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Sample records for biogas recovery systems

  1. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  2. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  3. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  4. Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Å; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Magnusson, N; Bissmont, M

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmö was evaluated. The project investigated the source-separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmö can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  6. An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L with an average recovery rate of 0.18 g-N/L(CSTR...... performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. In continuous reactor operation, 112% extra biogas production was achieved due to ammonia recovery. High-throughput molecular sequencing analysis showed an impact...... of ammonia recovery on the microbial community composition in the integrated system. Results clearly indicate the great potential of the SMRC-CSTR-coupled system for efficient and cost-effective ammonia recovery, energy production and treatment of ammonia-rich residues....

  7. Enhanced biogas recovery by applying post-digestion in large-scale centralized biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Hejnfelt, Anette; Ellegaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    industry to generate biogas, which is used for electricity and thermal energy. A total of 20 such plants are currently active in Denmark, most of which were included in the investigation. From the plants, samples were obtained from various steps of the process. Samples were analysed and the residual biogas......The main objective of this study was to investigate the degradation efficiency of centralized biogas plants and provide guidance for the design of more efficient digester and post-digestion systems. These centralized biogas plants in Denmark digest manure together with organic waste from the food...... potential determined by batch post-digestion at various temperature levels. Results were correlated with plant characteristics and production statistics in order to judge the efficiency of various digestion concepts. A simplified model based on a two-step biogas production process was developed...

  8. System for obtaining biogas. System zur Gewinnung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-01-17

    The invention refers to a system for obtaining biogas from organic substances in at least one drum reactor, which is situated in a container accepting a liquid and which is driven so that it rotates preferably around its horizontal drum axis. It is distinguished by the fact that for at least one drum reactor acting as the main reactor there is at least one further reactor ahead of it for the pre-treatment or pre-fermentation of the substances.

  9. Biogas recovery from waste organic materials: a comparative experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschkov, V.; Angelov, I.; Petrova, P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Biogas production from organic waste is already traditional method for treatment of agricultural waste with simultaneous energy recovery in the form of biogas. However, biogas can also be produced efficiently treating organic waste from beverage industries and biodiesel production. In the latter case, huge amounts of crude glycerol are released posing severe problems with their treatment. The main obstacle to the efficient waste treatment by anaerobic digestion is the sensitivity of the methanogenic bacteria toward pH variations. When the digester is overloaded, high concentrations of organic acids are produced damping the activity of methanogenes. This problem can be overcome by separating the digester into different compartments, enabling the development of the consecutive processes of hydrolysis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis in different spaces.; In the present study results of biogas production from poultry litter, stillage from ethanol production, and crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing are presented. The experiments were carried out in a continuous baffled anaerobic reactor. It was established that the process with glycerol utilization was too sensitive toward the loading because of intensive acid formation as intermediates. The process with stillage as substrate was stable and well steered for months with very high biogas yield (350 I/kg COD) at high production rate, i.e. up to 4 wd ' . The microbial profiles, the pH values and the intermediate concentrations along the reactor were determined and correlated with the biogas yield. Different microbial strains and profiles for the different substrates were observed. In the case of glycerol digestion, almost one bacterial genus, i.e. Klebsiella sp., was detected besides the methanogenes, which enables to make speculations about the pathway of competitive intermediate, biogas, and final products formation

  10. Methanation and energy recovery from biogas: mutually beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Biogas is credited with a development potential of 18 million tons of oil equivalent by 2020 for the European Union. In terms of scale, this corresponds to the quantity of natural gas consumed today in France. Ten per cent of these resources are today being used, with wide variations from one country to another. If we compare this production to the population levels, it is the Northern European countries of Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands which emerge at the top of the list. Recovery of biogas is proportionally three times higher in these states than in France or in Belgium and six times that of Southern Europe. At a time when biogas appears in the European 'campaign for takeoff' as a sector likely to produce 'MW' in the short term, the identification of factors (including subsidies, purchase prices for energy and tax incentives) that have influenced the growth of methanation and recovery of biogas in certain countries hold valuable lessons for us all. (authors)

  11. Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A [CSM Suiker BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Velsen, A F.M.

    1985-03-01

    Process and processing of anaerobic digestion are described. Methane bacteria are only the last link in a long step by step degradation of organic wastes by a large number of microorganisms. In this article the following processes get special attention: septic tank process, used for isolated residential buildings; manure digestion systems; anaerobic sludge processes. A Dutch development is the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). Newest process is the fluid bed process, which enables a very fast sedimentation and short residence time. The sensibility for toxic compounds in waste water remains a problem in all biogas processes. (A.V.)

  12. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  13. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi Wah Tooi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  14. Agricultural biogas systems. Quality and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at agricultural biogas installations and how improved basic conditions and incentives offered by industry and commerce are showing initial effects. The author is of the opinion that more dynamics in the market are necessary in order to allow contributions to be made to the protection of the climate whilst creating value locally at the same time. The article reviews the current market situation and examines questions which are to be answered in the quality assurance area for agricultural biogas systems in Switzerland. Co-fermentation is proposed as a standard technology. Market development, plant locations and plant management aspects are discussed.

  15. Heating System of High Temperature Biogas Digester by Solar Energy and Methane Liquid Heat Recovery Heat Pump%太阳能-沼液余热式热泵高温厌氧发酵加温系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓梅; 石惠娴; 朱洪光; 龙惟定

    2012-01-01

    A heating system of biogas digester was developed to avoid area limitations of buried wells in the heating system of biogas digester by ground-source heat pump, in which the heat energy was supplied by hot water from waste heat recovery coupled with solar- assisted heat pump. The key parameters such as the heat load of digester, waste heat recovery rate of the methane liquid, medium and high heat pump, the solar energy collector area and so on werecalculated. The results show that this system can guarantee the temperature of 50+2℃ in the digester, the heat recovery rate of the methane liquid can reach upto 70%. The system is characterized by that the solar energy and waste heat recovery of the methane liquid serve as the low-graded heat sources of the heat pump. There a're three kinds of running modes including the sloar energy heating directly, the solar energy low level heat sources heat pump, and the combination of the solar energy and waste heat recovery low - graded heat resources heat pump and so on. The waste heat recovery technique can make full use of energy of the system and prevent thermal pollution.%针对地源热泵式沼气池加温系统需要打地埋井及铺设地埋管受地质水质局限等问题,系统构建了太阳能—沼液余热式热泵高温厌氧发酵加温系统.对系统发酵池热负荷、沼液余热回收率、中高温热泵机组、太阳能集热装置等关键参数进行了理论计算,得出系统能够保证发酵池温度50±2℃,沼液余热回收量可以达到系统总需要热量的70%.系统特点在于采用太阳能和沼液余热联合作为中高温热泵低位热源并确立其三种运行模式,包括太阳能直接加温模式,太阳能低位热源—热泵加热模式和太阳能—沼液余热回收联合式热泵加温模式.

  16. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, E.; Zanoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

  17. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, E; Zanoni, G [Passavant Impianti, Novate Milanese (Italy)

    1992-03-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD.

  18. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  19. biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Functions for working with biogas data. Both low- and high-level functions are included for carrying out common tasks for analysis of biogas and related data. Molar mass and calculated oxygen demand (COD') can be determined from a chemical formula. Measured gas volume can be corrected for water...... vapor and to (possibly user-defined) standard temperature and pressure. Gas composition, cumulative production, or other variables can be interpolated to a specified time. Cumulative biogas and methane production (and rates) can be calculated using volumetric, manometric, or gravimetric methods for any...... be summarized in several different ways (e.g., omitting normalization) using the same function. Lastly, biogas and methane production can be predicted from substrate composition and additional, optional data....

  20. Biogas recovery in anaerobic digestion plants for pig wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collivigarelli, C.; Sorlini, S.

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with a monitoring of thee anaerobic digestion plants in mesophilic conditions treating pig wastewater with the aim to study the treatment efficiency and energetic aspects. A good waste stabilization is reached in all plants, as shown by the high removal efficiency of total and volatile solids and COD, mainly due to the digestion process. On the contrary, Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonia (low) removal takes place mainly in the final storage tank, thanks to ammonia stripping. The digestion process not only produces a well stabilized wastewater, that can be more surely reused for agricultural spreading, but it offers also an important energy recovery from the biogas combustion, whose specific production varies from 0,78 to 0,99 Nm 3 t - 1 (live weight) d - 1. It is used in cogeneration plants for the combined production of thermal energy (that is reused for waste heating in the digestion tank at mesophilic conditions and for other internal utilizations) and electric energy (that is used for internal requirements while the surplus is sent into the public grid) [it

  1. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems; Miljoeanalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Berglund, Maria

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse various biogas systems from an environmental point of view. The analyses are based on a systems analysis approach and an energy perspective. Biogas systems included are based on various combinations of substrates and final use of the biogas (heat, power and transportation fuel). The overall aims are to calculate fuel cycle emissions, quantify indirect environmental effects when various reference systems are replaced (e.g. current systems for waste treatment, agricultural production and energy generation), and to present data, calculations and results in a clear and transparent way, making the study useful for other environmental systems analyses. A general conclusion is that the environmental impact from biogas systems can vary significantly due to such factors as which substrate, energy service and reference system are chosen, and if indirect environmental effects and the need of systems enlargement are considered. The introduction of biogas systems normally leads to a reduced contribution of greenhouse gases, with some exceptions such as when biogas is used for heat and the alternative is combustion of the biomass. Biogas from manure seems to result in particularly large reductions due to indirect benefits in the form of reduced leakage of methane compared with conventional methods for handling and storing manure. A prerequisite is, however, that the losses of methane are small or that methane is combusted and thus converted into carbon dioxide. This study shows that the losses of methane can be up to 8-26%, due to what kind of biogas system is studied, before the contribution of greenhouse gases exceeds the contribution from reference systems based on fossil fuels. The contribution of emissions that leads to eutrophication and acidification is almost always reduced when biogas systems are introduced. The indirect environmental benefits could be significant for biogas based on sugar beet tops when leaving the beet tops at

  2. Analysis of biogas compression system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Mirko; Pinelli, Michele; Venturini, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    The use of biogas for energy production has progressively increased in recent years, due to an increasing interest both in agricultural and energy policies of many industrialized countries. Biogas compression by means of natural gas infrastructure seems the most immediate solution, but could also lead to problems due to the different physical properties of the two gases. In this paper, a non-linear one-dimensional modular dynamic model is developed and used for the simulation of compression system transient behavior. The arrangement consists of a main line, where the compressor operates, and an anti-surge control, which consists of a recycle loop activated by a fast acting valve. Different maneuvers (start-up, normal operation, emergency shutdown and operating point variation) are simulated by using two different working fluids (methane and biogas). Simulations prove that the design of the surge protection system should consider the fluid to be elaborated. Moreover, system predisposition to surge increases as the ratio between system volumes and the inertia of the rotating masses increases.

  3. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO 2 .

  4. Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C L

    1983-04-01

    In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.

  5. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  6. Biogas Engine Waste Heat Recovery Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy is a leading country in the biogas sector. Energy crops and manure are converted into biogas using anaerobic digestion and, then, into electricity using internal combustion engines (ICEs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving the efficiency of these engines taking the real operation into account. To this purpose, in the present work, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC technology is used to recover the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases of a 1 MWel biogas engine. The ICE behavior being affected by the biogas characteristics, the ORC unit is designed, firstly, using the ICE nameplate data and, then, with data measured during a one-year monitoring activity. The optimum fluid and the plant configuration are selected in both cases using an “in-house” optimization tool. The optimization goal is the maximization of the net electric power while the working fluid is selected among 115 pure fluids and their mixtures. Results show that a recuperative ORC designed using real data guarantees a 30% higher net electric power than the one designed with ICE nameplate conditions.

  7. System to the quantification of biogas; Sistema para quantificacao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caetano, L. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Goldonio, J.S. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1987-12-31

    The search of an adequate methodology to determination of the volumetric ratios of biogas production is necessary, in consequence of the diversification of the equipments is discussed. The objective of this work is to purpose a system to determine the quantity of biogas produced at low quantity. Nine laboratory biodigesters were constructed with 10 liters of capacity operated in batch system. They are feed with 7 liters of waste cattle and water mixture, PH 6,2 and 8% of total solids and 37 deg C as average temperature. The biogas produced were stored in plastic gasometer until prefixed pressure and launching in air through a valve operated by an electronic circuit, coming back the pressure to the initial value and registering the pulse in a counter.The number of pulses in a determinate period give an idea of the Biodigester gas production and guarantee the success of measure system 18 refs, 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Electricity from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially open-quotes freeclose quotes fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as open-quotes controlled landfillingclose quotes. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills

  9. The Usage of Biogas in Fuel Cell Systems; Utilizacion de Biogas en Pilas de Combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martinez, M; Cuesta Santianes, M J; Nunez Crespi, S; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-08-06

    The usage of biogas in fuel cell systems is nowadays considered as a promising alternative for energy production worldwide as it involves the use of a valuable residual biomass resource that could enable the obtention of combined heat, cold and power generation very efficiently, while additionally avoiding greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Both development lines (biogas and fuel cells) and their associated technologies are receiving a great support from the different states, pioneer countries being Japan and U.S.A. The objective of this study is to make a detail analysis of the state of the art of biogas-powered fuel cell systems worldwide. Most representative players in the field are identified through the search of the scientific publications, projects and patent documents in which they are involved. (Author) 18 refs.

  10. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  11. Review of the literature on the promotion of biogas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumdar, A.

    1982-01-01

    This document analyses the various issues connected with the promotion of biogas technology utilization based on published literature. No attempt was made to recalculate cost figures given in the original documents in order to provide current figures for cost-benefit comparisons. Energy consumption patterns, fertilizer demand and biogas technology are considered for both independent and integrated systems. A section on biogas systems and benefits covers technology, economics, social benefits, environmental and health aspects and socio-techno-economic considerations. The following areas are considered under a section on promotion constraints: technical problems, economic factors, social barriers, health hazards, the data lacuna, and organizational complexity. A discussion of the management and training and educational aspects of biogas systems is given. The section on planning and execution of programs considers the national, regional and global-levels for the integrated development and promotion of the technology. 55 references.

  12. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  13. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  14. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  15. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Livestock-biogas-fruit systems in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rongjun [Institute of Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China)

    1997-03-01

    Fruit farming and animal husbandry have existed for a long time in Meixian, Guangdong, South China. However, Meixian suffers from shortages of rural energy and organic fertilizer and from environmental pollution. A new eco-agricultural system, the livestock-biogas-fruit system, has been designed successfully in this region by adding biogas production to fight these problems. A study which was conducted in seven households (family farms) in this region in 1994 showed that the three major components of this system functioned in harmony for the mutual benefit of these farmers and their environment. Pomelo (Citrus grandis) farming was the most profitable component of the system. Pomelo litterfall and pig dung were fed into the biogas digester underneath the pigsty. The digester supplied biogas as domestic fuel and sludge as fertilizer. Chickens were raised in the orchard where they fed on weeds and pests, and deposited excreta as fertilizer. Recycling of wastes improved soil texture, and thereby decreased input of chemical fertilizers. This system helped natural enemies function well in these case studies, and therefore decreased the application of pesticides. Serving as a key link between fruit farming and animal husbandry, biogas production alleviated the scarcity of rural energy in Meixian

  17. Effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time on performance of a prototype single-stage anaerobic digester for conversion of food wastes to biogas and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Saleart, Tawinan

    2016-04-01

    Food wastes have been recognized as the largest waste stream and accounts for 39.25 % of total municipal solid waste in Thailand. Chulalongkorn University has participated in the program of in situ energy recovery from food wastes under the Ministry of Energy (MOE), Thailand. This research aims to develop a prototype single-stage anaerobic digestion system for biogas production and energy recovery from food wastes inside Chulalongkorn University. Here, the effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time were investigated as the main key parameters for the system design and operation. From the results obtained in this study, it was found that the sludge recirculation rate of 100 % and the mixing time of 60 min per day were the most suitable design parameters to achieve high efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), and total volatile solid (TVS) removal and also biogas production by this prototype anaerobic digester. The obtained biogas production was found to be 0.71 m(3)/kg COD and the composition of methane was 61.6 %. Moreover, the efficiencies of COD removal were as high as 82.9 % and TVS removal could reach 83.9 % at the optimal condition. Therefore, the developed prototype single-stage anaerobic digester can be highly promising for university canteen application to recover energy from food wastes via biogas production.

  18. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    in recovery of nutrients whose natural reserves are being depleted such as phosphorus and potassium. In this thesis I propose the use of sorbents i.e. biochar and clinoptilolite to concentrate nutrients and subsequently the application of digestate-enriched biochar and clinoptilolite as fertiliser. Therefore...... the overall objective of this thesis is to investigate the use of clinoptilolite and biochar to recover plant nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate resulting from anaerobic digestion of animal manure and investigate the plant-availability of the recovered form of nutrients. In Chapter 1 (General...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions...

  19. Kinetic and economic considerations of biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, B K; Satter, M A [Bangladesh Agricultural Univ., Mymensingh (BD). Dept. of Farm Power and Machinery

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the kinetics and economics of substrate degradation and biogas production are discussed. Mass balance on substrate, with either the Contois or Adams-Eckenfelder models, is used to design the mathematical models of volatile solids reduction and biogas fermentation. The predictions of both the models are found to be in close agreement with the observed values reported. A computer model based on a system dynamics approach is used to model the economics of biogas production by anaerobic digestion from cattle slurry available from typical rural families in Bangladesh. This model incorporates the Adams-Eckenfelder model to determine the amount of gas production and the technique described by Audsley and Wheeler to take into account the effects of price, interest, and inflation. The effects of changes of these parameters on the net profit or loss from the process are also considered. (author).

  20. Experimental study of flame stability in biogas premix system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz G, Carlos A; Amell A Andres; Cardona Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of new renewable energy sources have had a special interest in last years looking for decrease the dependence of fossil fuels and the environmental impact generated for them. This work studies experimentally the flame stability of a simulated biogas with a volumetric composition of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. The objective of this study is to obtain information about design and interchangeability of gases in premixed combustion systems that operate with different fuel gases. The critical velocity gradient was the stability criteria used. Utilization of this criteria and the experimental method followed, using a partial premixed burner, stability flame diagram of biogas studied had been obtained. Presence of carbon dioxide has a negative effect in flame stability, decreasing significantly the laminar flame speed and consequently, the stability range of biogas burners because of apparition of blow off.

  1. Recovery of nutrients from biogas digestate with biochar and clinoptilolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocaturk, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The liquid fraction of digestate contains nutrients which makes it a valuable fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems. However, direct application of digestate may raise practical and environmental problems. Therefore, processes to concentrate nutrients have been proposed aiming not

  2. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The energy recovery of biogas has kept on increasing in the European Union in 2013: +10.2%. Almost 13.4 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent) of biogas primary energy was produced but the growth of the biogas sector is decreasing (it was 16.9% between 2011 and 2012). The growth for the coming years is expected to fall further because of political decisions in some countries to limit the use of land for farming purposes and to manage the biogas sector more efficiently. Germany ranks first for the production of biogas primary energy with 6717 ktep followed by United Kingdom with 1824 ktep. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. The total production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. in 2013 reached 53327 GWh and 432 ktep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of methanation, 10 companies are listed among which 2 are Italian: AB Energy (Gruppo AB), BTS Italia and 8 are German: MT Energie, Envitec Biogas AG, Biogas Weser-Ems, Planet Biogastechnik, Schmack Biogas GmbH, Weltec Biopower GmbH, UTS Biogastechnik (Anaergia Group), Bioconstruct and BTS Italia. (A.C.)

  3. Biogas production from poultry rendering plant anaerobic digesters: systems comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  4. Kooperationsvorhaben "Nachhaltiges Biogas am Niederrhein": Biogaseinspeisung als dezentrales, partnerschaftliches und nachhaltiges System

    OpenAIRE

    Pflaum, H.; Klocke, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the model project "Sustainable Biogas", GELSENWASSER AG, PlanEt GmbH, the Münster University of Applied Sciences and Fraunhofer UMSICHT have jointly elaborated a baseline study to investigate the decentralized production and injection of biogas in a novel biogas injection system. Special consideration was given to implementation and sustainability requirements. The project was supported by the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the European Commission. Crude biogas, locally fed in...

  5. Economical and ecological benchmarking of biogas plant configurations for flexible power generation in future power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Henning

    2016-01-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. This study comparatively assesses the environmental and economic performance of biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand for flexible power generation. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8 hours per day range between 2 Euro to 11 Euro MWh -1 and for a 72 hour period without biogas demand from 9 Euro to 19 Euro MWh -1 . While biogas storage concepts were identified as favorable short-term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for longer periods without biogas demand [1, 2]. Flexible biogas plant configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54 to 65 g CO 2-eq MJ -1 and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ -1 . In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production [1, 3].

  6. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  7. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Cogeration System with Biogas Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Doseva, Nadezhda; Chakyrova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an existing cogeneration system driven by biogas internal combustion engines (ICE) is a subject of an investigation by energy and exergy analyses. The system is installed in the Varna Wastewater Treatment Plant (Varna WWTP), Bulgaria and its purpose is to utilize the methane produced as a byproduct of the solids stabilization process at Varna WWTP. Otherwise, the produced methane would pollute the environment. The presented paperhas been organised in the following way: first, i...

  8. Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yan, Jinying; Li, Hailong; Chekani, Shabnam; Liu, Loncheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identify thermal characteristics of amine-based biogas upgrading for waste heat recovery. • Identify thermal characteristics of AD biogas production as sink for heat recovery. • Evaluation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading to improve overall energy efficiency. • Cost analysis applied for the economic feasibility of the thermal integration. • Using the principles of target design and system integration for connected thermal processes. - Abstract: Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible

  9. Biogas recirculation for simultaneous calcium removal and biogas purification within an expanded granular sludge bed system treating leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghuan; Lu, Xueqin; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Biogas, generated from an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate, was recirculated for calcium removal from the leachate via a carbonation process with simultaneous biogas purification. Batch trials were performed to optimize the solution pH and imported biogas (CO2) for CaCO3 precipitation. With applicable pH of 10-11 obtained, continuous trials achieved final calcium concentrations of 181-375 mg/L (removal efficiencies≈92.8-96.5%) in the leachate and methane contents of 87.1-91.4% (purification efficiencies≈65.4-82.2%) in the biogas. Calcium-balance study indicates that 23-986 mg Ca/d was released from the bio-system under the carbonized condition where CaCO3 precipitating was moved outside the bioreactor, whereas 7918-9517 mg Ca/d was trapped into the system for the controlled one. These findings demonstrate that carbonation removal of calcium by biogas recirculation could be a promising alternative to pretreat calcium-rich MSW leachate and synergistically to improve methane content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  11. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Andrew J.; Kirk, Donald W.; Graydon, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MW e of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  12. Costs and benefits of biogas recovery from communal anaerobic digesters treating domestic wastewater: Evidence from peri-urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramee, Jeannette; Tilmans, Sebastien; Davis, Jennifer

    2018-03-15

    Communal anaerobic digesters (ADs) have been promoted as a waste-to-energy strategy that can provide sanitation and clean energy co-benefits. However, little empirical evidence is available regarding the performance of such systems in field conditions. This study assesses the wastewater treatment efficiency, energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and financial costs and benefits of communal ADs used for domestic wastewater treatment in Zambia. Primary data on the technical performance of 15 ADs were collected over a 6-month period and in-person interviews were conducted with heads of 120 households. Findings from this study suggest that ADs offer comparable wastewater treatment efficiencies and greater GHG emission reduction benefits relative to conventional septic tanks (STs), with the greatest benefits in settings with reliable access to water, use of low efficiency solid fuels and with sufficient demand for biogas in proximity to supply. However, absent a mechanism to monetize additional benefits from biogas recovery, ADs in this context will not be a financially attractive investment relative to STs. Our financial analysis suggests that, under the conditions in this study, a carbon price of US$9 to $28 per tCO 2 e is necessary for positive investment in ADs relative to STs. Findings from this study contribute empirical evidence on ADs as a sanitation and clean energy strategy, identify conditions under which the greatest benefits are likely to accrue and inform international climate efforts on the carbon price required to attract investment in emissions reduction projects such as ADs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part I: Fuel-cycle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Pal; Berglund, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Fuel-cycle emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon oxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), hydrocarbons (HC), methane (CH 4 ), and particles are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for different biogas systems based on six different raw materials. The gas is produced in large- or farm-scale biogas plants, and is used in boilers for heat production, in turbines for co-generation of heat and electricity, or as a transportation fuel in light- and heavy-duty vehicles. The analyses refer mainly to Swedish conditions. The levels of fuel-cycle emissions vary greatly among the biogas systems studied, and are significantly affected by the properties of the raw material digested, the energy efficiency of the biogas production, and the status of the end-use technology. For example, fuel-cycle emission may vary by a factor of 3-4, and for certain gases by up to a factor of 11, between two biogas systems that provide an equivalent energy service. Extensive handling of raw materials, e.g. ley cropping or collection of waste-products such as municipal organic waste, is often a significant source of emissions. Emission from the production phase of the biogas exceeds the end-use emissions for several biogas systems and for specific emissions. Uncontrolled losses of methane, e.g. leakages from stored digestates or from biogas upgrading, increase the fuel-cycle emissions of methane considerably. Thus, it is necessary to clearly specify the biogas production system and end-use technology being studied in order to be able to produce reliable and accurate data on fuel-cycle emission

  14. Microbiological community in biogas systems and evaluation of microbial risks from gas usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinneraas, B.; Nordin, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Biometry and Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Schoenning, C. [Swedish Inst. for Infectious Disease Control, Dept. of Parasitology, Mycology, Environmental Mirobiology and Water, Solna (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The plans for introducing biogas produced from organic waste to the pipe system for natural gas have raised concerns about the risk of transmitting disease via the gas. To assess this risk, condensate water from gas pipes and gas from different parts of biogas upgrading systems were sampled and cultured for microbial content. The number of microorganisms found in the biogas correspond to the densities in sampled natural gas. Since no pathogens were identified and since the exposure to gas from e. g. cookers and refueling of cars may only result in the inhalation of small volumes of gas, the risk of spreading disease via biogas was judged to be very low. (orig.)

