of bistable biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, A; Nikoloski, Z; Koseska, A

    2013-03-01

    Time hierarchies, arising as a result of interactions between system's components, represent a ubiquitous property of dynamical biological systems. In addition, biological systems have been attributed switch-like properties modulating the response to various stimuli across different organisms and environmental conditions. Therefore, establishing the interplay between these features of system dynamics renders itself a challenging question of practical interest in biology. Existing methods are suitable for systems with one stable steady state employed as a well-defined reference. In such systems, the characterization of the time hierarchies has already been used for determining the components that contribute to the dynamics of biological systems. However, the application of these methods to bistable nonlinear systems is impeded due to their inherent dependence on the reference state, which in this case is no longer unique. Here, we extend the applicability of the reference-state analysis by proposing, analyzing, and applying a novel method, which allows investigation of the time hierarchies in systems exhibiting bistability. The proposed method is in turn used in identifying the components, other than reactions, which determine the systemic dynamical properties. We demonstrate that in biological systems of varying levels of complexity and spanning different biological levels, the method can be effectively employed for model simplification while ensuring preservation of qualitative dynamical properties (i.e., bistability). Finally, by establishing a connection between techniques from nonlinear dynamics and multivariate statistics, the proposed approach provides the basis for extending reference-based analysis to bistable systems.

  8. Genomes, Phylogeny, and Evolutionary Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica

    2005-03-25

    With the completion of the human genome and the growing number of diverse genomes being sequenced, a new age of evolutionary research is currently taking shape. The myriad of technological breakthroughs in biology that are leading to the unification of broad scientific fields such as molecular biology, biochemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science are now known as systems biology. Here I present an overview, with an emphasis on eukaryotes, of how the postgenomics era is adopting comparative approaches that go beyond comparisons among model organisms to shape the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology.

  9. Computational Immunology Meets Bioinformatics: The Use of Prediction Tools for Molecular Binding in the Simulation of the Immune System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, N.; Lund, Ole; Bernaschi, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach to the study of the immune system that combines techniques of systems biology with information provided by data-driven prediction methods. To this end, we have extended an agent-based simulator of the immune response, C-IMMSIM, such that it represents pathogens, as well......-protein potential measurements, for assessing molecular binding in the context of immune complexes. We benchmark the resulting model by simulating a classical immunization experiment that reproduces the development of immune memory. We also investigate the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype...... proliferate more than any other. These results show that the simulator produces dynamics that are stable and consistent with basic immunological knowledge. We believe that the combination of genomic information and simulation of the dynamics of the immune system, in one single tool, can offer new perspectives...

  10. Microbial bioinformatics 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs. The "internet of things" will penetrate healthcare systems, so that even a piece of hospital plumbing might have its own IP address that can be integrated with pathogen genome sequences. Microbiome mania will continue, but the tide will turn from molecular barcoding towards metagenomics. Crowd-sourced analyses will collide with cloud computing, but eternal vigilance will be the price of preventing the misinterpretation and overselling of microbial sequence data. Output from hand-held sequencers will be analysed on mobile devices. Open-source training materials will address the need for the development of a skilled labour force. As we boldly go into the third decade of the twenty-first century, microbial sequence space will remain the final frontier! © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Incorporating Genomics and Bioinformatics across the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditty, Jayna L.; Kvaal, Christopher A.; Goodner, Brad; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Bailey, Cheryl; Britton, Robert A.; Gordon, Stuart G.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Reed, Kelynne; Xu, Zhaohui; Sanders-Lorenz, Erin R.; Axen, Seth; Kim, Edwin; Johns, Mitrick; Scott, Kathleen; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2011-08-01

    Undergraduate life sciences education needs an overhaul, as clearly described in the National Research Council of the National Academies publication BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Among BIO 2010's top recommendations is the need to involve students in working with real data and tools that reflect the nature of life sciences research in the 21st century. Education research studies support the importance of utilizing primary literature, designing and implementing experiments, and analyzing results in the context of a bona fide scientific question in cultivating the analytical skills necessary to become a scientist. Incorporating these basic scientific methodologies in undergraduate education leads to increased undergraduate and post-graduate retention in the sciences. Toward this end, many undergraduate teaching organizations offer training and suggestions for faculty to update and improve their teaching approaches to help students learn as scientists, through design and discovery (e.g., Council of Undergraduate Research [www.cur.org] and Project Kaleidoscope [www.pkal.org]). With the advent of genome sequencing and bioinformatics, many scientists now formulate biological questions and interpret research results in the context of genomic information. Just as the use of bioinformatic tools and databases changed the way scientists investigate problems, it must change how scientists teach to create new opportunities for students to gain experiences reflecting the influence of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics on modern life sciences research. Educators have responded by incorporating bioinformatics into diverse life science curricula. While these published exercises in, and guidelines for, bioinformatics curricula are helpful and inspirational, faculty new to the area of bioinformatics inevitably need training in the theoretical underpinnings of the algorithms. Moreover, effectively integrating bioinformatics

  12. Decarboxylation mechanisms in biological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingfeng; Huo, Lu; Pulley, Christopher; Liu, Aimin

    2012-08-01

    This review examines the mechanisms propelling cofactor-independent, organic cofactor-dependent and metal-dependent decarboxylase chemistry. Decarboxylation, the removal of carbon dioxide from organic acids, is a fundamentally important reaction in biology. Numerous decarboxylase enzymes serve as key components of aerobic and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid conversion. In the past decade, our knowledge of the mechanisms enabling these crucial decarboxylase reactions has continued to expand and inspire. This review focuses on the organic cofactors biotin, flavin, NAD, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyruvoyl, and thiamin pyrophosphate as catalytic centers. Significant attention is also placed on the metal-dependent decarboxylase mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concepts Of Bioinformatics And Its Application In Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioinformatics has advanced the course of research and future veterinary vaccines development because it has provided new tools for identification of vaccine targets from sequenced biological data of organisms. In Nigeria, there is lack of bioinformatics training in the universities, expect for short training courses in which ...

  15. Assessment of a Bioinformatics across Life Science Curricula Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Abler, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, we have undertaken a program to integrate the study of bioinformatics across the undergraduate life science curricula. Our efforts have included incorporating bioinformatics exercises into courses in the biology, microbiology, and chemistry departments, as well as coordinating the efforts of faculty within…

  16. Evaluating an Inquiry-Based Bioinformatics Course Using Q Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlo, Susan E.; McConnell, David; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Moore, Francisco B.

    2008-01-01

    Faculty at a Midwestern metropolitan public university recently developed a course on bioinformatics that emphasized collaboration and inquiry. Bioinformatics, essentially the application of computational tools to biological data, is inherently interdisciplinary. Thus part of the challenge of creating this course was serving the needs and…

  17. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...

  18. A Survey of Scholarly Literature Describing the Field of Bioinformatics Education and Bioinformatics Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Alejandra J.; Taleyarkhan, Manaz; Alvarado, Daniela Rivera; Kane, Michael; Springer, John; Clase, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics education can be broadly defined as the teaching and learning of the use of computer and information technology, along with mathematical and statistical analysis for gathering, storing, analyzing, interpreting, and integrating data to solve biological problems. The recent surge of genomics, proteomics, and structural biology in the…

  19. 'Systems biology' in human exercise physiology: is it something different from integrative physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaff, Paul L; Hargreaves, Mark

    2011-03-01

    On first impression the 'whole-istic approach to understanding biology' that has been used to describe Systems Biology bears a striking resemblance to what many of us know as Integrative Physiology. However, closer scrutiny reveals that at the present time Systems Biology is rooted in processes operating at a cellular level ('the study of an organism, viewed as an integrated and interacting network of genes, proteins and biochemical reactions which give rise to life ultimately responsible for an organism's form and functions'; http://www.systemsbiology.org), and appears to have evolved as a direct result of advances in high throughput molecular biology platforms (and associated bioinformatics) over the past decade. The Systems Biology approach is in many ways laudable, but it will be immediately apparent to most exercise or integrative physiologists that the challenge of understanding the whole-animal response to exercise as a network of integrated and interacting genes, proteins and biochemical reactions is unlikely to be realized in the near future. This short review will attempt to clarify conceptual inconsistencies between the fields of Systems Biology and Integrative Physiology in the context of exercise science, and will attempt to identify the challenges to whole-body physiologists wishing to harness the tools of Systems Biology.

  20. Metabolic systems biology: a brief primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M

    2017-05-01

    In the early to mid-20th century, reductionism as a concept in biology was challenged by key thinkers, including Ludwig von Bertalanffy. He proposed that living organisms were specific examples of complex systems and, as such, they should display characteristics including hierarchical organisation and emergent behaviour. Yet the true study of complete biological systems (for example, metabolism) was not possible until technological advances that occurred 60 years later. Technology now exists that permits the measurement of complete levels of the biological hierarchy, for example the genome and transcriptome. The complexity and scale of these data require computational models for their interpretation. The combination of these - systems thinking, high-dimensional data and computation - defines systems biology, typically accompanied by some notion of iterative model refinement. Only sequencing-based technologies, however, offer full coverage. Other 'omics' platforms trade coverage for sensitivity, although the densely connected nature of biological networks suggests that full coverage may not be necessary. Systems biology models are often characterised as either 'bottom-up' (mechanistic) or 'top-down' (statistical). This distinction can mislead, as all models rely on data and all are, to some degree, 'middle-out'. Systems biology has matured as a discipline, and its methods are commonplace in many laboratories. However, many challenges remain, especially those related to large-scale data integration. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  1. An engineering design approach to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Kevin A; Chandran, Preethi L; Ford, Roseanne M; Lazzara, Matthew J; Papin, Jason A; Peirce, Shayn M; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2017-07-17

    Measuring and modeling the integrated behavior of biomolecular-cellular networks is central to systems biology. Over several decades, systems biology has been shaped by quantitative biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and engineers in different ways. However, the basic and applied versions of systems biology are not typically distinguished, which blurs the separate aspirations of the field and its potential for real-world impact. Here, we articulate an engineering approach to systems biology, which applies educational philosophy, engineering design, and predictive models to solve contemporary problems in an age of biomedical Big Data. A concerted effort to train systems bioengineers will provide a versatile workforce capable of tackling the diverse challenges faced by the biotechnological and pharmaceutical sectors in a modern, information-dense economy.

  2. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  3. "Extreme Programming" in a Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott; Alger, Christianna; Deutschman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The importance of Bioinformatics tools and methodology in modern biological research underscores the need for robust and effective courses at the college level. This paper describes such a course designed on the principles of cooperative learning based on a computer software industry production model called "Extreme Programming" (EP).…

  4. Bioinformatics in Undergraduate Education: Practical Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Bioinformatics has emerged as an important research tool in recent years. The ability to mine large databases for relevant information has become increasingly central to many different aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology. It is important that undergraduates be introduced to the available information and methodologies. We present a…

  5. A framework for evolutionary systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Laurence

    2009-02-24

    Many difficult problems in evolutionary genomics are related to mutations that have weak effects on fitness, as the consequences of mutations with large effects are often simple to predict. Current systems biology has accumulated much data on mutations with large effects and can predict the properties of knockout mutants in some systems. However experimental methods are too insensitive to observe small effects. Here I propose a novel framework that brings together evolutionary theory and current systems biology approaches in order to quantify small effects of mutations and their epistatic interactions in silico. Central to this approach is the definition of fitness correlates that can be computed in some current systems biology models employing the rigorous algorithms that are at the core of much work in computational systems biology. The framework exploits synergies between the realism of such models and the need to understand real systems in evolutionary theory. This framework can address many longstanding topics in evolutionary biology by defining various 'levels' of the adaptive landscape. Addressed topics include the distribution of mutational effects on fitness, as well as the nature of advantageous mutations, epistasis and robustness. Combining corresponding parameter estimates with population genetics models raises the possibility of testing evolutionary hypotheses at a new level of realism. EvoSysBio is expected to lead to a more detailed understanding of the fundamental principles of life by combining knowledge about well-known biological systems from several disciplines. This will benefit both evolutionary theory and current systems biology. Understanding robustness by analysing distributions of mutational effects and epistasis is pivotal for drug design, cancer research, responsible genetic engineering in synthetic biology and many other practical applications.

  6. A quick guide for building a successful bioinformatics community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Budd

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available "Scientific community" refers to a group of people collaborating together on scientific-research-related activities who also share common goals, interests, and values. Such communities play a key role in many bioinformatics activities. Communities may be linked to a specific location or institute, or involve people working at many different institutions and locations. Education and training is typically an important component of these communities, providing a valuable context in which to develop skills and expertise, while also strengthening links and relationships within the community. Scientific communities facilitate: (i the exchange and development of ideas and expertise; (ii career development; (iii coordinated funding activities; (iv interactions and engagement with professionals from other fields; and (v other activities beneficial to individual participants, communities, and the scientific field as a whole. It is thus beneficial at many different levels to understand the general features of successful, high-impact bioinformatics communities; how individual participants can contribute to the success of these communities; and the role of education and training within these communities. We present here a quick guide to building and maintaining a successful, high-impact bioinformatics community, along with an overview of the general benefits of participating in such communities. This article grew out of contributions made by organizers, presenters, panelists, and other participants of the ISMB/ECCB 2013 workshop "The 'How To Guide' for Establishing a Successful Bioinformatics Network" at the 21st Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB and the 12th European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB.

  7. A Quick Guide for Building a Successful Bioinformatics Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Aidan; Corpas, Manuel; Brazas, Michelle D.; Fuller, Jonathan C.; Goecks, Jeremy; Mulder, Nicola J.; Michaut, Magali; Ouellette, B. F. Francis; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Blomberg, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    “Scientific community” refers to a group of people collaborating together on scientific-research-related activities who also share common goals, interests, and values. Such communities play a key role in many bioinformatics activities. Communities may be linked to a specific location or institute, or involve people working at many different institutions and locations. Education and training is typically an important component of these communities, providing a valuable context in which to develop skills and expertise, while also strengthening links and relationships within the community. Scientific communities facilitate: (i) the exchange and development of ideas and expertise; (ii) career development; (iii) coordinated funding activities; (iv) interactions and engagement with professionals from other fields; and (v) other activities beneficial to individual participants, communities, and the scientific field as a whole. It is thus beneficial at many different levels to understand the general features of successful, high-impact bioinformatics communities; how individual participants can contribute to the success of these communities; and the role of education and training within these communities. We present here a quick guide to building and maintaining a successful, high-impact bioinformatics community, along with an overview of the general benefits of participating in such communities. This article grew out of contributions made by organizers, presenters, panelists, and other participants of the ISMB/ECCB 2013 workshop “The ‘How To Guide’ for Establishing a Successful Bioinformatics Network” at the 21st Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) and the 12th European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB). PMID:25654371

  8. Bioinformatics Training Network (BTN): a community resource for bioinformatics trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria V; Walter, Peter; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Watson, James; Brazas, Michelle D; Rother, Kristian; Budd, Aidan; Via, Allegra; van Gelder, Celia W G; Jacob, Joachim; Fernandes, Pedro; Nyrönen, Tommi H; De Las Rivas, Javier; Blicher, Thomas; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; McDowall, Jennifer; Jones, Phil; Vaughan, Brendan W; Lopez, Rodrigo; Attwood, Teresa K; Brooksbank, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Funding bodies are increasingly recognizing the need to provide graduates and researchers with access to short intensive courses in a variety of disciplines, in order both to improve the general skills base and to provide solid foundations on which researchers may build their careers. In response to the development of 'high-throughput biology', the need for training in the field of bioinformatics, in particular, is seeing a resurgence: it has been defined as a key priority by many Institutions and research programmes and is now an important component of many grant proposals. Nevertheless, when it comes to planning and preparing to meet such training needs, tension arises between the reward structures that predominate in the scientific community which compel individuals to publish or perish, and the time that must be devoted to the design, delivery and maintenance of high-quality training materials. Conversely, there is much relevant teaching material and training expertise available worldwide that, were it properly organized, could be exploited by anyone who needs to provide training or needs to set up a new course. To do this, however, the materials would have to be centralized in a database and clearly tagged in relation to target audiences, learning objectives, etc. Ideally, they would also be peer reviewed, and easily and efficiently accessible for downloading. Here, we present the Bioinformatics Training Network (BTN), a new enterprise that has been initiated to address these needs and review it, respectively, to similar initiatives and collections.

  9. A Philosophical Perspective on Evolutionary Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Soyer, Orkun S; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) is an emerging hybrid approach that integrates methods, models, and data from evolutionary and systems biology. Drawing on themes that arose at a cross-disciplinary meeting on ESB in 2013, we discuss in detail some of the explanatory friction that arises in the interaction between evolutionary and systems biology. These tensions appear because of different modeling approaches, diverse explanatory aims and strategies, and divergent views about the scope of the evolutionary synthesis. We locate these discussions in the context of long-running philosophical deliberations on explanation, modeling, and theoretical synthesis. We show how many of the issues central to ESB's progress can be understood as general philosophical problems. The benefits of addressing these philosophical issues feed back into philosophy too, because ESB provides excellent examples of scientific practice for the development of philosophy of science and philosophy of biology.

  10. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre G. de Brevern

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries.

  11. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries.

  12. Bioinformatics meets user-centred design: a perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Pavelin

    Full Text Available Designers have a saying that "the joy of an early release lasts but a short time. The bitterness of an unusable system lasts for years." It is indeed disappointing to discover that your data resources are not being used to their full potential. Not only have you invested your time, effort, and research grant on the project, but you may face costly redesigns if you want to improve the system later. This scenario would be less likely if the product was designed to provide users with exactly what they need, so that it is fit for purpose before its launch. We work at EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI, and we consult extensively with life science researchers to find out what they need from biological data resources. We have found that although users believe that the bioinformatics community is providing accurate and valuable data, they often find the interfaces to these resources tricky to use and navigate. We believe that if you can find out what your users want even before you create the first mock-up of a system, the final product will provide a better user experience. This would encourage more people to use the resource and they would have greater access to the data, which could ultimately lead to more scientific discoveries. In this paper, we explore the need for a user-centred design (UCD strategy when designing bioinformatics resources and illustrate this with examples from our work at EMBL-EBI. Our aim is to introduce the reader to how selected UCD techniques may be successfully applied to software design for bioinformatics.

  13. Systems biology: leading the revolution in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J

    2011-02-01

    The rapid development of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics (Omics) are changing the way ecotoxicology is practiced. The data deluge has begun with genomes of over 65 different aquatic species that are currently being sequenced, and many times that number with at least some level of transcriptome sequencing. Integrating these top-down methodologies is an essential task in the field of systems biology. Systems biology is a biology-based interdisciplinary field that focuses on complex interactions in biological systems, with the intent to model and discover emergent properties of the system. Recent studies demonstrate that Omics technologies provide valuable insight into ecotoxicity, both in laboratory exposures with model organisms and with animals exposed in the field. However, these approaches require a context of the whole animal and population to be relevant. Powerful approaches using reverse engineering to determine interacting networks of genes, proteins, or biochemical reactions are uncovering unique responses to toxicants. Modeling efforts in aquatic animals are evolving to interrelate the interacting networks of a system and the flow of information linking these elements. Just as is happening in medicine, systems biology approaches that allow the integration of many different scales of interaction and information are already driving a revolution in understanding the impacts of pollutants on aquatic systems. © 2010 SETAC.

  14. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy of biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Nicolau

    1995-01-01

    This book is intended to provide an in-depth understanding of 13C NMR as a tool in biological research. 13C NMR has provided unique information concerning complex biological systems, from proteins and nucleic acids to animals and humans. The subjects addressed include multidimensional heteronuclear techniques for structural studies of molecules in the liquid and solid states, the investigation of interactions in model membranes, the elucidation of metabolic pathwaysin vitro and in vivo on animals, and noninvasive metabolic studies performed on humans. The book is a unique mix of NMR methods and biological applications which makes it a convenient reference for those interested in research in this interdisciplinary area of physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.Key Features* An interdisciplinary text with emphasis on both 13C NMR methodology and the relevant biological and biomedical issues* State-of-the-art 13C NMR techniques are described; Whenever possible, their advantages over other approaches are empha...

  15. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...

  16. Integrative Systems Biology Visualization with MAYDAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonsy Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is pivotal for gaining insight in systems biology data. As the size and complexity of datasets and supplemental information increases, an efficient, integrated framework for general and specialized views is necessary. MAYDAY is an application for analysis and visualization of general ‘omics’ data. It follows a trifold approach for data visualization, consisting of flexible data preprocessing, highly customizable data perspective plots for general purpose visualization and systems based plots. Here, we introduce two new systems biology visualization tools for MAYDAY. Efficiently implemented genomic viewers allow the display of variables associated with genomic locations. Multiple variables can be viewed using our new track-based ChromeTracks tool. A functional perspective is provided by visualizing metabolic pathways either in KEGG or BioPax format. Multiple options of displaying pathway components are available, including Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN glyphs. Furthermore, pathways can be viewed together with gene expression data either as heatmaps or profiles.

  17. Statistical Model Checking for Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Model Checking (SMC) is a highly scalable simulation-based verification approach for testing and estimating the probability that a stochastic system satisfies a given linear temporal property. The technique has been applied to (discrete and continuous time) Markov chains, stochastic...... timed automata and most recently hybrid systems using the tool Uppaal SMC. In this paper we enable the application of SMC to complex biological systems, by combining Uppaal SMC with ANIMO, a plugin of the tool Cytoscape used by biologists, as well as with SimBiology®, a plugin of Matlab to simulate...