  15. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  16. A decision support system for planning of flexible biogas chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbrandi, W. E.; Lazovik, E.; Azzopardi, G.; Pierie, Frank

    Decentralized biogas produced through co-digestion of biomass can play an important role in our future renewable energy mix. However the optimal design, planning and use of a biogas production chain is a daunting process. When looking into a biogas production chain one must take into account, first,

  17. Developing a Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Agus; Marotin, Fadli; Triyono, Sugeng; Hasanudin, Udin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a family-size biogas-fueled electricity generating system consisting of anaerobic digester, bio-filter scrubber, and power generating engine. Biogas was produced from a pilot scale wet anaerobic digester (5-m3 capacity). The biogas was filtered using bio-scrubber column filled with locally made compost to reduce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content. Biogas composition was analysed using a gas chromatograph and its H2S level was measured using a H2S detector. ...

  18. Biogas production supported by excess heat – A systems analysis within the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Lindkvist, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A systems analysis when moving from external to internal production and use of biogas at an industry. • The aim is to study the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and economics from this switch. • The study compares the choice of using biogas or industrial excess heat to heat the digester. • Internal biogas production supported by excess heat has environmental and economic benefits. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets

  19. Potential and emergence factors of biogas and by-product gas recovery. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the energy potential of biomass (excluding energy crops), mainly biogas and biomass gases, for France, European Union, USA, China and India. The methodology is based on the identification of the organic matter flows, from agricultural and forestry areas, to their end use. This allows a limitation of double counts and forgotten flows, relevant to most usual methods. It has been tested successfully for France. Biogas potential for France is assumed to about 14 Mtoe, on a global biomass potential of about 51 Mtoe (accessible under 75 $ per barrel). Potential biomass resource in the industrialized countries is about one half of final consumption of fuels and electricity, among which a quarter from biogas. In China and India, biomass potential is of the same magnitude than final consumption of fuels and electricity. Forestry harvest is already intensive, and most of the increasing should be due to biogas, which is already a solution against deforestation. Most of biogas resources come from animal manure and crops residues. Anaerobic digestion allows the restitution of organic and mineral fertilizers to the soils. In the four areas of this study, biogas potential could rise from 11 Mtoe today, to 370 Mtoe in a long term perspective. (authors)

  20. Bioelectrochemical systems serve anaerobic digestion process for process monitoring and biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES), which employ microbes as catalysts to convert chemical energy stored in organic matter into sustainable electricity and high-value chemicals, is an emerging and promising technology. BES have broad applications including wastewater treatment, chemical production......, resource recovery and waste remediation. Recently, new concepts of been proposed. The purpose of this work was to optimize the AD process using BES in two aspects: developing a new volatile fatty acid (VFA) monitoring system which can be used as the AD process indicator, and for improving biogas quality...... and small external resistance were advantageous for current signal amplification. Two linear relationships between current outputs and VFA concentrations were observed. The response time was approx. 5 h and the detection range was 1 to 200 mM. The selectivity of the biosensor was demonstrated since organic...

  1. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part II: The environmental impact of replacing various reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Pal; Berglund, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the overall environmental impact when biogas systems are introduced and replace various reference systems for energy generation, waste management and agricultural production. The analyses are based on Swedish conditions using a life-cycle perspective. The biogas systems included are based on different combinations of raw materials and final use of the biogas produced (heat, power and transportation fuel). A general conclusion is that biogas systems normally lead to environmental improvements, which in some cases are considerable. This is often due to indirect environmental benefits of changed land use and handling of organic waste products (e.g. reduced nitrogen leaching, emissions of ammonia and methane), which often exceed the direct environmental benefits achieved when fossil fuels are replaced by biogas (e.g. reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and air pollutants). Such indirect benefits are seldom considered when biogas is evaluated from an environmental point of view. The environmental impact from different biogas systems can, however, vary significantly due to factors such as the raw materials utilised, energy service provided and reference system replaced

  2. Health risk assessment linked with purified biogas injection in a natural gas distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sebastien

    2009-06-01

    This document provides for the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Afsset) expressed after the collective expertise carried out for the evaluation of the health risk linked with biogas injection in the natural gas distribution system. Following the recommendations issued by the Afsset, works have been started in order to collect the sludge-derived biogas and to analyse its composition. These data will be used to assess accidental risks (resulting from biogas valorisation, pipeline transport, industrial and domestic energy valorisation) as well as health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas distribution system)

  3. Heat Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.

  4. Computer Aided Analysis and Prototype Testing of an Improved Biogas Reactor For Biomass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy (Zheng Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel resources substituting for conventional fuels are required due to less availability of fuel resources than demand in the market. A large amount of crude oil and petroleum products are required to be imported in many countries over the world. Also the environmental pollution is another serious problem when use petroleum products. Biogas, with the composition of 54.5% CH4, 39.5% CO2, and 6% other elements (i.e., H2, N2, H2S, and O2, is a clear green fuel that can substitute the regular petroleum fuels to reduce the pollutant elements. Biogas can be produced by performing enriching, scrubbing, and bottling processes. The purification process can be further applied to take away the pollutants in biogas. The pure biogas process analyzed in this research is compressed to 2950 psi while being filled into gas cylinder. The daily produced biogas capacity is around 5480 ft3 and the processing efficacy is affected by surrounding environment and other factors. The design and development of this biogas system is assisted through mathematical analysis, 3D modeling, computational simulation, and prototype testing. Both computer aided analysis and prototype testing show close results which validate the feasibility of this biogas system in biomass applications.

  5. Proposal and assessment of a novel integrated CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Bosheng; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy is raised. •Chemical and physical energy of biogas is efficiently used in a cascaded way. •The energy quality of concentrating solar heat is promoted in the system. •A parametric analysis is adopted to optimize the thermodynamic performance. •A typical-day study is conducted to explore the general operation features. -- Abstract: The conventional way to utilize biogas either is energy-intensive due to biogas upgrading or causes huge waste of energy grade and environmental pollution by direct burning. This paper proposes a biogas and solar energy-assisted combined cooling, heating and power (BSCCHP) system that upgrades the caloric value of biogas before combustion by introducing a thermochemical conversion process that is driven by solar heat. Adopting commercially established technologies including steam reforming and parabolic dish concentrators, the system exhibits an enhanced system exergy efficiency, and the technology considerably reduces the direct CO 2 footprint and saves depletable fossil fuel. With a solar thermal share of 22.2%, the proposed system not only has a high net solar-to-product thermal and exergy efficiency of 46.80% and 26.49%, respectively, but also results in a commensurate 18.27% reduction of the direct CO 2 footprint compared with the reference individual systems. The effect of critical parameters in the biogas steam reforming process on the system performance was studied. A proper selection of the steam/carbon ratio leads to the optimal direct CO 2 footprint and system exergy efficiency. Pursuing a very high conversion of biogas by improving the reforming temperature is not a wise choice from a system perspective. Finally, a typical-day dynamic simulation was conducted to preliminarily explore the general operation features. This study may provide a new way to efficiently use the renewable energy in the distributed energy system.

  6. The design of a PC-based real-time system for monitoring Methane and Oxygen concentration in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantidewi, M.; Muntini, M. S.; Deta, U. A.; Lestari, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    Limited fossil fuels nowadays trigger the development of alternative energy, one of which is biogas. Biogas is one type of bioenergy in the form of fermented gases of organic materials such as animal waste. The components of gases present in biogas and affect the biogas production are various, such as methane and oxygen. The biogas utilization will be more optimal if both gases concentration (in this case is methane and oxygen concentration) can be monitored. Therefore, this research focused on designing the monitoring system of methane and oxygen concentration in biogas production in real-time. The results showed that the instrument system was capable of monitoring and recording the data of gases (methane and oxygen) concentration in biogas production in every second.

  7. Fuzzy Logic System for Intermixed Biogas and Photovoltaics Measurement and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liston Matindife

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a new integrated measurement and control system for intermixed biogas and photovoltaic systems to achieve safe and optimal energy usage. Literature and field studies show that existing control methods on small- to medium-scale systems fall short of comprehensive system optimization and fault diagnosis, hence the need to revisit these control methods. The control strategy developed in this study is intelligent as it is wholly based on fuzzy logic algorithms. Fuzzy logic controllers due to their superior nonlinear problem solving capabilities to classical controllers considerably simplify controller design. The mathematical models that define classical controllers are difficult or impossible to realize in biogas and photovoltaic generation process. A microcontroller centered fuzzy logic measurement and control embedded system is designed and developed on the existing hybrid biogas and photovoltaic installations. The designed system is able to accurately predict digester stability, quantify biogas output, and carry out biogas fault detection and control. Optimized battery charging and photovoltaic fault detection and control are also successfully implemented. The system is able to optimize the operation and performance of biogas and photovoltaic energy generation.

  8. Phosphorus recovery from biogas slurry by ultrasound/H2O2 digestion coupled with HFO/biochar adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemeng; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Hongqiang; Li, Guoxue; Ding, Lili; Pawlowski, Lucjan

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from biogas slurry has recently attracted considerable interest. In this work, ultrasound/H 2 O 2 digestion coupled with ferric oxide hydrate/biochar (HFO/biochar) adsorption process was performed to promote P dissolution, release, and recovery from biogas slurry. The results showed that the optimal total phosphorus release efficiency was achieved at an inorganic phosphorus/total phosphorus ratio of 95.0% at pH 4, 1mL of added H 2 O 2 , and ultrasonication for 30min. The P adsorption by the HFO/biochar followed pseudo second-order kinetics and was mainly controlled by chemical processes. The Langmuir-Freundlich model matched the experimental data best for P adsorption by HFO/biochar at 298 and 308K, whereas the Freundlich model matched best at 318K. The maximum amount of P adsorbed was 220mg/g. The process was endothermic, spontaneous, and showed an increase in disorder at the solid-liquid interface. The saturated adsorbed HFO/biochar continually releases P and is most suitable for use in an alkaline environment. The amount of P released reached 29.1mg/g after five extractions. P mass balance calculation revealed that 11.3% of the total P can be made available. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Recovery of biogas as a source of renewable energy from ice-cream production residues and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Burak; Orok, Murat; Hot, Elif; Erkişi, Selin; Albükrek, Metin; Onay, Turgut T

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of waste streams and residues from agro-industry is very important to prevent environmental pollution. In particular, the anaerobic co-digestion process can be used as an important tool for safe disposal and energy recovery from agro-industry waste streams and residues. The primary objective of this laboratory-scale study was to determine whether it was possible to recover energy (biogas) from ice-cream production residues and wastewater, through a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process. A high methane yield of 0.338 L CH4/gCOD(removed) could be achieved from anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater alone, with almost 70% of methane in biogas, while anaerobic digestion of ice-cream production residue alone did not seem feasible. When wastewater and ice-cream production residue were anaerobically co-digested at a ratio of 9:1 by weight, the highest methane yield of 0.131 L CH4/gCOD(removed) was observed. Buffering capacity seemed to be imperative in energy recovery from these substrates in the anaerobic digestion process.

  10. Energy recovering and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    In spite of the advantages of the methanation and the biogas valorization, the France is one of the european countries where these energy recovery techniques have less developed. Liquid industrial effluents, sewage sludges, waste waters, oils or vinification residues can be processed to produce biogas. In this innovative context biogas combustion installations will have to anticipate the regulations on CO 2 emissions. (A.L.B.)

  11. Thermoelectric characterization of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell system directly fed by dry biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, G.; Corigliano, O.; Lo Faro, M.; Frontera, P.; Antonucci, P.; Zignani, S.C.; Trocino, S.; Mirandola, F.A.; Aricò, A.S.; Fragiacomo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical Model (NM) of SOFC Cogenerative System (SCS) fed by dry biogas is set up. • NM simulates new Ni-Fe/CGO protective layer for direct CH_4 consumption at the anode. • NM simulates the anode carbonation phenomenon and is experimentally validated. • The performance parameters trends of SCS fed by three types of dry biogas are shown. • SEM images after 40 h of operation show that there is no anode carbon deposition. - Abstract: A properly manufactured intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) can be directly fed by dry biogas, considering also the electrochemical partial and total oxidation reactions of methane in the biogas at the anode. In this way the methane in the biogas is electrochemically consumed directly at the fuel cell without the need to mix the biogas with any reforming gas (steam, oxygen or carbon dioxide). In this article, a numerical model of an SOFC system with Ni-Fe/CGO electrocatalyst anode protective layer directly fed by dry biogas, in cogenerative arrangement and with anode exhaust gas recirculation is formulated. The influences of biogas composition, of fuel cell operating current density and of percentage of recirculated anode exhaust gas on the SOFC system performances were evaluated by calculation code. An SOFC test bench was set up to validate the calculation code results experimentally. Furthermore, the numerical model also considers the anode carbonation and evaluates the amount of carbon that can be formed in the anode at chemical equilibrium and quasi-equilibrium conditions associated with the specific anode protective layer used.

  12. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  13. Clever farmers give gas: model solutions for agricultural biogas systems. Results from the BMVEL (Federal Ministry for Consumers' Protection, Nutrition and Agriculture) model project 2004/2005: Moel solutions for environment-friendly and economical energy utilization with agricultural biogas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niebaum, A.; Jaeger, P.

    2005-01-01

    With the examples of biogas system concepts from practical agriculture, farmers, consultants, representatives of authorities and all those interested in biogas are shown successful and proved solutions concepts of generating energy from biogas. The project included agricultural enterprises with biogas systems who have implemented a biologically and technically efficient biomass utilization, who have optimized their operations by means of the biogas system, who have integrated their biogas system in their operational concept and who were able to harmonize the objectives of using a biogas system with the environment and the regional specificities

  14. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China: A Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural household biogas (RHB systems are at a crossroads in China, yet there has been a lack of holistic evaluation of their energy and climate (greenhouse gas mitigation efficiency under typical operating conditions. We combined data from monitoring projects and questionnaire surveys across hundreds of households from two typical Chinese villages within a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA framework to assess net GHG (greenhouse gas mitigation by RHB systems operated in different contexts. We modelled biogas production, measured biogas losses and used survey data from biogas and non-biogas households to derive empirical RHB system substitution rates for energy and fertilizers. Our results indicate that poorly designed and operated RHB systems in northern regions of China may in fact increase farm household GHG emissions by an average of 2668 kg CO2-eq· year−1, compared with a net mitigation effect of 6336 kg CO2-eq per household and year in southern regions. Manure treatment (104 and 8513 kg CO2-eq mitigation and biogas leakage (-533 and -2489 kg CO2-eq emission are the two most important factors affecting net GHG mitigation by RHB systems in northern and southern China, respectively. In contrast, construction (−173 and −305 kg CO2-eq emission, energy substitution (−522 emission and 653 kg·CO2-eq mitigation and nutrient substitution (−1544 and −37 kg CO2-eq emission made small contributions across the studied systems. In fact, survey data indicated that biogas households had higher energy and fertilizer use, implying no net substitution effect. Low biogas yields in the cold northern climate and poor maintenance services were cited as major reasons for RHB abandonment by farmers. We conclude that the design and management of RHB systems needs to be revised and better adapted to local climate (e.g., digester insulation and household energy demand (biogas storage and micro power generators to avoid discharge of unburned biogas

  15. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy efficiency and sustainability of complex biogas systems: A 3-level emergetic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The metabolism of complex biogas system increased from 2000 to 2008. • System renewability has been increased due to biogas utilization. • Electricity, diesels and infrastructure were the most efficient supplies. • All processes were challenged by high transformity and low sustainability. - Abstract: Biogas engineering and the biogas-linked agricultural industries as a whole has been used as both a developmental strategy for rural new emergy and an important part of renewable agriculture revolution in China. In this paper, we proposed a 3-level emergetic evaluation framework to investigate the energy efficiency and sustainability of a complex biogas system (CBS) in South China, comprising agro-industries such as planting, aquaculture, breeding and biogas. The framework is capable of tracking dynamical behaviors of the whole complex system (Level I), transformation processes (Level II) and resource components (Level III) simultaneously. Two new indicators, emergy contribution rate (ECR) and emergy supply efficiency (ESE) were developed to address the contribution and efficiency of resource components within each agro-industrial process. Our findings suggested the metabolism of the CBS were increased from 2000 to 2008, in which planting production was the biggest process in terms of total emergy input, while breeding was the most productive one with its highest total emergy yield. The CBS was under an industry transaction process stimulated by biogas construction, while the traditional agricultural activities still play an important role. For economic input, a trend towards a more renewable regime was found behind the total increase over time. With different preferences for renewable or non-renewable resources, planting and aquaculture production were proved natural donation-reliant, while breeding and biogas were economic input-dependent. Among all the economic inputs, electricity, diesels and infrastructure were the most efficient components

  17. Waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-12-19

    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  18. Start-up of a multi-stage system for biogas production and solid waste treatment in low-tech countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biey, E M; Musibono, E D; Verstraete, W

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable fruit garden wastes were treated anaerobically using a multistage Dranco system. The digesters were composed of three 50 L vessels kept in mesophilic conditions. They were operating at 14.5-17% TS. By controlling the pH in the system, the start-up for biogas production was shortened to 60 days. The pH correction was a buffering which enhanced methanogenic activity in the digesters. With a loading rate of 4.1 kg VS/m3 reactor/day, the production of biogas was 5 m3/m3 reactor/ day, and 60-70% methane content. This allowed making a multisystem by starting every 3 weeks with new vessels in order to maintain biogas production, to be used in industries or in local communities in low-tech countries. The designed model was started in Kinshasa (Congo) where a project is expected to treat one ton of solid waste on a daily basis, for a production of 100 m3 biogas. This cost effectiveness of the system is demonstrated and presents the opportunity for biowaste treatment coupled with environmental protection and substantial energy recovery.

  19. Upgrading versus reforming: an energy and exergy analysis of two Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-based systems for a convenient biogas-to-electricity conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldinelli, A.; Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.

    2017-01-01

    a high endothermic process steps, the membrane-based system is also convenient whether heat recovery is required, producing a combined heat-and-power efficiency of 74.8% versus 47.0% obtained in the other system. Moreover, the results of a sensitivity analysis of the impact of membrane and reforming operating parameters on the overall system performances justify the convenience of adopting the solution of biogas direct feeding. Even in the hypothesis of a poorly performing membrane and an optimized reformer, the membrane-based system exhibits a gain in the system energy and combined heat-and-power efficiency of 25.2% and 34.9% respectively, with regard to the reforming-based concept. The forcefulness of this result is reinforced by a preliminary evaluation of capital expenditures, which represents a further economic advantage beside the economic revenue coming from a higher energy conversion efficiency.

  20. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. © 2013.

  1. A techno-economic evaluation of anaerobic biogas producing systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hervan Marion; Xie, Wei; Liang, Jianghui; Mao, Hanping; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger; Bu, Quan

    2018-02-01

    Biogas production has been the focus of many individuals in the developing world; there have been several investigations that focus on improving the production process and product quality. In the developing world the lack of advanced technology and capital has hindered the development of energy production. Renewable energy has the potential to improve the standard of living for most of the 196 countries which are classified as developing economies. One of the easiest renewable energy compounds that can be produced is biogas (bio-methane). Biogas can be produced from almost any source of biomass through the anaerobic respiration of micro-organisms. Low budget energy systems are reviewed in this article along with various feedstock sources. Adapted gas purification and storage systems are also reviewed, along with the possible economic, social, health and environmental benefits of its implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Closing CO2 Loop in Biogas Production: Recycling Ammonia As Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingyao; Yu, Ge; Tu, Te; Yan, Shuiping; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Shuaifei

    2017-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel system for simultaneous ammonia recovery, carbon capture, biogas upgrading, and fertilizer production in biogas production. Biogas slurry pretreatment (adjusting the solution pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand) plays an important role in the system as it significantly affects the performance of ammonia recovery. Vacuum membrane distillation is used to recover ammonia from biogas slurry at various conditions. The ammonia removal efficiency in vacuum membrane distillation is around 75% regardless of the ammonia concentration of the biogas slurry. The recovered ammonia is used for CO 2 absorption to realize simultaneous biogas upgrading and fertilizer generation. CO 2 absorption performance of the recovered ammonia (absorption capacity and rate) is compared with a conventional model absorbent. Theoretical results on biogas upgrading are also provided. After ammonia recovery, the treated biogas slurry has significantly reduced phytotoxicity, improving the applicability for agricultural irrigation. The novel concept demonstrated in this study shows great potential in closing the CO 2 loop in biogas production by recycling ammonia as an absorbent for CO 2 absorption associated with producing fertilizers.

  3. Developing A Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2017-06-01

     Keywords: biogas; family size; generator; electricity; bio-filter.  Article History: Received Janury 16th 2017; Received in revised form 2nd June 2017; Accepted 18th June 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Haryanto, A., Marotin, F., Triyono, S., Hasanudin, U. (2017, Developing A Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(2, 111-118. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.111-118

  4. New data about Phase Diagram of the Methane-Carbon Dioxide (Biogas) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobrodov, V.G.; Shejnina, A.A.; Karnatsevich, L.V.; Grigorova, T.K.; Vinokurov, E.I.; Khazhmuradov, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Line of the melting beginning ('solidus' line) of the melting diagram for the CH 4 -CO 2 (biogas) system was determined for the first time in this article. Original method was used for measurements, based on the studying of the intensity of the gas yield from solid solutions CH 4 -CO 2 versus temperature while solution warming. Character of the determined 'solidus' line shows that there is continuous series of the solid solutions CH 4 -CO 2 . Obtained data can be used for the development of the technology of the biogas component separation

  5. BEAP profiles as rapid test system for status analysis and early detection of process incidents in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Berger, Stefanie; Wassmann, Kati; Hecht, Melanie; Dickhaus, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH 4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between specific BEAP profiles for standard biogas plants and for biogas reactors with process incidents (beginning of NH 4 + -N inhibition, start of acidification, insufficient hydrolysis and potential mycotoxin effects). Finally, BEAP profiles also functioned as a warning system for the early prediction of critical NH 4 + -N concentrations leading to a drop of CH 4 formation.

  6. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  7. Identification of the microbiological community in biogas systems and evaluation of microbial risks from gas usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinneraas, Bjoern [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biometry and Engineering, Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Schoenning, Caroline [Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Department of Parasitology, Mycology, Environmental Mirobiology and Water, SE-171 82 Solna (Sweden); Nordin, Annika [National Veterinary Institute, Department of Wild Life, Fish and Environment, SE-751 89 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-08-31

    The plans for introducing biogas produced from organic waste to the pipe system for natural gas has raised concerns about the risk of transmitting disease via the gas. To assess this risk, condensate water from gas pipes and gas from different parts of a biogas upgrading system were sampled and cultured for microbial content. On average, 10{sup 5} cfu ml{sup -1} were found in the condensate water throughout the system, while in the gas between 10 and 100 cfu m{sup -3} were found. The microorganisms were subjected to further identification and found to represent a wide variety, e.g. fungi and spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria, including species such as Enterobacteriaceae. The number of microorganisms found in the biogas corresponded to the densities in sampled natural gas, which also held 10-100 cfu m{sup -3}. Since no pathogens were identified and since the exposure to gas from e.g. cookers and refuelling of cars may only result in the inhalation of small volumes of gas, the risk of spreading disease via biogas was judged to be very low. (author)

  8. Economical and ecological benchmarking of biogas plant configurations for flexible power generation in future power supply systems; Oekonomisches und oekologisches Benchmarking von Biogasanlagenkonfigurationen zur flexiblen Verstromung in zukuenftigen Stromversorgungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Henning [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany). Bereich Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2016-08-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. This study comparatively assesses the environmental and economic performance of biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand for flexible power generation. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8 hours per day range between 2 Euro to 11 Euro MWh{sup -1} and for a 72 hour period without biogas demand from 9 Euro to 19 Euro MWh{sup -1}. While biogas storage concepts were identified as favorable short-term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for longer periods without biogas demand [1, 2]. Flexible biogas plant configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54 to 65 g CO{sub 2-eq} MJ{sup -1} and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ{sup -1}. In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production [1, 3].

  9. Multicriteria analysis of the hybrid systems with biogas: fuzzy set and rules; Analise multicriterio de sistemas hibridos com biogas: conjuntos e regras fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barin, A.; Canha, L.; Abaide, A.; Magnago, K. [Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: chbarin@gmail.com; Machado, R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], E-mail: rquadros@sel.eesc.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    A multicriteria analysis to manage de renewable sources of energy is presented, identifying the most appropriate hybrid system to be used as distributed generation of electric energy using biogas. In this methodology, fuzzy sets and rules are defined simulated in the software MATLAB, where the main characteristics of the operation and application of hybrid systems of electric power generation are considered. The main generation system, that can use the biogas, as micro turbines and fuel cells, are evaluated. Afterwards, the systems of energy storage are analyzed: flywheel, H{sub 2} storage and conventional and redox batteries. For the development of the proposed methodology, it was considered the following criteria: efficiency, costs, technological maturity, environmental impacts, the amplitude of the system action (power range), useful life, co-generation possibility and operation temperature. A classification, by priority order, for the use of the sources and storages associated to the environment and cost scenarios is also presented.

  10. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  11. Nitrogen cycling in an ecological farming system of milk vetch culture - pig raising - biogas fermentation - rice culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.R.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Zhang, M.L.; Wu, J.F.; Guo, C.Z.; Liu, W.

    2002-01-01

    The [15]N - labeled technique was used to study the stock, transformation, fate and utilization efficiency of N in the farming-pig husbandry-biogas ecosystem in rice areas. It was shown that the crude protein digestibility of the ensilaged milk vetch by pig was 53.76%, the recovery rates of

  12. A new degassing membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to achieve in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of dissolved CH4 from the anaerobic effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new UASB configuration was developed by coupling with degassing membrane. • In-situ biogas upgrading was achieved with high methane content (>90%). • Decrease of dissolved methane in the anaerobic effluent was achieved. - Abstract: A new technology for in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of CH 4 from the effluent of biogas reactors was proposed and demonstrated in this study. A vacuum degassing membrane module was used to desorb CO 2 from the liquid phase of a biogas reactor. The degassing membrane was submerged into a degassing unit (DU). The results from batch experiments showed that mixing intensity, transmembrane pressure, pH and inorganic carbon concentration affected the CO 2 desorption rate in the DU. Then, the DU was directly connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The results showed the CH 4 content was only 51.7% without desorption of CO 2 , while it increased when the liquid of UASB was recycled through the DU. The CH 4 content increased to 71.6%, 90%, and 94% with liquid recirculation rate through the DU of 0.21, 0.42 and 0.63 L/h, respectively. The loss of methane due to dissolution in the effluent was reduced by directly pumping the reactor effluent through the DU. In this way, the dissolved CH 4 concentration in the effluent decreased from higher than 0.94 mM to around 0.13 mM, and thus efficient recovery of CH 4 from the anaerobic effluent was achieved. In the whole operational period, the COD removal efficiency and CH 4 yield were not obviously affected by the gas desorption

  13. Enhanced oil recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  14. Devising an energy saving technology for a biogas plant as a part of the cogeneration system

    OpenAIRE

    Чайковська, Євгенія Євстафіївна

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests an operation technology for a biogas plant that allows setting a heating medium temperature at the inlet to the heat exchanger built in a digester and measuring the heating medium temperature at the outlet. An integrated system for assessing the varied temperature of digestion (that is based on mathematical and logical modeling within the cogeneration system) secures a continuous gas outlet, a timely unloading of fermented mash and loading of a fresh matter. For this purpos...

  15. Experimental Study on Productivity Performance of Household Combined Thermal Power and Biogas System in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ample quantities of solar and local biomass energy are available in the rural regions of northwest China to satisfy the energy needs of farmers. In this work, low-temperature solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic solar power generators, and solar-powered thermostatic biogas digesters were combined to create a heat, electricity, and biogas cogeneration system and were experimentally studied through two buildings in a farming village in northwestern China. The results indicated that the floor heater had the best heating effect. And the fraction of the energy produced by the solar elements of the system was 60.3%. The photovoltaic power-generation system achieved photovoltaic (PV conversion efficiencies of 8.3% and 8.1% during the first and second season, respectively. The intrinsic power consumption of the system was 143.4 kW·h, and 115.7 kW·h of electrical power was generated by the system in each season. The average volume of biogas produced daily was approximately 1.0 m3. Even though the ambient temperature reached −25°C, the temperature of the biogas digester was maintained at 27°C ± 2 for thermostatic fermentation. After optimization, the energy-saving rate improved from 66.2% to 85.5%. The installation reduced CO2 emissions by approximately 27.03 t, and the static payback period was 3.1 yr. Therefore, the system is highly economical, energy efficient, and beneficial for the environment.

  16. Experimental Study on Productivity Performance of Household Combined Thermal Power and Biogas System in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Osman, Yassir Idris Abdalla; Feng, Rong; Si, Zetian

    2018-01-01

    Ample quantities of solar and local biomass energy are available in the rural regions of northwest China to satisfy the energy needs of farmers. In this work, low-temperature solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic solar power generators, and solar-powered thermostatic biogas digesters were combined to create a heat, electricity, and biogas cogeneration system and were experimentally studied through two buildings in a farming village in northwestern China. The results indicated that the floor heater had the best heating effect. And the fraction of the energy produced by the solar elements of the system was 60.3%. The photovoltaic power-generation system achieved photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies of 8.3% and 8.1% during the first and second season, respectively. The intrinsic power consumption of the system was 143.4 kW·h, and 115.7 kW·h of electrical power was generated by the system in each season. The average volume of biogas produced daily was approximately 1.0 m3. Even though the ambient temperature reached −25°C, the temperature of the biogas digester was maintained at 27°C ± 2 for thermostatic fermentation. After optimization, the energy-saving rate improved from 66.2% to 85.5%. The installation reduced CO2 emissions by approximately 27.03 t, and the static payback period was 3.1 yr. Therefore, the system is highly economical, energy efficient, and beneficial for the environment. PMID:29862289

  17. Struvite recovery from swine waste biogas digester effluent through a stainless steel device under constant pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P W Anton; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Chen, Ying-Xu; Han, Zhi-Ying

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the struvite precipitation under constant and non-constant pH conditions and to test a stainless steel device under different operating regimes to maximize the recovery of struvite. The molar ratio of NH4+: Mg2+: PO4(3-) was adjusted to 1: 1.2: 1.2 and pH was elevated to 9.0. The absorbance measurement was used to trace the process of struvite crystallization. Wastewater and precipitate analysis was done by standard analytical methods. The pH constant experiment reported a significantly higher struvite precipitation (24.6 +/- 0.86 g) than the non-constant pH experiment (19.8 +/- 1.86 g). The SAR ranged from 5.6 to 8.2 g m(-2) h(-1) to 3.6-4.8 g m(-2) h(-1) in pH constant and non-constant experiments, respectively. The highest struvite deposit on the device was found in regime 3 followed by in regimes 2 and 4. The highest PO4(3-) (97.2%) and NH4+ (71%) removal was reported in the R1 regime. None of the influent Cu2+ or Zn2+ was precipitated on the device. A higher struvite yield is evident in pH constant experiments. Moreover, the stainless steel device facilitates the isolation of heavy metal free pure (around 96%) struvite from swine waste biogas digester effluent contaminated with cu2+ and Zn2+ and the highest yield is attainable with the device operating at 50 rpm with agitation by a magnetic stirrer.

  18. Future biogas plants. New systems and their economic potential; Fremtidens biogasfaellesanlaeg. Nye anlaegskoncepter og oekonomisk potentiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Johannes; Hjort-Gregersen, K.; Uellendahl, H.; Ahring, B.K.; Lau Baggesen, D.; Stockmarr, A.; Moeller, Henrik B.; Birkmose, T.

    2007-06-15

    The main objective of the project was the identification and analysis of new technical concepts for centralized biogas plants, which would make them less dependant on organic waste supplies, and thus be economically self sustained mainly on manure supplies. The analyses have been carried out as system analyses, where plant concepts have been evaluated in connection with agricultural areas. 8 scenarios where analyzed, of which 2 were reference scenarios. (au)

  19. A new degassing membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to achieve in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of dissolved CH4 from the anaerobic effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    A new technology for in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of CH4 from the effluent of biogas reactors was proposed and demonstrated in this study. A vacuum degassing membrane module was used to desorb CO2 from the liquid phase of a biogas reactor. The degassing membrane was submerged...... into a degassing unit (DU). The results from batch experiments showed that mixing intensity, transmembrane pressure, pH and inorganic carbon concentration affected the CO2 desorption rate in the DU. Then, the DU was directly connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The results showed the CH4...... content was only 51.7% without desorption of CO2, while it increased when the liquid of UASB was recycled through the DU. The CH4 content increased to 71.6%, 90%, and 94% with liquid recirculation rate through the DU of 0.21, 0.42 and 0.63L/h, respectively. The loss of methane due to dissolution...

  20. Modeling the performance of the anaerobic phased solids digester system for biogas energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapport, Joshua L.; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Hartsough, Bruce R.; Tomich, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    A process model was developed to predict the mass and energy balance for a full-scale (115 t d -1 ) high-solids anaerobic digester using research data from lab and pilot scale (1-3000 kg d -1 wet waste) systems. Costs and revenues were estimated in consultation with industry partners and the 20-year project cash flow, net present worth (NPW), simple payback, internal rate of return, and revenue requirements were calculated. The NPW was used to compare scenarios in order to determine the financial viability of using a generator for heat and electricity or a pressure swing adsorption unit for converting biogas to compressed natural gas (CNG). The full-scale digester consisted of five 786 m 3 reactors (one biogasification reactor and four hydrolysis reactors) treating a 50:50 mix (volatile solids basis) of food and green waste, of which 17% became biogas, 32% residual solids, and 51% wastewater. The NPW of the projects were similar whether producing electricity or CNG, as long as the parasitic energy demand was satisfied with the biogas produced. When producing electricity only, the power output was 1.2 MW, 7% of which was consumed parasitically. When producing CNG, the system produced 2 hm 3 y -1 natural gas after converting 22% of the biogas to heat and electricity which supplied the parasitic energy demand. The digester system was financially viable whether producing electricity or CNG for discount rates of up to 13% y -1 without considering debt (all capital was considered equity), heat sales, feed-in tariffs or tax credits.

  1. The biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, Ch.; Laffargue, C.; Zebboud, I.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed of methane and carbon dioxide the biogas can be produced by many sources for the heat or the electricity production and the fuel production. This document aims to better understand the biogas, its characteristics, its valorization, the plants concerned, the installations and the regulation. It provides also an example of a biogas power plant and the biogas use in the farms. (A.L.B.)

  2. Biogas everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.; Pegret-Rosa, A.S.; Leca, Ch.; Adlec, E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the publication in July 2006 of the new purchase tariff of electricity produced by biogas, the methanation channel is increasing. In the past ten years the number of biogas plants from domestic wastes, passed from 1 to 20. This document presents an economic analysis of the different sources of biogas, the performances and the injection of biogas in the public network of the gas utilities. (A.L.B.)

  3. Development of an engine control system using city gas and biogas fuel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Kanno, Masanobu; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Kaneko, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The gas engine control system was developed using both city gas and biogas flexibly. ► The developed control system corporates with an original controller. ► The target value of O 2 emission is decided by Wobbe index of mixture fuel and load. ► The controller achieved stable operation for fuel mix ratio and load changing. -- Abstract: In this paper, a gas engine system capable of stable operation at any mix ratio of city gas 13A and biogas was developed. The gas engine system consists of a spark-ignition gas engine, an additional electric throttle valve for fuel and our own control algorithm. The engine is a 3-cylinder 1.6-l engine that was originally used for co-generation, and the fuel throttle valve was added to respond to different fuel compositions. The control algorithm was also designed to adjust the fuel and air ratio to attain a higher generation efficiency and lower NOx emission with different mix ratios of city gas 13A, biogas and load. Before developing the controller, the effect of the mix ratio on generation efficiency and NOx emission was investigated under various load conditions. The following summarizes the experimental results: a control algorithm using the Wobbe index for mixed fuels was formulated; this index determines the target fuel-to-air ratio. Next, operation tests were performed under varying fuel mix ratios and loads by applying the control algorithm to the gas engine. The target engine rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration was realized in 5 s when the biogas fraction varied from 20% to 40% and from 70% to 40%. When the load was also varied from 9.4 kW to 0.5 kW and from 0.5 kW to 9.4 kW at a constant rate, the rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration achieved the target values in 20 s. Under both transient operation conditions, the engine system met the NOx emission requirement, and the results indicate that the simple hardware modification to a conventional gas engine and our original control

  4. Energy and GHG Analysis of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has taken great efforts to popularize rural household scale biogas digesters, since they are regarded as an effective approach to address energy shortage issues in rural areas and as a potential way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical rural household biogas system, the aim of this study is to systematically quantify its total direct and indirect energy, concentrating on non-renewable energy and the associated GHG emission cost over the entire life cycle to understand its net dynamic benefits. The results show that the total energetic cost for biogas output is 2.19 J/J, of which 0.56 J is from non-renewable energy sources and the GHG emission cost is 4.54 × 10−5 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq, with respect to its design life cycle of 20 years. Correspondingly, a net non-renewable energy saving of 9.89 × 1010 J and GHG emission reduction of 50.45 t CO2-eq can be obtained considering the coal substitution and manure disposal. However, it must be run for at least 10 and 3 years, to obtain positive net non-renewable energy savings and GHG emission reduction benefits, respectively. These results have policy implications for development orientation, follow-up services, program management and even national financial subsidy methods.

  5. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  6. Performance Analysis of a MCFC/MGT Hybrid Power System Bi-Fueled by City Gas and Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell and micro gas turbine (MCFC/MGT hybrid power system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The performance of the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system and MFCF/MGT hybrid power system response have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that the MCFC, steam reformer, and catalytic combustor models are in agreement with the experimental results of the system fueled by city gas only and the system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The MFCF/MGT hybrid power system can have manifest operation with the addition of biogas at a flow rate of up to 150.0 Nm3·h−1, which is about 50% of the overall input heat value. In addition, the MCFC and MGT outputs decrease with the increase in the flow rate of added biogas, with an overall power generation efficiency ranging from 39.0% to 42.0%. Furthermore, the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system can be operated stably both at low amplitude with slow current change and large amplitude with rapid power conditions. Finally, the MCFC/MGT hybrid system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas may be applicable to the energy supply of the micro–grid network.

  7. Advanced regenerative heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A.; Jasti, J. K.

    1982-02-01

    A regenerative heat recovery system was designed and fabricated to deliver 1500 scfm preheated air to a maximum temperature of 1600 F. Since this system is operating at 2000 F, the internal parts were designed to be fabricated with ceramic materials. This system is also designed to be adaptable to an internal metallic structure to operate in the range of 1100 to 1500 F. A test facility was designed and fabricated to test this system. The test facility is equipped to impose a pressure differential of up to 27 inches of water column in between preheated air and flue gas lines for checking possible leakage through the seals. The preliminary tests conducted on the advanced regenerative heat recovery system indicate the thermal effectiveness in the range of 60% to 70%. Bench scale studies were conducted on various ceramic and gasket materials to identify the proper material to be used in high temperature applications. A market survey was conducted to identify the application areas for this heat recovery system. A cost/benefit analysis showed a payback period of less than one and a half years.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rana@unifg.it; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP{sub 100} associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58 g CO{sub 2eq} MJ{sub e}{sup −1} and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly

  9. Nonrenewable Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a “Pig-Biogas-Fish” System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the energy savings and emission reductions of the present rural biogas system in China. The life cycle assessment (LCA method is used to analyze a “pig-biogas-fish” system in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China. The nonrenewable energy cost and the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of the system, including the pigsty, the biogas digester, and the fishpond, are taken into account. The border definition is standardized because of the utilization of the database in this paper. The results indicate that the nonrenewable energy consumption intensity of the “pig-biogas-fish” system is 0.60 MJ/MJ and the equivalent CO2 emission intensity is 0.05 kg CO2-eq/MJ. Compared with the conventional animal husbandry system, the “pig-biogas-fish” system shows high renewability and GHG reduction benefit, which indicates that the system is a scientific and environmentally friendly chain combining energy and ecology.

  10. Construction and evaluation of a system for removal CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas; Confeccao e avaliacao de um sistema de remocao do CO{sub 2} contido no biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Neitzke, Guilherme; Magalhaes, Edney A; Afonso, Adriano D. de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/CCET), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The biogas is an alternative fuel produced by the biomass anaerobic digestion (organics wastes) and is composed by methane and carbon dioxide. The shift the composition of biogas is very important because increases its viability of use as bio fuel. The remotion of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to result in an increasing the concentration of methane (CH{sub 4}) in biogas composition and became the lower heating value higher. One decreasing the concentration of acid hydro sulphide (H{sub 2}S) reduce the corrosion produced during the use of biogas in thermal systems for the secondary energy production. This work aimed to develop a physical and chemical mechanism for remotion of CO{sub 2} from biogas. The device has made, was a absorption column stuffed, with 250 cm of high and 30 cm of diameter, using pipe of PVC rigid of 20 mm of diameter as stuff and water as solvent. It has been done test with inside pressure and gas flow in the column between 300 and 500 kPa and 190 and 670 cm{sup 3}/s. The original biogas has a concentration the 33%% of CO{sub 2}. With the utilization of the column's absorption was obtained reduction in CO{sub 2} concentration of 15%, which showed an increasing of 57% in the lower heating value of biogas per unit of mass. (author)

  11. Construction and evaluation of a system for removal CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas; Confeccao e avaliacao de um sistema de remocao do CO{sub 2} contido no biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Neitzke, Guilherme; Magalhaes, Edney A.; Afonso, Adriano D. de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/CCET), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The biogas is an alternative fuel produced by the biomass anaerobic digestion (organics wastes) and is composed by methane and carbon dioxide. The shift the composition of biogas is very important because increases its viability of use as bio fuel. The remotion of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to result in an increasing the concentration of methane (CH{sub 4}) in biogas composition and became the lower heating value higher. One decreasing the concentration of acid hydro sulphide (H{sub 2}S) reduce the corrosion produced during the use of biogas in thermal systems for the secondary energy production. This work aimed to develop a physical and chemical mechanism for remotion of CO{sub 2} from biogas. The device has made, was a absorption column stuffed, with 250 cm of high and 30 cm of diameter, using pipe of PVC rigid of 20 mm of diameter as stuff and water as solvent. It has been done test with inside pressure and gas flow in the column between 300 and 500 kPa and 190 and 670 cm{sup 3}/s. The original biogas has a concentration the 33%% of CO{sub 2}. With the utilization of the column's absorption was obtained reduction in CO{sub 2} concentration of 15%, which showed an increasing of 57% in the lower heating value of biogas per unit of mass. (author)

  12. Experiences with biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders

    This report is primarily based on the work of the Danish biogas task force, which was established as a result of the Energy Agreement of 22 March 2012. The purpose of the task force is to examine and support concrete biogas projects in order to facilitate the projected biogas development up to 2020....... The focus of the task force was on the practical integration of the new biogas production in energy system, including the utilization of gas, the necessary infrastructure and contractual relationships. The aim was to ensure effective and appropriate integration of biogas in the Danish energy supply, which...... was consistent with the policy objectives, both in regards to current challenges for specific biogas plants and the role of biogas flexible renewable energy form on longer term. The task force's final report was published in 2014....

  13. An integrated approach for a dynamic energy and environmental system analysis of biogas production pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Liu, Wen; Moll, Henri C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written to Biogas Science for oral presentation. Regarding a new methodology for determining the energy efficiency, carbon footprint and environmental impact of anaerobic biogas production pathways. Additionally, results are given regarding the impacts of energy crops and waste products

  14. Taxonomy and functional roles of biogas microbiota binned from multiple metagenomes of anaerobic digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano

    Anaerobic digestion, a biologically mediated process, is a worldwide spread technology for biogas production. This work represents the first comprehensive catalogue of microbial genomes populating mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors treating manure, agro-industrial organic residues. High ...

  15. Biogas and nutrients in an urban/rural circulation system; Biogas och vaextnaering i stad/land baserat kretslopp. Pilotfoersoek med organiskt avfall i Uppsala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstroem, M. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    During 1993 and 1994, the Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering has cooperated with the Uppsala Public Works Office in studying a processing system where organic, nutrient-rich waste has been utilized for biogas production and the digested residue used as plant nutrient and soil conditioner. The study was conducted in the laboratory and on a pilot scale and the intention was to illustrate the biological, technical, environmental and economic consequences of a full-scale system of this kind. Areas treated are Waste composition, Collection, Laboratory experiments, Pilot experiments, Growth experiments using digested residue, Environmental effects, Full-scale description, Business economy, and National economy. 7 figs, 26 tabs

  16. Composition and uses of anaerobic digestion derived biogas from wastewater treatment facilities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian C; Peppley, B; Champagne, P; Maier, A

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the current knowledge of biogas production and its use at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across North America. Information was provided by municipal WWTPs across Canada and the US. It was determined that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and silicon (Si) compounds had sufficient variability to be of concern. The only biogas production trend that could be identified was a possible seasonal relationship with sludge input and biogas production. Secondary analysis was performed to observe trends in biogas usage in urban areas larger than 150,000 in the US and 50,000 in Canada; 66% of facilities had anaerobic digestion systems and, of those, only 35% had an energy recovery system. Climatic, population, and socio-political influences on the trends were considered. The primary conclusion was that more data is required to perform significant analyses on biogas production and composition variation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Biogas plants with 300 GWh yearly production - system, technology and economy; Biogasanlaeggningar med 300 GWh aarsproduktion - system, teknik och ekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Linne, Marita [BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Systems, techniques and economy have been analysed for biogas plants with more than 300 GWh annual energy productions. There is so far no such concept in Sweden but in Germany, a so called biogas park with 450 GWh annual biogas production will be set in operation by autumn 2007. Substratum for 300 GWh gas production are crops which corresponds to a acreage need of 6,000-11,000 hectares for silage crops such as maize or grass. If the gas production is based on corn, the acreage need is about 14 000 hectares. That means that biogas production from silage gives a higher energy outcome per hectare in comparison to grain. According to calculations, grain affects the gas price more than silage. However, grain is easy available at the world market which can be related to digestion of silage that means long term contracts with farmers nearby the biogas plant in addition to a complex logistic system for supply. The grain price by end of 2006 affects the gas price with about 0,38 kr/kWh. Large scale harvesting and transportation of silage in addition to a system for different crops to be harvested and transported directly to the digestion chamber admit reduced handling cost. Silage is expected to affect the gas price with about 0,28 kr/kWh. The price development of grain and silage can be expected to follow each other. The grain prices for 2008 seems to be higher than the notations for 2006/2007. Developed technique for digestion of grain admits 6 kg DMo/m{sup 3} chamber volume, 24 hours. That means reduced size of the digestion chamber in comparison to conventional digestion technique. In Germany where silage is the main substratum, two stage digestion with a first laying chamber admits 4 kg DMo/m{sup 3} chamber volume, 24 hours and DM-content of 12 %. The specific digestion cost for crops is about 0,13 kr/kWh. Huge amounts of digestion residue have to be handled. Dewatering makes sense since the digestion process needs additional water. The phosphorous solid fraction can

  18. Energy and environmental assessment of integrated biogas trigeneration and photovoltaic plant as more sustainable industrial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Stanek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas cooling, heating and power and photovoltaic systems were studied. • Biogas and solar energy for production of energy carriers were used. • Primary energy savings for trigeneration and photovoltaic plants were examined. • Reduction of CO_2 emission were estimated. - Abstract: The biogas fired tri-generation system for cooling, heating and electricity generation (BCCHP + PV) supported by a photovoltaic system (PV) is discussed and analyzed from energetic and ecological effectiveness point of view. Analyzed system is based on the internal combustion engine and the adsorption machine. For the evaluation of primary energy savings in the BCCHP aided by PV system, the indicators of the total primary energy savings (TPES) and relative primary energy savings ΔPES were defined. Also an analysis is carried out of the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. In the ecological potential evaluation, the environmental impact as an indicator of the total greenhouse gasses reduction (TGHGR) is taken into account. The presented detailed algorithm for the evaluation of the multigeneration system in the global balance boundary can be applied for the analysis of energy effects (consumption of primary energy) as well as ecological effect (emission of greenhouse gasses) for real data (e.g. hour by hour through the year of operation) taking into account random availability of renewable energy. It allows to take into account a very important factor characterized for renewable energy systems (RES) which is the variability or random availability (e.g. in the case of photovoltaic – PV) of primary energy. Particularly in the presented work the effects of the analysis and the application of the discusses algorithms have been demonstrated for the hour-by-hour availability of solar radiation and for the daily changing availability of chemical energy of biogas. Additionally, the energy and ecological evaluation algorithms have been integrated with the methods offered

  19. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Roberto; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP100 associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58gCO2eqMJe(-1) and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly adopted for cultivation of energy

  1. A heating system for piglets in farrowing house using waste heat from biogas engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payungsak Junyusen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and test a heating system for piglets in farrowing house by utilising the waste heat from a biogas engine as a heat source. The study was separated into three parts: the study on the biogas combined heat and power plant, the investigation on the properties of the heat panel, and the installation and testing of the heating system. From the experiment, the condition producing 60 kW of electrical power was a proper one, in which electrical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were 14% and 1.22 m3/kWh respectively. Generating both electricity and heat increased the overall efficiency to 37.7% and decreased the specific fuel consumption to 0.45 m3/kWh. The heat panel, which was made of a plastic material, had a thermal conductivity of 0.58 W/mC and the maximum compressive force and operating pressure of 8.1 kN and 0.35 bar respectively. The surface temperature of the panel was dependent on the inlet water temperature. When hot water of 44C was supplied into the farrowing house with room temperature of 26C, the average surface temperature was 33C. The developed heating system could provide heat for 4.3 farrowing houses. The payback period of this project was 2.5 years.

  2. Biogas programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) of the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) was introduced in 1981-1982 to promote the use of biogas installations in households. Several systems have been introduced, all based on two basic designs: floating metal drum (Janata model) and fixed masonry dome (Deenbandhu model). An overview is given of the results, incentives of the Indian government and constraints so-far of the NPBD. 3 figs., 1 tab., 1 ills

  3. Biogas systems for sisal and other agro-industrial residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology, Taastrup (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Most of the East-African agro-industries are generating very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, Sugar, Coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In other 3. world countries, Palm oil and Cassava (Tapioca starch) processing are main producers of organic waste products. Moreover, large quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The following pages give examples of setups and system designs of anaerobic treatment systems for some of the residues mentioned above. When considering anaerobic treatment of sisal residues, which constitutes the main agro-industrial biomass resource in Tanzania, two major issues should be considered: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; And optionally, potential methods for pre-treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield. The sisal liquid residues are degraded very fast and efficiently in UASB systems. At COD loading rates less than 11 kg COD/m{sup 3} x day, the reduction in organic matter is more than 90% and methane yields obtained are between 373 and 377 ml CH{sub 4}/g COD reduced. The treatment of sisal solid residues in CSTR systems has been examined both at mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic temperatures (55 deg. C.). (EG)

  4. Biogas systems for sisal and other agro-industrial residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology, Taastrup (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Most of the East-African agro-industries are generating very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, Sugar, Coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In other 3. world countries, Palm oil and Cassava (Tapioca starch) processing are main producers of organic waste products. Moreover, large quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The following pages give examples of setups and system designs of anaerobic treatment systems for some of the residues mentioned above. When considering anaerobic treatment of sisal residues, which constitutes the main agro-industrial biomass resource in Tanzania, two major issues should be considered: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; And optionally, potential methods for pre-treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield. The sisal liquid residues are degraded very fast and efficiently in UASB systems. At COD loading rates less than 11 kg COD/m{sup 3} x day, the reduction in organic matter is more than 90% and methane yields obtained are between 373 and 377 ml CH{sub 4}/g COD reduced. The treatment of sisal solid residues in CSTR systems has been examined both at mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic temperatures (55 deg. C.). (EG)

  5. Launch and Recovery System Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    water. Goldie [21] suggests a sled or cart recovery system for use with UAV’s on the Littoral Combatant Ship (LCS) and other small deck navy ships...21. Goldie , J., “A Recovery System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Aboard LCS and other Small-Deck Navy Ships,” ASNE Launch and Recovery of

  6. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  7. INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION AND MONITORING SYSTEM INSIDE AN AREA USED FOR PAPER SLUDGE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Marroni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative bioremediation technology and strategy were applied to a former-quarry area in Imola (BO – Italy concerned by an incorrect environmental restoration of paper sludge, with subsequent uncontrolled biogas production and migration to the adjacent area. An Emergency Plan was implemented by the isolation of the buried sludge area and a characterization project was performed to define an appropriate permanently safe recovery. An innovative biological in situ treatment, avoiding paper sludge removal, was adopted; it was based on the use of tailored compost and enzymes to reduce methane production and concentration. This was integrated by specific monitoring piezometers for both biogas (CH4, CO2 and oxygen monthly measurements, and also the application of a respirometric technique application to buried sludge for assessing its stabilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This communication describes the strategy used, the treatment and monitoring system and the results of 3 years field pilot application. Monitoring work is still in progress.