  18. Applying Instructional Design Theories to Bioinformatics Education in Microarray Analysis and Primer Design Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachak, Aviv; Ophir, Ron; Rubin, Eitan

    2005-01-01

    The need to support bioinformatics training has been widely recognized by scientists, industry, and government institutions. However, the discussion of instructional methods for teaching bioinformatics is only beginning. Here we report on a systematic attempt to design two bioinformatics workshops for graduate biology students on the basis of…

  19. Update in research and methods in proteomics and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharit, Sompop; Border, Michael B; Edelmann, Alex; Byrd, Warren C

    2013-10-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics (Proteomics 2013) Philadelphia, PA, USA, 15-17 July 2013 The Third International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics (Proteomics 2013) was sponsored by the OMICS group and was organized in order to strengthen the future of proteomics science by bringing together professionals, researchers and scholars from leading universities across the globe. The main topics of this conference included the integration of novel platforms in data analysis, the use of a systems biology approach, different novel mass spectrometry platforms and biomarker discovery methods. The conference was divided into proteomic methods and research interests. Among these two categories, interactions between methods in proteomics and bioinformatics, as well as other research methodologies, were discussed. Exceptional topics from the keynote forum, oral presentations and the poster session have been highlighted. The topics range from new techniques for analyzing proteomics data, to new models designed to help better understand genetic variations to the differences in the salivary proteomes of HIV-infected patients.

  20. JSBML 1.0: providing a smorgasbord of options to encode systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nicolas; Thomas, Alex; Watanabe, Leandro; Vazirabad, Ibrahim Y; Kofia, Victor; Gómez, Harold F; Mittag, Florian; Matthes, Jakob; Rudolph, Jan; Wrzodek, Finja; Netz, Eugen; Diamantikos, Alexander; Eichner, Johannes; Keller, Roland; Wrzodek, Clemens; Fröhlich, Sebastian; Lewis, Nathan E; Myers, Chris J; Le Novère, Nicolas; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Hucka, Michael; Dräger, Andreas

    2015-10-15

    JSBML, the official pure Java programming library for the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) format, has evolved with the advent of different modeling formalisms in systems biology and their ability to be exchanged and represented via extensions of SBML. JSBML has matured into a major, active open-source project with contributions from a growing, international team of developers who not only maintain compatibility with SBML, but also drive steady improvements to the Java interface and promote ease-of-use with end users. Source code, binaries and documentation for JSBML can be freely obtained under the terms of the LGPL 2.1 from the website http://sbml.org/Software/JSBML. More information about JSBML can be found in the user guide at http://sbml.org/Software/JSBML/docs/. jsbml-development@googlegroups.com or andraeger@eng.ucsd.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Is there room for ethics within bioinformatics education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneri, Bahar

    2011-07-01

    When bioinformatics education is considered, several issues are addressed. At the undergraduate level, the main issue revolves around conveying information from two main and different fields: biology and computer science. At the graduate level, the main issue is bridging the gap between biology students and computer science students. However, there is an educational component that is rarely addressed within the context of bioinformatics education: the ethics component. Here, a different perspective is provided on bioinformatics education, and the current status of ethics is analyzed within the existing bioinformatics programs. Analysis of the existing undergraduate and graduate programs, in both Europe and the United States, reveals the minimal attention given to ethics within bioinformatics education. Given that bioinformaticians speedily and effectively shape the biomedical sciences and hence their implications for society, here redesigning of the bioinformatics curricula is suggested in order to integrate the necessary ethics education. Unique ethical problems awaiting bioinformaticians and bioinformatics ethics as a separate field of study are discussed. In addition, a template for an "Ethics in Bioinformatics" course is provided.

  2. Photosynthetic system as a biological functional element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, E.A.; Zakhidova, M.A.; Kasymdzhanov, M.A.; Kurbanov, S.S.; Nematov, Sh.K.; Khabibullaev, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic apparatus of high plants and photosynthetic bacteria is essentially autonomic system in terms of genetics and structural -functional properties located in specific medium, a bio-membrane. Processes of light absorption and exciton migration in light harvesting antenna, separation and further transfer of charges in reaction centers have specific features, which may be used for application of these objects as key elements in construction of future biological functional elements. Progress in study and genetic modification of photosynthetic membranes achieved during the last decade opens great prospects in development biological functional elements and systems. The main characteristics of photosynthetic system for these purposes are: (i) energy conversion processes in the first light phase of the photosynthesis have very short periods, up to picoseconds, which indicates possibility of creation of ultrafast functional elements on their basis; (ii) characteristics sizes of photosynthetic units, 10-100 nm, and possibility to arrange regularly disposed elements in relevant membranes could be prospective point for creation of nano structures and on their basis relevant biologic functional elements; (iii) elements based on modified photosynthetic apparatus and bio-membranes might be efficiently created by methods of gene engineering and manipulation, that open huge opportunities for development of read biological functional systems. In the paper structural-functional properties and characteristics of high plants and purple photosynthetic bacteria, which may be useful for creation of future biological functional elements are considered. (author)

  3. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  4. Evolution of web services in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerincx, Pieter B T; Leunissen, Jack A M

    2005-06-01

    Bioinformaticians have developed large collections of tools to make sense of the rapidly growing pool of molecular biological data. Biological systems tend to be complex and in order to understand them, it is often necessary to link many data sets and use more than one tool. Therefore, bioinformaticians have experimented with several strategies to try to integrate data sets and tools. Owing to the lack of standards for data sets and the interfaces of the tools this is not a trivial task. Over the past few years building services with web-based interfaces has become a popular way of sharing the data and tools that have resulted from many bioinformatics projects. This paper discusses the interoperability problem and how web services are being used to try to solve it, resulting in the evolution of tools with web interfaces from HTML/web form-based tools not suited for automatic workflow generation to a dynamic network of XML-based web services that can easily be used to create pipelines.

  5. Discovery of Chemical Toxicity via Biological Networks and Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Habib, Tanwir; Guan, Xin; Escalon, Barbara; Falciani, Francesco; Chipman, J.K.; Antczak, Philipp; Edwards, Stephen; Taylor, Ronald C.; Vulpe, Chris; Loguinov, Alexandre; Van Aggelen, Graham; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia

    2010-09-30

    Both soldiers and animals are exposed to many chemicals as the result of military activities. Tools are needed to understand the hazards and risks that chemicals and new materials pose to soldiers and the environment. We have investigated the potential of global gene regulatory networks in understanding the impact of chemicals on reproduction. We characterized effects of chemicals on ovaries of the model animal system, the Fathead minnow (Pimopheles promelas) connecting chemical impacts on gene expression to circulating blood levels of the hormones testosterone and estradiol in addition to the egg yolk protein vitellogenin. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional gene expression data to characterize chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis that governs reproduction in fathead minnows. The construction of global gene regulatory networks provides deep insights into how drugs and chemicals effect key organs and biological pathways.

  6. Heavy ion action on biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, J. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Radiologie; Brend`amour, M. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Radiologie; Stoll, U. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Radiologie

    1996-02-01

    Life is governed by molecular processes, particularly involving the expression and conservation of genetic information. Heavy ions deposit large amount of energy at very small scale comparable to the essential molecular structures of biological systems. This paper illustrates the special aspects of heavy ion radiobiology from a fundamental point of view. After a short summary of the structure and function of biological systems, concentrating on the cell and its constituents, the pattern of energy deposition by heavy ions is discussed. Experimental examples are the induction of molecular changes in deoxyribonucleic acid, cell killing and the formation of mutations. It is shown that a close link exists between the physical parameters and the inactivation of biological functions that is not restricted to direct particle traversals but may also be brought about by the action of far-reaching secondary electrons. (orig.).

  7. Relax with CouchDB - Into the non-relational DBMS era of Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyam, Ganiraju; Payton, Michelle A.; Roth, Jack A.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Coombes, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of high-throughput technologies, genome-level data analysis has become common in molecular biology. Bioinformaticians are developing extensive resources to annotate and mine biological features from high-throughput data. The underlying database management systems for most bioinformatics software are based on a relational model. Modern non-relational databases offer an alternative that has flexibility, scalability, and a non-rigid design schema. Moreover, with an accelerated development pace, non-relational databases like CouchDB can be ideal tools to construct bioinformatics utilities. We describe CouchDB by presenting three new bioinformatics resources: (a) geneSmash, which collates data from bioinformatics resources and provides automated gene-centric annotations, (b) drugBase, a database of drug-target interactions with a web interface powered by geneSmash, and (c) HapMap-CN, which provides a web interface to query copy number variations from three SNP-chip HapMap datasets. In addition to the web sites, all three systems can be accessed programmatically via web services. PMID:22609849

  8. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  9. LXtoo: an integrated live Linux distribution for the bioinformatics community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangchuang; Wang, Li-Gen; Meng, Xiao-Hua; He, Qing-Yu

    2012-07-19

    Recent advances in high-throughput technologies dramatically increase biological data generation. However, many research groups lack computing facilities and specialists. This is an obstacle that remains to be addressed. Here, we present a Linux distribution, LXtoo, to provide a flexible computing platform for bioinformatics analysis. Unlike most of the existing live Linux distributions for bioinformatics limiting their usage to sequence analysis and protein structure prediction, LXtoo incorporates a comprehensive collection of bioinformatics software, including data mining tools for microarray and proteomics, protein-protein interaction analysis, and computationally complex tasks like molecular dynamics. Moreover, most of the programs have been configured and optimized for high performance computing. LXtoo aims to provide well-supported computing environment tailored for bioinformatics research, reducing duplication of efforts in building computing infrastructure. LXtoo is distributed as a Live DVD and freely available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/LXtoo.

  10. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Jeffery J

    2015-03-17

    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  11. Studies on Semantic Systems Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Current "one disease, one target and one drug" drug development paradigm is under question as relatively few drugs have reached the market in the last two decades. Increasingly research focus is being placed on the study of drug action against biological systems as a whole rather than against a single component (called "Systems…

  12. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  13. Nutritional Systems Biology: Definitions and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    waiting for a predictive knowledge of genetic variation. It is widely recognized that systems and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how nutrition influences metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this regulation is disturbed in a diet-related disease, and to what extent...... individual genotypes contribute to such diseases....

  14. How do biological systems escape 'chaotic' state?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B J Rao

    2018-02-13

    Feb 13, 2018 ... triggering 'escape from homeostasis' (Nijhout et al. 2014) where phenotypes begin to become less stable and eventually turn into fully unstable state, the start of 'chaos' in a system. Therefore, the key to biological designs is to stay close to or within the 'homeostatic plateau' and resist drifting into 'chaos'.

  15. Notions of radiation chemistry in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del.

    1989-10-01

    The present paper examines some aspects of the direct and indirect biological radiation effects: pair formation, free radicals, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, oxygen singlet together with the endogen radioprotector mechanisms of organisms and the ways in which an improved radioresistance of biochemical systems can be achieved. (author) [pt

  16. Quantifying electron transfer reactions in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjulstok, Emil Sjulstok; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2015-01-01

    to deduce the driving force for the electron transfer reaction and to establish those interactions that play the major role in propelling the electron. The suggested approach is seen as a general recipe to treat electron transfer events in biological systems computationally, and we utilize it to describe...

  17. Micromechanics of engineered and biological systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microsystems are good examples of integrated engineered systems of small size. Although this .... In develop- mental biology, the application of controlled forces on growing embryos is shown to help in under- standing ..... Optimization is a useful tool for synthesis. Many optimal synthesis methods have been developed for.

  18. Genomewide effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in macrophages and dendritic cells--revealing complexity through systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaranta-Monroy, Ixchelt; Kiss, Mate; Simandi, Zoltan; Nagy, Laszlo

    2015-09-01

    Systems biology approaches have become indispensable tools in biomedical and basic research. These data integrating bioinformatic methods gained prominence after high-throughput technologies became available to investigate complex cellular processes, such as transcriptional regulation and protein-protein interactions, on a scale that had not been studied before. Immunology is one of the medical fields that systems biology impacted profoundly due to the plasticity of cell types involved and the accessibility of a wide range of experimental models. In this review, we summarize the most important recent genomewide studies exploring the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in macrophages and dendritic cells. PPARγ ChIP-seq experiments were performed in adipocytes derived from embryonic stem cells to complement the existing data sets and to provide comparators to macrophage data. Finally, lists of regulated genes generated from such experiments were analysed with bioinformatics and system biology approaches. We show that genomewide studies utilizing high-throughput data acquisition methods made it possible to gain deeper insights into the role of PPARγ in these immune cell types. We also demonstrate that analysis and visualization of data using network-based approaches can be used to identify novel genes and functions regulated by the receptor. The example of PPARγ in macrophages and dendritic cells highlights the crucial importance of systems biology approaches in establishing novel cellular functions for long-known signaling pathways. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Complex Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Hans Peter

    2008-01-01

    To understand complex biological systems such as cells, tissues, or even the human body, it is not sufficient to identify and characterize the individual molecules in the system. It also is necessary to obtain a thorough understanding of the interaction between molecules and pathways. This is even truer for understanding complex diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, or alcoholism. With recent technological advances enabling researchers to monitor complex cellular processes on the mole...

  20. Visualizing dimensionality reduction of systems biology data

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Andreas; Huber, Michael; Polatkan, Aydin C.; Pritzkau, Albert; Nieselt, Kay

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges in analyzing high-dimensional expression data is the detection of important biological signals. A common approach is to apply a dimension reduction method, such as principal component analysis. Typically, after application of such a method the data is projected and visualized in the new coordinate system, using scatter plots or profile plots. These methods provide good results if the data have certain properties which become visible in the new coordinate system and which...

  1. Temporal Patterns in Sheep Fetal Heart Rate Variability Correlate to Systemic Cytokine Inflammatory Response: A Methodological Exploration of Monitoring Potential Using Complex Signals Bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe L Herry

    Full Text Available Fetal inflammation is associated with increased risk for postnatal organ injuries. No means of early detection exist. We hypothesized that systemic fetal inflammation leads to distinct alterations of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV. We tested this hypothesis deploying a novel series of approaches from complex signals bioinformatics. In chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep, we induced an inflammatory response with lipopolysaccharide (LPS injected intravenously (n = 10 observing it over 54 hours; seven additional fetuses served as controls. Fifty-one fHRV measures were determined continuously every 5 minutes using Continuous Individualized Multi-organ Variability Analysis (CIMVA. CIMVA creates an fHRV measures matrix across five signal-analytical domains, thus describing complementary properties of fHRV. We implemented, validated and tested methodology to obtain a subset of CIMVA fHRV measures that matched best the temporal profile of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. In the LPS group, IL-6 peaked at 3 hours. For the LPS, but not control group, a sharp increase in standardized difference in variability with respect to baseline levels was observed between 3 h and 6 h abating to baseline levels, thus tracking closely the IL-6 inflammatory profile. We derived fHRV inflammatory index (FII consisting of 15 fHRV measures reflecting the fetal inflammatory response with prediction accuracy of 90%. Hierarchical clustering validated the selection of 14 out of 15 fHRV measures comprising FII. We developed methodology to identify a distinctive subset of fHRV measures that tracks inflammation over time. The broader potential of this bioinformatics approach is discussed to detect physiological responses encoded in HRV measures.

  2. Concepts and introduction to RNA bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Ruzzo, Walter L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA bioinformatics and computational RNA biology have emerged from implementing methods for predicting the secondary structure of single sequences. The field has evolved to exploit multiple sequences to take evolutionary information into account, such as compensating (and structure preserving) base...... changes. These methods have been developed further and applied for computational screens of genomic sequence. Furthermore, a number of additional directions have emerged. These include methods to search for RNA 3D structure, RNA-RNA interactions, and design of interfering RNAs (RNAi) as well as methods...... for interactions between RNA and proteins.Here, we introduce the basic concepts of predicting RNA secondary structure relevant to the further analyses of RNA sequences. We also provide pointers to methods addressing various aspects of RNA bioinformatics and computational RNA biology....

  3. Systems biology of vaccination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisingham, Sai S; Rouphael, Nadine; Cavanagh, Mary M; Nakaya, Helder I; Goronzy, Jorg J; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Aging population demographics, combined with suboptimal vaccine responses in the elderly, make the improvement of vaccination strategies in the elderly a developing public health issue. The immune system changes with age, with innate and adaptive cell components becoming increasingly dysfunctional. As such, vaccine responses in the elderly are impaired in ways that differ depending on the type of vaccine (e.g., live attenuated, polysaccharide, conjugate, or subunit) and the mediators of protection (e.g., antibody and/or T cell). The rapidly progressing field of systems biology has been shown to be useful in predicting immunogenicity and offering insights into potential mechanisms of protection in young adults. Future application of systems biology to vaccination in the elderly may help to identify gene signatures that predict suboptimal responses and help to identify more accurate correlates of protection. Moreover, the identification of specific defects may be used to target novel vaccination strategies that improve efficacy in elderly populations.

  4. Measuring cell identity in noisy biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Kussell, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression measurements are increasingly obtained as a function of cell type, spatial position within a tissue and other biologically meaningful coordinates. Such data should enable quantitative analysis of the cell-type specificity of gene expression, but such analyses can often be confounded by the presence of noise. We introduce a specificity measure Spec that quantifies the information in a gene's complete expression profile regarding any given cell type, and an uncertainty measure dSpec, which measures the effect of noise on specificity. Using global gene expression data from the mouse brain, plant root and human white blood cells, we show that Spec identifies genes with variable expression levels that are nonetheless highly specific of particular cell types. When samples from different individuals are used, dSpec measures genes’ transcriptional plasticity in each cell type. Our approach is broadly applicable to mapped gene expression measurements in stem cell biology, developmental biology, cancer biology and biomarker identification. As an example of such applications, we show that Spec identifies a new class of biomarkers, which exhibit variable expression without compromising specificity. The approach provides a unifying theoretical framework for quantifying specificity in the presence of noise, which is widely applicable across diverse biological systems. PMID:21803789

  5. Development of Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Genomics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Nicola J; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Adebiyi, Marion; Adeyemi, Seun; Ahmed, Azza; Ahmed, Rehab; Akanle, Bola; Alibi, Mohamed; Armstrong, Don L; Aron, Shaun; Ashano, Efejiro; Baichoo, Shakuntala; Benkahla, Alia; Brown, David K; Chimusa, Emile R; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Falola, Dare; Fatumo, Segun; Ghedira, Kais; Ghouila, Amel; Hazelhurst, Scott; Isewon, Itunuoluwa; Jung, Segun; Kassim, Samar Kamal; Kayondo, Jonathan K; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Meintjes, Ayton; Mohammed, Somia; Mosaku, Abayomi; Moussa, Ahmed; Muhammd, Mustafa; Mungloo-Dilmohamud, Zahra; Nashiru, Oyekanmi; Odia, Trust; Okafor, Adaobi; Oladipo, Olaleye; Osamor, Victor; Oyelade, Jellili; Sadki, Khalid; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Soyemi, Jumoke; Panji, Sumir; Radouani, Fouzia; Souiai, Oussama; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2017-06-01

    Although pockets of bioinformatics excellence have developed in Africa, generally, large-scale genomic data analysis has been limited by the availability of expertise and infrastructure. H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network, was established to build capacity specifically to enable H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) researchers to analyze their data in Africa. Since the inception of the H3Africa initiative, H3ABioNet's role has evolved in response to changing needs from the consortium and the African bioinformatics community. H3ABioNet set out to develop core bioinformatics infrastructure and capacity for genomics research in various aspects of data collection, transfer, storage, and analysis. Various resources have been developed to address genomic data management and analysis needs of H3Africa researchers and other scientific communities on the continent. NetMap was developed and used to build an accurate picture of network performance within Africa and between Africa and the rest of the world, and Globus Online has been rolled out to facilitate data transfer. A participant recruitment database was developed to monitor participant enrollment, and data is being harmonized through the use of ontologies and controlled vocabularies. The standardized metadata will be integrated to provide a search facility for H3Africa data and biospecimens. Because H3Africa projects are generating large-scale genomic data, facilities for analysis and interpretation are critical. H3ABioNet is implementing several data analysis platforms that provide a large range of bioinformatics tools or workflows, such as Galaxy, the Job Management System, and eBiokits. A set of reproducible, portable, and cloud-scalable pipelines to support the multiple H3Africa data types are also being developed and dockerized to enable execution on multiple computing infrastructures. In addition, new tools have been developed for analysis of the uniquely divergent African data and for

  6. Bioinformatic approaches to augment study of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tim N; Chikwem, Adaeze J; Solanki, Nehal R; Golemis, Erica A

    2014-10-01

    Bioinformatic approaches are intended to provide systems level insight into the complex biological processes that underlie serious diseases such as cancer. In this review we describe current bioinformatic resources, and illustrate how they have been used to study a clinically important example: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is often diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to limited therapeutic success. While EMT is essential during development and wound healing, pathological reactivation of this program by cancer cells contributes to metastasis and drug resistance, both major causes of death from lung cancer. Challenges of studying EMT include its transient nature, its molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, and the complicated networks of rewired signaling cascades. Given the biology of lung cancer and the role of EMT, it is critical to better align the two in order to advance the impact of precision oncology. This task relies heavily on the application of bioinformatic resources. Besides summarizing recent work in this area, we use four EMT-associated genes, TGF-β (TGFB1), NEDD9/HEF1, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1), as exemplars to demonstrate the current capacities and limitations of probing bioinformatic resources to inform hypothesis-driven studies with therapeutic goals. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

  8. Teaching the ABCs of bioinformatics: a brief introduction to the Applied Bioinformatics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingchu

    2014-11-01

    With the development of the Internet and the growth of online resources, bioinformatics training for wet-lab biologists became necessary as a part of their education. This article describes a one-semester course 'Applied Bioinformatics Course' (ABC, http://abc.cbi.pku.edu.cn/) that the author has been teaching to biological graduate students at the Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for the past 13 years. ABC is a hands-on practical course to teach students to use online bioinformatics resources to solve biological problems related to their ongoing research projects in molecular biology. With a brief introduction to the background of the course, detailed information about the teaching strategies of the course are outlined in the 'How to teach' section. The contents of the course are briefly described in the 'What to teach' section with some real examples. The author wishes to share his teaching experiences and the online teaching materials with colleagues working in bioinformatics education both in local and international universities. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Optoelectronic system and apparatus for connection to biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2018-03-06

    The present invention relates to a biological probe structure, as well as apparatuses, systems, and methods employing this structure. In particular embodiments, the structure includes a hermetically sealed unit configured to receive and transmit one or more optical signals. Furthermore, the structure can be implanted subcutaneously and interrogated externally. In this manner, a minimally invasive method can be employed to detect, treat, and/or assess the biological target. Additional methods and systems are also provided.