  8. Pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production - A systems analysis; Foerbehandling av biogassubstrat i systemanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My; Holmstroem, David; Lagerkvist, Anders; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    The present expansion of biogas capacity responds to a growing demand for renewable vehicle fuels. Biodegradable wastes are attractive substrates and are also prioritized in national policy. The full potential of the substrates can rarely be used however. This is partly due to impurities, or the availability or degradation speed may be limiting the biogas yield. In both cases there is a need of pre-treatments. This work deals with the system impacts of pre-treatment aiming to remove impurities in food waste and pre-treatments aiming to improve the biogas yield of horse manure and ley. In the latter case steam explosion and extrusion were the treatments studied. Gas yields and the plant and system impacts on energy, climate and economic were studied. The system includes the biogas plant as well as the impact in supplementary systems for heat and power production. The three named substrates were identified to be highly prioritised due to their total potential and the improvements possible in its realisation. Existing information from literature and contacts has form the data basis, with the addition of a few supplementary analyses of substrates. The project has been operated by the authors with participation of a group of facility operators and external reviewers. Four plants have been visited during the study. Operators of digestion plants and all interested in developing the efficiency of biogas plants are the main target group for the study. The rate that the potential yield of food waste can be utilised depends largely on how efficiently contaminants can be separated without loss of substrate. In this case the separation degree has the main impact on the economy, but not a pronounced climate effect. For all types of pre-treatments the water content of substrates is important, a higher water content is detrimental to economy, energy demand and climate impact. For both the energy balance and the climate impact the generation of vehicle fuel has a large impact. An

  9. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the other renewable energy sectors, biogas production did not result from concerns over energy but rather from environmental preoccupations (elimination of pollution, treatment of waste, control of greenhouse gas emissions). Biogas produced in this manner constitutes a sizeable and renewable deposit, with European production (EU 15) in the region of 3219 ktoe in 2003. (author)

  10. Description and modelling of the solar-hydrogen-biogas-fuel cell system in GlashusEtt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, L.; Wallmark, C.; Alvfors, P.; Rissanen, M.; Stridh, B.; Ekman, J.

    The need to reduce pollutant emissions and utilise the world's available energy resources more efficiently has led to increased attention towards e.g. fuel cells, but also to other alternative energy solutions. In order to further understand and evaluate the prerequisites for sustainable and energy-saving systems, ABB and Fortum have equipped an environmental information centre, located in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden, with an alternative energy system. The system is being used to demonstrate and evaluate how a system based on fuel cells and solar cells can function as a complement to existing electricity and heat production. The stationary energy system is situated on the top level of a three-floor glass building and is open to the public. The alternative energy system consists of a fuel cell system, a photovoltaic (PV) cell array, an electrolyser, hydrogen storage tanks, a biogas burner, dc/ac inverters, heat exchangers and an accumulator tank. The fuel cell system includes a reformer and a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) with a maximum rated electrical output of 4 kW el and a maximum thermal output of 6.5 kW th. The fuel cell stack can be operated with reformed biogas, or directly using hydrogen produced by the electrolyser. The cell stack in the electrolyser consists of proton exchange membrane (PEM) cells. To evaluate different automatic control strategies for the system, a simplified dynamic model has been developed in MATLAB Simulink. The model based on measurement data taken from the actual system. The evaluation is based on demand curves, investment costs, electricity prices and irradiation. Evaluation criteria included in the model are electrical and total efficiencies as well as economic parameters.

  11. Investigation of the prospect of energy self-sufficiency and technical performance of an integrated PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell), dairy farm and biogas plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Tingting; Alvfors, Per; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PEMFC stack with a 40% of electrical efficiency will make the integrated PEMFC-CHP, biogas plant and dairy farm self-sufficient. • The quality of the reformate gas is good enough to support normal operation of the PEMFC-CHP. • The methane conversion rate and the content of the CH 4 in the biogas need to be balanced in order to obtain the best system performance. • Compared with a coal-fired CHP plant, the integrated system can avoid coal consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: A PEMFC fuelled with hydrogen is known for its high efficiency and low local emissions. However, the generation of hydrogen is always a controversial issue for the application of the PEMFC due to the use of fossil fuel and the possible carbon dioxide emissions. Presently, the PEMFC-CHP fed with renewable fuels, such as biogas, appears to be the most attractive energy converter–fuel combination. In this paper, an integrated PEMFC-CHP, a dairy farm and a biogas plant are studied. A PEMFC-CHP fed with reformate gas from the biogas plant generates electricity and heat to a dairy farm and a biogas plant, while the dairy farm delivers wet manure to the biogas plant as the feedstock for biogas production. This integrated system has been modelled for steady-state conditions by using Aspen Plus®. The results indicate that the wet manure production of a dairy farm with 300 milked cows can support a biogas plant to give 1280 MW h of biogas annually. Based on the biogas production, a PEMFC-CHP with a stack having an electrical efficiency of 40% generates 360 MW h electricity and 680 MW h heat per year, which is enough to cover the energy demand of the whole system while the total efficiency of the PEMFC-CHP system is 82%. The integrated PEMFC-CHP, dairy farm and biogas plant could make the dairy farm and the biogas plant self-sufficient in a sustainable way provided the PEMFC-CHP has the electrical efficiency stated above. The effect of the methane conversion rate and the

  12. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-plant system amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Lv, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Biogas slurry is a product of anaerobic digestion of manure that has been widely used as a soil fertilizer. Although the use for soil fertilizer is a cost-effective solution, it has been found that repeated use of biogas slurry that contains high heavy metal contents can cause pollution to the soil-plant system and risk to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of biogas slurry on the soil-plant system and the human health. We analyzed the heavy metal concentrations (including As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd) in 106 soil samples and 58 plant samples in a farmland amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China. Based on the test results, we assessed the potential human health risk when biogas slurry containing heavy metals was used as a soil fertilizer. The test results indicated that the Cd and Pb concentrations in soils exceeded the contamination limits and Cd exhibited the highest soil-to-root migration potential. Among the 11 plants analyzed, Kalimeris indica had the highest heavy metal absorption capacity. The leafy vegetables showed higher uptake of heavy metals than non-leafy vegetables. The non-carcinogenic risks mainly resulted from As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn through plant ingestion exposure. The integrated carcinogenic risks were associated with Cr, As and Cd in which Cr showed the highest risk while Cd showed the lowest risk. Among all the heavy metals analyzed, As and Cd appeared to have a lifetime health threat, which thus should be attenuated during production of biogas slurry to mitigate the heavy metal contamination.

  13. Biogas plants in the Swiss agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A

    1985-01-01

    Description of the systems of Swiss biogas plants, gas production rates and the use of the gas for heating the biogas digesters and apartments, for agriculture, cheese factories, and for the production of electricity.

  14. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  16. Biogas utilization: Experimental investigation on biogas flameless combustion in lab-scale furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High costs of biogas purification and low calorific value of biogas are the main obstacles of biogas utilization. • The energy of biogas can be extracted by flameless combustion without any modification in burner or combustion system. • The efficiency of biogas flameless combustion and conventional combustion were 53% and 32% respectively. • The temperature inside the biogas flameless chamber is uniform. • In biogas flameless combustion, NO x and CO 2 formation decrease drastically in comparison with traditional combustion. - Abstract: Biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic wastes by micro-organisms can be applied for heating, transportation and power generation as a renewable energy source. However, low calorific value (LCV) of biogas is one the most important bottlenecks of biogas conversion into electrical or thermal energy. Indeed, the presence of corrosive gases such as H 2 S and water vapor in biogas components makes some dilemmas in biogas purification and utilization. In order to obtain the efficient biogas utilization method, different biogas resources, physical and chemical properties of biogas and biogas combustion characteristics should be considered. In this paper biogas was utilized in lab-scale flameless combustion furnace and the performance of flameless combustion chamber fueled by biogas has been presented. Results demonstrated that flameless combustion is one of the best feasible strategies for biogas utilization. Uniformity of temperature in the flameless furnace increases the durability of refractory and related equipment. Simplicity of the flameless burner, pollutant formation reduction and fuel consumption decreases are the main causes of biogas flameless combustion supremacy

  17. Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies was evaluated. The input data were derived from assessment of existing biogas systems, present knowledge on anaerobic digestion process management and technologies for biogas system operating conditions in Germany. The energy balance was evaluated as Primary Energy Input to Output (PEIO) ratio, to assess the process energy efficiency, hence, the potential sustainability. Results indicate that the PEIO correspond to 10.5-64.0% and 34.1-55.0% for single feedstock digestion and feedstock co-digestion, respectively. Energy balance was assessed to be negative for feedstock transportation distances in excess of 22 km and 425 km for cattle manure and for Municipal Solid Waste, respectively, which defines the operational limits for respective feedstock transportation. Energy input was highly influenced by the characteristics of feedstock used. For example, agricultural waste, in most part, did not require pre-treatment. Energy crop feedstock required the respect cultivation energy inputs, and processing of industrial waste streams included energy-demanding pre-treatment processes to meet stipulated hygiene standards. Energy balance depended on biogas yield, the utilization efficiency, and energy value of intended fossil fuel substitution. For example, obtained results suggests that, whereas the upgrading of biogas to biomethane for injection into natural gas network potentially increased the primary energy input for biogas utilization by up to 100%; the energy efficiency of the biogas system improved by up to 65% when natural gas was substituted instead of electricity. It was also found that, system energy efficiency could be further enhanced by 5.1-6.1% through recovery of residual biogas from enclosed digestate storage units. Overall, this study provides bases for more detailed assessment

  18. Technological Decision to Renewable Energy Usage Biogas for Off-grid Systems Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the energy experiments based on electrochemical researches and the thermodynamic calculations, which are carried out on the hydrogenous fuel with the residual content of methane obtained from biogas selected organic waste. Energy indicators are examined in comparison to electrolysis hydrogen. The use of technical and electro physical indicators together with parameters of the fuel operating allowed assessing energy efficiency the module reformer - fuel cell running on a non-standard hydrogenous fuel. Numerical characteristic the efficiency of workflows fuel system reformer – fuel cell is about 39%. To operate the power installation with a predetermined capacity amount used of hydrogenous fuel is comparable to required electrolysis hydrogen amount. Shown the possibility of creation the systems of power supply based on new hydrogen technologies using renewable energy resources local waste. Confirms the relatively high efficiency the usage of hydrogenous fuel for the tasks of off-grid systems consumption.

  19. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  20. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.

    2017-11-14

    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  1. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara-Fernandez, Alberto; Vargas, Gisela; Alarcon, Nelson; Velasco, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The marine algae are considered an important biomass source; however, their utilization as energy source is still low around the world. The technical feasibility of marine algae utilization as a source of renewable energy was studied to laboratory scale. The anaerobic digestion of Macrocystis pyrifera, Durvillea antarctica and their blend 1:1 (w/w) was evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system, which consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The results show that 70% of the total biogas produced in the system was generated in the UAF, and both algae species have similar biogas productions of 180.4(±1.5) mL g -1 dry algae d -1 , with a methane concentration around 65%. The same methane content was observed in biogas yield of algae blend; however, a lower biogas yield was obtained. In conclusion, either algae species or their blend can be utilized to produce methane gas in a two-phase digestion system

  2. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara-Fernandez, Alberto; Vargas, Gisela [Escuela de Ingenieria Ambiental, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Manuel Montt 56, Casilla 15-D, Temuco (Chile); Alarcon, Nelson [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Catolica del Norte (Chile); Velasco, Antonio [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental del Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (CENICA-INE), Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Del. Iztapalapa, 09340, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The marine algae are considered an important biomass source; however, their utilization as energy source is still low around the world. The technical feasibility of marine algae utilization as a source of renewable energy was studied to laboratory scale. The anaerobic digestion of Macrocystis pyrifera, Durvillea antarctica and their blend 1:1 (w/w) was evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system, which consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The results show that 70% of the total biogas produced in the system was generated in the UAF, and both algae species have similar biogas productions of 180.4({+-}1.5) mL g{sup -1} dry algae d{sup -1}, with a methane concentration around 65%. The same methane content was observed in biogas yield of algae blend; however, a lower biogas yield was obtained. In conclusion, either algae species or their blend can be utilized to produce methane gas in a two-phase digestion system. (author)

  3. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  4. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and

  5. Trend chart: biogas. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  6. Trend chart: biogas. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Second quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  7. Trend chart: biogas. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  8. Trend chart: biogas. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  9. Metagenomic analysis of a desulphurisation system used to treat biogas from vinasse methanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcela França; Colturato, Luis Felipe; de Oliveira, João Paulo; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; de Araújo, Juliana Calabria

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the response of microbial community to changes in H2S loading rate in a microaerated desulphurisation system treating biogas from vinasse methanisation. H2S removal efficiency was high, and both COD and DO seemed to be important parameters to biomass activity. DGGE analysis retrieved sequences of sulphide-oxidising bacteria (SOB), such as Thioalkalimicrobium sp. Deep sequencing analysis revealed that the microbial community was complex and remained constant throughout the experiment. Most sequences belonged to Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and, to a lesser extent, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Synergistetes. Despite the high sulphide removal efficiency, the abundance of the taxa of SOB was low, and was negatively affected by the high sulphide loading rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biogas upgrading by injection of hydrogen in a two-stage Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    An innovative method for biogas upgrading (i.e. CH4 content more than 90%) combines the coupling of H2, which could be produced by water electrolysis using surplus renewable electricity produced from wind mills, with the CO2 of the biogas. CO2 is biologically converted to CH4 by hydrogenotrophic....... It was shown that after the H2 addition, the CH4 rate increased by 45%, resulting in an average CH4 content of approximately 85%, with a maximum of 93.9%. The increase of the pH to 8.5, due to the CO2 conversion, was not an inhibitory factor, demonstrating the adaptation of microorganisms to these pH levels...... methanogens. In this study, a novel serial biogas reactor system is presented, in which the produced biogas from the first stage reactor was introduced in the second stage, where also H2 was injected. The effects of the H2 addition on the process performance and on the microbial community were investigated...

  11. High-calorific biogas production from anaerobic digestion of food waste using a two-phase pressurized biofilm (TPPB) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Liu, Hong; Yan, Fang; Su, Dongfang; Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    To obtain high calorific biogas via anaerobic digestion without additional upgrading equipment, a two-phase pressurized biofilm system was built up, including a conventional continuously stirred tank reactor and a pressurized biofilm anaerobic reactor (PBAR). Four different pressure levels (0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.7MPa) were applied to the PBAR in sequence, with the organic loading rate maintained at 3.1g-COD/L/d. Biogas production, gas composition, process stability parameters were measured. Results showed that with the pressure increasing from 0.3MPa to 1.7MPa, the pH value decreased from 7.22±0.19 to 6.98±0.05, the COD removal decreased from 93.0±0.9% to 79.7±1.2% and the methane content increased from 80.5±1.5% to 90.8±0.8%. Biogas with higher calorific value of 36.2MJ/m 3 was obtained at a pressure of 1.7MPa. Pressure showed a significant effect on biogas production and gas quality in methanogenesis reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Capsule-type pe biogas digester: low-cost and environment friendly system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, M.A.; Aslam, M.; Hussain, Z.

    2005-01-01

    production. The other prevailing problem with the commonly used biogas digester is that the gas pressure is low. In the PE Capsule-type digester, gas is stored in the used rubber tubes, where putting load on the tubes can easily increase the gas pressure. Thus pressure of the gas can be maintained very effectively. Adding inoculums of the methogenic bacteria can increase the production of the gas. Lime has to be added to increase the pH, because methogenic bacteria are effective in neutral to alkaline environment, instead of the acidic environment, which is commonly experienced after adding solid waste into the digester. Temperature is another important parameter for enhancing productivity of biogas. The system is cost-effective, as the total cost is around Rs. 10,000 for a unit producing gas to light a single burner for 40-100 hours. The technology transfer will be easy, as the private plastic companies can market such systems more effectively than the public sector. Four modules of this system more can be installed with the cost of one Indian-type model. (author)

  13. Production of nitrous oxide from anaerobic digester centrate and its use as a co-oxidant of biogas to enhance energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherson, Yaniv D; Woo, Sung-Geun; Criddle, Craig S

    2014-05-20

    Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) is a new process for wastewater treatment that removes nitrogen from wastewater and recovers energy from the nitrogen in three steps: (1) NH4(+) oxidation to NO2(-); (2) NO2(-) reduction to N2O gas; and (3) N2O conversion to N2 with energy production. In this work, we optimize Steps 1 and 2 for anaerobic digester centrate, and we evaluate Step 3 for a full-scale biogas-fed internal combustion engine. Using a continuous stirred reactor coupled to a bench-scale sequencing batch reactor, we observed sustained partial oxidation of NH4(+) to NO2(-) and sustained (3 months) partial reduction of NO2(-) to N2O (75-80% conversion, mass basis), with >95% nitrogen removal (Step 2). Alternating pulses of acetate and NO2(-) selected for Comamonas (38%), Ciceribacter (16%), and Clostridium (11%). Some species stored polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and coupled oxidation of PHB to reduction of NO2(-) to N2O. Some species also stored phosphorus as polyphosphate granules. Injections of N2O into a biogas-fed engine at flow rates simulating a full-scale system increased power output by 5.7-7.3%. The results underscore the need for more detailed assessment of bioreactor community ecology and justify pilot- and full-scale testing.

  14. Innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic-digestion integrated system for ammonia recovery and bioenergy production from ammonia-rich residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production (Figure 1). In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L with an average recovery rate of 0.18 g-N/L(CSTR...... performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. In continuous reactor operation, 112% extra biogas production was achieved due to ammonia recovery. High-throughput molecular sequencing analysis showed an impact...... of ammonia recovery on the microbial community composition in the integrated system. Results clearly indicate the great potential of the SMRC-CSTR-coupled system for efficient and cost-effective ammonia recovery, energy production and treatment of ammonia-rich residues....

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of integrated biogas-based micro-power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Barzegaravval, Hasan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ganjehkaviri, Abdolsaeid; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic modelling of an integrated biogas-based micro-power generation system is reported. • The impact of design parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the system is evaluated. • High turbine inlet temperatures lead the system to the higher energy and exergy efficiency and higher power generation. • Enhancement of GT isentropic efficiency incurs negative effects on the performance of air preheater and heat exchanger. • The rate of power generation increases by the enhancement of steam turbine pressure in ORC. - Abstract: In this paper, a thermodynamic modelling of an integrated biogas (60%CH_4 + 40%CO_2) micro-power generation system for electricity generation is reported. This system involves a gas turbine cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) where the wasted heat of gas turbine cycle is recovered by closed ORC. The net output power of the micro-power generation system is fixed at 1.4 MW includes 1 MW power generated by GT and 0.4 MW by ORC. Energy and exergy assessments and related parametric studies are carried out, and parameters that influence on energy and exergy efficiency are evaluated. The performance of the system with respect to variation of design parameters such as combustion air inlet temperature, turbine inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, gas turbine isentropic efficiency and compressor isentropic efficiency (from the top cycle) and steam turbine inlet pressure, and condenser pressure (from bottoming cycle) is evaluated. The results reveal that by the increase of gas turbine isentropic efficiency, the outlet temperature of gas turbine decreases which incurs negative impacts on the performance of air preheater and heat exchanger, however the energy and exergy efficiency increases in the whole system. By the increase of air compressor pressure ratio, the energy and exergy of the combined cycle decreases. The exergy efficiency of ORC alters by the variation of gas turbine parameters which can be

  16. Justification of investment projects of biogas systems by the sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perebijnos Vasilij Ivanovich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodical features of sensitivity analysis application for evaluation of biogas plants investment projects are shown in the article. Risk factors of the indicated investment projects have been studied. Methodical basis for the use of sensitivity analysis and calculation of elasticity coefficient has been worked out. Calculation of sensitivity analysis and elasticity coefficient of three biogas plants projects, which differ in direction of biogas transformation: use in co-generation plant, application of biomethane as motor fuel and resulting carbon dioxide as marketable product, has been made. Factors strongly affecting projects efficiency have been revealed.

  17. Biodigestion of the aquatics plants mixtures and biogas production; Biodigestao de misturas de plantas aquaticas e producao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Abreu, Fernando Luiz Barbuda de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Several systems of generating electricity using water storage reservoirs. One problem that occurs constantly in these reservoirs is the accumulation of aquatic plants, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia that may cause serious problems for the system. Periodically, the biomass must be removed and disposed of appropriate form, so that does not cause contamination of soil, groundwater or allowing the proliferation of vectors. One possible destination is the use of biomass in a process of biodigestion, resulting in biogas. The bench of biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced and a reservoir for the monitoring the production of biogas. The reactor is located inside a container containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the aim of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor was obtained using a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity. These results show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humidity, total organic matter, waste mineral and organic carbon. The process of biodigestion of the mixture of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea and Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia shows potential for obtaining biogas, with considerable levels of methane, in order to facilitate its recovery.

  18. Energetic-environmental-economic assessment of the biogas system with three utilization pathways: Combined heat and power, biomethane and fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangping; Shang, Dawei; Bao, Di; Zhang, Suojiang; Zheng, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A typical biogas system with three utilization pathways, i.e., biogas upgrading, biogas combined heat and power (CHP), biogas solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were designed. It was assessed from the viewpoint of energy, environment and economy by using energy efficiency, green degree and net present value index respectively. The assessment considered the trade-off relationships among these indexes, which is more comprehensive than previous systematic evaluation work only included single or two of the pathway(s) by using one or two of the index(es). Assessment results indicated that biogas upgrading pathway has the highest systematic energy efficiency (46.5%) and shortest payback period (8.9year) with the green degree production is the lowest (9.29gd/day). While for biogas SOFC pathway, although the green degree production is the highest (21.77gd/day), the payback period is longer (14.5year) and the energy efficiency is 13.6% lower than the biogas upgrading pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  20. SOFC Operation with Real Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Winiwarter, Anna; Langnickel, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is a valuable energy source and will be available in future in systems relying on renewables. It is an attractive fuel for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are able to utilize the carbon contained in the biogas and which produce electricity with high efficiency. In the current paper......, state‐of‐the‐art SOFCs were studied regarding performance and durability in relation to biogas as fuel and considering important contaminants, specifically sulfur. First, the catalytic behavior in relevant synthetic biogas mixtures was studied and the potential of dry reforming was demonstrated....... Successful long term operation of an SOFC under both, conditions of steam and dry reforming, i.e., addition of steam or CO2 to avoid carbon formation was shown. For the steam reforming case a remarkable period of 3,500 h, hereof 3,000 h in the presence of H2S was achieved. Finally, a real biogas from...

  1. Hybrid cogeneration system fueled with biogas obtained from urban sewage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Călin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available When treating urban waste water, a large quantity of sludge is produced. This sludge may by used in fermentation tanks to obtain biogas with medium to high levels of methane, which is ideal for electric energy and heat production. The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical study regarding the use of biogas in power and heat generation modules. Biogas can be used for fueling internal combustion engines or fuel cells, which in turn generate electricity. Waste heat contained in the exhaust gas can be recovered in order to maximize efficiency. The theoretical study presented in this paper evaluates electrical and overall efficiency of a biogas production installation inside an urban waste water treatment.

  2. Proposal of the system for the biogas purification using vitreous and natural zeolite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, Lianys; Fernández SantanI, Elina; Alfonso Martínez, Félix Enrique; Aguiar RoqueI, Yania; Rodríguez Muñoz, Susana

    2017-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of climate change is to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy such as biogas, but the amount of hydrogen sulphide in it represents an impediment to its use, because of its negative impacts on human health, materials of construction and the environment, being essential its reduction or elimination. For this reason, it was defined as aim to propose an effective method for the purification of biogas using membranes constructed from vitreous waste materials and natural cuban zeolite. This treatment requires four membranes with their supports and eight valves and could be used by small farmers for the purification of 1.4 m 3 of biogas per day, an amount necessary for the cooking of three meals of a family of five people, being the cost of the biogas purification process equal to 0.06%/m 3 . (author)

  3. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  4. Biogas: quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perch-Nielsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland with respect to the use of biogas and the potential available for its increased use. The sharp increase of biogas production in Switzerland and its use for the production of heat, electrical power and methane for the gas mains is reviewed. The large potential for additional biomass is discussed. The political will to increase the use of renewable forms of energy in Switzerland, security of supply and regional added value are discussed. The article discusses the current situation as well as trends concerning substrates, systems and products

  5. BIOGAS PRODUCTION IN DAIRY CATTLE SYSTEMS, USING BATCH DIGESTERS WITH AND WITHOUT SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE SUBSTRATES

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Isis Dos; Toneli, Juliana T. C. L.; Sagula, Alex L.; Lucas Junior, Jorge de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research aimed to evaluate the biogas production during the anaerobic biodigestion process of dairy cattle manure, with and without solids separation. Sixteen biodigesters of the batch type were used, each one with 2L of capacity, supplied with manure in four different conditions: (1) pure manure, after washing the floors of the free stall system; (2) manure after the solids separator; (3) manure after the solids separator and sand decanter and (4) manure with the solid retained...