  10. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  11. The Impact of Systems Biology on Bioprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Kate; Xia, Jianye; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    alongside mathematical modeling to characterize and predict cellular physiology. This approach can drive cycles of design, build, test, and learn implemented by metabolic engineers to optimize the cell factory performance. Streamlining of the design phase requires a clearer understanding of metabolism...... and its regulation, which can be achieved using quantitative and integrated omic characterization, alongside more advanced analytical methods. We discuss here the current impact of systems biology and challenges of closing the gap between bioprocessing and more traditional methods of chemical production....

  12. Nutritional systems biology of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y; Barrere-Cain, RE; Yang, X

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, The Author(s). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become an increasingly challenging health burden due to its high morbidity, mortality, and heightened prevalence worldwide. Although dietary and nutritional imbalances have long been recognized as key risk factors for T2D, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The advent of nutritional systems biology, a field that aims to elucidate the interactions between dietary nutrients and endogenous molecular entities in disease-related tissues, offe...

  13. Modelling and Inference Strategies for Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Palmisano, Alida

    2010-01-01

    For many years, computers have played an important role in helping scientists to store, manipulate, and analyze data coming from many different disciplines. In recent years, however, new technological capabilities and new ways of thinking about the usefulness of computer science is extending the reach of computers from simple analysis of collected data to hypothesis generation. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution in the Computational Systems Biology field. The main purpose of...

  14. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity......There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...

  15. Ruminant Metabolic Systems Biology: Reconstruction and Integration of Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Functional Responses of Tissues to Nutrition and Physiological Statea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ‘omics’ data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue’s adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

  16. Life: An Introduction to Complex Systems Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    What is life? Has molecular biology given us a satisfactory answer to this question? And if not, why, and how to carry on from there? This book examines life not from the reductionist point of view, but rather asks the question: what are the universal properties of living systems and how can one construct from there a phenomenological theory of life that leads naturally to complex processes such as reproductive cellular systems, evolution and differentiation? The presentation has been deliberately kept fairly non-technical so as to address a broad spectrum of students and researchers from the natural sciences and informatics.

  17. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  18. Atlas – a data warehouse for integrative bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Macaire MS

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a biological data warehouse called Atlas that locally stores and integrates biological sequences, molecular interactions, homology information, functional annotations of genes, and biological ontologies. The goal of the system is to provide data, as well as a software infrastructure for bioinformatics research and development. Description The Atlas system is based on relational data models that we developed for each of the source data types. Data stored within these relational models are managed through Structured Query Language (SQL calls that are implemented in a set of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs. The APIs include three languages: C++, Java, and Perl. The methods in these API libraries are used to construct a set of loader applications, which parse and load the source datasets into the Atlas database, and a set of toolbox applications which facilitate data retrieval. Atlas stores and integrates local instances of GenBank, RefSeq, UniProt, Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD, Biomolecular Interaction Network Database (BIND, Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP, Molecular Interactions Database (MINT, IntAct, NCBI Taxonomy, Gene Ontology (GO, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM, LocusLink, Entrez Gene and HomoloGene. The retrieval APIs and toolbox applications are critical components that offer end-users flexible, easy, integrated access to this data. We present use cases that use Atlas to integrate these sources for genome annotation, inference of molecular interactions across species, and gene-disease associations. Conclusion The Atlas biological data warehouse serves as data infrastructure for bioinformatics research and development. It forms the backbone of the research activities in our laboratory and facilitates the integration of disparate, heterogeneous biological sources of data enabling new scientific inferences. Atlas achieves integration of diverse data sets at two levels. First

  19. GPSR: A Resource for Genomics Proteomics and Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GPSR: A Resource for Genomics Proteomics and Systems Biology · Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods · Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular Biology · Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Prediction of ...

  20. Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez

    2015-06-01

    The nature of our major global risks calls for sustainable innovations to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gases emission. The development of sustainable technologies has been negatively impacted by several factors including sugar production costs, production scale, economic crises, hydraulic fracking development and the market inability to capture externality costs. However, advances in engineering of biological systems allow bridging the gap between exponential growth of knowledge about biology and the creation of sustainable value chains for a broad range of economic sectors. Additionally, industrial symbiosis of different biobased technologies can increase competitiveness and sustainability, leading to the development of eco-industrial parks. Reliable policies for carbon pricing and revenue reinvestments in disruptive technologies and in the deployment of eco-industrial parks could boost the welfare while addressing our major global risks toward the transition from a fossil to a biobased economy.

  1. Biological Therapy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Postal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototypic inflammatory autoimmune disorder characterized by multisystem involvement and fluctuating disease activity. Symptoms range from rather mild manifestations such as rash or arthritis to life-threatening end-organ manifestations. Despite new and improved therapy having positively impacted the prognosis of SLE, a subgroup of patients do not respond to conventional therapy. Moreover, the risk of fatal outcomes and the damaging side effects of immunosuppressive therapies in SLE call for an improvement in the current therapeutic management. New therapeutic approaches are focused on B-cell targets, T-cell downregulation and costimulatory blockade, cytokine inhibition, and the modulation of complement. Several biological agents have been developed, but this encouraging news is associated with several disappointments in trials and provide a timely moment to reflect on biologic therapy in SLE.

  2. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdick David

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry. We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community.

  3. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, John; Rovira, Hector; Cavnor, Chris; Burdick, David; Killcoyne, Sarah; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry). We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community. PMID:19265554

  4. Agile parallel bioinformatics workflow management using Pwrake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kensaku; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tatebe, Osamu; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro

    2011-09-08

    In bioinformatics projects, scientific workflow systems are widely used to manage computational procedures. Full-featured workflow systems have been proposed to fulfil the demand for workflow management. However, such systems tend to be over-weighted for actual bioinformatics practices. We realize that quick deployment of cutting-edge software implementing advanced algorithms and data formats, and continuous adaptation to changes in computational resources and the environment are often prioritized in scientific workflow management. These features have a greater affinity with the agile software development method through iterative development phases after trial and error.Here, we show the application of a scientific workflow system Pwrake to bioinformatics workflows. Pwrake is a parallel workflow extension of Ruby's standard build tool Rake, the flexibility of which has been demonstrated in the astronomy domain. Therefore, we hypothesize that Pwrake also has advantages in actual bioinformatics workflows. We implemented the Pwrake workflows to process next generation sequencing data using the Genomic Analysis Toolkit (GATK) and Dindel. GATK and Dindel workflows are typical examples of sequential and parallel workflows, respectively. We found that in practice, actual scientific workflow development iterates over two phases, the workflow definition phase and the parameter adjustment phase. We introduced separate workflow definitions to help focus on each of the two developmental phases, as well as helper methods to simplify the descriptions. This approach increased iterative development efficiency. Moreover, we implemented combined workflows to demonstrate modularity of the GATK and Dindel workflows. Pwrake enables agile management of scientific workflows in the bioinformatics domain. The internal domain specific language design built on Ruby gives the flexibility of rakefiles for writing scientific workflows. Furthermore, readability and maintainability of rakefiles

  5. Agile parallel bioinformatics workflow management using Pwrake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In bioinformatics projects, scientific workflow systems are widely used to manage computational procedures. Full-featured workflow systems have been proposed to fulfil the demand for workflow management. However, such systems tend to be over-weighted for actual bioinformatics practices. We realize that quick deployment of cutting-edge software implementing advanced algorithms and data formats, and continuous adaptation to changes in computational resources and the environment are often prioritized in scientific workflow management. These features have a greater affinity with the agile software development method through iterative development phases after trial and error. Here, we show the application of a scientific workflow system Pwrake to bioinformatics workflows. Pwrake is a parallel workflow extension of Ruby's standard build tool Rake, the flexibility of which has been demonstrated in the astronomy domain. Therefore, we hypothesize that Pwrake also has advantages in actual bioinformatics workflows. Findings We implemented the Pwrake workflows to process next generation sequencing data using the Genomic Analysis Toolkit (GATK) and Dindel. GATK and Dindel workflows are typical examples of sequential and parallel workflows, respectively. We found that in practice, actual scientific workflow development iterates over two phases, the workflow definition phase and the parameter adjustment phase. We introduced separate workflow definitions to help focus on each of the two developmental phases, as well as helper methods to simplify the descriptions. This approach increased iterative development efficiency. Moreover, we implemented combined workflows to demonstrate modularity of the GATK and Dindel workflows. Conclusions Pwrake enables agile management of scientific workflows in the bioinformatics domain. The internal domain specific language design built on Ruby gives the flexibility of rakefiles for writing scientific workflows. Furthermore, readability

  6. It's the System, Stupid: How Systems Biology Is Transforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    So far, little is known about systems biology and its potential for changing how we diagnose and treat disease. That will change soon, say the systems experts, who advise payers to begin learning now about how it could make healthcare efficient.

  7. Implementing a Web-Based Introductory Bioinformatics Course for Non-Bioinformaticians That Incorporates Practical Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Antony T.; Bourbonnais, Yves; Brouard, Jean-Simon; Deveau, Hélène; Droit, Arnaud; Gagné, Stéphane M.; Guertin, Michel; Lemieux, Claude; Rathier, Louis; Charette, Steve J.; Lagüe, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    A recent scientific discipline, bioinformatics, defined as using informatics for the study of biological problems, is now a requirement for the study of biological sciences. Bioinformatics has become such a powerful and popular discipline that several academic institutions have created programs in this field, allowing students to become…

  8. Bioinformatics approaches for identifying new therapeutic bioactive peptides in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Khaldi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The traditional methods for mining foods for bioactive peptides are tedious and long. Similar to the drug industry, the length of time to identify and deliver a commercial health ingredient that reduces disease symptoms can take anything between 5 to 10 years. Reducing this time and effort is crucial in order to create new commercially viable products with clear and important health benefits. In the past few years, bioinformatics, the science that brings together fast computational biology, and efficient genome mining, is appearing as the long awaited solution to this problem. By quickly mining food genomes for characteristics of certain food therapeutic ingredients, researchers can potentially find new ones in a matter of a few weeks. Yet, surprisingly, very little success has been achieved so far using bioinformatics in mining for food bioactives.The absence of food specific bioinformatic mining tools, the slow integration of both experimental mining and bioinformatics, and the important difference between different experimental platforms are some of the reasons for the slow progress of bioinformatics in the field of functional food and more specifically in bioactive peptide discovery.In this paper I discuss some methods that could be easily translated, using a rational peptide bioinformatics design, to food bioactive peptide mining. I highlight the need for an integrated food peptide database. I also discuss how to better integrate experimental work with bioinformatics in order to improve the mining of food for bioactive peptides, therefore achieving a higher success rates.

  9. Systems Biology: Impressions from a Newcomer Graduate Student in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Melanie Rae

    2016-01-01

    As a newcomer, the philosophical basis of systems biology seems intuitive and appealing, the underlying philosophy being that the whole of a living system cannot be completely understood by the study of its individual parts. Yet answers to the questions "What is systems biology?" and "What constitutes a systems biology approach in…

  10. From systems biology to P4 medicine: applications in respiratory medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Noell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human health and disease are emergent properties of a complex, nonlinear, dynamic multilevel biological system: the human body. Systems biology is a comprehensive research strategy that has the potential to understand these emergent properties holistically. It stems from advancements in medical diagnostics, “omics” data and bioinformatic computing power. It paves the way forward towards “P4 medicine” (predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory, which seeks to better intervene preventively to preserve health or therapeutically to cure diseases. In this review, we: 1 discuss the principles of systems biology; 2 elaborate on how P4 medicine has the potential to shift healthcare from reactive medicine (treatment of illness to predict and prevent illness, in a revolution that will be personalised in nature, probabilistic in essence and participatory driven; 3 review the current state of the art of network (systems medicine in three prevalent respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer; and 4 outline current challenges and future goals in the field.

  11. Enabling a systems biology knowledgebase with gaggle and firegoose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliga, Nitin S. [Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The overall goal of this project was to extend the existing Gaggle and Firegoose systems to develop an open-source technology that runs over the web and links desktop applications with many databases and software applications. This technology would enable researchers to incorporate workflows for data analysis that can be executed from this interface to other online applications. The four specific aims were to (1) provide one-click mapping of genes, proteins, and complexes across databases and species; (2) enable multiple simultaneous workflows; (3) expand sophisticated data analysis for online resources; and enhance open-source development of the Gaggle-Firegoose infrastructure. Gaggle is an open-source Java software system that integrates existing bioinformatics programs and data sources into a user-friendly, extensible environment to allow interactive exploration, visualization, and analysis of systems biology data. Firegoose is an extension to the Mozilla Firefox web browser that enables data transfer between websites and desktop tools including Gaggle. In the last phase of this funding period, we have made substantial progress on development and application of the Gaggle integration framework. We implemented the workspace to the Network Portal. Users can capture data from Firegoose and save them to the workspace. Users can create workflows to start multiple software components programmatically and pass data between them. Results of analysis can be saved to the cloud so that they can be easily restored on any machine. We also developed the Gaggle Chrome Goose, a plugin for the Google Chrome browser in tandem with an opencpu server in the Amazon EC2 cloud. This allows users to interactively perform data analysis on a single web page using the R packages deployed on the opencpu server. The cloud-based framework facilitates collaboration between researchers from multiple organizations. We have made a number of enhancements to the cmonkey2 application to enable and

  12. Biological diversity in the patent system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oldham

    Full Text Available Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL. We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on

  13. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  14. System for determining sizes of biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.M.; Danby, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    An electrophoresis system for determining the sizes of radiolabelled biological macromolecules is described. It comprises a cell containing an electrophoresis gel and having at least one lane, a voltage source connected across the gel for effecting the movement of macromolecules in the lane, a detector fixed relative to the moving molecules for generating electrical pulses responsive to signals emitted by the radiolabelled molecules; a pulse processor for counting the pulse rate, and a computational device for comparing the pulse rate to a predetermined value. (author)

  15. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... projects three different approaches to using computational toxicology to aid classical toxicological investigations. In project I, we predicted human health effects of five pesticides using publicly available data. We obtained a grouping of the chemical according to their potential human health effects...

  16. Redefining plant systems biology: from cell to ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Angenent, G.C.; Dicke, M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Molenaar, J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Struik, P.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biologists typically restrict systems biology to cellular levels. By contrast, ecologists define biological systems as communities of interacting individuals at different trophic levels that process energy, nutrient and information flows. Modern plant breeding needs to increase

  17. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  18. An Integrated Biological Control System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Caudill, J.G.; Giddings, R.F.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Roos, R.C.; Wilde, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimate spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  19. Genomics and systems biology--how relevant are the developments to veterinary pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkamp, R F

    2005-06-01

    This review discusses some of the recent developments in genomics and its current and future relevance for veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. With the rapid progress made in this field several new approaches in pharmacological and toxicological research have developed and drug discovery and drug development strategies have changed dramatically. In this review, the term genomics is used to encompass the three sub-disciplines transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics (or metabonomics) to describe the formation and fate of mRNA, proteins and metabolites, respectively. The current status and methods of the technology and some applications are briefly described. Although the DNA sequencing programmes are receiving considerable attention, the real value of genomics for pharmacology and toxicology is brought by the parallel developments in bio-informatics, bio-statistics and the integration of biology with mathematics and information technology. The ultimate level of integration is now mostly called systems biology, where mRNA, proteins and metabolites are being analysed in parallel, using a complete arsenal of analytical techniques (DNA-array, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS, NMR, etc.). The information thus collected is analysed, integrated, linked to database information and translated to pathways and systems. This approach offers an enormous potential to study disease mechanisms and find new drug targets. Thus far, genomics and systems biology have not been introduced significantly in typical veterinary pharmacological and toxicological research programmes. The high costs and complexity connected to these large projects often form major obstacles for research groups with limited budgets. In other veterinary areas and disciplines, including infectious diseases, animal production and food-safety more examples of application are available. Genomics and bio-informatics provide outstanding opportunities to study pharmacology and toxicology in a more holistic way, taking into

  20. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  1. Pay-as-you-go data integration for bio-informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, B.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific research in bio-informatics is often data-driven and supported by numerous biological databases. A biological database contains factual information collected from scientific experiments and computational analyses about areas including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microarray gene

  2. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review...... the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further....

  3. Biological Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL biological systems for hydrogen photoproduction work for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 14-18, 2012. General goal is develop photobiological systems for large-scale, low cost and efficient H{sub 2} production from water (barriers AH, AI and AJ). Specific tasks are: (1) Address the O{sub 2} sensitivity of hydrogenases that prevent continuity of H{sub 2} photoproduction under aerobic, high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) light conversion efficiency conditions; and (2) Utilize a limited STH H{sub 2}-producing method (sulfur deprivation) as a platform to address or test other factors limiting commercial algal H{sub 2} photoproduction, including low rates due to biochemical and engineering mechanisms.

  4. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    Process calculus is the common denominator for a class of compact, idealised, domain-specific formalisms normally associated with the study of reactive concurrent systems within Computer Science. With the rise of the interactioncentred science of Systems Biology a number of bio-inspired process......), is context insensitive, while the other, a poly-variant analysis (2CFA), is context-sensitive. These analyses compute safe approximations to the set of spatial configurations that are reachable according to a given model. This is useful in the qualitative study of cellular self-organisation and, e.......g., the effects of receptor defects or drug delivery mechanisms. The property of sequential realisability. which is closely related to the function of biochemical pathways, is addressed by a variant of traditional Data Flow Analysis (DFA). This so-called ‘Pathway Analysis’ computes safe approximations to the set...

  5. Spatial Structures and Regulation in Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Pernille

    , and the other is the spatial regulation of biological systems, here related to different aspects of the inflammatory response. All systems are studied using computational modelling and mathematical analysis. The first part of the thesis explores different protein aggregation scenarios. In Chapter 1, we consider...... a previously studied and very general aggregation model describing frangible linear filaments. This model is especially relevant for the growth of amyloid fibres, that have been related to a number of serious human diseases, and which are known to grow in an accelerated self-enhanced manner.We derive...... model of the tissue and show how coupled cells are able to function as an excitable medium and propagate waves of high cytokine concentration through the tissue. If the internal regulation in the cells is over-productive, the model predicts a continuous amplification of cytokines, which spans the entire...

  6. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  7. A bioinformatics roadmap for the human vaccines project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Richard H; Sinkovits, Robert S; Schenkelberg, Theodore; Koff, Wayne C

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical research has become a data intensive science in which high throughput experimentation is producing comprehensive data about biological systems at an ever-increasing pace. The Human Vaccines Project is a new public-private partnership, with the goal of accelerating development of improved vaccines and immunotherapies for global infectious diseases and cancers by decoding the human immune system. To achieve its mission, the Project is developing a Bioinformatics Hub as an open-source, multidisciplinary effort with the overarching goal of providing an enabling infrastructure to support the data processing, analysis and knowledge extraction procedures required to translate high throughput, high complexity human immunology research data into biomedical knowledge, to determine the core principles driving specific and durable protective immune responses.

  8. Network Analyses in Systems Biology: New Strategies for Dealing with Biological Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara; Serban, Maria; Scholl, Raphael

    2018-01-01

    The increasing application of network models to interpret biological systems raises a number of important methodological and epistemological questions. What novel insights can network analysis provide in biology? Are network approaches an extension of or in conflict with mechanistic research...

  9. Systems biology approaches and pathway tools for investigating cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheelock, C.E.; Wheelock, A.M.; Kawashima, S.; Diez, D.; Kanehisa, M.; Erk, M. van; Kleemann, R.; Haeggström, J.Z.; Goto, S.

    2009-01-01

    Systems biology aims to understand the nonlinear interactions of multiple biomolecular components that characterize a living organism. One important aspect of systems biology approaches is to identify the biological pathways or networks that connect the differing elements of a system, and examine

  10. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the study: special lessons designed to promote systems thinking, a computer-simulated scenario on the topic "ecosystem forest," and a combination of both special lessons and the computer simulation. These groups were then compared to a control group. A questionnaire was used to assess systems thinking skills of 424 sixth-grade students of secondary schools in Germany. The assessment differentiated between a conceptual understanding (measured as achievement score) and a reflexive justification (measured as justification score) of systems thinking. The following control variables were used: logical thinking, grades in school, memory span, and motivational goal orientation. Based on the pretest-posttest control group design, only those students who received both special instruction and worked with the computer simulation showed a significant increase in their achievement scores. The justification score increased in the computer simulation condition as well as in the combination of computer simulation and lesson condition. The possibilities and limits of promoting various forms of systems thinking by using realistic computer simulations are discussed.

  11. Molecular profiles to biology and pathways: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Steven; Dirix, Luc; Vermeulen, Peter

    2016-06-16

    Interpreting molecular profiles in a biological context requires specialized analysis strategies. Initially, lists of relevant genes were screened to identify enriched concepts associated with pathways or specific molecular processes. However, the shortcoming of interpreting gene lists by using predefined sets of genes has resulted in the development of novel methods that heavily rely on network-based concepts. These algorithms have the advantage that they allow a more holistic view of the signaling properties of the condition under study as well as that they are suitable for integrating different data types like gene expression, gene mutation, and even histological parameters.

  12. Engineering bioinformatics: building reliability, performance and productivity into bioinformatics software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Brendan; Walsh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of software engineering skills in bioinformatic contexts. We discuss the consequences of this lack, examine existing explanations and remedies to the problem, point out their shortcomings, and propose alternatives. Previous analyses of the problem have tended to treat the use of software in scientific contexts as categorically different from the general application of software engineering in commercial settings. In contrast, we describe bioinformatic software engineering as a specialization of general software engineering, and examine how it should be practiced. Specifically, we highlight the difference between programming and software engineering, list elements of the latter and present the results of a survey of bioinformatic practitioners which quantifies the extent to which those elements are employed in bioinformatics. We propose that the ideal way to bring engineering values into research projects is to bring engineers themselves. We identify the role of Bioinformatic Engineer and describe how such a role would work within bioinformatic research teams. We conclude by recommending an educational emphasis on cross-training software engineers into life sciences, and propose research on Domain Specific Languages to facilitate collaboration between engineers and bioinformaticians.

  13. Bioinformatics in microbial biotechnology – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Arvind K

    2005-06-01

    expression analysis to derive regulatory pathways, the development of statistical techniques, clustering techniques and data mining techniques to derive protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, and modeling of 3D structure of proteins and 3D docking between proteins and biochemicals for rational drug design, difference analysis between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains to identify candidate genes for vaccines and anti-microbial agents, and the whole genome comparison to understand the microbial evolution. The development of bioinformatics techniques has enhanced the pace of biological discovery by automated analysis of large number of microbial genomes. We are on the verge of using all this knowledge to understand cellular mechanisms at the systemic level. The developed bioinformatics techniques have potential to facilitate (i the discovery of causes of diseases, (ii vaccine and rational drug design, and (iii improved cost effective agents for bioremediation by pruning out the dead ends. Despite the fast paced global effort, the current analysis is limited by the lack of available gene-functionality from the wet-lab data, the lack of computer algorithms to explore vast amount of data with unknown functionality, limited availability of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, and the lack of knowledge of temporal and transient behavior of genes and pathways.

  14. 3S - Systematic, systemic, and systems biology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Lena; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Corvi, Raffaella; Levchenko, Andre; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A biological system is more than the sum of its parts - it accomplishes many functions via synergy. Deconstructing the system down to the molecular mechanism level necessitates the complement of reconstructing functions on all levels, i.e., in our conceptualization of biology and its perturbations, our experimental models and computer modelling. Toxicology contains the somewhat arbitrary subclass "systemic toxicities"; however, there is no relevant toxic insult or general disease that is not systemic. At least inflammation and repair are involved that require coordinated signaling mechanisms across the organism. However, the more body components involved, the greater the challenge to reca-pitulate such toxicities using non-animal models. Here, the shortcomings of current systemic testing and the development of alternative approaches are summarized. We argue that we need a systematic approach to integrating existing knowledge as exemplified by systematic reviews and other evidence-based approaches. Such knowledge can guide us in modelling these systems using bioengineering and virtual computer models, i.e., via systems biology or systems toxicology approaches. Experimental multi-organ-on-chip and microphysiological systems (MPS) provide a more physiological view of the organism, facilitating more comprehensive coverage of systemic toxicities, i.e., the perturbation on organism level, without using substitute organisms (animals). The next challenge is to establish disease models, i.e., micropathophysiological systems (MPPS), to expand their utility to encompass biomedicine. Combining computational and experimental systems approaches and the chal-lenges of validating them are discussed. The suggested 3S approach promises to leverage 21st century technology and systematic thinking to achieve a paradigm change in studying systemic effects.

  15. Hydrogen production from biomass by biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifan, H.R.; Qader, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier, not involved in 'greenhouse' gas and its released energy in combustion can be converted to electric power. Biological system with low energy can produce hydrogen compared to electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting which requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. The biological hydrogen production occurs in microalgae and cyanobacteria by photosynthesis. They consume biochemical energy to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen in some algae is an anaerobic production in the absence of light. In cyanobacteria the hydrogen production simultaneously happens with nitrogen fixation, and also catalyzed by nitrogenase as a side reaction. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria is mediated by nitrogenase activity, although hydrogenases may be active for both hydrogen production and hydrogen uptake under some conditions. Genetic studies on photosynthetic microorganisms have markedly increased in recent times, relatively few genetic engineering studies have focused on altering the characteristics of these microorganisms, particularly with respect to enhancing the hydrogen-producing capabilities of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. (author)

  16. Teaching bioinformatics in concert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya L Goodman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students.

  17. Designing XML schemas for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Russel Elton; Burton, Philip John

    2003-06-01

    Data interchange bioinformatics databases will, in the future, most likely take place using extensible markup language (XML). The document structure will be described by an XML Schema rather than a document type definition (DTD). To ensure flexibility, the XML Schema must incorporate aspects of Object-Oriented Modeling. This impinges on the choice of the data model, which, in turn, is based on the organization of bioinformatics data by biologists. Thus, there is a need for the general bioinformatics community to be aware of the design issues relating to XML Schema. This paper, which is aimed at a general bioinformatics audience, uses examples to describe the differences between a DTD and an XML Schema and indicates how Unified Modeling Language diagrams may be used to incorporate Object-Oriented Modeling in the design of schema.

  18. Systems Biology of Metabolism: Annual Review of Biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology......, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed....

  19. Computational Modeling of Biological Systems From Molecules to Pathways

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling is emerging as a powerful new approach for studying and manipulating biological systems. Many diverse methods have been developed to model, visualize, and rationally alter these systems at various length scales, from atomic resolution to the level of cellular pathways. Processes taking place at larger time and length scales, such as molecular evolution, have also greatly benefited from new breeds of computational approaches. Computational Modeling of Biological Systems: From Molecules to Pathways provides an overview of established computational methods for the modeling of biologically and medically relevant systems. It is suitable for researchers and professionals working in the fields of biophysics, computational biology, systems biology, and molecular medicine.

  20. Integrative Systems Biology: Elucidating Complex Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune Hannes

    Risk-phenotypes and diseases are oen caused by perturbed cellular networks, as biological processes depend on an overwhelming number of heavily intertwined components. e impact of a genetically altered gene may ripple through its molecular neighborhood instead of being confined to the gene...... product itself. My doctoral studies have been focused on the development of integrative approaches to identify systemic risk-modifying and disease-causing patterns. ey have been rooted in the hypothesis that data integration of complementary data sets may yield additional etiologic insights compared...... to analyses conducted within a single type of data. e first line of research presented here outlines two integrative methodologies designed to identify etiological pathways and susceptibility genes. In Paper I, my coworkers and I present an integrative approach that interrogates protein complexes...

  1. Genome Exploitation and Bioinformatics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    Bioinformatic tools can greatly improve the efficiency of bacteriocin screening efforts by limiting the amount of strains. Different classes of bacteriocins can be detected in genomes by looking at different features. Finding small bacteriocins can be especially challenging due to low homology and because small open reading frames (ORFs) are often omitted from annotations. In this chapter, several bioinformatic tools/strategies to identify bacteriocins in genomes are discussed.

  2. Systems Biology and Ecology of Streamlined Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    complex questions hinge on translating gene frequencies into trait based ecological models that reflect the systems biology of cells.

  3. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  4. Microarray-based bioinformatics analysis of the combined effects of SiNPs and PbAc on cardiovascular system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hejing; Zhang, Yannan; Shi, Yanfeng; Feng, Lin; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology and growing environmental pollution, the combined toxic effects of SiNPs and pollutants of heavy metals like lead have received global attentions. The aim of this study was to explore the cardiovascular effects of the co-exposure of SiNPs and lead acetate (PbAc) in zebrafish using microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Although there was no other obvious cardiovascular malformation except bleeding phenotype, bradycardia, angiogenesis inhibition and declined cardiac output in zebrafish co-exposed of SiNPs and PbAc at NOAEL level, significant changes were observed in mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. STC-GO analysis indicated that the co-exposure might have more toxic effects on cardiovascular system than that exposure alone. Key differentially expressed genes were discerned out based on the Dynamic-gene-network, including stxbp1a, ndfip2, celf4 and gsk3b. Furthermore, several miRNAs obtained from the miRNA-Gene-Network might play crucial roles in cardiovascular disease, such as dre-miR-93, dre-miR-34a, dre-miR-181c, dre-miR-7145, dre-miR-730, dre-miR-129-5p, dre-miR-19d, dre-miR-218b, dre-miR-221. Besides, the analysis of miRNA-pathway-network indicated that the zebrafish were stimulated by the co-exposure of SiNPs and PbAc, which might cause the disturbance of calcium homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum stress. As a result, cardiac muscle contraction might be deteriorated. In general, our data provide abundant fundamental research clues to the combined toxicity of environmental pollutants and further in-depth verifications are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systems biology in practice: concepts, implementation and application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klipp, E

    2005-01-01

    ... approaching systems biology from a different discipline. We see the origin and the methodological foundations for systems biology (1) in the accumulation of detailed biological knowledge with the prospect of utilization in biotechnology and health care, (2) in the emergence of new experimental techniques in genomics and proteomics, (3) in the traditio...

  6. VLSI Microsystem for Rapid Bioinformatic Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Lue, Jaw-Chyng

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits is being developed as a means of bioinformatics-oriented analysis and recognition of patterns of fluorescence generated in a microarray in an advanced, highly miniaturized, portable genetic-expression-assay instrument. Such an instrument implements an on-chip combination of polymerase chain reactions and electrochemical transduction for amplification and detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

  7. Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Yung Yuen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The drastic increase in the number of coronaviruses discovered and coronavirus genomes being sequenced have given us an unprecedented opportunity to perform genomics and bioinformatics analysis on this family of viruses. Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes (26.4 to 31.7 kb among all known RNA viruses, with G + C contents varying from 32% to 43%. Variable numbers of small ORFs are present between the various conserved genes (ORF1ab, spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid and downstream to nucleocapsid gene in different coronavirus lineages. Phylogenetically, three genera, Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus and Gammacoronavirus, with Betacoronavirus consisting of subgroups A, B, C and D, exist. A fourth genus, Deltacoronavirus, which includes bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12 and munia coronavirus HKU13, is emerging. Molecular clock analysis using various gene loci revealed that the time of most recent common ancestor of human/civet SARS related coronavirus to be 1999-2002, with estimated substitution rate of 4´10-4 to 2´10-2 substitutions per site per year. Recombination in coronaviruses was most notable between different strains of murine hepatitis virus (MHV, between different strains of infectious bronchitis virus, between MHV and bovine coronavirus, between feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and canine coronavirus generating FCoV type II, and between the three genotypes of human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1. Codon usage bias in coronaviruses were observed, with HCoV-HKU1 showing the most extreme bias, and cytosine deamination and selection of CpG suppressed clones are the two major independent biological forces that shape such codon usage bias in coronaviruses.

  8. A SYSTEMIC VISION OF BIOLOGY: OVERCOMING LINEARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mayer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Many  authors have proposed  that contextualization of reality  is necessary  to teach  Biology, empha- sizing students´ social and  economic realities.   However, contextualization means  more than  this;  it is related  to working with  different kinds of phenomena  and/or objects  which enable  the  expression of scientific concepts.  Thus,  contextualization allows the integration of different contents.  Under this perspective,  the  objectives  of this  work were to articulate different  biology concepts  in order  to de- velop a systemic vision of biology; to establish  relationships with other areas of knowledge and to make concrete the  cell molecular  structure and organization as well as their  implications  on living beings´ environment, using  contextualization.  The  methodology  adopted  in this  work  was based  on three aspects:  interdisciplinarity, contextualization and development of competences,  using energy:  its flux and transformations as a thematic axis and  an approach  which allowed the  interconnection between different situations involving  these  concepts.   The  activities developed  were:  1.   dialectic exercise, involving a movement around  micro and macroscopic aspects,  by using questions  and activities,  sup- ported  by the use of alternative material  (as springs, candles on the energy, its forms, transformations and  implications  in the  biological way (microscopic  concepts;  2, Construction of molecular  models, approaching the concepts of atom,  chemical bonds and bond energy in molecules; 3. Observations de- veloped in Manguezal¨(mangrove swamp  ecosystem (Itapissuma, PE  were used to work macroscopic concepts  (as  diversity  and  classification  of plants  and  animals,  concerning  to  energy  flow through food chains and webs. A photograph register of all activities  along the course plus texts

  9. Assessment of Data Reliability of Wireless Sensor Network for Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a focal point of biotechnology, bioinformatics integrates knowledge from biology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, computer science and information science. It generally deals with genome informatics, protein structure and drug design. However, the data or information thus acquired from the main areas of bioinformatics may not be effective. Some researchers combined bioinformatics with wireless sensor network (WSN into biosensor and other tools, and applied them to such areas as fermentation, environmental monitoring, food engineering, clinical medicine and military. In the combination, the WSN is used to collect data and information. The reliability of the WSN in bioinformatics is the prerequisite to effective utilization of information. It is greatly influenced by factors like quality, benefits, service, timeliness and stability, some of them are qualitative and some are quantitative. Hence, it is necessary to develop a method that can handle both qualitative and quantitative assessment of information. A viable option is the fuzzy linguistic method, especially 2-tuple linguistic model, which has been extensively used to cope with such issues. As a result, this paper introduces 2-tuple linguistic representation to assist experts in giving their opinions on different WSNs in bioinformatics that involve multiple factors. Moreover, the author proposes a novel way to determine attribute weights and uses the method to weigh the relative importance of different influencing factors which can be considered as attributes in the assessment of the WSN in bioinformatics. Finally, an illustrative example is given to provide a reasonable solution for the assessment.

  10. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  11. Drawing inspiration from biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2009-08-01

    Bio-Mimicking/Bio-Inspiration: How can we not be inspired by Nature? Life has evolved on earth over the last 3.5 to 4 billion years. Materials formed during this time were not toxic; they were created at low temperatures and low pressures unlike many of the materials developed today. The natural materials formed are self-assembled, multifunctional, nonlinear, complex, adaptive, self-repairing and biodegradable. The designs that failed are fossils. Those that survived are the success stories. Natural materials are mostly formed from organics, inorganic crystals and amorphous phases. The materials make economic sense by optimizing the design of the structures or systems to meet multiple needs. We constantly "see" many similar strategies in approaches, between man and nature, but we seldom look at the details of natures approaches. The power of image processing, in many of natures creatures, is a detail that is often overlooked. Seldon does the engineer interact with the biologist and learn what nature has to teach us. The variety and complexity of biological materials and the optical systems formed should inspire us.

  12. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  13. MEMOSys: Bioinformatics platform for genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger, Stephan; Rader, Robert; Agren, Rasmus; Nielsen, Jens; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2011-01-31

    Recent advances in genomic sequencing have enabled the use of genome sequencing in standard biological and biotechnological research projects. The challenge is how to integrate the large amount of data in order to gain novel biological insights. One way to leverage sequence data is to use genome-scale metabolic models. We have therefore designed and implemented a bioinformatics platform which supports the development of such metabolic models. MEMOSys (MEtabolic MOdel research and development System) is a versatile platform for the management, storage, and development of genome-scale metabolic models. It supports the development of new models by providing a built-in version control system which offers access to the complete developmental history. Moreover, the integrated web board, the authorization system, and the definition of user roles allow collaborations across departments and institutions. Research on existing models is facilitated by a search system, references to external databases, and a feature-rich comparison mechanism. MEMOSys provides customizable data exchange mechanisms using the SBML format to enable analysis in external tools. The web application is based on the Java EE framework and offers an intuitive user interface. It currently contains six annotated microbial metabolic models. We have developed a web-based system designed to provide researchers a novel application facilitating the management and development of metabolic models. The system is freely available at http://www.icbi.at/MEMOSys.

  14. MEMOSys: Bioinformatics platform for genome-scale metabolic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agren Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genomic sequencing have enabled the use of genome sequencing in standard biological and biotechnological research projects. The challenge is how to integrate the large amount of data in order to gain novel biological insights. One way to leverage sequence data is to use genome-scale metabolic models. We have therefore designed and implemented a bioinformatics platform which supports the development of such metabolic models. Results MEMOSys (MEtabolic MOdel research and development System is a versatile platform for the management, storage, and development of genome-scale metabolic models. It supports the development of new models by providing a built-in version control system which offers access to the complete developmental history. Moreover, the integrated web board, the authorization system, and the definition of user roles allow collaborations across departments and institutions. Research on existing models is facilitated by a search system, references to external databases, and a feature-rich comparison mechanism. MEMOSys provides customizable data exchange mechanisms using the SBML format to enable analysis in external tools. The web application is based on the Java EE framework and offers an intuitive user interface. It currently contains six annotated microbial metabolic models. Conclusions We have developed a web-based system designed to provide researchers a novel application facilitating the management and development of metabolic models. The system is freely available at http://www.icbi.at/MEMOSys.

  15. An innovative approach for testing bioinformatics programs using metamorphic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work

  16. A middleware-based platform for the integration of bioinformatic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Llambías

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Performing Bioinformatic´s experiments involve an intensive access to distributed services and information resources through Internet. Although existing tools facilitate the implementation of workflow-oriented applications, they lack of capabilities to integrate services beyond low-scale applications, particularly integrating services with heterogeneous interaction patterns and in a larger scale. This is particularly required to enable a large-scale distributed processing of biological data generated by massive sequencing technologies. On the other hand, such integration mechanisms are provided by middleware products like Enterprise Service Buses (ESB, which enable to integrate distributed systems following a Service Oriented Architecture. This paper proposes an integration platform, based on enterprise middleware, to integrate Bioinformatics services. It presents a multi-level reference architecture and focuses on ESB-based mechanisms to provide asynchronous communications, event-based interactions and data transformation capabilities. The paper presents a formal specification of the platform using the Event-B model.

  17. Systems biology of microbial exopolysaccharides production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem eAtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore a systems-based approach constitutes an important step towards understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan and dextran.

  18. Systems Biology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications, and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However, only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover, a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore, a systems-based approach constitutes an important step toward understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism, and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan, and dextran.

  19. Modeling and Simulation Tools: From Systems Biology to Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Brett G; Swat, Maciej J; Moné, Martijn J

    2016-01-01

    Modeling is an integral component of modern biology. In this chapter we look into the role of the model, as it pertains to Systems Medicine, and the software that is required to instantiate and run it. We do this by comparing the development, implementation, and characteristics of tools that have been developed to work with two divergent methodologies: Systems Biology and Pharmacometrics. From the Systems Biology perspective we consider the concept of "Software as a Medical Device" and what this may imply for the migration of research-oriented, simulation software into the domain of human health.In our second perspective, we see how in practice hundreds of computational tools already accompany drug discovery and development at every stage of the process. Standardized exchange formats are required to streamline the model exchange between tools, which would minimize translation errors and reduce the required time. With the emergence, almost 15 years ago, of the SBML standard, a large part of the domain of interest is already covered and models can be shared and passed from software to software without recoding them. Until recently the last stage of the process, the pharmacometric analysis used in clinical studies carried out on subject populations, lacked such an exchange medium. We describe a new emerging exchange format in Pharmacometrics which covers the non-linear mixed effects models, the standard statistical model type used in this area. By interfacing these two formats the entire domain can be covered by complementary standards and subsequently the according tools.

  20. A unique large-scale undergraduate research experience in molecular systems biology for non-mathematics majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, Ulrike; Rowland, Susan L; Pedwell, Rhianna K

    2017-05-01

    Systems biology is frequently taught with an emphasis on mathematical modeling approaches. This focus effectively excludes most biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology students, who are not mathematics majors. The mathematical focus can also present a misleading picture of systems biology, which is a multi-disciplinary pursuit requiring collaboration between biochemists, bioinformaticians, and mathematicians. This article describes an authentic large-scale undergraduate research experience (ALURE) in systems biology that incorporates proteomics, bacterial genomics, and bioinformatics in the one exercise. This project is designed to engage students who have a basic grounding in protein chemistry and metabolism and no mathematical modeling skills. The pedagogy around the research experience is designed to help students attack complex datasets and use their emergent metabolic knowledge to make meaning from large amounts of raw data. On completing the ALURE, participants reported a significant increase in their confidence around analyzing large datasets, while the majority of the cohort reported good or great gains in a variety of skills including "analysing data for patterns" and "conducting database or internet searches." An environmental scan shows that this ALURE is the only undergraduate-level system-biology research project offered on a large-scale in Australia; this speaks to the perceived difficulty of implementing such an opportunity for students. We argue however, that based on the student feedback, allowing undergraduate students to complete a systems-biology project is both feasible and desirable, even if the students are not maths and computing majors. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):235-248, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Bioinformatics decoding the genome

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Deutsch, Sam; Michielin, Olivier; Thomas, Arthur; Descombes, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Extracting the fundamental genomic sequence from the DNA From Genome to Sequence : Biology in the early 21st century has been radically transformed by the availability of the full genome sequences of an ever increasing number of life forms, from bacteria to major crop plants and to humans. The lecture will concentrate on the computational challenges associated with the production, storage and analysis of genome sequence data, with an emphasis on mammalian genomes. The quality and usability of genome sequences is increasingly conditioned by the careful integration of strategies for data collection and computational analysis, from the construction of maps and libraries to the assembly of raw data into sequence contigs and chromosome-sized scaffolds. Once the sequence is assembled, a major challenge is the mapping of biologically relevant information onto this sequence: promoters, introns and exons of protein-encoding genes, regulatory elements, functional RNAs, pseudogenes, transposons, etc. The methodological ...