  6. Development of a low-cost biogas filtration system to achieve higher-power efficient AC generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Edison E.; Ardaniel, Ar-Ar S.; Leguid, Jeanlou G.; Loyola, Andrea T.

    2018-02-01

    The paper focuses on the development of a low-cost biogas filtration system for alternating current generator to achieve higher efficiency in terms of power production. A raw biogas energy comprises of 57% combustible element and 43% non-combustible elements containing carbon dioxide (36%), water vapor (5%), hydrogen sulfide (0.5%), nitrogen (1%), oxygen (0 - 2%), and ammonia (0 - 1%). The filtration system composes of six stages: stage 1 is the water scrubber filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide; stage 2 is the silica gel filter intended to reduce the water vapor; stage 3 is the iron sponge filter intended to remove the remaining hydrogen sulfide; stage 4 is the sodium hydroxide solution filter intended to remove the elemental sulfur formed during the interaction of the hydrogen sulfide and the iron sponge and for further removal of carbon dioxide; stage 5 is the silica gel filter intended to further eliminate the water vapor gained in stage 4; and, stage 6 is the activated carbon filter intended to remove the carbon dioxide. The filtration system was able to lower the non-combustible elements by 72% and thus, increasing the combustible element by 54.38%. The unfiltered biogas is capable of generating 16.3 kW while the filtered biogas is capable of generating 18.6 kW. The increased in methane concentration resulted to 14.11% increase in the power output. The outcome resulted to better engine performance in the generation of electricity.

  7. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... according to a given set of criteria. Measurements are taken in interval form, expressing the natural imprecision of common data, and the Fuzzy Weighted Overlap Dominance (FWOD) procedure is applied for aggregating and exploiting this kind of data, obtaining suitability degrees for every alternative....... The estimation of criteria weights, which is necessary for applying the FWOD procedure, is done by means of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), such that a combined AHP-FWOD methodology allows identifying the more suitable sites for building biogas plants. We show that the FWOD relevance-ranking procedure...

  8. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and Geographical Information System for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... according to a given set of criteria. Measurements are taken in interval form, expressing the natural imprecision of common data, and the Fuzzy Weighted Overlap Dominance (FWOD) procedure is applied for aggregating and exploiting this kind of data, obtaining suitability degrees for every alternative...... suitable sites for building biogas plants. We show that the FWOD relevance-ranking procedure can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support...

  9. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  10. Anaerobic bio filter systems to have the best yield of biogas with the treatment of piggery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athula, Jayamanne M. D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Animal husbandry is a leading food supplying industry for the mankind. Wastewater generation from animal husbandry is a real environmental threat for many countries. Piggery wastewater with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD is between 8000 to 15000 mg/lt) is having a very high potential of biogas production, under anaerobic condition. This research was based upon the fixing of series of Up flow Anaerobic Floating Filters (UAFF) to catch a maximum yield of biogas from piggery wastewater with better cleaning facility. These experiments achieved more than 90% of COD removal of piggery wastewater with better cleaning facility. Other analyzed results of the experiments shows that the removal rate of biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) also is more than 90% with 90% of avarrage removal rates of Suspended Solids (SS) and Total Solids (TS). Average volumetric biogas yield was reched up to 450 lts/Cum.day in the different loading rates held between 2.24 to 5.92 kg. COD/Cum.day. Encouraged by this attractive results of the lab-scale unit, and another medium scale unit installed at a piggery site, a few companies funded for developing full-scale units with low cost construction methodolgy. A few companies funded for developing full-scale units with low cost construction methodology. A few farmers for animalhusbandry. Centrl Environmental Authority of Sri Lanka (CEA) has lready monitored the parameters of the treated wastewater with this treatment system and satisfactory levels were ensured. A few private farmers for animal husbandry in Sri Lanka are now precticing this system satisfactory as a good start for a long journey towards the prospects of biogas energy with a clean farm environment. This UAFF syste can easily practice with other type of wastewaters from the field of animal husbandry. Some of them are cattle farms. poultry farms, Lamb and sheep farms etc. Technical paper with full data analysis is available with a pictorial power point presentation.(Author)

  11. Evaluation of the biogas potential using in the equipment utilized in milk production systems; Avaliacao do potencial do emprego do biogas nos equipamentos utilizados em sistemas de producao de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardoim, Paulo Cesar; Goncalves, Adriano Dicesar M.A. [Lavras Univ. Federal, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia

    2000-07-01

    The technology of the anaerobic digestion has been checked as one of the most efficient in the treatment of the dejection of bovine, however, the employment of the biogas as source of energy for the operation of the equipment still finds limitations of technological order. The present work evaluated, the great potential of the treatment anaerobic of the residues of bovine destined the production of milk as source energy renewably , inside of a concept of maintainable development and production rationalization without aggression to the Middle-Atmosphere. It also verified that technology is adapted as conservation strategy and efficient energy use. The employment of the anaerobic digestion in the treatment of the dejection is possible and desirable, once it contributes to preservation of the environment, it makes possible the modern confinement systems and it reduces the production cost. The residues of milk cows produced, can be used as resources of supplies, so much of energy as of fertilizer. In a confinement of 100 cows, a biodigester can produce a volume of 118 m{sup 3} of biogas. Volume this enough one to work a generating group of 15 kVa and this to assist with electric energy the demand of the milk installation and bomb of water. The total demand of biogas can working with these equipment is esteemed in 85,3m{sup 3} of biogas, what can be supplied with rest by the biodigester. (author)

  12. System i Disaster Recovery Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Dolewski, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Mapping out all the preparations necessary for an effective disaster recovery plan and its safeguard-a continuous maintenance program-this guide is aimed at IT managers of small and medium businesses. The opening section covers the initial steps of auditing vulnerability, ranking essential IT functions, and reviewing the storage of tape backups, with the following discussion focused on the elements of the plan itself. The plan includes a mission statement, a definition of disaster, the assignment of staff to teams, methods of compensating for human error, and standards for documenting the step

  13. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  14. Characterization of microbial biofilms in a thermophilic biogas system by high-throughput metagenome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Antje; Zakrzewski, Martha; Schlüter, Andreas; Schönberg, Mandy; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Goesmann, Alexander; Pühler, Alfred; Klocke, Michael

    2012-03-01

    DNAs of two biofilms of a thermophilic two-phase leach-bed biogas reactor fed with rye silage and winter barley straw were sequenced by 454-pyrosequencing technology to assess the biofilm-based microbial community and their genetic potential for anaerobic digestion. The studied biofilms matured on the surface of the substrates in the hydrolysis reactor (HR) and on the packing in the anaerobic filter reactor (AF). The classification of metagenome reads showed Clostridium as most prevalent bacteria in the HR, indicating a predominant role for plant material digestion. Notably, insights into the genetic potential of plant-degrading bacteria were determined as well as further bacterial groups, which may assist Clostridium in carbohydrate degradation. Methanosarcina and Methanothermobacter were determined as most prevalent methanogenic archaea. In consequence, the biofilm-based methanogenesis in this system might be driven by the hydrogenotrophic pathway but also by the aceticlastic methanogenesis depending on metabolite concentrations such as the acetic acid concentration. Moreover, bacteria, which are capable of acetate oxidation in syntrophic interaction with methanogens, were also predicted. Finally, the metagenome analysis unveiled a large number of reads with unidentified microbial origin, indicating that the anaerobic degradation process may also be conducted by up to now unknown species. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  16. Exergy and economic analysis of organic rankine cycle hybrid system utilizing biogas and solar energy in rural area of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Zheng, Siyu; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    circuits. The cogeneration supplied the power to the air-condition in summer condition and hot water, which is heated in the condenser, in winter condition. The system performance under the subcritical pressures has been assessed according to the energy-exergy and economic analysis with the organic working......℃. The exergy efficiency of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system increases from 35.2% to 38.2%. Moreover, an economic analysis of the system is carried out. The results demonstrate that the profits generated from the reduction of biogas fuel and electricity consumption can lead to a significant saving, resulting...

  17. Biogas production from UASB and polyurethane carrier reactors treating sisal processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubindamayugi, M S.T.; Salakana, L K.P. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Faculty of Science, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The fundamental benefits which makes anaerobic digestion technology (ADT) attractive to the poor developing include the low cost and energy production potential of the technology. In this study the potential of using UASB reactor and Polyurethane Carrier Reactor (PCR) as pollution control and energy recovery systems from sisal wastewater were investigated in lab-scale reactors. The PCR demonstrated the shortest startup period, whereas the UASB reactor showed the highest COD removal efficiency 79%, biogas production rate (4.5 l biogas/l/day) and process stability than the PCR under similar HRT of 15 hours and OLR of 8.2 g COD/l/day. Both reactor systems became overloaded at HRT of 6 hours and OLR of 15.7 g COD/l/day, biogas production ceased and reactors acidified to pH levels which are inhibiting to methanogenesis. Based on the combined results on reactor performances, the UASB reactor is recommended as the best reactor for high biogas production and treatment efficiency. It was estimated that a large-scale UASB reactor can be designed under the same loading conditions to produce 2.8 m{sup 3} biogas form 1 m{sup 3} of wastewater of 5.16 kg COD/m{sup 3}. Wastewater from one decortication shift can produce 9,446 m{sup 3} og biogas. The energy equivalent of such fuel energy is indicated. (au)

  18. Biogas production from UASB and polyurethane carrier reactors treating sisal processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubindamayugi, M.S.T.; Salakana, L.K.P. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Faculty of Science, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The fundamental benefits which makes anaerobic digestion technology (ADT) attractive to the poor developing include the low cost and energy production potential of the technology. In this study the potential of using UASB reactor and Polyurethane Carrier Reactor (PCR) as pollution control and energy recovery systems from sisal wastewater were investigated in lab-scale reactors. The PCR demonstrated the shortest startup period, whereas the UASB reactor showed the highest COD removal efficiency 79%, biogas production rate (4.5 l biogas/l/day) and process stability than the PCR under similar HRT of 15 hours and OLR of 8.2 g COD/l/day. Both reactor systems became overloaded at HRT of 6 hours and OLR of 15.7 g COD/l/day, biogas production ceased and reactors acidified to pH levels which are inhibiting to methanogenesis. Based on the combined results on reactor performances, the UASB reactor is recommended as the best reactor for high biogas production and treatment efficiency. It was estimated that a large-scale UASB reactor can be designed under the same loading conditions to produce 2.8 m{sup 3} biogas form 1 m{sup 3} of wastewater of 5.16 kg COD/m{sup 3}. Wastewater from one decortication shift can produce 9,446 m{sup 3} og biogas. The energy equivalent of such fuel energy is indicated. (au)

  19. Proportional hazards models of infrastructure system recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, Kash; Baroud, Hiba

    2014-01-01

    As emphasis is being placed on a system's ability to withstand and to recover from a disruptive event, collectively referred to as dynamic resilience, there exists a need to quantify a system's ability to bounce back after a disruptive event. This work applies a statistical technique from biostatistics, the proportional hazards model, to describe (i) the instantaneous rate of recovery of an infrastructure system and (ii) the likelihood that recovery occurs prior to a given point in time. A major benefit of the proportional hazards model is its ability to describe a recovery event as a function of time as well as covariates describing the infrastructure system or disruptive event, among others, which can also vary with time. The proportional hazards approach is illustrated with a publicly available electric power outage data set

  20. Learning as the Construction and Re-Mediation of Activity Systems: Environmental Management in Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Querol, Marco A.; Suutari, Timo; Seppanen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present theoretical tools for understanding the dynamics of change and learning during the emergence and development of environmental management activities. The methodology consists of a historical analysis of a case of biogas production that took place in the Southwest region of Finland. The theoretical tools used…

  1. Microdrive- A research program on sustainable bio-ethanol and biogas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, J.; Schnurer, A.

    2009-01-01

    Microdrive Microbially Derived Energy is a thematic research program on sustainable bio fuel production at the Faculty for Natural Resources and Agriculture (NL), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU). The program has the following long term goals: To maximise the energy yield of ethanol and biogas processes, improve overall process economy through development of novel co-products, and to minimise environmental impact. (Author)

  2. An effective and economic system for the determination of biogas production in discontinuous assays; Sistema effectivo y economico parala determinacion de la produccion de biogas en ensayos en discontinuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, I.; Fornes, O.; Ferrer, O.; Gordillo, M. A.; Font, X.

    2004-07-01

    Methodology for the determination of anaerobic biodegradability or toxicity assays is well described in bibliography. However a certain lack of information exists regarding the experimental assembly for the realization of such assays. In this article the experimental setup is described in detail, as well as the cost of a system for the determination of biogas production in toxicity or biodegradability anaerobic assays. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers; Attenuazione naturale del flusso di biogas nella copertura superficiale delle discariche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R. [Padova Univ., Padova (Italy). IMAGE, Dipartimento di Idraulica, Marittima, Ambiente e Geotecnica; Zane, M. [SPINOFF S.R.L., Padova (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed. [Italian] Nella valutazione del pericolo di emissioni incontrollate di biogas da una discarica, il processo dell'attenuazione naturale della copertura superficiale assume un ruolo molto importante. La capacita' di ossidazione del biogas nel terreno di copertura sembra rappresentare il controllo piu' importante nella mitigazione di fughe incontrollate di biogas, soprattutto nel lungo periodo quando la captazione del biogas perde efficienza. Nel presente lavoro si riportano alcune esperienze di laboratorio per valutare l'ossidazione di metano in diverse tipologie di copertura.

  4. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  5. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented

  6. Economic assessment of biogas-to-electricity generation system with H2S removal by activated carbon in small pig farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipatmanomai, Suneerat; Kaewluan, Sommas; Vitidsant, Tharapong

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the economic feasibility of electricity generation from biogas in small pig farms with and without the H 2 S removal prior to biogas utilisation. The 2% potassium iodide (KI) impregnated activated carbon selected as H 2 S adsorbent was introduced to a biogas-to-electricity generation system in a small pig farm in Thailand as a case study. With the average inlet H 2 S concentration of about 2400 ppm to the adsorption unit, the H 2 S removal efficiency could reach 100% with the adsorption capacity of 0.062 kg of H 2 S/kg of adsorbent. Under the reference scenario (i.e., 45% subsidy on digester installation and fixed electricity price at 0.06 Euro/kWh) and based on an assumption that the biogas was fully utilised for electricity generation in the system, the payback period for the system without H 2 S removal was about 4 years. With H 2 S removal, the payback period was within the economic life of digester but almost twice that of the case without H 2 S removal. The impact of electricity price could be clearly seen for the case of treated biogas. At the electricity price fixed at 0.07 Euro/kWh, the payback period for the case of treated biogas was reduced to about 5.5 years, with a trend to decrease at higher electricity prices. For both treated and untreated biogas, the governmental subsidy was the important factor determining the economics of the biogas-to-electricity systems. Without subsidy, the payback period increased to almost 7 years and about 11 years for the case of untreated and treated biogas, respectively, at the reference electricity price. Although the H 2 S removal added high operation cost to the system, it is still highly recommended not only for preventing engine corrosion but also for the environment benefit in which air pollution by H 2 S/SO 2 emission and impact on human health could be potentially reduced. (author)

  7. Construction and operation of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.A.; Norris, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and anticipated operation of a lagoon-type methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy. The initial design was based upon the present and anticipated herd size, 300 to 600 cows, heifers and calves. The lagoon design meets USDA-NRCS standards, and accounts for limitations of the site, primarily shallow sandstone bedrock. The new lagoon, which has a liquid volume of 14,000 m 3 , was constructed next to an existing lagoon. The new lagoon was covered with a flexible membrane incorporating buoyant material so that the cover floats on the surface, and a gas collection system. The predicted output of the lagoon for the present population of approximately 350 cows, heifers and calves is estimated to average up to 320 m 3 of biogas per day. The biogas will fuel a micro-turbine electric generator, and produce up to 23 kW in parallel with the utility system. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. This project will provide environmental benefits-odor control by capturing the odorous gases that result from dairy manure storage; methane, a significant greenhouse gas is kept out of the atmosphere; and water pollution is reduced through the reduction in organic matter in the lagoon. Economic benefits include electricity and process heat, together worth up to 16,000 US dollars per year. (author)

  8. Analytical investigation of the thermal optimization of biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, Thomas; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The economic efficiency of biogas plants is more difficult to display with recent legal regulations than with bonus tariff systems of previous EEG amendments. To enhance efficiency there are different options, often linked with further investments. Direct technical innovations with fast economic yields need exact evaluation of limiting conditions. Within this article the heat sector of agricultural biogas plants is studied. So far scarcely considered, especially the improvement of on-site thermal energy consumption promises a high optimisation. Data basis are feeding protocols and temperature measurements of input substrates, biogas, environment etc., also documentations of on-site thermal consumption over 10 years. Analyzing first results of measurements and primary equilibrations shows, that maintenance of biogas process temperature consumes most thermal energy and therefore has the greatest potential of improvement. Passive and active insulation of feed systems and heat recovery from secondary fermenter liquids are identified as first optimization measures. Depending on amount and temperature raise of input substrates, saving potentials of more than hundred megawatt hours per year were calculated.

  9. Low-temperature upgrading of low-calorific biogas for CO2 mitigation using DBD-catalyst hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Tsukijihara, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Wataru; Okazaki, Ken

    2006-10-01

    Although huge amounts of biogas, which consists of 20-60% of CH4 in CO2/N2, can be obtained from landfills, coal mines, and agricultural residues, most of them are simply flared and wasted: because global warming potential of biogas is 5-15 times as potent as CO2. Poor combustibility of such biogas makes it difficult to utilize in conventional energy system. The purpose of this project is to promote the profitable recovery of methane from poor biogas via non-thermal plasma technology. We propose low-temperature steam reforming of biogas using DBD generated in catalyst beds. Methane is partially converted into hydrogen, and then fed into internal combustion engines for improved ignition stability as well as efficient operation. Low-temperature steam reforming is beneficial because exhaust gas from an engine can be used to activate catalyst beds. Space velocity (3600-15000 hr-1), reaction temperature (300-650^oC), and energy cost (30-150 kJ per mol CH4) have been investigated with simulated biogas (20-60% CH4 in mixtures of CO2/N2). The DBD enhances reaction rate of CH4 by a factor of ten at given catalyst temperatures, which is a rate-determining step of methane steam reforming, while species concentration of upgraded biogas was governed by thermodynamic equilibrium in the presence of catalyst.

  10. Establishment of a biogas grid and interaction between a biogas grid and a natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2011-01-15

    The project has aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of a large biogas net in Ringkoebing Skjern municipality in Denmark, which wants to become self-sufficient in renewable energy by 2020. It is estimated that the biogas potential in the municipality is about. 60 mill. m3 methane gas a year. Half of the methane will be generated by digesting 80 % of the area's slurry, while the other half will be produced from energy crops. It will require an area equivalent to 5 % of the municipality's farmland. The idea is to establish decentralized 60-80 and 1-3 large centralized biogas plants, and that the produced biogas is distributed to natural gas-fired decentralized power plants. Based on this framework, a number of issues for the establishment of a biogas net have been investigated. These are: - the relation between biogas production and demand; - biogas compared to the overall energy system, - purification and measurement of biogas; - conversion of natural gas-fired power plants to biogas; - the value of biogas for cogeneration plants; - design of a biogas distribution net; - ownership and accountability; - potential business models. (LN)

  11. Realization of microcontroller-based process control systems examplified on process state monitor for anaerobic biogas fermentation; Realisierung mikrocontrollerbasierter Prozessfuehrungssysteme am Beispiel eines Prozesszustandsmonitors fuer die anaerobe Biogasfermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzwahl, S.; Kramer, K.D. [Hochschule Harz, Wernigerode (Germany). Fachbereich Automatisierung und Informatik; Nacke, T. [Institut fuer Bioprozess- und Analysenmesstechnik e.V., Heilbad Heiligenstadt (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes possibilities to realize microcontroller-based process control systems with use strategies of computational intelligence. All design steps are comprised in a design process with direct interface to the process. A further issue is a development system for firmware, which was programmed especially for main steps of the design process. The process of anaerobic fermentation in biogas plants serves as an sample for a control application. By using the design process and the programmed software a process state monitor was developed for this fermentation process. The system is able to classify the process state online in biogas fermentation plants. (orig.)

  12. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  13. Evaluation of a handling system for ley crop used in biogas production. Capacities and costs for a centralised system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagstroem, Lena

    2005-07-01

    Within the Vaextkraft project in Vaesteraas, Sweden, biogas is to be produced out of ley crop and organic waste. The aim of this study has been to estimate the capacities within the handling system used for the ley crop harvest, and the resources needed. For this purpose a model in the form of a calculation program in Excel was built. The model makes it possible to vary parameters such as transport system design, distance from fields to storage, dry matter content and yield. The results showed that it is essential to match the capacities between chopper and transport to minimise the time and cost connected to the harvest. To avoid creating costly bottlenecks in the Vaextkraft case the transport system has to consist of at least two trucks with trailers. The estimates made with the model suggests that the distance to storage is strongly linked to the dimensioning of the transport system, whereas the number of fields and their size has a lesser impact on harvest time and cost. Variation of the dry matter yield from a base scenario had an impact on the cost for harvesting, but not on the choice of transport system. The model couldn't detect any reliable differences in total costs due to the variation of dry matter content between 25-45%. The choice of chopping machinery in the Vaextkraft project leads to small timeliness costs. Together with a reasonable choice of transport system they will only constitute a few percent of the total costs for harvesting.

  14. Complementary cold water production for a dairy industry: the use of biogas generated in the effluent treatment station; Producao de agua gelada complementar para um laticinio: o uso do biogas produzido na estacao de tratamento de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: iraides@debas.faenquil.br; Napoleao, D.A.S.; Silveira, J.L. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: diovana@feg.unesp.br; joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper is analysed the possibility energetic utilization of biogas in the effluent treatment station of a medium dairy industry located in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. In this station is produced about 80 N m3/h of biogas, with a molar composition of 62,5% of CH{sub 4}, 13,4% of N{sub 2}, 5% of CO, 2,4% of CO{sub 2}, 2,4% of steam H{sub 2}O e 14,1% of H{sub 2}S. The generated biogas is today burning in a flair, according the national rule, with evident losses of energetic utilization potential.. The purpose of this paper is the direct utilization of this biogas to run an absorption refrigeration system utilizing H{sub 2}O + NH{sub 3} mixture. The level of H{sub 2}S in the biogas permits the energy recovery of the available heating minimum temperature level up to 230 deg C, according to the pinch point proceeding.This potential of energy recovery permits a complementation of the cold water production (7,3 kg/s) at 1 deg C. So, is made the energetic analysis of the proposed installation showing the technical feasibility of the actual use of the generated biogas, to produce useful energy. (author)

  15. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  16. Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-07-13

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general

  17. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to as......Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers......) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70±0.84 Escherichia coli (log) cfu/ml on average...

  18. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  19. Optimized construction of biogas plants; Optimierte Bauweise fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the conference of the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology at 21st February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Optimized dimensions of containers for small systems of liquid manure (Manfred Thalmann); (2) Microferm mini biogas plants (Bart Brouwer); (3) Fermentation of stackable biomass in rural biogas plant - The DeNaBa system (Christian Deterding); (4) The Sauter Biogas System for the fermentation of liquid manure, solid dung, and other residual materials (Stefan Sauter); (5) Bio-electricity: Controllable power generation by means of biogas plants (Matthias Sonnleitner); (6) Reduction of the effort and increase of the yield using UDR fixed bed technology (Alfred van den Berg); (7) Prestressed concrete container for biogas plants: Area of application - quality - options (Harald Feldmann); (8) Corrosion protection of agricultural and communal biogas plants (Michael Normann); (9) Fundamentals of efficient and effective flow generation in biogas plants (Kay Rotalski); (10) Rotary piston screw pistons and eccentric screw pumps (Thorsten Gilles).

  20. Ex-situ biogas upgrading and enhancement in different reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Panagiotis G; Treu, Laura; Benavente, Daniela Peñailillo; Boe, Kanokwan; Campanaro, Stefano; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-02-01

    Biogas upgrading is envisioned as a key process for clean energy production. The current study evaluates the efficiency of different reactor configurations for ex-situ biogas upgrading and enhancement, in which externally provided hydrogen and carbon dioxide were biologically converted to methane by the action of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The methane content in the output gas of the most efficient configuration was >98%, allowing its exploitation as substitute to natural gas. Additionally, use of digestate from biogas plants as a cost efficient method to provide all the necessary nutrients for microbial growth was successful. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the microbial community was resided by novel phylotypes belonging to the uncultured order MBA08 and to Bacteroidales. Moreover, only hydrogenotrophic methanogens were identified belonging to Methanothermobacter and Methanoculleus genera. Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was the predominant methanogen in the biofilm formed on top of the diffuser surface in the bubble column reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. General Atomic's radioactive gas recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Perry, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    General Atomic Company has developed a Radioactive Gas Recovery System for the HTGR which separates, for purposes of retention, the radioactive components from the non-radioactive reactor plant waste gases. This provides the capability for reducing to an insignificant level the amount of radioactivity released from the gas waste system to the atmosphere--a most significant improvement in reducing total activity release to the environment. (U.S.)