  2. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in biological systems: Does the complexity of biological systems matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Borrego, Belen; Juárez-Moreno, Karla; García-García, Maritza; Mota Morales, Josué D; Bogdanchikova, Nina; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro

    2017-07-05

    Currently, nanomaterials are more frequently in our daily life, specifically in biomedicine, electronics, food, textiles and catalysis just to name a few. Although nanomaterials provide many benefits, recently their toxicity profiles have begun to be explored. In this work, the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (35nm-average diameter and Polyvinyl-Pyrrolidone-coated) on biological systems of different levels of complexity was assessed in a comprehensive and comparatively way, through a variety of viability and toxicological assays. The studied organisms included viruses, bacteria, microalgae, fungi, animal and human cells (including cancer cell lines). It was found that biological systems of different taxonomical groups are inhibited at concentrations of silver nanoparticles within the same order of magnitude. Thus, the toxicity of nanomaterials on biological/living systems, constrained by their complexity, e.g. taxonomic groups, resulted contrary to the expected. The fact that cells and virus are inhibited with a concentration of silver nanoparticles within the same order of magnitude could be explained considering that silver nanoparticles affects very primitive cellular mechanisms by interacting with fundamental structures for cells and virus alike. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The growing need for microservices in bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Williams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Within the information technology (IT industry, best practices and standards are constantly evolving and being refined. In contrast, computer technology utilized within the healthcare industry often evolves at a glacial pace, with reduced opportunities for justified innovation. Although the use of timely technology refreshes within an enterprise′s overall technology stack can be costly, thoughtful adoption of select technologies with a demonstrated return on investment can be very effective in increasing productivity and at the same time, reducing the burden of maintenance often associated with older and legacy systems. In this brief technical communication, we introduce the concept of microservices as applied to the ecosystem of data analysis pipelines. Microservice architecture is a framework for dividing complex systems into easily managed parts. Each individual service is limited in functional scope, thereby conferring a higher measure of functional isolation and reliability to the collective solution. Moreover, maintenance challenges are greatly simplified by virtue of the reduced architectural complexity of each constitutive module. This fact notwithstanding, rendered overall solutions utilizing a microservices-based approach provide equal or greater levels of functionality as compared to conventional programming approaches. Bioinformatics, with its ever-increasing demand for performance and new testing algorithms, is the perfect use-case for such a solution. Moreover, if promulgated within the greater development community as an open-source solution, such an approach holds potential to be transformative to current bioinformatics software development. Context: Bioinformatics relies on nimble IT framework which can adapt to changing requirements. Aims: To present a well-established software design and deployment strategy as a solution for current challenges within bioinformatics Conclusions: Use of the microservices framework

  4. Generalized Centroid Estimators in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Michiaki; Kiryu, Hisanori; Iwasaki, Wataru; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In a number of estimation problems in bioinformatics, accuracy measures of the target problem are usually given, and it is important to design estimators that are suitable to those accuracy measures. However, there is often a discrepancy between an employed estimator and a given accuracy measure of the problem. In this study, we introduce a general class of efficient estimators for estimation problems on high-dimensional binary spaces, which represent many fundamental problems in bioinformatics. Theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed estimators generally fit with commonly-used accuracy measures (e.g. sensitivity, PPV, MCC and F-score) as well as it can be computed efficiently in many cases, and cover a wide range of problems in bioinformatics from the viewpoint of the principle of maximum expected accuracy (MEA). It is also shown that some important algorithms in bioinformatics can be interpreted in a unified manner. Not only the concept presented in this paper gives a useful framework to design MEA-based estimators but also it is highly extendable and sheds new light on many problems in bioinformatics. PMID:21365017

  5. Systems biology: properties of reconstructed networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palsson, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    ... between the mathematical ideas and biological processes are made clear, the book reflects the irreversible trend of increasing mathematical content in biology education. Therefore to assist both teacher and student, Palsson provides problem sets, projects, and PowerPoint slides in an associated web site and keeps the presentation in the book concrete with illustrat...

  6. Stochastic modelling of dynamical systems in biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellin, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis two relevant biological problems will be addressed from a statistical modelling perspective. The first regards the study of hematopoiesis, a still not well understood biological process rarely observable in humans due to technical and ethical reasons. Hematopoiesis is responsible for

  7. Isotopic fractionation of tritium in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Fromm, Michel; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Guétat, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Isotopic fractionation of tritium is a highly relevant issue in radiation protection and requires certain radioecological considerations. Sound evaluation of this factor is indeed necessary to determine whether environmental compartments are enriched/depleted in tritium or if tritium is, on the contrary, isotopically well-distributed in a given system. The ubiquity of tritium and the standard analytical methods used to assay it may induce biases in both the measurement and the signification that is accorded to the so-called fractionation: based on an exhaustive review of the literature, we show how, sometimes large deviations may appear. It is shown that when comparing the non-exchangeable fraction of organically bound tritium (neOBT) to another fraction of tritium (e.g. tritiated water) the preparation of samples and the measurement of neOBT reported frequently led to underestimation of the ratio of tritium to hydrogen (T/H) in the non-exchangeable compartment by a factor of 5% to 50%. In the present study, corrections are proposed for most of the biological matrices studied so far. Nevertheless, the values of isotopic fractionation reported in the literature remain difficult to compare with each other, especially since the physical quantities and units often vary between authors. Some improvements are proposed to better define what should encompass the concepts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular Biology of the Incretin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, John R.; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and exerts direct and indirect actions on the cardiovascular system. GLP-1 and its related incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a key determinant of incretin bioactivity. Two classes of medications that enhance incretin action, GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We review herein the cardiovascular biology of GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, including direct and indirect effects on cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, adipocytes, the control of blood pressure and postprandial lipoprotein secretion. Both GLP-1R activation and DPP-4 inhibition exert multiple cardioprotective actions in preclinical models of cardiovascular dysfunction, and short term studies in human subjects appear to demonstrate modest yet beneficial actions on cardiac function in subjects with ischemic heart disease. Incretin-based agents control body weight, improve glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia, decrease blood pressure, inhibit the secretion of intestinal chylomicrons, and reduce inflammation in preclinical studies. Nevertheless, there is limited information on the cardiovascular actions of these agents in patients with diabetes and established cardiovascular disease. Hence, a more complete understanding of the cardiovascular risk:benefit ratio of incretin-based therapies will require completion of long term cardiovascular outcome studies currently underway in patients with T2DM. PMID:22323472

  9. Toward mechanical systems biology in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüssel, Andreas; Müller, Ralph; Webster, Duncan

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic mechanical loading is perhaps the most important physiological factor regulating bone mass and shape in a way which balances optimal strength with minimal weight. This bone adaptation process spans multiple length and time scales. Forces resulting from physiological exercise at the organ scale are sensed at the cellular scale by osteocytes, which reside inside the bone matrix. Via biochemical pathways, osteocytes orchestrate the local remodeling action of osteoblasts (bone formation) and osteoclasts (bone resorption). Together these local adaptive remodeling activities sum up to strengthen bone globally at the organ scale. To resolve the underlying mechanisms it is required to identify and quantify both cause and effect across the different scales. Progress has been made at the different scales experimentally. Computational models of bone adaptation have been developed to piece together various experimental observations at the different scales into coherent and plausible mechanisms. However additional quantitative experimental validation is still required to build upon the insights which have already been achieved. In this review we discuss emerging as well as state of the art experimental and computational techniques and how they might be used in a mechanical systems biology approach to further our understanding of the mechanisms governing load induced bone adaptation, i.e., ways are outlined in which experimental and computational approaches could be coupled, in a quantitative manner to create more reliable multiscale models of bone.

  10. Making Bioinformatics Projects a Meaningful Experience in an Undergraduate Biotechnology or Biomedical Science Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Iain C.; Cummings, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    Bioinformatics has emerged as an important discipline within the biological sciences that allows scientists to decipher and manage the vast quantities of data (such as genome sequences) that are now available. Consequently, there is an obvious need to provide graduates in biosciences with generic, transferable skills in bioinformatics. We present…

  11. A Portable Bioinformatics Course for Upper-Division Undergraduate Curriculum in Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floraino, Wely B.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges that bioinformatics education is facing and describes a bioinformatics course that is successfully taught at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, to the fourth year undergraduate students in biological sciences, chemistry, and computer science. Information on lecture and computer practice…

  12. Visualizing and Sharing Results in Bioinformatics Projects: GBrowse and GenBank Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective tools for presenting and sharing data are necessary for collaborative projects, typical for bioinformatics. In order to facilitate sharing our data with other genomics, molecular biology, and bioinformatics researchers, we have developed software to export our data to GenBank and combined ...

  13. Radionuclide Imaging Technologies for Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Calvin R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Reid, Chantal D. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-05-14

    The main objective of this project is to develop technologies and experimental techniques for studying the dynamics of physiological responses of plants to changes in their interface with the local environment and to educate a new generation of scientists in an interdisciplinary environment of biology, physics and engineering. Also an important goal is to perform measurements to demonstrate the new data that can be produced and made available to the plant-biology community using the imaging technologies and experimental techniques developed in this project. The study of the plant-environment interface includes a wide range of topics in plant physiology, e.g., the root-soil interface, resource availability, impact of herbivores, influence of microbes on root surface, and responses to toxins in the air and soil. The initial scientific motivation for our work is to improve understanding of the mechanisms for physiological responses to abrupt changes in the local environment, in particular, the responses that result in short-term adjustments in resource (e.g., sugars, nutrients and water) allocations. Data of time-dependent responses of plants to environmental changes are essential in developing mechanistic models for substance intake and resource allocation. Our approach is to use radioisotope tracing techniques to study whole-plant and plant organ (e.g., leaves, stems, roots) dynamical responses to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, nutrient availability and lighting. To this aim we are collaborating with the Radiation Detector and Imaging Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory Facility (JLab) to develop gamma-ray and beta particle imaging systems optimized for plant studies. The radioisotope tracing measurements are conducted at the Phytotron facility at Duke University. The Phytotron is a controlled environment plant research facility with a variety of plant growth chambers. One chamber

  14. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioinformatics in Modern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Refresher Course on 'Bioinformatics in Modern Biology' for graduate and postgraduate college/university teachers will be held at School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal for two weeks from 5 to 17 May 2014. The objective of this Course is to improvise on teaching methodologies incorporating online teaching ...

  15. Bioinformatics in the Netherlands : The value of a nationwide community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, Celia W.G.; Hooft, Rob; van Rijswijk, Merlijn; van den Berg, Linda; Kok, Ruben; Reinders, M.J.T.; Mons, Barend; Heringa, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    This review provides a historical overview of the inception and development of bioinformatics research in the Netherlands. Rooted in theoretical biology by foundational figures such as Paulien Hogeweg (at Utrecht University since the 1970s), the developments leading to organizational structures

  16. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioinformatics in Modern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioinformatics in Modern Biology. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 192-192. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Intrageneric Primer Design: Bringing Bioinformatics Tools to the Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andre O. S.; Garces, Sergio P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioinformatics is one of the fastest growing scientific areas over the last decade. It focuses on the use of informatics tools for the organization and analysis of biological data. An example of their importance is the availability nowadays of dozens of software programs for genomic and proteomic studies. Thus, there is a growing field (private…

  18. Learning Genetics through an Authentic Research Simulation in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbart, Hadas; Yarden, Anat

    2006-01-01

    Following the rationale that learning is an active process of knowledge construction as well as enculturation into a community of experts, we developed a novel web-based learning environment in bioinformatics for high-school biology majors in Israel. The learning environment enables the learners to actively participate in a guided inquiry process…

  19. Hidden in the Middle: Culture, Value and Reward in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jamie; Bartlett, Andrew; Atkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics--the so-called shotgun marriage between biology and computer science--is an interdiscipline. Despite interdisciplinarity being seen as a virtue, for having the capacity to solve complex problems and foster innovation, it has the potential to place projects and people in anomalous categories. For example, valorised…

  20. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Jewett, Michael Christopher

    2008-01-01

    in the industrial application of this yeast. Developments in genomics and high-throughput systems biology tools are enhancing one's ability to rapidly characterize cellular behaviour, which is valuable in the field of metabolic engineering where strain characterization is often the bottleneck in strain development...... programmes. Here, the impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering is reviewed and perspectives on the role of systems biology in the design of cell factories are given....

  2. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar Sunil; Salt David E; Kane Michael D; Stephenson Alan; Ouyang Qi; Zhang Mingwu; Burgner John; Buck Charles; Zhang Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferr...

  3. Adapting to Biology: Maintaining Container-Closure System Compatibility with the Therapeutic Biologic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrazio, Dominick

    Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to the dimension of evolving therapeutic biologics. Important concerns associated with this changeover are becoming forefront, as challenges develop of varying complexity uncommon with the synthesis and production of traditional drugs. Therefore, alternative measures must be established that aim to preserve the efficacy and functionality of a biologic that might not be implemented for small molecules. Conserving protein stability is relative to perpetuating a net equilibrium of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Key to sustaining this balance is the ability of container-closure systems to maintain their compatibility with the ever-changing dynamics of therapeutic biologics. Failure to recognize and adjust the material properties of packaging components to support compatibility with therapeutic biologics can compromise patient safety, drug productivity, and biological stability. This review will examine the differences between small-molecule drugs and therapeutic biologics, lay a basic foundation for understanding the stability of therapeutic biologics, and demonstrate potential sources of container-closure systems' incompatibilities with therapeutic biologics at a mechanistic level. Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to recombinantly derived therapeutic biologics. Concerns associated with this transformation are becoming prominent, as therapeutic biologics are uncharacteristic to small-molecule drugs. Maintaining the stability of a therapeutic biologic is a combination of balancing intrinsic factors and external elements within the biologic's microenvironment. An important aspect of this balance is relegated to the overall compatibility of primary, parenteral container-closure systems with therapeutic biologics

  4. Seasonal allergic rhinitis and systems biology-oriented biomarker discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, E.W.; Nierop, A.F.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in science and medicine in the systems approach. Instead of the reductionist approach that focuses on the physical and chemical properties of the individual components, systems biology aims to describe, understand, and explain from the complex biological systems

  5. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  6. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  7. A guide to numerical modelling in systems biology

    CERN Document Server

    Deuflhard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for students of computational systems biology with only a limited background in mathematics. Typical books on systems biology merely mention algorithmic approaches, but without offering a deeper understanding. On the other hand, mathematical books are typically unreadable for computational biologists. The authors of the present book have worked hard to fill this gap. The result is not a book on systems biology, but on computational methods in systems biology. This book originated from courses taught by the authors at Freie Universität Berlin. The guiding idea of the courses was to convey those mathematical insights that are indispensable for systems biology, teaching the necessary mathematical prerequisites by means of many illustrative examples and without any theorems. The three chapters cover the mathematical modelling of biochemical and physiological processes, numerical simulation of the dynamics of biological networks, and identification of model parameters by means of comparisons...

  8. A Magnetic Sensor System for Biological Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect biological targets through sensing the stray field of magnetic beads which label the targets. Commonly, magnetic biosensors employ the “sandwich” method to immobilize biological targets, i.e., the targets are sandwiched between a bio-functionalized sensor surface and bio-functionalized magnetic beads. This method has been used very successfully in different application, but its execution requires a rather elaborate procedure including several washing and incubation steps. This dissertation investigates a new magnetic biosensor concept, which enables a simple and effective detection of biological targets. The biosensor takes advantage of the size difference between bare magnetic beads and compounds of magnetic beads and biological targets. First, the detection of super-paramagnetic beads via magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors is implemented. Frequency modulation is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of a single magnetic bead. Second, the concept of the magnetic biosensor is investigated theoretically. The biosensor consists of an MTJ sensor, which detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside of a trap on top of the MTJ. A microwire between the trap and the MTJ is used to attract magnetic beads to the trapping well by applying a current to it. The MTJ sensor’s output depends on the number of beads inside the trap. If biological targets are in the sample solution, the beads will form bead compounds consisting of beads linked to the biological targets. Since bead compounds are larger than bare beads, the number of beads inside the trapping well will depend on the presence of biological targets. Hence, the output of the MTJ sensor will depend on the biological targets. The dependences of sensor signals on the sizes of the MTJ sensor, magnetic beads and biological targets are studied to find the optimum constellations for the detection of specific biological targets. The optimization is demonstrated

  9. A conceptual review on systems biology in health and diseases: from biological networks to modern therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Somvanshi, Pramod Rajaram; Venkatesh, K. V.

    2013-01-01

    Human physiology is an ensemble of various biological processes spanning from intracellular molecular interactions to the whole body phenotypic response. Systems biology endures to decipher these multi-scale biological networks and bridge the link between genotype to phenotype. The structure and dynamic properties of these networks are responsible for controlling and deciding the phenotypic state of a cell. Several cells and various tissues coordinate together to generate an organ level respo...

  10. A review of imaging techniques for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Ming J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PET (Positron Emission Tomography, and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

  11. Bioinformatics analysis of circulating cell-free DNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Landon L; Jiang, Peiyong

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of cell-free DNA molecules in plasma has opened up numerous opportunities in noninvasive diagnosis. Cell-free DNA molecules have become increasingly recognized as promising biomarkers for detection and management of many diseases. The advent of next generation sequencing has provided unprecedented opportunities to scrutinize the characteristics of cell-free DNA molecules in plasma in a genome-wide fashion and at single-base resolution. Consequently, clinical applications of circulating cell-free DNA analysis have not only revolutionized noninvasive prenatal diagnosis but also facilitated cancer detection and monitoring toward an era of blood-based personalized medicine. With the remarkably increasing throughput and lowering cost of next generation sequencing, bioinformatics analysis becomes increasingly demanding to understand the large amount of data generated by these sequencing platforms. In this Review, we highlight the major bioinformatics algorithms involved in the analysis of cell-free DNA sequencing data. Firstly, we briefly describe the biological properties of these molecules and provide an overview of the general bioinformatics approach for the analysis of cell-free DNA. Then, we discuss the specific upstream bioinformatics considerations concerning the analysis of sequencing data of circulating cell-free DNA, followed by further detailed elaboration on each key clinical situation in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and cancer management where downstream bioinformatics analysis is heavily involved. We also discuss bioinformatics analysis as well as clinical applications of the newly developed massively parallel bisulfite sequencing of cell-free DNA. Finally, we offer our perspectives on the future development of bioinformatics in noninvasive diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  13. The Aspergillus Mine - publishing bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian

    with the Joint Genome Institute. The Aspergillus Mine is not intended as a genomic data sharing service but instead focuses on creating an environment where the results of bioinformatic analysis is made available for inspection. The data and code is public upon request and figures can be obtained directly from...

  14. Bioinformatics of genomic association mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaez Barzani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present an overview of bioinformatics-based approaches for genomic association mapping, with emphasis on human quantitative traits and their contribution to complex diseases. We aim to provide a comprehensive walk-through of the classic steps of genomic association mapping

  15. Morphogenesis and pattern formation in biological systems experiments and models

    CERN Document Server

    Noji, Sumihare; Ueno, Naoto; Maini, Philip

    2003-01-01

    A central goal of current biology is to decode the mechanisms that underlie the processes of morphogenesis and pattern formation. Concerned with the analysis of those phenomena, this book covers a broad range of research fields, including developmental biology, molecular biology, plant morphogenesis, ecology, epidemiology, medicine, paleontology, evolutionary biology, mathematical biology, and computational biology. In Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation in Biological Systems: Experiments and Models, experimental and theoretical aspects of biology are integrated for the construction and investigation of models of complex processes. This collection of articles on the latest advances by leading researchers not only brings together work from a wide spectrum of disciplines, but also provides a stepping-stone to the creation of new areas of discovery.

  16. The development and application of bioinformatics core competencies to improve bioinformatics training and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooksbank, Cath; Morgan, Sarah L.; Rosenwald, Anne; Warnow, Tandy; Welch, Lonnie

    2018-01-01

    Bioinformatics is recognized as part of the essential knowledge base of numerous career paths in biomedical research and healthcare. However, there is little agreement in the field over what that knowledge entails or how best to provide it. These disagreements are compounded by the wide range of populations in need of bioinformatics training, with divergent prior backgrounds and intended application areas. The Curriculum Task Force of the International Society of Computational Biology (ISCB) Education Committee has sought to provide a framework for training needs and curricula in terms of a set of bioinformatics core competencies that cut across many user personas and training programs. The initial competencies developed based on surveys of employers and training programs have since been refined through a multiyear process of community engagement. This report describes the current status of the competencies and presents a series of use cases illustrating how they are being applied in diverse training contexts. These use cases are intended to demonstrate how others can make use of the competencies and engage in the process of their continuing refinement and application. The report concludes with a consideration of remaining challenges and future plans. PMID:29390004

  17. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  18. Programming Morphogenesis through Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Jeremy J; Su, Emily; Cahan, Patrick; Ebrahimkhani, Mo R

    2018-04-01

    Mammalian tissue development is an intricate, spatiotemporal process of self-organization that emerges from gene regulatory networks of differentiating stem cells. A major goal in stem cell biology is to gain a sufficient understanding of gene regulatory networks and cell-cell interactions to enable the reliable and robust engineering of morphogenesis. Here, we review advances in synthetic biology, single cell genomics, and multiscale modeling, which, when synthesized, provide a framework to achieve the ambitious goal of programming morphogenesis in complex tissues and organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolomics and its integration with systems biology: PSI 2014 conference panel discussion report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Tushar; RoyChoudhury, Sourav; Gollapalli, Kishore; Patel, Sandip K; Gowda, Harsha; Chaudhury, Koel; Rapole, Srikanth

    2015-09-08

    Metabolomics, being a relatively new field, is facing multiple challenges related to data acquisition and interpretation, reproducibility across analytical platforms, integration with other omics approaches and translation into theragnostic biomarkers. There is an immediate need to overcome these challenges in order to make metabolomics more useful and reliable in terms of improving our current understanding of disease biology and help in developing predictive biomarkers. Researchers interested in metabolomics gathered for a panel discussion on 'Metabolomics and its integration with systems biology' during the 6th Annual Meeting of Proteomics Society-India and International Conference on "Proteomics from Discovery to Function" held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay from December 7-9, 2014. The panel discussed various challenges related to metabolomics and also proposed several effective solutions for optimum implementation of metabolomics in clinical practice. The key areas of panel discussion were improvement in metabolite databases with comprehensive spectral libraries, need for extensive bioinformatics tools for integrative approaches and serious considerations for clinical validation of the biomarkers for the successful implementation of metabolomics in clinics. Information drafted in this report is significant for researchers working in metabolomics field to overcome the challenges and successful implementation of metabolomics in clinical practice. This article is part of a special issue titled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioinformatics in the Netherlands: the value of a nationwide community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Celia W G; Hooft, Rob W W; van Rijswijk, Merlijn N; van den Berg, Linda; Kok, Ruben G; Reinders, Marcel; Mons, Barend; Heringa, Jaap

    2017-09-15

    This review provides a historical overview of the inception and development of bioinformatics research in the Netherlands. Rooted in theoretical biology by foundational figures such as Paulien Hogeweg (at Utrecht University since the 1970s), the developments leading to organizational structures supporting a relatively large Dutch bioinformatics community will be reviewed. We will show that the most valuable resource that we have built over these years is the close-knit national expert community that is well engaged in basic and translational life science research programmes. The Dutch bioinformatics community is accustomed to facing the ever-changing landscape of data challenges and working towards solutions together. In addition, this community is the stable factor on the road towards sustainability, especially in times where existing funding models are challenged and change rapidly. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-03-01

    Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present

  2. A review of bioinformatics training applied to research in molecular medicine, agriculture and biodiversity in Costa Rica and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Allan; Morera, Jessica; Jiménez, Sergio; Boza, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    Today, Bioinformatics has become a scientific discipline with great relevance for the Molecular Biosciences and for the Omics sciences in general. Although developed countries have progressed with large strides in Bioinformatics education and research, in other regions, such as Central America, the advances have occurred in a gradual way and with little support from the Academia, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica's Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region's first Bioinformatics Master's Degree. The recent creation of the Central American Bioinformatics Network (BioCANET), associated to the deployment of a supporting computational infrastructure (HPC Cluster) devoted to provide computing support for Molecular Biology in the region, is providing a foundational stone for the development of Bioinformatics in the area. Central American bioinformaticians have participated in the creation of as well as co-founded the Iberoamerican Bioinformatics Society (SOIBIO). In this article, we review the most recent activities in education and research in Bioinformatics from several regional institutions. These activities have resulted in further advances for Molecular Medicine, Agriculture and Biodiversity research in Costa Rica and the rest of the Central American countries. Finally, we provide summary information on the first Central America Bioinformatics International Congress, as well as the creation of the first Bioinformatics company (Indromics Bioinformatics), spin-off the Academy in Central America and the Caribbean.

  3. Optical Biosensors to Explore Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Andersen, Nils H. Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    protein may be used as an efficient sensor in an organic environment via a biomimetic membrane model. The combination of both biomimetic membranes and protein membranes as a signal transduction medium has interesting applications in biology and medicine. It is crucial that the matrix where a protein...

  4. A Systems Approach to Biology (SAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Kenneth H.; And Others

    This pupil's study guide is intended to be used with audio-taped biology modules. Each of the units (on laboratory techniques, plant and animal diversity, chemistry, cells, energy, microbiology, genetics, and development) contains an abstract providing an overview of the unit, the rationale and performance objectives for each module, questions to…

  5. Tracing organizing principles: Learning from the history of systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of systems biology, the identification of organizing principles is being highlighted as a key research aim. Researchers attempt to “reverse engineer” the functional organization of biological systems using methodologies from mathematics, engineering and computer science while...... taking advantage of data produced by new experimental techniques. While systems biology is a relatively new approach, the quest for general principles of biological organization dates back to systems theoretic approaches in early and mid-twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to draw...... on this historical background in order to increase the understanding of the motivation behind the search for general principles and to clarify different epistemic aims within systems biology. We pinpoint key aspects of earlier approaches that also underlie the current practice. These are i) the focus on relational...

  6. Modeling and simulation of biological systems using SPICE language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallement, Christophe; Haiech, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with BB-SPICE (SPICE for Biochemical and Biological Systems), an extension of the famous Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE). BB-SPICE environment is composed of three modules: a new textual and compact description formalism for biological systems, a converter that handles this description and generates the SPICE netlist of the equivalent electronic circuit and NGSPICE which is an open-source SPICE simulator. In addition, the environment provides back and forth interfaces with SBML (System Biology Markup Language), a very common description language used in systems biology. BB-SPICE has been developed in order to bridge the gap between the simulation of biological systems on the one hand and electronics circuits on the other hand. Thus, it is suitable for applications at the interface between both domains, such as development of design tools for synthetic biology and for the virtual prototyping of biosensors and lab-on-chip. Simulation results obtained with BB-SPICE and COPASI (an open-source software used for the simulation of biochemical systems) have been compared on a benchmark of models commonly used in systems biology. Results are in accordance from a quantitative viewpoint but BB-SPICE outclasses COPASI by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude regarding the computation time. Moreover, as our software is based on NGSPICE, it could take profit of incoming updates such as the GPU implementation, of the coupling with powerful analysis and verification tools or of the integration in design automation tools (synthetic biology). PMID:28787027

  7. The Annotation, Mapping, Expression and Network (AMEN suite of tools for molecular systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primig Michael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genome biological experiments yield large and multifaceted datasets that require flexible and user-friendly analysis tools to facilitate their interpretation by life scientists. Many solutions currently exist, but they are often limited to specific steps in the complex process of data management and analysis and some require extensive informatics skills to be installed and run efficiently. Results We developed the Annotation, Mapping, Expression and Network (AMEN software as a stand-alone, unified suite of tools that enables biological and medical researchers with basic bioinformatics training to manage and explore genome annotation, chromosomal mapping, protein-protein interaction, expression profiling and proteomics data. The current version provides modules for (i uploading and pre-processing data from microarray expression profiling experiments, (ii detecting groups of significantly co-expressed genes, and (iii searching for enrichment of functional annotations within those groups. Moreover, the user interface is designed to simultaneously visualize several types of data such as protein-protein interaction networks in conjunction with expression profiles and cellular co-localization patterns. We have successfully applied the program to interpret expression profiling data from budding yeast, rodents and human. Conclusion AMEN is an innovative solution for molecular systems biological data analysis freely available under the GNU license. The program is available via a website at the Sourceforge portal which includes a user guide with concrete examples, links to external databases and helpful comments to implement additional functionalities. We emphasize that AMEN will continue to be developed and maintained by our laboratory because it has proven to be extremely useful for our genome biological research program.

  8. Network biology: Describing biological systems by complex networks. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by M. Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    I enjoyed reading Gosak et al. review on analysing biological systems from network science perspective [1]. Network science, first started within Physics community, is now a mature multidisciplinary field of science with many applications ranging from Ecology to biology, medicine, social sciences, engineering and computer science. Gosak et al. discussed how biological systems can be modelled and described by complex network theory which is an important application of network science. Although there has been considerable progress in network biology over the past two decades, this is just the beginning and network science has a great deal to offer to biology and medical sciences.

  9. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, F.; Murabito, E.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out throughin silicotheoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement furtherin vitroandin vivoexperimental

  10. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... and Canadian military personnel. In light of these concerns both defense departments have increased efforts to develop and field biological agent detection systems to help protect their military forces and fixed assets...

  11. Scaling for Dynamical Systems in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledder, Glenn

    2017-11-01

    Asymptotic methods can greatly simplify the analysis of all but the simplest mathematical models and should therefore be commonplace in such biological areas as ecology and epidemiology. One essential difficulty that limits their use is that they can only be applied to a suitably scaled dimensionless version of the original dimensional model. Many books discuss nondimensionalization, but with little attention given to the problem of choosing the right scales and dimensionless parameters. In this paper, we illustrate the value of using asymptotics on a properly scaled dimensionless model, develop a set of guidelines that can be used to make good scaling choices, and offer advice for teaching these topics in differential equations or mathematical biology courses.

  12. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Preface to Introduction to Structural Bioinformatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, K. Anton; Abeln, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    While many good textbooks are available on Protein Structure, Molecular Simulations, Thermodynamics and Bioinformatics methods in general, there is no good introductory level book for the field of Structural Bioinformatics. This book aims to give an introduction into Structural Bioinformatics, which

  14. Redefining plant systems biology: from cell to ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keurentjes, Joost J B; Angenent, Gerco C; Dicke, Marcel; Dos Santos, Vítor A P Martins; Molenaar, Jaap; van der Putten, Wim H; de Ruiter, Peter C; Struik, Paul C; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2011-04-01

    Molecular biologists typically restrict systems biology to cellular levels. By contrast, ecologists define biological systems as communities of interacting individuals at different trophic levels that process energy, nutrient and information flows. Modern plant breeding needs to increase agricultural productivity while decreasing the ecological footprint. This requires a holistic systems biology approach that couples different aggregation levels while considering the variables that affect these biological systems from cell to community. The challenge is to generate accurate experimental data that can be used together with modelling concepts and techniques that allow experimentally verifying in silico predictions. The coupling of aggregation levels in plant sciences, termed Integral Quantification of Biological Organization (IQ(BiO)), might enhance our abilities to generate new desired plant phenotypes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. libcov: A C++ bioinformatic library to manipulate protein structures, sequence alignments and phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Davin; Roger, Andrew J; Blouin, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Background An increasing number of bioinformatics methods are considering the phylogenetic relationships between biological sequences. Implementing new methodologies using the maximum likelihood phylogenetic framework can be a time consuming task. Results The bioinformatics library libcov is a collection of C++ classes that provides a high and low-level interface to maximum likelihood phylogenetics, sequence analysis and a data structure for structural biological methods. libcov can be used ...

  16. Bioinformatics data distribution and integration via Web Services and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yizheng

    2003-11-01

    It is widely recognized that exchange, distribution, and integration of biological data are the keys to improve bioinformatics and genome biology in post-genomic era. However, the problem of exchanging and integrating biology data is not solved satisfactorily. The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is rapidly spreading as an emerging standard for structuring documents to exchange and integrate data on the World Wide Web (WWW). Web service is the next generation of WWW and is founded upon the open standards of W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) and IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). This paper presents XML and Web Services technologies and their use for an appropriate solution to the problem of bioinformatics data exchange and integration.

  17. Synthetic Biology: Engineering Living Systems from Biophysical Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bryan A; Kim, Kyung; Medley, J Kyle; Sauro, Herbert M

    2017-03-28

    Synthetic biology was founded as a biophysical discipline that sought explanations for the origins of life from chemical and physical first principles. Modern synthetic biology has been reinvented as an engineering discipline to design new organisms as well as to better understand fundamental biological mechanisms. However, success is still largely limited to the laboratory and transformative applications of synthetic biology are still in their infancy. Here, we review six principles of living systems and how they compare and contrast with engineered systems. We cite specific examples from the synthetic biology literature that illustrate these principles and speculate on their implications for further study. To fully realize the promise of synthetic biology, we must be aware of life's unique properties. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust Bioinformatics Recognition with VLSI Biochip Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Jaw-Chyng L.; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2006-01-01

    A microsystem architecture for real-time, on-site, robust bioinformatic patterns recognition and analysis has been proposed. This system is compatible with on-chip DNA analysis means such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)amplification. A corresponding novel artificial neural network (ANN) learning algorithm using new sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on error backpropagation (EBP) algorithm is invented. Our results show the trained new ANN can recognize low fluorescence patterns better than the conventional sigmoidal ANN does. A differential logarithmic imaging chip is designed for calculating logarithm of relative intensities of fluorescence signals. The single-rail logarithmic circuit and a prototype ANN chip are designed, fabricated and characterized.

  19. Utility library for structural bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gront, Dominik; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2008-02-15

    In this Note we present a new software library for structural bioinformatics. The library contains programs, computing sequence- and profile-based alignments and a variety of structural calculations with user-friendly handling of various data formats. The software organization is very flexible. Algorithms are written in Java language and may be used by Java programs. Moreover the modules can be accessed from Jython (Python scripting language implemented in Java) scripts. Finally, the new version of BioShell delivers several utility programs that can do typical bioinformatics task from a command-line level. Availability The software is available for download free of charge from its website: http://bioshell.chem.uw.edu.pl. This website provides also numerous examples, code snippets and API documentation.

  20. A systems biology approach to study systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammation needs a precise control on the sequence and magnitude of occurring events. The high throughput data on the host-pathogen interactions gives us an opportunity to have a glimpse on the systemic inflammation. In this article, a dynamic Candida albicans-zebrafish interactive infectious network is built as an example to demonstrate how systems biology approach can be used to study systematic inflammation. In particular, based on microarray data of C. albicans and zebrafish during infection, the hyphal growth, zebrafish, and host-pathogen intercellular PPI networks were combined to form an integrated infectious PPI network that helps us understand the systematic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. albicans and the immune response of the host. The signaling pathways for morphogenesis and hyphal growth of C. albicans were 2 significant interactions found in the intercellular PPI network. Two cellular networks were also developed corresponding to the different infection stages (adhesion and invasion), and then compared with each other to identify proteins to gain more insight into the pathogenic role of hyphal development in the C. albicans infection process. Important defense-related proteins in zebrafish were predicted using the same approach. This integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection can improve medical therapies and facilitate development of new antifungal drugs.

  1. Reverse allostasis in biological systems: Minimal conditions and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Bakhtiari, Davood; Rashidi, Armin

    2017-08-07

    Biological control systems regulate the behavior of biological systems in a constantly changing environment. Homeostasis is the most widely studied outcome of biological control systems. Homeostatic systems maintain the system in its desired state despite variations in system parameters or the externally-determined input rates of their constituents, i.e. they have zero or near zero steady state error. On the other hand, allostatic systems are not resistant against environmental changes and the steady state level of their controlled variables responds positively to the changes in their input rates. Little is known, however, on the existence and frequency of reverse allostatic systems, where the steady state value of the controlled variable correlates negatively with the input rate of that variable. In the present study, we derive the minimal conditions for the existence and local stability of reverse allostatic systems, and demonstrate in examples of metabolic, pharmacological, pathophysiological and ecological systems that the reverse allostasis requirements are relatively non-stringent and may be satisfied in biological systems more commonly than usually thought. The possible existence of reverse allostatic systems in nature and their counter-intuitive implications in physiological systems, drug treatment, ecosystem management, and biological control are explored and testable predictions are made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behaviors of tritium in terrestrial biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Tsuyako

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo behaviors of HTO- 3 H in food chain models in experimental animals were described. Of pregnant mice that had ingested HTO and drinking water alone for 19 days, the total 3 H content in the tissue/wet weight was greater by 20% in fetuses and newborns than in mothers, and the proportion of tissue-bound 3 H was 8-24% in mothers and 3% in fetuses. The mean 3 H concentration in the free water in tissues was about 36% of ingested HTO. When only 3 H foods were ingested for 18 days, the total 3 H content in the tissue/wet weight showed no marked difference among the mother, fetuses and newborns, nor did the bound 3 H level show great differences. With respect to the tissue distribution of 3 H, only the incorporation rate by the mother's brain from HTO was satisfactory, whereas in other organs, the mother, fetuses and newborns showed higher incorporation rates from 3 H foods. The ratio of specific radioactivity of soft tissue 3 H in mothers to HTO in drinking water exceeded 1 only for the spleen, but other tissues showed no biological concentration. Again, no biological concentration was observed with 3 H foods. Environmental HTO did not result in biological concentration of 3 H in mother mice that had ingested 3 H foods, but 3 H was rather diluted. Tissues other than the spleen showed similar values of 3 H ingestion from environmental HTO through all routes. However, the proportion of bound 3 H in the total 3 H in the soft tissue was about 1.4-1.6 times that on ingestion of HTO alone. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Applied bioinformatics: Genome annotation and transcriptome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Vikas

    japonicus (Lotus), Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry), Stegodyphus mimosarum (spider) and Trifolium occidentale (clover). From a bioinformatics data analysis perspective, my work can be divided into three parts; genome annotation, small RNA, and gene expression analysis. Lotus is a legume of significant...... biology and genetics studies. We present an improved Lotus genome assembly and annotation, a catalog of natural variation based on re-sequencing of 29 accessions, and describe the involvement of small RNAs in the plant-bacteria symbiosis. Blueberries contain anthocyanins, other pigments and various...... polyphenolic compounds, which have been linked to protection against diabetes, cardiovascular disease and age-related cognitive decline. We present the first genome- guided approach in blueberry to identify genes involved in the synthesis of health-protective compounds. Using RNA-Seq data from five stages...

  4. The common ground of genomics and systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The rise of systems biology is intertwined with that of genomics, yet their primordial relationship to one another is ill-defined. We discuss how the growth of genomics provided a critical boost to the popularity of systems biology. We describe the parts of genomics that share common areas of interest with systems biology today in the areas of gene expression, network inference, chromatin state analysis, pathway analysis, personalized medicine, and upcoming areas of synergy as genomics continues to expand its scope across all biomedical fields. PMID:25033072

  5. Noninvasive biological sensor system for detection of drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kohji; Fujita, Etsunori; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Shinitirou; Ogura, Yumi; Kamei, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Toshio; Kaneko, Shigehiko; Yoshizumi, Masao; Suzuki, Nobutaka

    2011-01-01

    Systems capable of monitoring the biological condition of a driver and issuing warnings during instances of drowsiness have recently been studied. Moreover, many researchers have reported that biological signals, such as brain waves, pulsation waves, and heart rate, are different between people who have and have not consumed alcohol. Currently, we are developing a noninvasive system to detect individuals driving under the influence of alcohol by measuring biological signals. We used the frequency time series analysis to attempt to distinguish between normal and intoxicated states of a person as the basis of the sensing system.

  6. Kmerind: A Flexible Parallel Library for K-mer Indexing of Biological Sequences on Distributed Memory Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tony; Flick, Patrick; Jain, Chirag; Liu, Yongchao; Aluru, Srinivas

    2017-10-09

    Counting and indexing fixed length substrings, or k-mers, in biological sequences is a key step in many bioinformatics tasks including genome alignment and mapping, genome assembly, and error correction. While advances in next generation sequencing technologies have dramatically reduced the cost and improved latency and throughput, few bioinformatics tools can efficiently process the datasets at the current generation rate of 1.8 terabases every 3 days. We present Kmerind, a high performance parallel k-mer indexing library for distributed memory environments. The Kmerind library provides a set of simple and consistent APIs with sequential semantics and parallel implementations that are designed to be flexible and extensible. Kmerind's k-mer counter performs similarly or better than the best existing k-mer counting tools even on shared memory systems. In a distributed memory environment, Kmerind counts k-mers in a 120 GB sequence read dataset in less than 13 seconds on 1024 Xeon CPU cores, and fully indexes their positions in approximately 17 seconds. Querying for 1% of the k-mers in these indices can be completed in 0.23 seconds and 28 seconds, respectively. Kmerind is the first k-mer indexing library for distributed memory environments, and the first extensible library for general k-mer indexing and counting. Kmerind is available at https://github.com/ParBLiSS/kmerind.

  7. Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukusic, P.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    Many biological systems are known to use structural colour effects to generate aspects of their appearance and visibility. The study of these phenomena has informed an eclectic group of fields ranging, for example, from evolutionary processes in behavioural biology to micro-optical devices in

  8. Biochemical Space: A Framework for Systemic Annotation of Biological Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klement, M.; Děd, T.; Šafránek, D.; Červený, Jan; Müller, Stefan; Steuer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 306, JUL (2014), s. 31-44 ISSN 1571-0661 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biological models * model annotation * systems biology * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Review of "Stochastic Modelling for Systems Biology" by Darren Wilkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullinger Eric

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Stochastic Modelling for Systems Biology" by Darren Wilkinson introduces the peculiarities of stochastic modelling in biology. This book is particularly suited to as a textbook or for self-study, and for readers with a theoretical background.

  10. Interdisciplinary problem-solving: emerging modes in integrative systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacLeod, Miles Alexander James; Nersessian, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative systems biology is an emerging field that attempts to integrate computation, applied mathematics, engineering concepts and methods, and biological experimentation in order to model large-scale complex biochemical networks. The field is thus an important contemporary instance of an

  11. GPSR: A Resource for Genomics Proteomics and Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Prediction of B-Cell Epitopes · Slide 9 · Slide 10. Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Limitations of existing web services · GPSR: A Resource for Genomics Proteomics and Systems Biology · Important Information in Manual for Develpers.

  12. Genome modularity and synthetic biology: Engineering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Milsee; Kabra, Ritika; Singh, Shailza

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing projects running in various laboratories around the world has generated immense data. A systematic phylogenetic analysis of this data shows that genome complexity goes on decreasing as it evolves, due to its modular nature. This modularity can be harnessed to minimize the genome further to reduce it with the bare minimum essential genes. A reduced modular genome, can fuel progress in the area of synthetic biology by providing a ready to use plug and play chassis. Advances in gene editing technology such as the use of tailor made synthetic transcription factors will further enhance the availability of synthetic devices to be applied in the fields of environment, agriculture and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioinformatic training needs at a health sciences campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey C

    2017-01-01

    Health sciences research is increasingly focusing on big data applications, such as genomic technologies and precision medicine, to address key issues in human health. These approaches rely on biological data repositories and bioinformatic analyses, both of which are growing rapidly in size and scope. Libraries play a key role in supporting researchers in navigating these and other information resources. With the goal of supporting bioinformatics research in the health sciences, the University of Arizona Health Sciences Library established a Bioinformation program. To shape the support provided by the library, I developed and administered a needs assessment survey to the University of Arizona Health Sciences campus in Tucson, Arizona. The survey was designed to identify the training topics of interest to health sciences researchers and the preferred modes of training. Survey respondents expressed an interest in a broad array of potential training topics, including "traditional" information seeking as well as interest in analytical training. Of particular interest were training in transcriptomic tools and the use of databases linking genotypes and phenotypes. Staff were most interested in bioinformatics training topics, while faculty were the least interested. Hands-on workshops were significantly preferred over any other mode of training. The University of Arizona Health Sciences Library is meeting those needs through internal programming and external partnerships. The results of the survey demonstrate a keen interest in a variety of bioinformatic resources; the challenge to the library is how to address those training needs. The mode of support depends largely on library staff expertise in the numerous subject-specific databases and tools. Librarian-led bioinformatic training sessions provide opportunities for engagement with researchers at multiple points of the research life cycle. When training needs exceed library capacity, partnering with intramural and

  14. Sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Z

    2011-11-01

    With the rising application of systems biology, sensitivity analysis methods have been widely applied to study the biological systems, including metabolic networks, signalling pathways and genetic circuits. Sensitivity analysis can provide valuable insights about how robust the biological responses are with respect to the changes of biological parameters and which model inputs are the key factors that affect the model outputs. In addition, sensitivity analysis is valuable for guiding experimental analysis, model reduction and parameter estimation. Local and global sensitivity analysis approaches are the two types of sensitivity analysis that are commonly applied in systems biology. Local sensitivity analysis is a classic method that studies the impact of small perturbations on the model outputs. On the other hand, global sensitivity analysis approaches have been applied to understand how the model outputs are affected by large variations of the model input parameters. In this review, the author introduces the basic concepts of sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. Moreover, the author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different sensitivity analysis methods, how to choose a proper sensitivity analysis approach, the available sensitivity analysis tools for systems biology models and the caveats in the interpretation of sensitivity analysis results.