  2. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  3. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  4. Recovery of the immune system after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Neubauer, Oliver; Walsh, Neil P; Simpson, Richard J

    2017-05-01

    The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an "open window" of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions [e.g., natural killer (NK) cells, γδ T cells, and CD8 + T cells]. These lymphocytes most likely translocate to peripheral sites of potential antigen encounter (e.g., lungs and gut). This redeployment of effector lymphocytes is an integral part of the physiological stress response to exercise. Current knowledge about changes in immune function during recovery from exercise is derived from assessment at the cell population level of isolated cells ex vivo or in blood. This assessment can be biased by large changes in the distribution of immune cells between blood and peripheral tissues during and after exercise. Some evidence suggests that reduced immune cell function in vitro may coincide with changes in vivo and rates of illness after exercise, but more work is required to substantiate this notion. Among the various nutritional strategies and physical therapies that athletes use to recover from exercise, carbohydrate supplementation is the most effective for minimizing immune disturbances during exercise recovery. Sleep is an important aspect of recovery, but more research is needed to determine how sleep disruption influences the immune system of athletes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L.; Didero, M.; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P.; Tatano, F.

    2005-01-01

    On site CO 2 flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO 2 emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities [it

  6. Experimental comparison of MCFC performance using three different biogas types and methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Roberto; Lunghi, Piero

    Biogas recovery is an environmentally friendly and cost-effective practice that is getting consensus in both the scientific and industrial community, as the growing number of projects demonstrate. The use of fuel cells as energy conversion systems increases the conversion efficiency, as well as the environmental benefits. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) operate at a temperature of about 650 °C, thus presenting a high fuel flexibility, compared to low temperature fuel cells. Aim of the present study is to compare the performance of an MCFC single cell, fuelled with different biogas types as well as methane. The biogases considered are derived from the following processes: (1) steam gasification in an entrained flow gasifier; (2) steam gasification in a duel interconnect fluidized bed gasifier; (3) biogas from an anaerobic digestion process. The performances are evaluated for different fuel utilization and current densities. The results are an essential starting point for a complete system design and demonstration.

  7. A membrane based process for the upgrading of biogas to substituted natural gas (SNG) and recovery of carbondioxide for industrial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; dePreez, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A low pressure carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane based process to upgrade biogas from anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste to a substitute natural gas (SNG) has been tested on a pilot scale. The data extracted from the pilot plant was used to estimate membrane permeance and ideal selecti...

  8. Theoretical analysis of a biogas-fed PEMFC system with different hydrogen purifications: Conventional and membrane-based water gas shift processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authayanun, Suthida; Aunsup, Pounyaporn; Patcharavorachot, Yaneeporn; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of the biogas-fed PEMFC system is performed. • Conventional and membrane-based WGS processes for H 2 purification are studied. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC system is developed. • Effect of key parameters on yields of H 2 and carbon in the biogas reformer is shown. • Performance of PEMFC systems with different H 2 purification processes is analyzed. - Abstract: This study presents a thermodynamic analysis of biogas reforming and proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) integrated process with different hydrogen purifications: conventional and membrane-based water gas shift processes. The aim is to determine the optimal reforming process for hydrogen production from biogas in the PEMFC system. The formation of carbon is concerned in the hydrogen production. The simulation results show that increases in the steam-to-methane ratio and reformer temperature can improve the hydrogen yield and reduce the carbon formation. From the performance analysis, it is found that when the PEMFC is operated at high temperature and fuel utilization, the overall system efficiency enhances. The performance of the PEMFC system with the installation of a water gas shift membrane unit in the hydrogen purification step is slightly increased, compared with a conventional process

  9. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  10. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  11. Mapping competing valorization pathways of biogas feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Biomass can play a role in the transition to a sustainable energy system. In principle all biomass can be used for make biogas. However, biogas yields differ for the various biomass types. Next to this, biomass is also used for other needs like food and feed. These competing uses affect the price of

  12. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  13. Recovery of the Education System in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hayden And Richard Martin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar's education system is in a very weakened state. The physical condition and human resource capacity of the system is poor by any standard, and teachers, whether in schools, colleges or universities, have few opportunities and little incentive for professional development. A process of recovery is getting underway, but it will take years before significant improvements are evident. Major cultural change is required in the style of leadership and management at all levels of government, and there is also a desperate need for more financial resources. This paper documents the current state of the education system in Myanmar and advances three priority areas for immediate attention.

  14. Aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Farnum, Rachel Lizabeth; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2018-02-13

    The present invention is directed to aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems. The methods and systems disclosed herein may be used to recover aminosilicone solvent from a carbon dioxide containing vapor stream, for example, a vapor stream that leaves an aminosilicone solvent desorber apparatus. The methods and systems of the invention utilize a first condensation process at a temperature from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. and a second condensation process at a temperature from about 5.degree. C. to about 75.degree. C. The first condensation process yields recovered aminosilicone solvent. The second condensation process yields water.

  15. Biogas Koczala. Biogas project in Koczala. Feasibility study. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The present production of district heating in Koczala is based on coal. The district heating system is worn out technically and economically and according to the 2001 Energy Plan of Koczala the district heating plant shall be converted to a combination of a biogas fired CHP and a wood chip boiler. The overall objective of this project is to access the feasibility and viability construction an operation of a biogas plant owned by the co-operative agricultural company, Poldanor S.A. The feasibility study includes: 1) Availability of organic waste in the Koczala area, 2) Possibilities of using energy crops in the biogas plant, 3) Possibilities of receiving grants from the Polish National Fund for Environmental Protection, the new EU regional funds and through the joint implementation market (CO 2 quotas), 4) Alternative locations of the biogas plant and the CHP unit, 5) Alternative strategies for selling electricity and heat, 6) Organisational issues (ownership). This report concludes that implementing the biogas project is environmentally and financially feasible and viable. If organic waste and/or maize silage can be provided and gasified without problems, the plant can supply as well the Koczala farm as the fodder mill with steam and heat, and also supply Koczala district heating system with approx. 75% of yearly heat consumption. Furthermore, electricity is supplied to the fodder mill and the public grid. (BA)

  16. Integration of biogas into the rural energy supply of solar home system powered households in South Africa: A case study of Tsware, Mailula and Muropo vilages in Limpopo.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study indicates that it is technically feasible to combine solar home systems and biogas to meet the community's thermal needs, however more work needs to be done to arrive at the best possible financial implementation model. All participants...

  17. Techno-economical evaluation of membrane based biogas upgrading system: A comparison between polymeric membrane and carbon membrane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A shift to renewable energy sources will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and secure future energy supplies. In this context, utilization of biogas will play a prominent role. Focus of this work is upgrading of biogas to fuel quality by membrane separation using a carbon hollow fibre (CHF membrane and compare with a commercially available polymeric membrane (polyimide through economical assessment. CHF membrane modules were prepared for pilot plant testing and performance measured using CO2, O2, N2. The CHF membrane was modified through oxidation, chemical vapour deposition (CVD and reduction process thus tailoring pores for separation and increased performance. The post oxidized and reduced carbon hollow fibres (PORCHFs significantly exceeded CHF performance showing higher CO2 permeance (0.021 m3(STP/m2 h bar and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 246 (5 bar feed vs 50 mbar permeate pressure. The highest performance recorded through experiments (CHF and PORCHF was used as simulation basis. A membrane simulation model was used and interfaced to 8.6 V Aspen HYSYS. A 300 Nm3/h mixture of CO2/CH4 containing 30–50% CO2 at feed pressures 6, 8 and 10 bar, was simulated and process designed to recover 99.5% CH4 with 97.5% purity. Net present value (NPV was calculated for base case and optimal pressure (50 bar for CHF and PORCHF. The results indicated that recycle ratio (recycle/feed ranged from 0.2 to 10, specific energy from 0.15 to 0.8 (kW/Nm3feed and specific membrane area from 45 to 4700 (m2/Nm3feed. The high recycle ratio can create problems during start-up, as it would take long to adjust volumetric flow ratio towards 10. The best membrane separation system employs a three-stage system with polyimide at 10 bar, and a two-stage membrane system with PORCHF membranes at 50 bar with recycle. Considering biomethane price of 0.78 $/Nm3 and a lifetime of 15 years, the techno-economic analysis showed that payback time for

  18. PROSES BRAZING Cu-Ag BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOGAS TERMURNIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kusrijadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan biogas sebagai salah satu alternatif bahan bakar  pada proses brazing merupakan langkah diversifikasi biogas, yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan tingkat efisiensi dan keramahan teknologi. Permasalahan yang bersifat teknis dan menjadi kendala dalam pemanfaatan biogas ini adalah rendahnya konsentrasi CH4 dikarenakan adanya pengotor utama berupa air, karbondioksida dan asam disulfida. Penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu  tahap  pressureized storage process meliputi pemisahan komponen pengotor yang terdapat dalam biogas melalui teknik absorbsi sehingga dihasilkan biogas yang berkualitas gas alam terbarukan dan proses injeksi ke dalam suatu tangki penyimpanan, dan tahap selanjutnya adalah menggunakan biogas tersebut pada proses brazing logam Cu (tembaga dengan bahan tambah Ag (silver. Analisis hasil brazing dilakukan melalui analisis struktur mikro (metalografi untuk melihat kualitas tampak dari hasil brazing, serta analisis kekerasan mikro dan analisis parameter fisik standar terhadap hasil proses brazing. Penelitian ini telah menghasilkan perangkat alat pemurnian biogas yang dapat memurnikan biogas menjadi metana mendekati 100% dan sistem pengemasan (storage system  biogas bertekanan hingga 2 bar. Dari hasil analisis struktur mikro dan uji kekerasan mikro diketahui bahwa hasil proses brazing dengan biogas menghasilkan kualitas yang sama dengan hasil proses brazing dengan gas acetylene sehingga disimpulkan bahwa biogas dapat menjadi bahan bakar alternatif untuk proses brazing, khususnya untuk logam Cu dengan bahan tambah Ag.  Kata kunci : Biogas, Pressureized Storage, Brazing

  19. Preliminary design of a small-scale system for the conversion of biogas to electricity by HT-PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth, Torsten; Heineken, Wolfram; He, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this work a novel concept for the decentralized conversion of biogas to electricity is introduced. It consists of five segments: gas supply, gas treatment, gas reforming, gas usage and post-combustion. The system was designed in a regional project called GREEN-FC. The project is dealing with a design study for the conversion of 1 m 3  h −1 biogas to electricity, based on equilibrium calculations for steam reforming and water–gas shift reaction in combination with CFD simulations. The simulation results revealed that the system converts methane fully and delivers a maximum yield of hydrogen with a low concentration of carbon monoxide, thus making it suitable for a high-temperature polymer–electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell. The calculated electrical efficiency of the novel process is approximately 40%. Another important result of this work is the modular prototype design, because the individual components of the prototype can be replaced. For example alternative reactors that convert biogas into hydrogen and other technologies that use hydrogen can be included. - Highlights: • We designed the GREEN-FC process for decentralized hydrogen production from biogas. • We determined optimal process conditions on chemical equilibrium calculations. • The design was evaluated by CFD simulations with chemical reactions included. • The electrical efficiency of the GREEN-FC process is approximately 40%. • The first industrial prototype should have investment costs of 5000 € kW −1

  20. Biogas handbook (pilot edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumdar, A [comp.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of biogas production; factors affecting digester design; details of several biogas plants of India and China including their construction, operation, and maintenance; designs of biogas utilization devices; and the use of digested sludge as fertilizer or animal feed are discussed. Included is a section listing the causes and known solutions of technical problems associated with the construction and operation of biogas plants and appliances. (CK)

  1. Biogas supply to the natural gas supply grid. Study; Einspeisung von Biogas in das Erdgasnetz. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Biogas supply to the public gas grid is a new option discussed in the most recent publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. The biogas is purified, upgraded to natural gas quality and fed into an existing gas grid. Once there, it can be transported across long distances and also used for electric power generation at the consumer side. The study investigates inhowfar and in what instances this method is feasible and promising. It discusses the technical background and the regional potential of biogas. Seven model biogas systems are presented as examples. (orig.)

  2. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  3. Evaluation of biogas of waste from poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Paes, Juliana; Ferreira Matos, Camila; Souza Pereira, Diego José de; Bruggianesi, Giancarlo; Silva Misquita, Ícaro da

    2015-01-01

    Most of the farms, the waste of agricultural production do not receive adequate treatment for the stabilization of organic matter and reduce its pollution potential. The anaerobic digestion is an alternative for the treatment of waste, as well as allowing the reduction of pollution potential and the health risks of waste to a minimum, promotes the generation of biogas used as a heat source for various uses on the farm. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biogas production efficiency from the chicken waste. For the supply of biodigesters, adopted the total solids content of 8% and discontinuous supply system. The biogas potential was determined on the basis of their daily production and explosive rate. It was observed that the biogas production started 24 hours after the start of supplying the digesters. The maximum biogas production was approximately 0.87 L after the ninth and the 54th day starting the digestion process. The average daily production of biogas generated from bird manure was 0.022 L, while the cumulative 0.91 L after 72 days of digestion. The explosive rate of biogas generated by poultry origin residues peaked at 51% after 32 days of the start of the digestion process. In this analysis, we found the presence of methane in the biogas produced in all substrates tested after 24 h of digestion, because it’s burning in the presence of an ignition source (Fire). (full text)

  4. Prospects and challenges for urban application of biogas installations in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Naik, Linus; Melamu, Rethabile; Balana, Bedru Babulo

    2014-01-01

    Cities around the world generate substantial quantities of municipal solid waste, including organic residues. These organic residues can be managed productively and given value, or they can simply be wasted. Municipal solid waste management is a serious environmental and public health concern in developing countries. In addition, collecting, transporting and disposing of municipal solid wastes presents formidable challenges to many developing country cities. It is believed that the problems are likely to become even more pronounced as the level and pace of urbanization continue to grow rapidly. Moreover, cost recovery is a serious problem of municipal solid waste management in many cities in the developing world. This paper considers how anaerobic digestion can give value to organic residues and help reduce the problem of municipal waste management. Biogas technology has the potential to work for the growing urban populations of Africa as both an energy source and a waste management (minimization) tool that can be utilized both at a small or large scale. In this paper we review the potential roles of biogas in urban applications. Specifically, we review organic waste treatment methods as well as opportunities and challenges for urban application of biogas installations and identify the critical conditions for success of biogas in urban applications. - Highlights: • We review the potential of biogas technologies in urban organic waste management. • We discuss anaerobic digestion for urban waste treatment and energy provision. • Urban biogas systems need technical, socioeconomic and environmental assessment. • Climatic, economic and biowaste conditions in SSA provide opportunities for biogas. • Research in local contexts and case studies provide evidence to support policy

  5. Optimized production of vehicle gas - an environmental and energy system analyses of Soederaasens biogas plant.; Systemoptimerad produktion av fordonsgas - En miljoe- och energisystemanalys av Soederaasens biogasanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael; Ekman, Anna; Boerjesson, Paal

    2009-06-15

    In this study, an environmental and energy system analysis for a specific biogas plant is presented as well as suggestions and cost calculations for measures that could be implemented in order to optimise the system. The overarching purpose is also to present a model for similar studies of specific biogas plants. The analysis performed includes direct effects such as use of energy and emissions from the production of biogas, upgrading to vehicle gas, transport of substrate and digestate and storage and handling of digestate. Furthermore, indirect effects such as reduced methane leaching from conventional storage of manure, replacement of mineral fertilizers with digestate etc. are included as well. The energy balance for production and distribution of vehicle gas from Soederaasens biogas plant is calculated to 5,5 which could be compared to the energy balance for ethanol from wheat which is normally between 2 and 3. The greenhouse gas emissions are 16 gram CO{sub 2}-ekv./kWh, approximately 95 % lower compared to gasoline. In comparison, ethanol from wheat and RME reduce the emissions with some 80 % and 65 % respectively. The result is mainly affected of the methane leakage from the upgrading plant, reduced emissions of N{sub 2}O when digestate replaces mineral fertilizers and the assumptions made of how the electricity used in the system was produced. Regarding eutrophication, the emissions are calculated to 6 gram NO{sub 3}--ekv./kWh, primarily originating from storage and handling of digestate, which is somewhat lower than the reported emissions from production of ethanol and RME. Covering the digestate storages and produce process heat with wood chips, measures estimated to be cost neutral or even profitable for the biogas producer, is calculated to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to -13 gram/kWh. If all measures identified would be implemented, the emissions are reduced with 120 % with an extra cost of some 0.01 SEK/kWh vehicle gas

  6. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  7. Cost analysis of concepts for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Ganagin, Waldemar; Hartmann, Kilian; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-10-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. Highlighting the importance of the need to keeping fuel costs for flexible power generation to a minimum, the study aims to identify favourable biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8h per day range between 2€ and 11€MWh(-1) and for a 72h period without biogas demand from 9€ to 19€MWh(-1). While biogas storage concepts were identified as favourable short term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for periods of several hours without biogas demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 10. Biogas conference Dresden. Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornack, Christina; Liebetrau, Jan; Fassauer, Burkhardt; Nelles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The biogas conference in Dresden will be held for the tenth time and is still the only conference in Germany, which focuses on the production of biogas solely from waste. This year, the implementation of paragraph 11 of the Recycling and Waste Management Act and the amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2014, the chances of the waste management biogas technology will be spotlighted here. The efficiency and wise use of the end products of the biogas production - the biogas and fermentation residues are equally critical for the success of biogas technology as the emission reduction of biogas plants. In this context, the biogas technology will also be dependent in the future on legal requirements and funding instruments such as the EEG. For the technical implementation, the development of reliable system concepts with specific sinking biogas and electricity supply costs and with greater flexibility in terms of launching needs-based biogas and electricity production. The contributions in this paper discuss possible solutions and implementations from the perspective of politics, associations, research and practice. Innovative topics will be discussed, which will be decisive for the future of biogas production from organic wastes. [de

  9. Prospect of solar-PV/biogas/diesel generator hybrid energy system of an off-grid area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Soumya; Yasmin, Hosna; Sarker, M. R. I.; Beg, M. R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The study presents an analysis and suggests about how renewable sources of energy can be an alternative option to produce electricity in an off-grid area. A case study is done by surveying 235 households in an off-grid area. Techno-economic analysis of the hybrid energy system is employed by using Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software. Four solar-PV modules (each of 1kW), two biogas generators (each of 3kW), three diesel generators (each of 5kW), five batteries (each of 160 Ah) and 5kW converter is found to be the best configuration in terms of Cost of Energy (COE), environmental conditions and Renewable Fraction (RF). The Cost of Energy (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC), capital cost of this configuration is found BDT15.382, BDT10007224, and BDT2582433 respectively. The renewable fraction of this system is found 75% which indicates a lower emission compared with thegrid based system and stand-alone diesel system. Although the COE is higher than grid electricity, this system offers a cheaper option than using kerosene oil and solar home systems (SHSs).

  10. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  11. The impact of CO2-costs on biogas usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has set a target of being fossil fuel independent by 2050 implying that a high degree of inflexible renewable energy will be included in the energy system; biogas can add flexibility and potentially has a negative CO2-emission. In this paper, we investigate the socioeconomic...... system costs of reaching a Danish biogas target of 3.8 PJ in the energy system, and how CO2 costs affect the system costs and biogas usage. We perform our analysis using the energy systems model, Balmorel, and expand the model with a common target for raw biogas and upgraded biogas (biomethane). Raw...... biogas can be used directly in heat and power production, while biomethane has the same properties as natural gas. Balmorel is altered such that natural gas and biomethane can be used in the same technologies. Several CO2-cost estimates are investigated; hereunder a high estimate for the expected CO2...

  12. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K.; Pickering, K.

    2002-01-01

    wastewater recovery system as a drinking water supply source. (author)

  13. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  14. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  15. Biogas from algae, seaweed and seagrass?; Biogas aus Algen, Tang und Seegras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Algae, seaweed and sea grass are discussed again and again as alternative sources for raw materials for agricultural biogas plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the identification and optimization of the biogas potential of microalgae, macroalgae and flotsam (mixture of seaweed, seaweed, and so on). Algae, seaweed and sea grass can be fermented into biogas by means of an anaerobic process. The specific yield of biogas is small. The processing of these substrates requires a technical adjustment of the biogas plants. Thus, the effective use of these substrates will continue to fall. The achievable benefit highly depends on the location of the facilities and on the available substrates with the corresponding specific gas yields. The economic efficiency of these substrates in agricultural systems must be examined in each case.

  16. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  17. A review of the biogas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xinyuan; Sommer, Sven G.; Christensen, Knud V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and future perspectives of the Chinese biogas industry. The development of the industry has the potential to improve the rural environment and produce significant amounts of sustainable energy for China. Barriers to the development are the relatively weak environmental policies, imperfect financial policies and lack of long-term follow-up services. The rapid economic development of China has also seen a development in the scales of biogas plants constructed. Although the technology has been improved, this review has identified problems in the construction and operation of Chinese biogas plants, particularly in the efficiency of household systems. All levels of China's government acknowledge this and recent biogas projects have more focus on quality and less on the quantity. The intention is to gradually introduce stricter environmental policies, to provide better service systems, improve the financial policies that support the construction and follow-up service of biogas projects, promote the use of standardized engineering equipment and materials and standards for plant construction and production. This will promote the development of biogas projects at various scales further, and reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases. - Highlights: → The biogas industry in China has great developing potential and necessity. → Barriers to the development of biogas industry in China were included in the article. → All scales of Biogas plants in China have developed rapidly in recent years. → Measures to promote the development of biogas projects further in China were proposed.

  18. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  19. An Integrated Biogas Generation System for Swine Farms%联动沼气池发酵工艺及应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官雪芳; 徐庆贤; 黄菊青; 钱蕾; 林斌

    2016-01-01

    根据可持续发展的理念,以实现资源化利用最大化为原则,针对规模化养猪场,通过设备创新和技术集成,提出了“固液分离池-联动沼气池-玻璃钢沼气储气柜”沼气发酵工艺流程,结合沼气发酵智能化控制技术,形成联动高效沼气池发酵工艺技术。通过在福建省新星种猪育种有限公司应用结果表明,该工艺技术能够显著提高沼气产量和沼气利用效率,是一种实用型生态处理技术,对发展农业循环经济有重要意义。%For sustainable agriculture to maximize resource utilization,a biogas generation technology by integrating the solids-liquid separation,methane gas generation,and fiberglass-reinforced plastic biogas storage into a system for waste treatment at swine farms was designed and evaluated. The combined system with automatic controls could be scaled up for large biogas production applications. The experimental model was implemented for observation and testing at Xinxing Pigs Breeding Co.,Ltd. in Fuj ian. The results showed significantly improved yield and utilization efficiency of biogas as compared to the conventional devices. The technology was expected to become a model for practical ecological sewage treatment for effective agricultural recycling at swine farms.

  20. Conversion of landfill biogas in electric energy. Forecasting and economic estimation reported in a case study in the province of Udine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goi, D.; Cirino, N.; Pivato, P.; Lizzi, G.; Dolcetti, G.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents an analysis about the recovery of electrical energy form biogas of a landfill in Province of Udine. Starting with an estimation of material composition of waste and adopting a simple stoichiometric-kinetic model, a theoretical evaluation of biogas production was conducted and subsequently results were compared to real data of biogas production estimated by electric energy produced. An economic examination about the electrical energy recovery from landfill biogas was also conducted by profit graphs [it

  1. Towards novel biogas upgrading processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalova, E.

    2013-06-01

    Biogas production has considerable development possibilities not only in Finland but all over the world since it it the easiest way of creating value out of various waste fractions and represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Development of efficient biogas upgrading technology has become an important issue since it improves the quality of biogas and for example facilitating its injection into the natural gas pipelines. Moreover, such upgrading contributes to resolving the issue of increasing CO{sub 2} emissions and addresses the increasing climate change concerns. Together with traditional CO{sub 2} capturing technologies a new class of recently emerged sorbents such as ionic liquids is claimed as promising media for gas separations. In this thesis, an extensive comparison of the performance of different solvents in terms of CO{sub 2} capture has been performed. The focus of the present study was on aqueous amine solutions and their mixtures, traditional ionic liquids, 'switchable' ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s in order to reveal the best option for biogas upgrading. The CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency for the most promising solvents achieved values around 50-60 L CO{sub 2}/L absorbent. These values are superior to currently widely applied water wash biogas upgrading system. Regeneration of the solvent mixtures appeared to be challenging since the loss of initial efficiency upon CO{sub 2} release was in excess of 20-40 vol %, especially in the case of aqueous amine solutions. In contrast, some of the ionic liquids displayed reversible behavior. Thus, for selected 'switchable' ionic and poly(ionic liquid)s the CO{sub 2} absorption/regeneration cycles were performed 3-4 times without any notable efficiency decrease. The viscosity issue, typical for ionic liquids upon CO{sub 2} saturation, was addressed and the information obtained was evaluated and related to the ionic interactions. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds

  2. White Earth Biomass/Biogas Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael

    2015-03-12

    The White Earth Nation examined the feasibility of cost savings and fossil energy reduction through the installation of biogas/biomass boiler at the tribal casino. The study rejected biogas options due to availability and site constraints, but found a favorable environment for technical and financial feasibility of installing a 5 MMBtu hot water boiler system to offset 60-70 percent of current fuel oil and propane usage.

  3. The Improvement of Carburater Efficiency Using Biogas-based Venturi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasmi Ni Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of the fossil fuel subsidy by the Indonesian government has caused an increase in fuel prices, and a solution to find a relatively cheap and environmentally friendly alternative energy is needed. Biogas is one of the sources of renewable energy that has a potential to be developed, especially in farming area where the abundant animal excrement is not yet optimally used and causes environmental problems. Addressing this issue, we have developed an innovation by making a biogas and air mixer instrument through venturi pipe, using the basic theory of fluid mechanism in order to increase the use of biogas as an electricity source. Usually, biogas-based electric generators use dual fuel system such as fossil fuel and biogas to perform combustion due to the low octane contained in the biogas. By replacing the readily available manufactured venturi with the modified venturi, optimal combustion can be reached with using only single fuel of biogas. The results of the experiments show that the biogas debit on carburetor increases from 13 to 439 watts consuming biogas fuel from 0.22 to 4.96 liter/minute, respectively. The amount of combusted biogas depends on the value of the load power. Within the scope of our results, the maximum voltage reached is about 211.13 – 211.76 volts which is feasible to use for 220 volts electrical appliances

  4. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  5. Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot.