  15. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  16. How do biological systems escape 'chaotic' state?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B J Rao

    2018-02-13

    Feb 13, 2018 ... forward and feedback regulations among several interdependent components of the system, such that the system stays 'quasi- stable' at the expense of constant energy inputs. Homeostasis is revealed in a chair-shaped graphical relationship between environment or genotype (independent variable) and ...

  17. Systems biology approaches to the study of cardiovascular drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolsky, Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Atherogenic lipids and chronic inflammation drive the development of cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Many cardiovascular drugs target the liver which is involved in the formation of lipid and inflammatory risk factors. With robust systems biology tools and comprehensive

  18. Insights from Systems Biology in Physiological Studies: Learning from Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Imenez Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology presents an integrated view of biological systems, focusing on the relations between elements, whether functional or evolutionary, and providing a rich framework for the comprehension of life. At the same time, many low-throughput experimental studies are performed without influence from this integrated view, whilst high-throughput experiments use low-throughput results in their validation and interpretation. We propose an inversion in this logic, and ask which benefits could be obtained from a holistic view coming from high-throughput studies―and systems biology in particular―in interpreting and designing low-throughput experiments. By exploring some key examples from the renal and adrenal physiology, we try to show that network and modularity theory, along with observed patterns of association between elements in a biological system, can have profound effects on our ability to draw meaningful conclusions from experiments.

  19. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bionic models for identification of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerget, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a clinical decision support system that processes biomedical data. For this purpose a bionic model has been designed based on neural networks, genetic algorithms and immune systems. The developed system has been tested on data from pregnant women. The paper focuses on the approach to enable selection of control actions that can minimize the risk of adverse outcome. The control actions (hyperparameters of a new type) are further used as an additional input signal. Its values are defined by a hyperparameter optimization method. A software developed with Python is briefly described.

  1. InterMine: a flexible data warehouse system for the integration and analysis of heterogeneous biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard N; Aleksic, Jelena; Butano, Daniela; Carr, Adrian; Contrino, Sergio; Hu, Fengyuan; Lyne, Mike; Lyne, Rachel; Kalderimis, Alex; Rutherford, Kim; Stepan, Radek; Sullivan, Julie; Wakeling, Matthew; Watkins, Xavier; Micklem, Gos

    2012-12-01

    InterMine is an open-source data warehouse system that facilitates the building of databases with complex data integration requirements and a need for a fast customizable query facility. Using InterMine, large biological databases can be created from a range of heterogeneous data sources, and the extensible data model allows for easy integration of new data types. The analysis tools include a flexible query builder, genomic region search and a library of 'widgets' performing various statistical analyses. The results can be exported in many commonly used formats. InterMine is a fully extensible framework where developers can add new tools and functionality. Additionally, there is a comprehensive set of web services, for which client libraries are provided in five commonly used programming languages. Freely available from http://www.intermine.org under the LGPL license. g.micklem@gen.cam.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Stochastic chemical kinetics theory and (mostly) systems biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Érdi, Péter; Lente, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    This volume reviews the theory and simulation methods of stochastic kinetics by integrating historical and recent perspectives, presents applications, mostly in the context of systems biology and also in combustion theory. In recent years, due to the development in experimental techniques, such as optical imaging, single cell analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical kinetic data inside single living cells have increasingly been available. The emergence of systems biology brought renaissance in the application of stochastic kinetic methods.

  3. Systems biology of neutrophil differentiation and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Porse, Bo T; Borregaard, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Systems biology has emerged as a new scientific field, which aims at investigating biological processes at the genomic and proteomic levels. Recent studies have unravelled aspects of neutrophil differentiation and immune responses at the systems level using high-throughput technologies....... These studies have identified a plethora of novel effector proteins stored in the granules of neutrophils. In addition, these studies provide evidence that neutrophil differentiation and immune response are governed by a highly coordinated transcriptional programme that regulates cellular fate and function...

  4. Mathematical aspects of pattern formation in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Juncheng

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mathematical analysis of patterns which are encountered in biological systems. It summarises, expands and relates results obtained in the field during the last fifteen years. It also links the results to biological applications and highlights their relevance to phenomena in nature. Of particular concern are large-amplitude patterns far from equilibrium in biologically relevant models.The approach adopted in the monograph is based on the following paradigms:• Examine the existence of spiky steady states in reaction-diffusion systems and select as observabl

  5. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

    2003-01-01

    The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In ...

  6. Primary energy-transformations in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehninger, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    In this paper I shall review the main outlines of current research on the molecular aspects of the primary energy-coupling mechanisms in cells, those carried out by energy-transducing membranes. They include the capture of solar energy by the chloroplast membranes of green plants, used to generate carbohydrates and molecular oxygen from carbon dioxide and water, and the counterpart of photosynthesis, the process of respiration in heterotrophic organisms, in which reduced organic products generated by photosynthesis are oxidized at the expense of dioxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. Although the cycling of dioxygen, carbon dioxide, and organic matter between the plant and animal worlds is well known, it is not generally appreciated that the magnitude of biological energy flux in these cycles is huge compared to the total energy flux in man-made devices. A major consequence is that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing at a significant rate, at a time when there is also a decrease, at least in some parts of the world, in the counterbalancing utilization of CO/sub 2/ by green plants, due to deforestation. The greenhouse effect of increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ may not only change the earth's climate, but also may influence the rate of photosynthesis. It is also not generally appreciated that energy flow in the biosphere leads to production of enormous amounts of organic matter potentially useful in furnishing man's energy requirements.

  7. Systems biology of cellular membranes: a convergence with biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabanon, Morgan; Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Rangamani, Padmini

    2017-09-01

    Systems biology and systems medicine have played an important role in the last two decades in shaping our understanding of biological processes. While systems biology is synonymous with network maps and '-omics' approaches, it is not often associated with mechanical processes. Here, we make the case for considering the mechanical and geometrical aspects of biological membranes as a key step in pushing the frontiers of systems biology of cellular membranes forward. We begin by introducing the basic components of cellular membranes, and highlight their dynamical aspects. We then survey the functions of the plasma membrane and the endomembrane system in signaling, and discuss the role and origin of membrane curvature in these diverse cellular processes. We further give an overview of the experimental and modeling approaches to study membrane phenomena. We close with a perspective on the converging futures of systems biology and membrane biophysics, invoking the need to include physical variables such as location and geometry in the study of cellular membranes. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1386. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1386 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modeling and simulation of biological systems using SPICE language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Madec

    Full Text Available The article deals with BB-SPICE (SPICE for Biochemical and Biological Systems, an extension of the famous Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE. BB-SPICE environment is composed of three modules: a new textual and compact description formalism for biological systems, a converter that handles this description and generates the SPICE netlist of the equivalent electronic circuit and NGSPICE which is an open-source SPICE simulator. In addition, the environment provides back and forth interfaces with SBML (System Biology Markup Language, a very common description language used in systems biology. BB-SPICE has been developed in order to bridge the gap between the simulation of biological systems on the one hand and electronics circuits on the other hand. Thus, it is suitable for applications at the interface between both domains, such as development of design tools for synthetic biology and for the virtual prototyping of biosensors and lab-on-chip. Simulation results obtained with BB-SPICE and COPASI (an open-source software used for the simulation of biochemical systems have been compared on a benchmark of models commonly used in systems biology. Results are in accordance from a quantitative viewpoint but BB-SPICE outclasses COPASI by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude regarding the computation time. Moreover, as our software is based on NGSPICE, it could take profit of incoming updates such as the GPU implementation, of the coupling with powerful analysis and verification tools or of the integration in design automation tools (synthetic biology.

  9. Modeling life the mathematics of biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Alan; Guo, Yina

    2017-01-01

    From predator-prey populations in an ecosystem, to hormone regulation within the body, the natural world abounds in dynamical systems that affect us profoundly. This book develops the mathematical tools essential for students in the life sciences to describe these interacting systems and to understand and predict their behavior. Complex feedback relations and counter-intuitive responses are common in dynamical systems in nature; this book develops the quantitative skills needed to explore these interactions. Differential equations are the natural mathematical tool for quantifying change, and are the driving force throughout this book. The use of Euler’s method makes nonlinear examples tractable and accessible to a broad spectrum of early-stage undergraduates, thus providing a practical alternative to the procedural approach of a traditional Calculus curriculum. Tools are developed within numerous, relevant examples, with an emphasis on the construction, evaluation, and interpretation of mathematical models ...

  10. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Water Resources Center, Lubbock, Texas (United States); Pickering, K. [Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2002-06-15

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NO{sub 2}{sup -} as the e{sup -} acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities

  11. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K.; Pickering, K.

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO 3 - and NO 2 - as the e - acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities considering a closed loop

  12. Biocellion: accelerating computer simulation of multicellular biological system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seunghwa; Kahan, Simon; McDermott, Jason; Flann, Nicholas; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2014-11-01

    Biological system behaviors are often the outcome of complex interactions among a large number of cells and their biotic and abiotic environment. Computational biologists attempt to understand, predict and manipulate biological system behavior through mathematical modeling and computer simulation. Discrete agent-based modeling (in combination with high-resolution grids to model the extracellular environment) is a popular approach for building biological system models. However, the computational complexity of this approach forces computational biologists to resort to coarser resolution approaches to simulate large biological systems. High-performance parallel computers have the potential to address the computing challenge, but writing efficient software for parallel computers is difficult and time-consuming. We have developed Biocellion, a high-performance software framework, to solve this computing challenge using parallel computers. To support a wide range of multicellular biological system models, Biocellion asks users to provide their model specifics by filling the function body of pre-defined model routines. Using Biocellion, modelers without parallel computing expertise can efficiently exploit parallel computers with less effort than writing sequential programs from scratch. We simulate cell sorting, microbial patterning and a bacterial system in soil aggregate as case studies. Biocellion runs on x86 compatible systems with the 64 bit Linux operating system and is freely available for academic use. Visit http://biocellion.com for additional information. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Computational Modeling, Formal Analysis, and Tools for Systems Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Bartocci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the amount of biological data in the public domain grows, so does the range of modeling and analysis techniques employed in systems biology. In recent years, a number of theoretical computer science developments have enabled modeling methodology to keep pace. The growing interest in systems biology in executable models and their analysis has necessitated the borrowing of terms and methods from computer science, such as formal analysis, model checking, static analysis, and runtime verification. Here, we discuss the most important and exciting computational methods and tools currently available to systems biologists. We believe that a deeper understanding of the concepts and theory highlighted in this review will produce better software practice, improved investigation of complex biological processes, and even new ideas and better feedback into computer science.

  14. GeneLab: A Systems Biology Platform for Spaceflight Omics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sigrid S.; Lai, San-Huei; Chen, Rick; Thompson, Terri; Berrios, Daniel; Fogle, Homer; Marcu, Oana; Timucin, Linda; Chakravarty, Kaushik; Coughlan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    NASA's mission includes expanding our understanding of biological systems to improve life on Earth and to enable long-duration human exploration of space. Resources to support large numbers of spaceflight investigations are limited. NASA's GeneLab project is maximizing the science output from these experiments by: (1) developing a unique public bioinformatics database that includes space bioscience relevant "omics" data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and experimental metadata; (2) partnering with NASA-funded flight experiments through bio-sample sharing or sample augmentation to expedite omics data input to the GeneLab database; and (3) developing community-driven reference flight experiments. The first database, GeneLab Data System Version 1.0, went online in April 2015. V1.0 contains numerous flight datasets and has search and download capabilities. Version 2.0 will be released in 2016 and will link to analytic tools. In 2015 Genelab partnered with two Biological Research in Canisters experiments (BBRIC-19 and BRIC-20) which examine responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to spaceflight. GeneLab also partnered with Rodent Research-1 (RR1), the maiden flight to test the newly developed rodent habitat. GeneLab developed protocols for maxiumum yield of RNA, DNA and protein from precious RR-1 tissues harvested and preserved during the SpaceX-4 mission, as well as from tissues from mice that were frozen intact during spaceflight and later dissected. GeneLab is establishing partnerships with at least three planned flights for 2016. Organism-specific nationwide Science Definition Teams (SDTs) will define future GeneLab dedicated missions and ensure the broader scientific impact of the GeneLab missions. GeneLab ensures prompt release and open access to all high-throughput omics data from spaceflight and ground-based simulations of microgravity and radiation. Overall, GeneLab will facilitate the generation and query of parallel multi-omics data, and

  15. Micromechanics of engineered and biological systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, the structural deforma- tion interacts nonlinearly with the static electric field ensuing between electrical conductors and dielectrics. As has been argued well in the litera- ture, electrostatic force scales vary favourably at the microscale and therefore numerous micro- systems devices use this. Many such devices are.

  16. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    for accomplishing such altered gene expression levels are discussed here along with examples of their use, and ideas for new tools are described. The road ahead looks very promising for synthetic and systems biologists as tools to achieve just about anything in terms of tuning and timing multiple gene expression...

  17. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...... effects resulting in the perturbation of different proteins associated to particular diseases (e.g., cryptorchidism) were evaluated....

  18. PathSys: integrating molecular interaction graphs for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Alpan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of information integration in systems biology is to combine information from a number of databases and data sets, which are obtained from both high and low throughput experiments, under one data management scheme such that the cumulative information provides greater biological insight than is possible with individual information sources considered separately. Results Here we present PathSys, a graph-based system for creating a combined database of networks of interaction for generating integrated view of biological mechanisms. We used PathSys to integrate over 14 curated and publicly contributed data sources for the budding yeast (S. cerevisiae and Gene Ontology. A number of exploratory questions were formulated as a combination of relational and graph-based queries to the integrated database. Thus, PathSys is a general-purpose, scalable, graph-data warehouse of biological information, complete with a graph manipulation and a query language, a storage mechanism and a generic data-importing mechanism through schema-mapping. Conclusion Results from several test studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in retrieving biologically interesting relations between genes and proteins, the networks connecting them, and of the utility of PathSys as a scalable graph-based warehouse for interaction-network integration and a hypothesis generator system. The PathSys's client software, named BiologicalNetworks, developed for navigation and analyses of molecular networks, is available as a Java Web Start application at http://brak.sdsc.edu/pub/BiologicalNetworks.

  19. Towards Engineering Biological Systems in a Broader Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Ophelia S; Egbert, Robert G; Arkin, Adam P

    2016-02-27

    Significant advances have been made in synthetic biology to program information processing capabilities in cells. While these designs can function predictably in controlled laboratory environments, the reliability of these devices in complex, temporally changing environments has not yet been characterized. As human society faces global challenges in agriculture, human health and energy, synthetic biology should develop predictive design principles for biological systems operating in complex environments. Natural biological systems have evolved mechanisms to overcome innumerable and diverse environmental challenges. Evolutionary design rules should be extracted and adapted to engineer stable and predictable ecological function. We highlight examples of natural biological responses spanning the cellular, population and microbial community levels that show promise in synthetic biology contexts. We argue that synthetic circuits embedded in host organisms or designed ecologies informed by suitable measurement of biotic and abiotic environmental parameters could be used as engineering substrates to achieve target functions in complex environments. Successful implementation of these methods will broaden the context in which synthetic biological systems can be applied to solve important problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction of a Linux based chemical and biological information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, László; Vágó, István; Fehér, András

    2003-01-01

    A chemical and biological information system with a Web-based easy-to-use interface and corresponding databases has been developed. The constructed system incorporates all chemical, numerical and textual data related to the chemical compounds, including numerical biological screen results. Users can search the database by traditional textual/numerical and/or substructure or similarity queries through the web interface. To build our chemical database management system, we utilized existing IT components such as ORACLE or Tripos SYBYL for database management and Zope application server for the web interface. We chose Linux as the main platform, however, almost every component can be used under various operating systems.

  1. Research Update: Interfacing ultrasmall metal nanoclusters with biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Li; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    Metal nanoclusters (NCs), a new type of nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties, show great potential in many biomedical applications. Understanding their behavior in the complex biological environment is critical not only for designing highly efficient NC-based nanomedicines but also for elucidating the biological impact (e.g., toxicity) of these emerging nanomaterials. In this review, we give an overview of recent progress in exploring interactions of metal NCs with biological systems, including protein adsorption onto NCs, NC interactions with cells, and also the in vivo behavior of NCs. We also discuss the biological responses to the interactions, key parameters defining the interactions, and current challenges in the exploration of NCs in the complex biological environment.

  2. Robust enzyme design: bioinformatic tools for improved protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Voevodin, Vladimir; Švedas, Vytas

    2015-03-01

    The ability of proteins and enzymes to maintain a functionally active conformation under adverse environmental conditions is an important feature of biocatalysts, vaccines, and biopharmaceutical proteins. From an evolutionary perspective, robust stability of proteins improves their biological fitness and allows for further optimization. Viewed from an industrial perspective, enzyme stability is crucial for the practical application of enzymes under the required reaction conditions. In this review, we analyze bioinformatic-driven strategies that are used to predict structural changes that can be applied to wild type proteins in order to produce more stable variants. The most commonly employed techniques can be classified into stochastic approaches, empirical or systematic rational design strategies, and design of chimeric proteins. We conclude that bioinformatic analysis can be efficiently used to study large protein superfamilies systematically as well as to predict particular structural changes which increase enzyme stability. Evolution has created a diversity of protein properties that are encoded in genomic sequences and structural data. Bioinformatics has the power to uncover this evolutionary code and provide a reproducible selection of hotspots - key residues to be mutated in order to produce more stable and functionally diverse proteins and enzymes. Further development of systematic bioinformatic procedures is needed to organize and analyze sequences and structures of proteins within large superfamilies and to link them to function, as well as to provide knowledge-based predictions for experimental evaluation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Systematic integration of experimental data and models in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peter; Dada, Joseph O; Jameson, Daniel; Spasic, Irena; Swainston, Neil; Carroll, Kathleen; Dunn, Warwick; Khan, Farid; Malys, Naglis; Messiha, Hanan L; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Weichart, Dieter; Winder, Catherine; Wishart, Jill; Broomhead, David S; Goble, Carole A; Gaskell, Simon J; Kell, Douglas B; Westerhoff, Hans V; Mendes, Pedro; Paton, Norman W

    2010-11-29

    The behaviour of biological systems can be deduced from their mathematical models. However, multiple sources of data in diverse forms are required in the construction of a model in order to define its components and their biochemical reactions, and corresponding parameters. Automating the assembly and use of systems biology models is dependent upon data integration processes involving the interoperation of data and analytical resources. Taverna workflows have been developed for the automated assembly of quantitative parameterised metabolic networks in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). A SBML model is built in a systematic fashion by the workflows which starts with the construction of a qualitative network using data from a MIRIAM-compliant genome-scale model of yeast metabolism. This is followed by parameterisation of the SBML model with experimental data from two repositories, the SABIO-RK enzyme kinetics database and a database of quantitative experimental results. The models are then calibrated and simulated in workflows that call out to COPASIWS, the web service interface to the COPASI software application for analysing biochemical networks. These systems biology workflows were evaluated for their ability to construct a parameterised model of yeast glycolysis. Distributed information about metabolic reactions that have been described to MIRIAM standards enables the automated assembly of quantitative systems biology models of metabolic networks based on user-defined criteria. Such data integration processes can be implemented as Taverna workflows to provide a rapid overview of the components and their relationships within a biochemical system.

  4. Enabling Precision Cardiology Through Multiscale Biology and Systems Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipp W. Johnson, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The traditional paradigm of cardiovascular disease research derives insight from large-scale, broadly inclusive clinical studies of well-characterized pathologies. These insights are then put into practice according to standardized clinical guidelines. However, stagnation in the development of new cardiovascular therapies and variability in therapeutic response implies that this paradigm is insufficient for reducing the cardiovascular disease burden. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine 3 interconnected ideas we put forth as key concepts for enabling a transition to precision cardiology: 1 precision characterization of cardiovascular disease with machine learning methods; 2 the application of network models of disease to embrace disease complexity; and 3 using insights from the previous 2 ideas to enable pharmacology and polypharmacology systems for more precise drug-to-patient matching and patient-disease stratification. We conclude by exploring the challenges of applying a precision approach to cardiology, which arise from a deficit of the required resources and infrastructure, and emerging evidence for the clinical effectiveness of this nascent approach. Key Words: cardiology, clinical informatics, multi-omics, precision medicine, translational bioinformatics

  5. Bioinformatics in the secondary science classroom: A study of state content standards and students' perceptions of, and performance in, bioinformatics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern Biology marks a new revolution in science, which promises to influence science education at all levels. This thesis examined state standards for content that articulated bioinformatics, and explored secondary students' affective and cognitive perceptions of, and performance in, a bioinformatics mini-unit. The results are presented as three studies. The first study analyzed secondary science standards of 49 U.S States (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics at the introductory high school biology level. The bionformatics content of each state's Biology standards were categorized into nine areas and the prevalence of each area documented. The nine areas were: The Human Genome Project, Forensics, Evolution, Classification, Nucleotide Variations, Medicine, Computer Use, Agriculture/Food Technology, and Science Technology and Society/Socioscientific Issues (STS/SSI). Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics related content, which varied substantially across the different areas. Recommendations are made for reworking existing standards to incorporate bioinformatics and to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy in this emerging new field among secondary school students. The second study examined thirty-two students' affective responses to, and content mastery of, a two-week bioinformatics mini-unit. The findings indicate that the students generally were positive relative to their interest level, the usefulness of the lessons, the difficulty level of the lessons, likeliness to engage in additional bioinformatics, and were overall successful on the assessments. A discussion of the results and significance is followed by suggestions for future research and implementation for transferability. The third study presents a case study of individual differences among ten secondary school students, whose cognitive and affective percepts were

  6. Engineering plant metabolism into microbes: from systems biology to synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Bhan, Namita; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2013-04-01

    Plant metabolism represents an enormous repository of compounds that are of pharmaceutical and biotechnological importance. Engineering plant metabolism into microbes will provide sustainable solutions to produce pharmaceutical and fuel molecules that could one day replace substantial portions of the current fossil-fuel based economy. Metabolic engineering entails targeted manipulation of biosynthetic pathways to maximize yields of desired products. Recent advances in Systems Biology and the emergence of Synthetic Biology have accelerated our ability to design, construct and optimize cell factories for metabolic engineering applications. Progress in predicting and modeling genome-scale metabolic networks, versatile gene assembly platforms and delicate synthetic pathway optimization strategies has provided us exciting opportunities to exploit the full potential of cell metabolism. In this review, we will discuss how systems and synthetic biology tools can be integrated to create tailor-made cell factories for efficient production of natural products and fuel molecules in microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Search strategies in structural bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Mark T; Barthel, Daniel; Bykov, Yuri; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Burke, Edmund K; Krasnogor, Natalio; Hirst, Jonathan D

    2008-06-01

    Optimisation problems pervade structural bioinformatics. In this review, we describe recent work addressing a selection of bioinformatics challenges. We begin with a discussion of research into protein structure comparison, and highlight the utility of Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of structural similarity. We then turn to research into de novo protein structure prediction, in which structures are generated from first principles. In this endeavour, there is a compromise between the detail of the model and the extent to which the conformational space of the protein can be sampled. We discuss some developments in this area, including off-lattice structure prediction using the great deluge algorithm. One strategy to reduce the size of the search space is to restrict the protein chain to sites on a regular lattice. In this context, we highlight the use of memetic algorithms, which combine genetic algorithms with local optimisation, to the study of simple protein models on the two-dimensional square lattice and the face-centred cubic lattice.

  8. Stochastic differential equations and a biological system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chunyan

    1994-01-01

    . The simulated results are compared with the experimental data, and it is found that the Euler method is the most simple end efficient method for the stochastic growth model considered. Estimation of the parameters of the growth model is based on the stochastic Kalman filter and a continuous Markov process......The purpose of this Ph.D. study is to explore the property of a growth process. The study includes solving and simulating of the growth process which is described in terms of stochastic differential equations. The identification of the growth and variability parameters of the process based...... been developed. Their properties and the relationship between them are discussed. The evolution of a dynamic system or process is usually of great practical interest. In order to simulate the evolution of the process, alternative methods are used to get numerical solutions. In this study, Euler...

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antypas, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T 1 relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by 31 P NMR

  10. Applications of dynamical systems in biology and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Radunskaya, Ami

    2015-01-01

    This volume highlights problems from a range of biological and medical applications that can be interpreted as questions about system behavior or control.  Topics include drug resistance in cancer and malaria, biological fluid dynamics, auto-regulation in the kidney, anti-coagulation therapy, evolutionary diversification and photo-transduction.  Mathematical techniques used to describe and investigate these biological and medical problems include ordinary, partial and stochastic differentiation equations, hybrid discrete-continuous approaches, as well as 2 and 3D numerical simulation. .

  11. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  12. Systems-biology dissection of eukaryotic cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Justen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent article in BMC Biology illustrates the use of a systems-biology approach to integrate data across the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of budding yeast in order to dissect the relationship between nutrient conditions and cell growth. See research article http://jbiol.com/content/6/2/4 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/68

  13. Modeling of biological intelligence for SCM system optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun; Cattani, Carlo; Wang, Wanliang

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes some methods from biological intelligence for modeling and optimization of supply chain management (SCM) systems, including genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, differential evolution, swarm intelligence, artificial immune, and other biological intelligence related methods. An SCM system is adaptive, dynamic, open self-organizing, which is maintained by flows of information, materials, goods, funds, and energy. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex SCM systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and biological intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems. The paper summarizes the recent related methods for the design and optimization of SCM systems, which covers the most widely used genetic algorithms and other evolutionary algorithms.

  14. Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-24

    Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.

  15. Modeling of Biological Intelligence for SCM System Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes some methods from biological intelligence for modeling and optimization of supply chain management (SCM systems, including genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, differential evolution, swarm intelligence, artificial immune, and other biological intelligence related methods. An SCM system is adaptive, dynamic, open self-organizing, which is maintained by flows of information, materials, goods, funds, and energy. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex SCM systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and biological intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems. The paper summarizes the recent related methods for the design and optimization of SCM systems, which covers the most widely used genetic algorithms and other evolutionary algorithms.

  16. Modeling of Biological Intelligence for SCM System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun; Cattani, Carlo; Wang, Wanliang

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes some methods from biological intelligence for modeling and optimization of supply chain management (SCM) systems, including genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, differential evolution, swarm intelligence, artificial immune, and other biological intelligence related methods. An SCM system is adaptive, dynamic, open self-organizing, which is maintained by flows of information, materials, goods, funds, and energy. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex SCM systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and biological intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems. The paper summarizes the recent related methods for the design and optimization of SCM systems, which covers the most widely used genetic algorithms and other evolutionary algorithms. PMID:22162724

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a systems biology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Alice D'alessandro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC have different etiology and heterogenic genomic alterations lead to high complexity. The molecular features of HCC have largely been studied by gene expression and proteome profiling focusing on the correlations between the expression of specific markers and clinical data. Integration of the increasing amounts of data in databases has facilitated the link of genomic and proteomic profiles of HCC to disease state and clinical outcome. Despite the current knowledge, specific molecular markers remain to be identified and new strategies are required to establish novel targeted therapies. In the last years, mathematical models reconstructing gene and protein networks based on experimental data of HCC have been developed providing powerful tools to predict candidate interactions and potential targets for therapy. Furthermore, the combination of dynamic and logical mathematical models with quantitative data allows detailed mechanistic insights into system properties. To address effects at the organ level, mathematical models reconstructing the three-dimensional organization of liver lobules were developed. In the future, integration of different modeling approaches capturing the effects at the cellular up to the organ level is required to address the complex properties of HCC and to enable the discovery of new targets for HCC prevention or treatment.

  18. Systems Biology of lactic acid bacteria: a critical review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, B.; Bachmann, H.; Molenaar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the properties of a system as emerging from the interaction of well described parts is the most important goal of Systems Biology. Although in the practice of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) physiology we most often think of the parts as the proteins and metabolites, a wider interpretation

  19. Structural Systems Biology Evaluation of Metabolic Thermotolerance in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Roger L.; Andrews, Kathleen; Kim, Donghyuk

    2013-01-01

    Improve the System A "systems biology" approach may clarify, for example, how particular proteins determine sensitivity of bacteria to extremes of temperature. Chang et al. (p. 1220) integrated information on protein structure with a model of metabolism, thus associating the protein structure of ...

  20. Bioinformatics Training Network (BTN): a community resource for bioinformatics trainers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Maria V.; Walter, Peter; Blatter, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Funding bodies are increasingly recognizing the need to provide graduates and researchers with access to short intensive courses in a variety of disciplines, in order both to improve the general skills base and to provide solid foundations on which researchers may build their careers. In response...... to the development of ‘high-throughput biology’, the need for training in the field of bioinformatics, in particular, is seeing a resurgence: it has been defined as a key priority by many Institutions and research programmes and is now an important component of many grant proposals. Nevertheless, when it comes...... to planning and preparing to meet such training needs, tension arises between the reward structures that predominate in the scientific community which compel individuals to publish or perish, and the time that must be devoted to the design, delivery and maintenance of high-quality training materials...

  1. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Sunil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferred data mining algorithm and then upload the resulting data into the visualization package for graphic visualization of molecular relations. Results Presented is a novel interactive visual data mining application, SysNet that provides an interactive environment for the analysis of high data volume molecular expression information of most any type from biological systems. It integrates interactive graphic visualization and statistical data mining into a single package. SysNet interactively presents intermolecular correlation information with circular and heatmap layouts. It is also applicable to comparative analysis of molecular expression data, such as time course data. Conclusion The SysNet program has been utilized to analyze elemental profile changes in response to an increasing concentration of iron (Fe in growth media (an ionomics dataset. This study case demonstrates that the SysNet software is an effective platform for interactive analysis of molecular expression information in systems biology.

  2. An overview of topic modeling and its current applications in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Tang, Lin; Dong, Wen; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid accumulation of biological datasets, machine learning methods designed to automate data analysis are urgently needed. In recent years, so-called topic models that originated from the field of natural language processing have been receiving much attention in bioinformatics because of their interpretability. Our aim was to review the application and development of topic models for bioinformatics. This paper starts with the description of a topic model, with a focus on the understanding of topic modeling. A general outline is provided on how to build an application in a topic model and how to develop a topic model. Meanwhile, the literature on application of topic models to biological data was searched and analyzed in depth. According to the types of models and the analogy between the concept of document-topic-word and a biological object (as well as the tasks of a topic model), we categorized the related studies and provided an outlook on the use of topic models for the development of bioinformatics applications. Topic modeling is a useful method (in contrast to the traditional means of data reduction in bioinformatics) and enhances researchers' ability to interpret biological information. Nevertheless, due to the lack of topic models optimized for specific biological data, the studies on topic modeling in biological data still have a long and challenging road ahead. We believe that topic models are a promising method for various applications in bioinformatics research.

  3. Quantum Bio-Informatics II From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2009-02-01

    / H. Kamimura -- Massive collection of full-length complementary DNA clones and microarray analyses: keys to rice transcriptome analysis / S. Kikuchi -- Changes of influenza A(H5) viruses by means of entropic chaos degree / K. Sato and M. Ohya -- Basics of genome sequence analysis in bioinformatics - its fundamental ideas and problems / T. Suzuki and S. Miyazaki -- A basic introduction to gene expression studies using microarray expression data analysis / D. Wanke and J. Kilian -- Integrating biological perspectives: a quantum leap for microarray expression analysis / D. Wanke ... [et al.].

  4. Agent-based re-engineering of ErbB signaling: a modeling pipeline for integrative systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arya A; Ajayakumar Darsana, T; Jacob, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Experiments in systems biology are generally supported by a computational model which quantitatively estimates the parameters of the system by finding the best fit to the experiment. Mathematical models have proved to be successful in reverse engineering the system. The data generated is interpreted to understand the dynamics of the underlying phenomena. The question we have sought to answer is that - is it possible to use an agent-based approach to re-engineer a biological process, making use of the available knowledge from experimental and modelling efforts? Can the bottom-up approach benefit from the top-down exercise so as to create an integrated modelling formalism for systems biology? We propose a modelling pipeline that learns from the data given by reverse engineering, and uses it for re-engineering the system, to carry out in-silico experiments. A mathematical model that quantitatively predicts co-expression of EGFR-HER2 receptors in activation and trafficking has been taken for this study. The pipeline architecture takes cues from the population model that gives the rates of biochemical reactions, to formulate knowledge-based rules for the particle model. Agent-based simulations using these rules, support the existing facts on EGFR-HER2 dynamics. We conclude that, re-engineering models, built using the results of reverse engineering, opens up the possibility of harnessing the power pack of data which now lies scattered in literature. Virtual experiments could then become more realistic when empowered with the findings of empirical cell biology and modelling studies. Implemented on the Agent Modelling Framework developed in-house. C ++ code templates available in Supplementary material . liz.csir@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Nispero: a cloud-computing based Scala tool specially suited for bioinformatics data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokim Kovach; Alexey Alekhin; Eduardo Pareja Tobes; Raquel Tobes; Eduardo Pareja; Marina Manrique

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is widely accepted that the bioinformatics data analysis is a real bottleneck in many research activities related to life sciences. High-throughput technologies like Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) have completely reshaped the biology and bioinformatics landscape. Undoubtedly NGS has allowed important progress in many life-sciences related fields but has also presented interesting challenges in terms of computation capabilities and algorithms. Many kinds of tasks related with NGS...

  6. A New Technique to Manage Big Bioinformatics Data Using Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Huda Jalil Dikhil; Mohammad Shkoukani; Suhail Sami Owais

    2016-01-01

    The continuous growth of data, mainly the medical data at laboratories becomes very complex to use and to manage by using traditional ways. So, the researchers start studying genetic information field which increased in the past thirty years in bioinformatics domain (the computer science field, genetic biology field, and DNA). This growth of data becomes known as big bioinformatics data. Thus, efficient algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms are needed to deal with this big and vast amount of ...

  7. Synthetic and systems biology for microbial production of commodity chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Victor; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Martín, Héctor García

    2016-01-01

    The combination of synthetic and systems biology is a powerful framework to study fundamental questions in biology and produce chemicals of immediate practical application such as biofuels, polymers, or therapeutics. However, we cannot yet engineer biological systems as easily and precisely as we engineer physical systems. In this review, we describe the path from the choice of target molecule to scaling production up to commercial volumes. We present and explain some of the current challenges and gaps in our knowledge that must be overcome in order to bring our bioengineering capabilities to the level of other engineering disciplines. Challenges start at molecule selection, where a difficult balance between economic potential and biological feasibility must be struck. Pathway design and construction have recently been revolutionized by next-generation sequencing and exponentially improving DNA synthesis capabilities. Although pathway optimization can be significantly aided by enzyme expression characterization through proteomics, choosing optimal relative protein expression levels for maximum production is still the subject of heuristic, non-systematic approaches. Toxic metabolic intermediates and proteins can significantly affect production, and dynamic pathway regulation emerges as a powerful but yet immature tool to prevent it. Host engineering arises as a much needed complement to pathway engineering for high bioproduct yields; and systems biology approaches such as stoichiometric modeling or growth coupling strategies are required. A final, and often underestimated, challenge is the successful scale up of processes to commercial volumes. Sustained efforts in improving reproducibility and predictability are needed for further development of bioengineering.

  8. Using views of Systems Biology Cloud: application for model building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebenacker, Oliver; Blinov, Michael

    2011-03-01

    A large and growing network ("cloud") of interlinked terms and records of items of Systems Biology knowledge is available from the web. These items include pathways, reactions, substances, literature references, organisms, and anatomy, all described in different data sets. Here, we discuss how the knowledge from the cloud can be molded into representations (views) useful for data visualization and modeling. We discuss methods to create and use various views relevant for visualization, modeling, and model annotations, while hiding irrelevant details without unacceptable loss or distortion. We show that views are compatible with understanding substances and processes as sets of microscopic compounds and events respectively, which allows the representation of specializations and generalizations as subsets and supersets respectively. We explain how these methods can be implemented based on the bridging ontology Systems Biological Pathway Exchange (SBPAX) in the Systems Biology Linker (SyBiL) we have developed.

  9. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  10. Learning (from) the errors of a systems biology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Benjamin; Frőhlich, Holger; Kschischo, Maik

    2016-02-11

    Mathematical modelling is a labour intensive process involving several iterations of testing on real data and manual model modifications. In biology, the domain knowledge guiding model development is in many cases itself incomplete and uncertain. A major problem in this context is that biological systems are open. Missed or unknown external influences as well as erroneous interactions in the model could thus lead to severely misleading results. Here we introduce the dynamic elastic-net, a data driven mathematical method which automatically detects such model errors in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. We demonstrate for real and simulated data, how the dynamic elastic-net approach can be used to automatically (i) reconstruct the error signal, (ii) identify the target variables of model error, and (iii) reconstruct the true system state even for incomplete or preliminary models. Our work provides a systematic computational method facilitating modelling of open biological systems under uncertain knowledge.

  11. Standards, Data Exchange and Intellectual Property Rights in Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    and qualitative data on biological processes and activities in much greater volumes, velocity, variety and veracity. The skilful integration of multiple heterogeneous data sets allows scientists to model and predict biological processes. SysBio’s interdisciplinary nature requires data, models and other research...... we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in Systems Biology resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought...... assets to be formatted and described in standard ways to enable exchange and reuse of high quality data. This allows a more effective utilisation of the enormous potential that rests in “big data” analysis. Finally, SysBio is often closely linked to or provides the foundation for Synthetic Biology (Syn...

  12. Strategies for structuring interdisciplinary education in Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvijovic, Marija; Höfer, Thomas; Aćimović, Jure

    2016-01-01

    function by employing experimental data, mathematical models and computational simulations. As Systems Biology is inherently multidisciplinary, education within this field meets numerous hurdles including departmental barriers, availability of all required expertise locally, appropriate teaching material...... internationally. We believe that one of the overriding goals of any Systems Biology education should be a student’s ability to phrase and communicate research questions in such a manner that they can be solved by the integration of experiments and modelling, as well as to communicate and collaborate productively...

  13. Advances in Structural Biology and the Application to Biological Filament Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David; Koh, Fujiet; Scipion, Clement P M; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Narita, Akihiro; Holmes, Kenneth C; Robinson, Robert C

    2018-02-27

    Structural biology has experienced several transformative technological advances in recent years. These include: development of extremely bright X-ray sources (microfocus synchrotron beamlines and free electron lasers) and the use of electrons to extend protein crystallography to ever decreasing crystal sizes; and an increase in the resolution attainable by cryo-electron microscopy. Here we discuss the use of these techniques in general terms and highlight their application for biological filament systems, an area that is severely underrepresented in atomic resolution structures. We assemble a model of a capped tropomyosin-actin minifilament to demonstrate the utility of combining structures determined by different techniques. Finally, we survey the methods that attempt to transform high resolution structural biology into more physiological environments, such as the cell. Together these techniques promise a compelling decade for structural biology and, more importantly, they will provide exciting discoveries in understanding the designs and purposes of biological machines. © 2018 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bioinformatic and Biometric Methods in Plant Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surangi W. Punyasena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  15. Collaborative Systems Biology Projects for the Military Medical Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalatoris, Jeffrey J; Scheerer, Julia B; Lebeda, Frank J

    2017-09-01

    This pilot study was conducted to examine, for the first time, the ongoing systems biology research and development projects within the laboratories and centers of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). The analysis has provided an understanding of the breadth of systems biology activities, resources, and collaborations across all USAMRMC subordinate laboratories. The Systems Biology Collaboration Center at USAMRMC issued a survey regarding systems biology research projects to the eight U.S.-based USAMRMC laboratories and centers in August 2016. This survey included a data call worksheet to gather self-identified project and programmatic information. The general topics focused on the investigators and their projects, on the project's research areas, on omics and other large data types being collected and stored, on the analytical or computational tools being used, and on identifying intramural (i.e., USAMRMC) and extramural collaborations. Among seven of the eight laboratories, 62 unique systems biology studies were funded and active during the final quarter of fiscal year 2016. Of 29 preselected medical Research Task Areas, 20 were associated with these studies, some of which were applicable to two or more Research Task Areas. Overall, studies were categorized among six general types of objectives: biological mechanisms of disease, risk of/susceptibility to injury or disease, innate mechanisms of healing, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and host/patient responses to vaccines, and therapeutic strategies including host responses to therapies. We identified eight types of omics studies and four types of study subjects. Studies were categorized on a scale of increasing complexity from single study subject/single omics technology studies (23/62) to studies integrating results across two study subject types and two or more omics technologies (13/62). Investigators at seven USAMRMC laboratories had collaborations with systems biology experts

  16. Applying systems biology to biomedical research and health care: a précising definition of systems medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schleidgen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems medicine has become a key word in biomedical research. Although it is often referred to as P4-(predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory-medicine, it still lacks a clear definition and is open to interpretation. This conceptual lack of clarity complicates the scientific and public discourse on chances, risks and limits of Systems Medicine and may lead to unfounded hopes. Against this background, our goal was to develop a sufficiently precise and widely acceptable definition of Systems Medicine. Methods In a first step, PubMed was searched using the keyword “systems medicine”. A data extraction tabloid was developed putting forward a means/ends-division. Full-texts of articles containing Systems Medicine in title or abstract were screened for definitions. Definitions were extracted; their semantic elements were assigned as either means or ends. To reduce complexity of the resulting list, summary categories were developed inductively. In a second step, we applied six criteria for adequate definitions (necessity, non-circularity, non-redundancy, consistency, non-vagueness, and coherence to these categories to derive a so-called précising definition of Systems Medicine. Results We identified 185 articles containing the term Systems Medicine in title or abstract. 67 contained at least one definition of Systems Medicine. In 98 definitions, we found 114 means and 132 ends. From these we derived the précising definition: Systems Medicine is an approach seeking to improve medical research (i.e. the understanding of complex processes occurring in diseases, pathologies and health states as well as innovative approaches to drug discovery and health care (i.e. prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment through stratification by means of Systems Biology (i.e. data integration, modeling, experimentation and bioinformatics. Our study also revealed the visionary character of Systems Medicine. Conclusions Our

  17. Fuzzy Logic in Medicine and Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes.

  18. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR…

  19. A Mathematical Optimization Problem in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Laurie J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the sequence alignment problem in bioinformatics. Through examples, we formulate sequence alignment as an optimization problem and show how to compute the optimal alignment with dynamic programming. The examples and sample exercises have been used by the author in a specialized course in bioinformatics, but could be adapted…

  20. Harnessing systems biology approaches to engineer functional microvascular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefcik, Lauren S; Wilson, Jennifer L; Papin, Jason A; Botchwey, Edward A

    2010-06-01

    Microvascular remodeling is a complex process that includes many cell types and molecular signals. Despite a continued growth in the understanding of signaling pathways involved in the formation and maturation of new blood vessels, approximately half of all compounds entering clinical trials will fail, resulting in the loss of much time, money, and resources. Most pro-angiogenic clinical trials to date have focused on increasing neovascularization via the delivery of a single growth factor or gene. Alternatively, a focus on the concerted regulation of whole networks of genes may lead to greater insight into the underlying physiology since the coordinated response is greater than the sum of its parts. Systems biology offers a comprehensive network view of the processes of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis that might enable the prediction of drug targets and whether or not activation of the targets elicits the desired outcome. Systems biology integrates complex biological data from a variety of experimental sources (-omics) and analyzes how the interactions of the system components can give rise to the function and behavior of that system. This review focuses on how systems biology approaches have been applied to microvascular growth and remodeling, and how network analysis tools can be utilized to aid novel pro-angiogenic drug discovery.