  6. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4 has been utilized as a fuel in a lab-scale furnace. A computational approach by standard k-ε combustion and turbulence model is applied. Hydrogen is added to the biogas components and the impacts of hydrogen enrichment on the temperature distribution, flame stability, and pollutant formation are studied. The results confirm that adding hydrogen to the POME biogas content could improve low calorific value (LCV of biogas and increases the stability of the POME biogas flame. Indeed, the biogas flame length rises and distribution of the temperature within the chamber is uniform when hydrogen is added to the POME biogas composition. Compared to the pure biogas combustion, thermal NOx formation increases in hydrogen-enriched POME biogas combustion due to the enhancement of the furnace temperature.

  7. The Biogas/Biofertilizer Business Handbook. Third Edition. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Michael

    This book describes one approach to building and operating biogas systems. The biogas systems include raw material preparation, digesters, separate gas storage tanks, use of the gas to run engines, and the use of the sludge as fertilizer. Chapters included are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Biogas Systems are Small Factories"; (3)…

  8. Biogas as a renewable energy fuel – A review of biogas upgrading, utilisation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah Khan, Imran; Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mohd; Hashim, Haslenda; Matsuura, Takeshi; Ismail, A.F.; Rezaei-DashtArzhandi, M.; Wan Azelee, I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • It is attempted to provide critical considerations on various biogas upgrading techniques. • Membrane is an environmentally and economically sound technique for purification. • Purified biogas in compressed form is a substitute of compressed natural gas for vehicles. • Charged mass and compressor input work are the most important factors for storage. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading is a widely studied and discussed topic and its utilisation as a natural gas substitute has gained a significant attention in recent years. The production of biomethane provides a versatile application in both heat and power generation and as a vehicular fuel. This paper systematically reviews the state of the art of biogas upgrading technologies with upgrading efficiency, methane (CH 4 ) loss, environmental effect, development and commercialisation, and challenges in terms of energy consumption and economic assessment. The market situation for biogas upgrading has changed rapidly in recent years, making the membrane separation gets significant market share with traditional biogas upgrading technologies. In addition, the potential utilisation of biogas, efficient conversion into bio-compressed natural gas (bio-CNG), and storage systems are investigated in depth. Two storing systems for bio-CNG at filling stations, namely buffer and cascade storage systems are used. The best storage system should be selected on the basis of the advantages of both systems. Also, the fuel economy and mass emissions for bio-CNG and CNG filled vehicles are studied. There is the same fuel economy and less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission for bio-CNG. Based on the results of comparisons between the technical features of upgrading technologies, various specific requirements for biogas utilisation and the relevant investment, and operating and maintenance costs, future recommendations are made for biogas upgrading.

  9. Analytical investigation of the thermal optimization of biogas plants; Analytische Untersuchung der thermischen Optimierung von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, Thomas [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Ing. Buero Energietechnik, Niebuell (Germany); Scholwin, Frank [Institut fuer Biogas, Kreislaufwirtschaft und Energie, Weimar (Germany); Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The economic efficiency of biogas plants is more difficult to display with recent legal regulations than with bonus tariff systems of previous EEG amendments. To enhance efficiency there are different options, often linked with further investments. Direct technical innovations with fast economic yields need exact evaluation of limiting conditions. Within this article the heat sector of agricultural biogas plants is studied. So far scarcely considered, especially the improvement of on-site thermal energy consumption promises a high optimisation. Data basis are feeding protocols and temperature measurements of input substrates, biogas, environment etc., also documentations of on-site thermal consumption over 10 years. Analyzing first results of measurements and primary equilibrations shows, that maintenance of biogas process temperature consumes most thermal energy and therefore has the greatest potential of improvement. Passive and active insulation of feed systems and heat recovery from secondary fermenter liquids are identified as first optimization measures. Depending on amount and temperature raise of input substrates, saving potentials of more than hundred megawatt hours per year were calculated.

  10. Anaerobic bioconversion of organic waste into biogas by hot water treatment at near-critical conditions: application in bioregenerative life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, Geert; Verstraete, Willy; Albrecht, Tobias; Brunner, Gerd; Lasseur, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of a Life Support Project. The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g(-1) VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 20 d was obtained. Biogas yields further increased with 10-15% at HRT > 20 d, indicating the hydrolysis of lignocellulose to be the rate-limiting conversion step. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated by hot water treatment (T approximately 310-350 degrees C, p approximately 240 bar), resulting in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete hygienisation of the residue. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrolysate allowed further conversion of 48-60% on COD (chemical oxygen demand) basis. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with a COD conversion up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis at near-critical conditions offers interesting features for (nearly) complete, non-toxic and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste in a bioregenerative life support context.

  11. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: Influence of aggregate formation on process stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleyböcker, A.; Liebrich, M.; Kasina, M.; Kraume, M.; Wittmaier, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of process recovery with calcium oxide. ► Formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids and phosphate. ► Adsorption of VFAs by the precipitates resulting in the formation of aggregates. ► Acid uptake and phosphate release by the phosphate-accumulating organisms. ► Microbial degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. - Abstract: Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH > 7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4) the degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. Furthermore, this mechanism enabled a stable process performance

  12. An Introduction to Biogas Production on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    This three-section report provides introductory information about biogas production and its application to farm environments. The first section discusses the various components of a biogas production system (a system that converts organic wastes into a usable form of energy), explains the system's benefits and liabilities, and provides a brief…

  13. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Nilsson, Ronny

    2009-11-01

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  14. Design Recovery Technology for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    RL-TR-95-208 Final Technical Report October 1995 DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME SYSTEMS The MITRE Corporation Lester J. Holtzblatt...92 - Jan 95 4. TTTLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lester J. Holtzblatt, Richard Piazza, and Susan...behavior of real - time systems in general, our initial efforts have centered on recovering this information from one system in particular, the Modular

  15. Biogas barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    +18,2 % biogas electricity production growth in 2011. Biogas energy recovery for both electricity and heat application has increased in the European Union. The magnitude of the reduction in the primary energy figure can be played down as it can be explained by a change in reporting method of the main producer country, Germany. New markets are starting to emerge in its footsteps, but the economic crisis and regulatory restrictions do not auger well for their expansion

  16. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  17. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  18. Quantitative Study of Biogas Generation Potential from Different Landfill Sites of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper was study of waste composition and quantitative analysis of biogas generation potential with its recovery at Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada landfill sites (LFS of Nepal. The waste management practice in LFS are significant deciding factors for the assessment of environmental impacts caused including the release of green house gases like methane, carbondioxide etc to the atmosphere, that could contribute significantly to global warming and climate change. The total waste disposed to Sisdole LFS, Pokhara LFS and Karaute Dada LFS are 410, 80 and 7.8 tons respectively.  The waste composition was studied onsite with waste reduction method and analyzed for their composition. The organic component of wastes was found high as 61.6%, 52.5% and 65% at Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada LFS respectively. The biogas potential at these landfill sites were 12157.78 cum, 851.99 cum and 169 cum of biogas per day in Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada LFS respectively. 4.68, 0.33 and 0.07 MW energy per day can be generated from these amounts of biogas produced in Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada LFS respectively. Proper gas collection system can be the source of income from these landfill sites and help to mitigate the adverse impact of methane that is being released from these landfill sites

  19. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  20. Model of the daily production of biogas from a Indian type digester using techniques of identification systems; Modelo da producao diaria de biogas de um biodigestor tipo indiano utilizando tecnicas de identificacao de sistemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET-PET), PE (Brazil)], e-mail: rangel@cefetpet.br; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Almeida, Otacilio da Mota [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2008-07-01

    This paper brings a study about utilization of curve adjustments and prediction models of biogas production from a biodigestor fed by sheep manure, to help in the development of a optimal controller to production and use of biogas generated by Indian type biodigestors applied to semiarid. From experimental data were applied simultaneously the Least Mean Squares and Recursive Least Squares methods algorithms and after proper analysis, to validation, a new experimental data set was used to the chosen model. (author)

  1. Optimisation of biogas production through a two-stage automated anaerobic digester system developed by the CSIR in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available with the aim of producing biogas as a renewable energy source plays a critical role in addressing the energy demand at a wastewater treatment works depending on the type of technology applied. Efficacy of anaerobic digestion process is highly dependent...

  2. Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Balestieri, José Antônio Perrella

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

  3. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  4. Economic evaluation of biogas and natural gas co-firing in gas turbine combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jun Young; Kang, Do Won; Kim, Tong Seop; Hur, Kwang Beom

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the economics of co-firing biogas and natural gas within a small gas turbine combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The thermodynamic performance of the CHP plant was calculated with varying gas mixing ratios, forming the basis for the economic analysis. A cost balance equation was used to calculate the costs of electricity and heat. The methodology was validated, and parametric analyses were used to investigate the influence of gas mixing ratio and heat sales ratio on the costs of electricity and heat. The cost of electricity generation from the CHP plant was compared to that of a central combined cycle power plant, and an economical gas mixing ratio range were suggested for various heat sales ratios. It was revealed that the effect of the heat sales ratio on the cost of electricity becomes greater as the proportion of natural gas is increased. It was also demonstrated that the economic return from the installation of CHP systems is substantially affected by the gas mixing ratio and heat sales ratio. Sensitivity analysis showed that influence of economic factors on the CHP plant is greater when a higher proportion of natural gas is used. - Highlights: • An appropriate method to calculate the costs of electricity (COE) and heat (COH) was established. • Both COE and COH increase with increasing natural gas mixing ratio and decreasing heat sales ratio. • The effect of the heat sales ratio on the COE becomes greater as the mixing ratio increases. • The payback period is considerably dependent on the mixing ratio and heat sales ratio

  5. Experimental evaluation of a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine operated on micro-trigeneration system for power, drying and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis; Herrera, Bernardo; Gallego, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A micro-trigeneration system based in a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was obtained. • Heat from engine exhaust gases was used for drying and refrigeration applications. • Energy efficiency of the microtrigeneration system in dual mode was 40%. • Peppermint was dried in the microtrigeneration system. - Abstract: A micro-trigeneration system based on a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was evaluated experimentally. In this system, waste heat from the engine exhaust was used for heating air using a heat pipe exchanger and for driving an absorption unit freezer. The air heated was used in a convective trays dryer designed to dry peppermint. The global energy efficiency of this system at the engine full load was 40% and 31% in diesel and dual mode, respectively, while the same efficiencies of the engine at the original single generation were 23% and 18%, respectively. On the other hand, a maximum diesel substitution level of 50% was achieved in dual mode.

  6. Biogas production on organic farms: Sustainable energy and better nutrient cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Grieb, Beatrice; Zerger, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Biogas production in organic farming is an approach to combine renewable energy and organic farming with numerous positive impacts on the farming system. In Germany biogas on organic farms has a long tradition, now the EU Project “SUSTAINGAS” aims at promotion of this issue on an EU-level. In this context a description of organic biogas was established.

  7. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to

  8. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  9. Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system produces water and hydrogen-rich syngas for propellant production, life support consumables, and...

  10. Optimization-based design of waste heat recovery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano

    /or selected. This dissertation focuses on the chemical product and process systems used for waste heat recovery. Here, chemical products are working fluids, which are under continuous development and screening to fulfill regulatory environmental protection and safe operation requirements. Furthermore......, for the recovery of low-grade waste heat, new fluids and processes are needed to make the recovery technically and economically feasible. As the chemical product is influential in the design of the process system, the design of novel chemical products must be considered with the process system. Currently, state...... product and process system in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Today, some of the most important chemical product design problems are solvents and working fluids. Solvents are a vital part in the recovery of valuable resources in separation processes or waste water treatment. Working fluids...

  11. A new helium gas recovery and purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamotot, T.; Suzuki, H.; Ishii, J.; Hamana, I.; Hayashi, S.; Mizutani, S.; Sanjo, S.

    1974-01-01

    A helium gas recovery and purification system, based on the principle of gas permeation through a membrane, is described. The system can be used for the purification of helium gas containing air as a contaminant. The apparatus, operating at ambient temperature does not need constant attention, the recovery ratio of helium gas is satisfactory and running costs are low. Gases other than helium can be processed with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  12. Biogas energy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T K

    1982-01-01

    A socio-economic study of India's biogas energy program, a response to the oil crisis of the 1970's, reviews the impact of promoting large-scale community biogas plants as a way to reach the lowest income groups. A case study draws on the experiences of the community plant in Gujarat village, and explores the program's secondary benefits and impacts on life styles. 15 references, 5 figures, 37 tables. (DCK)

  13. Janata biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, S; Singh, K K

    1980-03-01

    The Janata biogas plant is based on the use of local materials and locally available skills only. It is a proven technology at low cost and easy maintenance which should facilitate its extension at a much faster pace especially among the low income groups. This technology is important at this time because of the current crisis in the availability of firewood and mineral fuels. This handbook explains in non-technical language the basic features, design, and construction of this biogas plant. (DC)

  14. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Broekhuijsen, J.; van Gemert, Wim; Moll, Henri C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a

  15. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale; Camera di accumulo portatile per il monitoraggio di emissioni di biogas da discarica: risultati sperimentali ed elaborazioni preliminari a scala provinciale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Vulcanologia e Geochimica; Didero, M. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Geologia Applicata; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P. [Area Territorio e Ambiente Provincia di Arezzo, Arezzo (Italy). Servizio Ecologia; Tatano, F. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Ambientali

    2005-04-01

    On site CO{sub 2} flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO{sub 2} emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities. [Italian] La metodologia strumentale portatile della camera di accumulo, statica non stazionaria, e' stata adoperata sperimentalmente per la misura on site di flussi puntuali di emissione di CO{sub 2} in cinque discariche (attive e non) per RSU ed assimilabili localizzate nel territorio della Provincia di Arezzo. Si sono elaborate, ed analizzate criticamente, le corrispondenti mappe areali di flusso, che hanno consentito di delineare una possibile classificazione geometrica - ancorche' preliminare - di dispersioni di biogas generabili da discarica: diffuse interne, laterali/angolari interne, esterne. Con riferimento alle discariche inattive d'indagine, si sono altresi' determinati, e rappresentati graficamente, i valori di possibili parametri specifici (volumetrico, superficiale) di dispersione di biogas.

  16. Hybrid Energy System Design of Micro Hydro-PV-biogas Based Micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishrina; Abdullah, A. G.; Risdiyanto, A.; Nandiyanto, ABD

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid renewable energy system is an arrangement of one or more sources of renewable energy and also conventional energy. This paper describes a simulation results of hybrid renewable power system based on the available potential in an educational institution in Indonesia. HOMER software was used to simulate and analyse both in terms of optimization and economic terms. This software was developed through 3 main principles; simulation, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. Generally, the presented results show that the software can demonstrate a feasible hybrid power system as well to be realized. The entire demand in case study area can be supplied by the system configuration and can be met by ¾ of electricity production. So, there are ¼ of generated energy became an excess electricity.

  17. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Tu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  18. Influence of different practices on biogas sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulamanti, Aikaterini K.; Donida Maglio, Sara; Giuntoli, Jacopo; Agostini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production and use are generally regarded as a sustainable practice that can guarantee high greenhouse gas (GHG) savings. However, the actual carbon footprint of biogas is strongly influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to analyse the environmental performance of different biogas to electricity scenarios. Two criticalities are identified as important: the choice of feedstock and the operational practice concerning the digestate. Maize, manure and co-digestion of them are the different feedstocks chosen. Maize has higher yields, but its cultivation has to be accounted for, which consists of 28–42% of the GHG emissions of the whole process of producing electricity. Manure is considered a residue and as a result benefits from no production stage, but also from avoided emissions from the normal agricultural practice of storing it in the farm and spreading it as fertiliser, but has lower methane yields. Co-digestion combines the benefits and disadvantages of the two different feedstocks. Digestate storage in open or closed tanks and further use as fertiliser is analysed. The environmental impact analysis shows that a substantial reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved with closed digestate storage. The GHG emissions savings vary from about 3% in the maize pathways with open storage up to 330% in the manure pathway with closed storage. The biogas pathways, though, have worse environmental performances in all other environmental impacts considered but ozone depletion potential when compared to the European electricity average mix. -- Highlights: ► Biogas sustainability depends on the feedstock and the digestate management. ► Closed storage is strongly recommended. ► Taking into consideration credits is recommended. ► The biogas pathways GHG emissions can be lower than the ones of the reference system. ► Biogas pathways have higher impact in eutrophication, ecotoxicity and PM potentials

  19. Production of biogas from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuer, J.

    1980-12-01

    Different crop residues from agriculture and horticulture were investigated for feasibility of producing biogas. The anaerobic fermentation has been performed in batch system fermentation reactors (5 liters) at mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Content of volatile solids (VS/TS) in raw materials varied from 78.5 percent in silage from top of sugar beet to 97.3 percent in straw of rye. The highest content of lignin was found in stalks of Jerusalem artichoke (49.6 percent), stalks of horse bean (47.6 percent) and the lowest in leaves of cauliflower (9.5 percent), top of sugar beet and leaves of cabbage (11 percent) in both. Ratio of carbon to nitrogen was the highest in the straw of rye (60) and the lowest in silage from top of sugar beet (11) and in leaves of cauliflower (11). Rate of biogas production during the first 13 days of fermentation was about 27 liters per kg TS per day, achieved from top of sugar beet. Typical mean rate of biogas production, about 9 liters per kg TS per day, was performed during the first 40 days of retention time from straw of wheat and stalks of rape. Top of sugar beet and manure slurry have had the shortest effective retention time ca 20 days. Maximum total yield of biogas (427.0 liters per kg TS) was achieved from top of sugar beet. From manure slurry 257.5 liters biogas per kg TS was obtained. Methane content in biogas produced during the final 7 days of retention time was the highest from silage from top of artichoke (72.8 percent), stalks of horse bean (71.6 percent) and straw of wheat (71.0 percent). The lowest percentage of methane (59.0 percent) was found in biogas from top of sugar beet.

  20. Decision support systems for recovery of endangered species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The listing of a species as endangered under the Endangered Species Act invokes a suite of responses to help improve conditions for the recovery of that species, to include identification of stressors contributing to population loss, decision analysis of the impacts of proposed recovery options, and implementation of optimal recovery measures. The ability of a decision support system to quantify inherent stressor uncertainties and to identify the key stressors that can be controlled or eliminated becomes key to ensuring the recovery of an endangered species. The listing of the Snake River sockeye, spring/summer chinook, and fall chinook salmon species in the Snake River as endangered provides a vivid example of the importance of sophisticated decision support systems. Operational and physical changes under consideration at eight of the hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Lower Snake River pose significant financial impacts to a variety of stakeholders involved in the salmon population recovery process and carry significant uncertainties of outcome. A decision support system is presented to assist in the identification of optimal recovery actions for this example that includes the following: creation of datamarts of information on environmental, engineering, and ecological values that influence species survival; incorporation of decision analysis tools to determine optimal decision policies; and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to provide a context for decision analysis and to communicate the impacts of decision policies

  1. Anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system for potential energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Wangliang; Kan, Xiang; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomass as an alternative source for clean and sustainable energy production. In this work, a hybrid system was developed to combine anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification for energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass. The feasibility of the proposed hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically and the energy efficiency was maximized by varying energy input in the drying process. The experiments were performed in two stages. At the first stage, AD of yard waste was conducted by mixing with anaerobic sludge. At the second stage, co-gasification was added as post-treatment for the AD residue for syngas production. The co-gasification experiments of AD residue and woody biomass were conducted at varying mixing ratios and varying moisture contents of AD residue. Optimal energy efficiency was found to be 70.8% at mixing ratio of 20 wt% AD residue with 30 wt% moisture content. Two kinetic models were then adapted for prediction of biogas produced in AD process and syngas produced in gasification process, respectively. Both experimental and numerical results showed that full utilization of biomass could be realized to produce energy through the combination of these two technologies. - Highlights: • The feasibility of the proposed two-stage hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically. • The proposed hybrid system could effectively improve the quality of produced gas. • The operating parameters were optimized to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. • Drying process was found to play an important role in determining overall energy efficiency. • Optimal moisture content of AD residue was investigated for maximizing energy efficiency.

  2. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Carioca, J.O.B.; Canafistula, F.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system.

  3. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano - IFSertao-PE, BR407, km 8, 56314-520 Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carioca, J.O.B. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Food Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canafistula, F.J.F. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system. (author)

  4. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  5. Application of Multi-Criteria Analysis in the Evaluation of Biogas Plants with Respect to the Stability of the Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Šišková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the interconnection and globalization of access to information, scientific expertise and new technologies across the world, development of society is now progressing at a skyrocketing pace. Production in businesses is reaching maximum possible levels. This paper focuses on systemic evaluation of the interrelations among production processes of agricultural businesses running biogas plants. It represents a comprehensive proposal of a model instrument for comparison of production options in relation to available input materials in agricultural businesses. Interconnection of the economic, environmental and social factors is of growing significance for strategic progress along the lines of sustainable development of society. The objective of this paper is to propose and to describe the practical application of a multi-criterion model as an instrument of decision-making processes with a view to establishing a procedure for comparison of available input materials for biogas plants from the viewpoint of maintaining the stability of systemic interrelations in the agricultural sector in the context of sustainable development.

  6. THE ECONOMICS OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Karimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this paper life-cycle cost analysis of three biogas digesters is presented. Results show that the cost of biogas depends on the construction of digesters, sizes of methane tank and possibility of heating of the slurry. Biogas and natural gas costs calaculated are observed and found to be comparable. It is recommended that the biogas digesters can be constructed and installed, in principle, for every family and there is no need to built long gas pipe lines. ABSTRAK: Kertaskerja ini membentangkan analisis kos kitar hayat tiga pencerna biogas. Keputusan menunjukkan kos biogas bergantung kepada pembinaan pencerna, saiz tangki metana dan kemungkinan pemanasan buburan. Pengiraan kos biogas dan gas asli diambil kira dan ianya didapati setanding. Adalah disarankan pencerna biogas boleh dibina dan dipasang secara teorinya, bagi setiap keluarga tanpa memerlukan pembinaan paip gas yang panjang.

  7. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  8. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the population social

  9. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  10. Green Hydrogen Production from Raw Biogas: A Techno-Economic Investigation of Conventional Processes Using Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioele Di Marcoberardino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from biogas with conventional systems. The work is part of the European project BIONICO, whose purpose is to develop and test a membrane reactor (MR for hydrogen production from biogas. Within the BIONICO project, steam reforming (SR and autothermal reforming (ATR, have been identified as well-known technologies for hydrogen production from biogas. Two biogases were examined: one produced by landfill and the other one by anaerobic digester. The purification unit required in the conventional plants has been studied and modeled in detail, using Aspen Adsorption. A pressure swing adsorption system (PSA with two and four beds and a vacuum PSA (VPSA made of four beds are compared. VPSA operates at sub-atmospheric pressure, thus increasing the recovery: results of the simulations show that the performances strongly depend on the design choices and on the gas feeding the purification unit. The best purity and recovery values were obtained with the VPSA system, which achieves a recovery between 50% and 60% at a vacuum pressure of 0.1 bar and a hydrogen purity of 99.999%. The SR and ATR plants were designed in Aspen Plus, integrating the studied VPSA model, and analyzing the behavior of the systems at the variation of the pressure and the type of input biogas. The SR system achieves a maximum efficiency, calculated on the LHV, of 52% at 12 bar, while the ATR of 28% at 18 bar. The economic analysis determined a hydrogen production cost of around 5 €/kg of hydrogen for the SR case.

  11. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Biogas may contain unwanted and harmful components, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as terpenes. These terpenes (organic oils) are mainly present in citrus peel and plant residues; that is why especially raw biogas from organic waste digestion plants contains high concentrations of terpenes. If terpenes end up in the gas grid (with the injected biomethane) there is a risk that plastics (PE pipes) lose their mechanical properties by absorbing liquids or extracting ethereal plasticizers. This can lead to embrittlement greatly lowering the reliability of the piping. In addition, soft components are als o affected (gaskets and rubber O-rings). Besides the impact on the integrity of the gas grid, terpenes also mask the odor of natural gas odorants such as THT. This impedes the detection of gas leaks which is a significant security risk. Furthermore, the presence of terpenes in biogas leads to fouling of equipment used for the drying of biomethane, as well as contamination of adsorption liquids and membranes used in the upgrading process. Currently, terpenes are removed by activated carbon filters. The tool life of such a filter can be relatively short if terpene concentrations are high in the biogas; this results in a significant increase of the operational costs, due to the replacement of the carbon. This study looked at alternative techniques for removing much of the terpenes from biogas in a simple, efficient and cheap way. In a workshop with stakeholders two techniques were chosen to be tested on laboratory scale in order to demonstrate the proof of principle. These techniques are photo-oxydation and a gas scrubbing. Of all investigated techniques for the removal of limonene the application of UV radiation seems to be the most promising option because of the simplicity of the process, the high efficiency (up to 94%), the comparable operational costs with activated carbon (6.7 to 9.5 euro/kg limonene removed, compared to 10 euro/kg limonene removed for activated

  12. Methodology for Analysing Energy Demand in Biogas Production Plants—A Comparative Study of Two Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lindkvist

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production through anaerobic digestion may play an important role in a circular economy because of the opportunity to produce a renewable fuel from organic waste. However, the production of biogas may require energy in the form of heat and electricity. Therefore, resource-effective biogas production must consider both biological and energy performance. For the individual biogas plant to improve its energy performance, a robust methodology to analyse and evaluate the energy demand on a detailed level is needed. Moreover, to compare the energy performance of different biogas plants, a methodology with a consistent terminology, system boundary and procedure is vital. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for analysing the energy demand in biogas plants on a detailed level. In the methodology, the energy carriers are allocated to: (1 sub-processes (e.g., pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, gas cleaning, (2 unit processes (e.g., heating, mixing, pumping, lighting and (3 a combination of these. For a thorough energy analysis, a combination of allocations is recommended. The methodology was validated by applying it to two different biogas plants. The results show that the methodology is applicable to biogas plants with different configurations of their production system.

  13. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B K; Angelidaki, I [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  14. Effects of green manure herbage management and its digestate from biogas production on barley yield, N recovery, soil structure and earthworm populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøseth, Randi Berland; Bakken, Anne Kjersti; Bleken, Marina Azzaroli

    2014-01-01

    management on the yield and N recovery of a subsequent spring barley crop, and their short term effects on soil structure and earthworm populations. A field trial was run from 2008 to 2011 at four sites with contrasting soils under cold climate conditions. We compared several options for on-site herbage......In repeatedly mown and mulched green manure leys, the mulched herbage contains substantial amounts of nitrogen (N), which may only slightly contribute to the following crops’ nutrient demand. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies for green manure...... management and the application of anaerobically digested green manure herbage. Depending on the site, removal of green manure herbage reduced the barley grain yield by 0% to 33% compared to leaving it on-site. Applying digestate, containing 45% of the N in harvested herbage, as fertilizer for barley gave...

  15. Possibilities of heat energy recovery from greywater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecka, Kaja

    2018-02-01

    Waste water contains a large amount of heat energy which is irretrievably lost, so it is worth thinking about the possibilities of its recovery. It is estimated that in a residential building with full sanitary fittings, about 70% of the total tap water supplied is discharged as greywater and could be reused. The subject of the work is the opportunity to reuse waste water as an alternative source of heat for buildings. For this purpose, the design of heat exchangers used in the process of greywater heat recovery in indoor sewage systems, public buildings as well as in industrial plants has been reviewed. The possibility of recovering heat from waste water transported in outdoor sewage systems was also taken into consideration. An exemplary waste water heat recovery system was proposed, and the amount of heat that could be obtained using a greywater heat recovery system in a residential building was presented. The work shows that greywater heat recovery systems allow for significant savings in preheating hot tap water, and the rate of cost reimbursement depends on the purpose of the building and the type of installation. At the same time, the work shows that one should adjust the construction solutions of heat exchangers and indoor installations in buildings to the quality of the medium flowing, which is greywater.

  16. Utilization of waste as biogas substrateby dominan microbes identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlina, E.; Sambasri, S.; Hartati, E.; Safitri, R.; Hodijat, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia as the tropics have a source of biomass feedstock which is very large, so the waste biomass can be used optimally as an energy source in the form of biogas. This study was conducted to obtain alternative energy from domestic waste materials, given the limited availability of petroleum and natural gas sourced from fossil fuels. This methodology is an experimental method, the process conditions at room temperature 25-27 °C, pH adjusted to the growth of microbes to produce biogas, retention time 20-60 days, the bioreactor is operated with a batch system, the volume of waste in the bioreactor is made permanent, so that the production of biogas in large scale will increase the pressure inside the bioreactor. Biogas is formed accommodated then distributed to the stove. Factors that determine the formation of biogas is a microbial species capable methanogens convert acetate into biogas. From the results of microbial identification of the isolates in the bioreactor, has identified three types of bacteria methanogens namely Methanospirillum hungatei, Methanobacterium polustre and Methanolacinapoynteri. The results of this study, domestic waste can be utilized as a substrate in biogas production, with the highest methane composition reaches 50.79%. This result is expected to increase public knowledge to utilize the waste into biogas as a renewable energy to sufficient the energy needs of household, so it does not depend on the energy derived from fossil fuels.

  17. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  18. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... program; although, they had less access to formal credit. The estimation of treatment effects showed that farmers who adopted the biogas technology gained benefits through decreases in crops expenses and increases in the livestock and non-agricultural income. Furthermore, the results showed that adopting...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  19. Biogas Initiative from Swine Farm in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongsak Det

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First biogas pipeline network has been well established in southern Thailand. About 1,273 households, accountable for about 87% of the total of 1,466 households in the district, get the benefits from biogas energy in many ways. Key success to this initiative is the collaboration between all parties, i.e., swine farm owners, households, and government officials. Swine farm owners are responsible for the design and construction of the biogas plants. Households pay some contributions regarding labor work and maintenance cost on biogas system and its pipeline network. Government officials are responsible for financial and technical supports to both parties. Indeed biogas energy offers an alternative source of heat energy for cooking fuel in this region.

  20. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1997-02-01

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  1. Optimal control of a one product recovery system with backlogging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiesmüller, G.P.; Minner, S.; Kleber, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a product recovery system for one product is investigated. The system contains one inventory for returned and recoverable items and one for serviceable items. Demands are satisfied from serviceable inventory where backlogging of demands is allowed. In addition, there is the possibility

  2. Challenges in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennuit, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a sustainable process combining waste treatment, nutrient recycling and energy production which can contribute to limit climate change and environmental problems. However, in order for this technique to be more widely used, production of biogas from available wastes...... from a mixture of pig manure and other waste materials by separating the solid fraction of digestate and recycling it back to the digester. It is shown that separation and recycling of the dry matter rich solid fraction could successfully increase biogas production and a preliminary economic evaluation...... showed a potential increase of 1.9 to 6.8€ per ton of biomass treated. In the second part of this study, a biological treatment to improve energy production from wastewater sludge was investigated. Wastewater sludge was subjected to thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) from 2h to 5d. Increase in biogas...

  3. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  4. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  5. Helium-Hydrogen Recovery System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Immense quantities of expensive liquefied helium are required at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers for pre-cooling rocket engine propellant systems prior to filling...

  6. State-of-the-art of large scale biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisum, J.M.; Noergaard, P.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of the technological state of large scale biogas plants in Europe treating manure is given. 83 plants are in operation at present. Of these, 16 are centralised digestion plants. Transport costs at centralised digestion plants amounts to between 25 and 40 percent of the total operational costs. Various transport equipment is used. Most large scale digesters are CSTRs, but serial, contact, 2-step, and plug-flow digesters are also found. Construction materials are mostly steel and concrete. Mesophilic digestion is most common (56%), thermophilic digestion is used in 17% of the plants, combined mesophilic and thermophilic digestion is used in 28% of the centralised plants. Mixing of digester content is performed with gas injection, propellers, and gas-liquid displacement. Heating is carried out using external or internal heat exchangers. Heat recovery is only used in Denmark. Gas purification equipment is commonplace, but not often needed. Several plants use separation of the digested manure, often as part of a post-treatment/-purification process or for the production of 'compost'. Screens, sieve belt separaters, centrifuges and filter presses are employed. The use of biogas varies considerably. In some cases, combined heat and power stations are supplying the grid and district heating systems. Other plants use only either the electricity or heat. (au)

  7. Exploring the effects of ZVI addition on resource recovery in the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puyol, D.; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Segura, Y.

    2018-01-01

    not compensate the costs of ZVI purchase, and (b) ZVI dramatically decreases the P recovery potential in the digestate of the AD systems. This is the first study to experimentally and mathematically describe the effect of ZVI on biogas production/composition and on the fate of phosphorus compounds, and its......The influence of Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) addition on the potential resource recovery during the anaerobic digestion (AD) of domestic waste sludge is assessed. Potentially recoverable resources analyzed were nutrients such as struvite to recover P, and energy as biogas to recover C. Short term...... (biochemical methane potential tests, BMP) and long term (AD1, AD2) experiments are conducted using two types of set-up (batch, continuous). Process data (influent, effluent and biogas) is continuously collected and the dry digested sludge is analyzed by XPS. A mathematical model is developed based...

  8. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  9. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  10. The Determinants Factors of Biogas Technology Adoption in Cattle Farming: Evidences from Pati, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatmiko Wahyudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though biogas technology has been introduced in Indonesia since 1990’s and having the potential, the rate of biogas adoption in Indonesia runs slowly. It is important to understand factors encouraging or discouraging potential adopters to build biogas plant. The development of livestock sector especially cattle farming in Indonesia can be seen as the opportunity to increase the rate of biogas adoption. This study investigated the factors affecting households of cattle farmer to adopt or not to adopt biogas technology. A cross-sectional research survey was carried out by using structured questionnaires as the primary tool to collect data from both biogas adopters and non biogas adopters in Pati regency, Indonesia. Socioeconomic characteristic of potential biogas adopters plays an important role to ensure the adoption of biogas technology sustainable. Socioeconomic characteristic regarding having high social status determines individual to adopt biogas relatively earlier than other members of a social system. Having high income and education enables traditional farmers to finance biogas plant by their own money or access aid from the government or other agencies. Among other attributes of innovation, relative advantage of installing biogas plant is the most determinant attribute to speed the rate of biogas adoption. Having biogas plant was perceived as better option and generated more benefits compared to previous technology or method. Article History: Received May 17th 2017; Received in revised form August 5th  2017; Accepted Sept 6th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Wahyudi, J. (2017 The Determinant Factors of Biogas Technology Adoption in Cattle Farming: Evidences from Pati, Indonesia, 6(3, 235-240. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.235-240

  11. Biogas in Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGarry, B

    1981-01-01

    The experience gained in small-scale experiments with a 600-1 horizontal plug-flow digester, made from three 200-1 drums, was used to investigate the possibility of using biogas as a diesel-fuel substitute for powering pump engines at boreholes used for cattle in the arid areas of Botswana. A 10-m/sup 3/ Chinese-type digester was used in these tests. The terms of reference of the test and details of the operational plan are included. The use of biogas toilets as efficient low-cost sanitation devices are also being promoted.

  12. Biogas from landfills: how to optimise its capture? To know in order to act - Guides and Technical Guidebooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Sylvaine; Bellenoue, Dominique; Budka, Arnaud; Bour, Olivier; Coste, Emmanuel; Chassagnac, Thierry; Dumas, Bruno; Ogor, Yoann; Le Fournis, Gwenael; Riquier, Laurent; Brunel, Nicolas; Gisbert, Thierry; Thiriez, Arnaud; Thomas, Stephane; Hebe, Isabelle; Heyberger, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled problems faced by degassing systems, this guide aims at describing how to diagnose a site of biogas recovery from landfills, which improvements can be envisaged, how to choose among possible recovery and valorisation options, and how to integrate new regulations. Thus, it first gives an overview of stakes and challenges related to landfill gas management optimisation from different points of view (environment, safety, regulation, energy production), and then proposes a classification of storage installations depending on gas management modes (levelling down, destruction by combustion, energetic valorisation). It proposes an overview of technical means to be implemented either for all types of sites, or for different specific and typical cases

  13. Tanker self-help spill recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J B; Wainwright, J G; Ehman, T K

    1991-12-01

    An investigation was conducted of the circumstances in which oil spills occur from tankers at sea by analyzing available historical oil spill data. A data base of marine oil spills greater than 134 tonnes occurring from 1974 and June 1990, included in an appendix, was among the information analyzed. The analysis showed that marine oil spills of 5,000 tonnes and greater account for 39.4% of the accidents yet 94.7% of the total spilled quantity; 84% of those spills occur in vessels of 20,000 deadweight tonnes and larger. Of spills over 5,000 tonnes, 78.5% occur outside of harbor or pier areas where spill response equipment may not be readily available. Over 50% of spills are caused by groundings or collisions where the vessel crew might be able to respond in mitigating and controlling the outflow of oil. The review suggested that tanker self-help systems warrant serious consideration. Potential self-help systems are described, ranging from additives such as bioremediation, dispersants, and solidifiers to equipment such as portable pumps, booms, and skimmers. Candidate systems were examined in terms of their safety, ease of operation, practicability, and effectiveness. Their possible performance was then assessed for the case of major marine oil spills that have occurred in Canadian waters. Four systems are identified as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible implementation: internal oil transfer, hydrostatic loading, external oil lightering, and contingency planning. A system design is evaluated and its benefits and possible implementation are outlined, based on integration of the preferred attributes of the above four options. Recommendations for implementation are also provided. 28 refs., 6 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. System and method for determining the net output torque from a waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaud, Christophe; Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2016-12-13

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system with a system and method for calculation of the net output torque from the waste heat recovery system. The calculation uses inputs from existing pressure and speed sensors to create a virtual pump torque sensor and a virtual expander torque sensor, and uses these sensors to provide an accurate net torque output from the WHR system.

  15. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  16. International scientific conference biogas science 2009. Vol. 2. Lectures; Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009. Bd. 2. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Within the international conference of the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) at 2nd to 4th December, 2009, in Erding (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Design and application of a functional oligonucleotide microarray for the identification of cellulose genes and their expression in (different) biogas Fermenters (M. Engel et al.); (2) Evaluation of the potential of hygienisation of the biogas process with regard to phytogenic damage exciter (R. Friedrich et al.); (3) Prevalence and role of hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors (V.V. Zverlov et al.); (4) System analysis of biogas plants by means of microbiologic and molecular biologic methods: Comparison of hyperthermophilic (60 C) and thermophilic (55 C) (P. Scherer et al.); (5) Methanogenic archaea in agricultural biogas plants (E. Nettmann et al.); (6) Population dynamics of methanogens during acidification of biogas Fermenters fed with maize silage - a causal analysis (M. Lebuhn et al.); (7) Advanced interpretation of anaerobic batch tests - Conclusions for the practical operation (S. Meier et al.); (8) Development of a NIRS calibration for the determination of the biogas yield of maize (B. Darnhofer et al.); (9) Hydrogen and methane: Enhanced methane as well as hydrogen production and increased process stability by Sensorik control (N. Weran); (10) Stable carbon isotopes: A new laser method for the process analysis and identification of microbiologic reactions in the biogas process (S. Laukenmann et al.); (11) Biogas from grass silage - measurements and modelling (K. Koch et al.); (12) Mathematical modelling of the mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobe fermentation of maize silage (M. Luebken et al.); (13) The basket of benefit methodology as a tool for the comparison of electricity, heat, and fuel production from energy crops, exemplified by different utilization pathways for biogas (M. Bystricky et

  17. Assessment of energy performance in the life-cycle of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Pal

    2006-01-01

    Energy balances are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for biogas systems based on 8 different raw materials. The analysis is based on published data and relates to Swedish conditions. The results show that the energy input into biogas systems (i.e. large-scale biogas plants) overall corresponds to 20-40% (on average approximately 30%) of the energy content in the biogas produced. The net energy output turns negative when transport distances exceed approximately 200 km (manure), or up to 700 km (slaughterhouse waste). Large variations exist in energy efficiency among the biogas systems studied. These variations depend both on the properties of the raw materials studied and on the system design and allocation methods chosen. The net energy output from biogas systems based on raw materials that have high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) is relatively low. When energy-demanding handling of the raw materials is required, the energy input increases significantly. For instance, in a ley crop-based biogas system, the ley cropping alone corresponds to approximately 40% of the energy input. Overall, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy-demanding process, corresponding to 40-80% of the energy input into the systems. Thus, the results are substantially affected by the assumptions made about the allocation of a plant's entire energy demand among raw materials, e.g. regarding biogas yield or need of additional water for dilution

  18. Biogas 2007. Energy source of the future; Biogas 2007. Energietraeger der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within this VDI meeting, held between 14th and 15th June, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Perspectives of the use of biogas in the background of the instruments according to the launch of renewable energies (B. Dreher); (b) Biogas in the energy mix and as export product - demand of action in EEG (C. da Costa Gomez); (c) Cultivation of regenerative raw materials for production of fermentation gas (A. Vetter); (d) Consequences of the cultivation of power plants on nature and landscape (W. Peters); (e) Agrarian residual substances and wastes of biofuel production as fermentation substrates (G. Langhans); (f) Biological waste management - comparison between composting and fermentation (Ch. Dornack, A. Schnapke); (g) Treatment and utilization of residues of fermentation (H. Doehler); (h) State of the art of the production and utilization of biogas using the NawaRo plant (P. Weiland, Ch. Rieger, J. Schroeder, R. Kissel, H. Bachmaier, V. Plogsties, J. Vogtherr); (i) Dry fermentation for continuous biogas processes - progress report (R. Schneider); (j) Status Quo and potential of development of mechanical-biological waste treatment under special consideration of fermentation and energetic utilization (K. Fricke, H. Santen, T. Bahr, A. Huettner); (k) Optimization of the plant operation by means of process monitoring and process modelling (M. Mueller, F. Scholwin, B. Fritsche); (l) Power supply and heat supply of the bio energy village Juehnde (E. Fangmeier); (m) Processing of regenerating raw materials for the optimization of the biogas yield: Which effects can be reached in the biogas process by means of pre-treatment of biomass such as corn and triticale? (B. Schumacher, H. Oechsner, Th. Senn, Th. Jungbluth); (n) Biogas production by means of dry fermentation: State of the art (A. Schattauer, P. Weiland); (o) Biogas as a fuel: AGROPTI - gas in Sweden (T. Ahrens, P. Weiland); (p) Bio energy as a system service

  19. Faulted systems recovery experience. Final report, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This report addresses the recovery (i.e., return to service from a faulted, or otherwise unavailable, condition) of important nuclear power plant front-line and support systems and equipment. It contains information based on operating experience relative to the times to recover from a variety of plant events. It also indicates the nature of the operator actions involved. This information is intended to provide useful insights to utilities who are undertaking Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) per Generic Letter 88-20 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report provides a database of recovery experience primarily derived from Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The database contains recovery duration information for 205 demand events and 98 nondemand events. In particular, it contains recovery durations for 42 pump related and 143 valve related events that are representative of demand conditions. Experience shows that, overall, about one-half of all pumps and valves are recovered in 30 minutes or less. Specific recovery experience is dependent on the equipment type, the plant system involved, and the failure mode encountered. (author)

  20. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotojaona, Loic

    2013-07-01

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  1. Cloud Standby: Disaster Recovery of Distributed Systems in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk , Alexander; Tai , Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Disaster recovery planning and securing business processes against outtakes have been essential parts of running a company for decades. As IT systems became more important, and especially since more and more revenue is generated over the Internet, securing the IT systems that support the business processes against outages is essential. Using fully operational standby sites with periodically updated standby systems is a well-known approach to prepare against disasters. ...

  2. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  3. Use of biogas in PEM fuel cells; Einsatz von Biogas in PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Volkhard; Schmersahl, Ralf; Ellner, Janine (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    This research project was dedicated to two problems: 1. What demands must biogas meet in order to conform to the specifications of PEM fuel cell systems and permit safe operation? 2. How must a fuel cell system be designed and operated in order to be well-adapted to the special features of biogas as opposed to natural gas? For this purpose biogas samples were taken from laboratory-scale and commercial plants and analysed by gas chromatography using various substrates and methods. By combining this with the use of a mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS system) it was possible to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulphurious trace gases in the biogas which might cause damage to the fuel cell system. Investigations were performed on an experimental reformer using either modelled or native biogas of different compositions, the intent being to obtain information for the design of the individual process stages. The two operating parameters steam-methane ratio (or S/C ratio) and reforming temperature were varied to optimise parameter settings in terms of energy efficiency. By linking the reformer to a 500 W fuel cell it was possible confirm the suitability of the reformed biogas for use in fuel cells. [German] In diesm Forschungsvorhaben werden zwei Fragestellungen bearbeitet: 1. Welche Anforderungen ergeben sich an das Biogas, um den Spezifikationen von PEM-Brennstoffzellensystemen zu genuegen und eine sicheren Betrieb zu ermoeglichen? 2. Wie muss das Brennstoffzellensystem ausgelegt und gefuehrt werden, um den Besonderheiten von Biogas im Vergleich zu Erdgas Rechnung zu tragen? Dazu wurden Biogasproben aus Labor- und Praxisanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Substrate und Verfahren gaschromatisch analysiert. Die Kopplung mit einem massenspektroskopischen Detektor (GC-MS System) ermoeglicht dabei die Qualifizierung und Quantifizierung der vorhandenen schwefelhaltigen Spurengase, die eine Schaedigung von Brennstoffzellenanlagen verursachen. Die

  4. Analysis of biogas transformation in experimental biogas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jelínková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the analysis of anaerobic fermentation in an experimental biogas plant. Technological processes and operation parameters were monitored; these processes and parameters include, for example, the optimal structure of the input material and the consideration of the prolonging of the duration of the fermentation process. The goal of prolonging the fermentation process is to obtain higher biogas (and methane production and to decrease the fermentation residue effluvial emissions. Emphasis is also laid on the mutual co-fermentation of substrates with regard to further use of the results in solving technological problems in other biogas plants. This technological process was first monitored in 2009; that is, before the planned intensification and modernization of the experimental biogas plant. Thus, the evaluation of the process could become part of the planned intensification and modernization of the chosen biogas plant (extended by the addition of the second stage of methanogenesis. The results obtained from the experimental biogas plant, which is one of the pioneering biogas plants in the Czech Republic, may serve, to other biogas operators, as a base for the preparation of suitable input, and for improving the efficiency of anaerobic fermentation within their biogas plants. The goal of the improvement of the fermentation process is to fulfill the ecological aspects; that is, to cut down CO2 emissions and to reduce the negative impact of the fermentation process on the environment (reduction of effluvium and noise originating in biogas plants.

  5. Biogas in the agriculture. State of the art. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting of the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th September, 2009, in Weimar the following lectures were held: (1) Results of the actual biogas measurement II (Peter Weiland); (2) Agitators in biogas plants - Technology with central significance (Kay Rostalski); (3) How much energy is needed by a biogas fermenter? (Ludwig Heinloth); (4) The fermentation concept of Rueckert NatUrgas GmbH (Claus Rueckert, Dominique Pfeufer); (5) Experiences from the construction for the practice of the company MT-Energie GmbH (Bodo Drescher); (6) Fermenter/technology concept of Schmack Biogas AG (Thomas Moeeslinger); (7) Transport of biomass - How much does the logistics of Guelle and Co. cost? (Thore Toews); (8) Which factors determine the efficiency of biogas plants? (Gerd Reinhold); (9) Microbial diversity in biogas reactors in the fermentation of renewable raw materials (Michael Klocke et al.); (10) What do additives and ingredients contribute to the optimisation of the production of biogas? (Udo Hoelker); (11) Process optimisation - An interaction between technology and microbiology (Andreas Gronauer et al.); (12) Emissions at the production of biogas - an analysis if the environmental relevance (Joachim Clemens et al.); (13) Support systems for energy plants - Consequences to soil and environment (Matthias Willms et al.); (14) How ecological is biogas? (Sven Gaertner); (15) Biogas plant - Analysis of construction and operation from licensing view (Hans-Walter Schneichel); (16) Biogas plants - Analysis of construction and operation from contractual legal view (Florian Valentin); (17) Biogasplants - Analysis of construction and operation from remuneration legal view (Helmut Loibl); (18) Process and costs of treatment of residues of fermentation (Sebastian Wulf, Helmut Doehler); (19) How do residues of

  6. Biogas/biofertilizer business handbook (third edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnott, M.

    1985-07-01

    The handbook covers biogas systems, including raw material preparation, digesters, separate gas storage tanks, use of gas to run engines, and the use of sludge as fertilizer. Also covers secondary projects such as flat-plate solar collector water heaters, composting, and bio-insecticides.

  7. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  8. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  9. Temperature control of evaporators in automotive waste heat recovery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oom, M.E.E.; Feru, E.; de Jager, A.G.; de Lange, H.C.; Ouwerkerk, H.

    2017-01-01

    his paper presents a control strategy for the steam generation process in automotive waste heat recovery systems that are based on the subcritical Rankine cycle. The central question is how to regulate the flow of water into the evaporator such that dry steam is generated at its outlet, subject to

  10. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  11. Optimal control of diesel engines with waste heat recovery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.; Waschl, H.; Kolmanovsky, I.; Steinbuch, M.; Del Re, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO 2 - NO x trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  12. Design and analysis of heat recovery system in bioprocess plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar; Rašković, Predrag; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat integration of a bioprocess plant is studied. • Bioprocess plant produces yeast and ethyl-alcohol. • The design of a heat recovery system is performed by batch pinch analysis. • Direct and indirect heat integration approaches are used in process design. • The heat recovery system without a heat storage opportunity is more profitable. - Abstract: The paper deals with the heat integration of a bioprocess plant which produces yeast and ethyl-alcohol. The referent plant is considered to be a multiproduct batch plant which operates in a semi-continuous mode. The design of a heat recovery system is performed by batch pinch analysis and by the use of the Time slice model. The results obtained by direct and indirect heat integration approaches are presented in the form of cost-optimal heat exchanger networks and evaluated by different thermodynamic and economic indicators. They signify that the heat recovery system without a heat storage opportunity can be considered to be a more profitable solution for the energy efficiency increase in a plant

  13. Control of automotive waste heat recovery systems with parallel evaporators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rascanu, G.C.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) is applied to control a Waste Heat Recovery system for a highly dynamic automotive application. As a benchmark, a commonly applied control strategy is used that consists of a feedforward based on engine conditions and of two PI controllers that

  14. An integrated approach for the validation of energy and environmental system analysis models : used in the validation of the Flexigas Excel BioGas model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; van Someren, Christian; Liu, Wen; Bekkering, Jan; Hengeveld, Evert Jan; Holstein, J.; Benders, René M.J.; Laugs, Gideon A.H.; van Gemert, Wim; Moll, Henri C.

    2016-01-01

    A review has been completed for a verification and validation (V&V) of the (Excel) BioGas simulator or EBS model. The EBS model calculates the environmental impact of biogas production pathways using Material and Energy Flow Analysis, time dependent dynamics, geographic information, and Life Cycle

  15. The impact of biogas technology adoption for farm households – empirical evidence from mixed crop and livestock farming systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the impact of biogas technology adoption as a livestock waste technology to support Mixed Crop and Livestock (MCL) farming among smallholder farmers in Indonesia. A cross sectional survey was conducted to collect data from 351 farm households (171 biogas adopters and 180...

  16. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  17. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for biogas

  18. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  19. Experimental biogas research by anaerobic digestion of waste of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, one of the most efficient and prospective methods of biodegradable waste management is anaerobic digestion in a bio-reactor. The use of this method for managing biodegradable waste generating in agriculture and elsewhere would result in the recovery of biogas that could be used as an alternative to natural ...

  20. Biogas: environmentally friendly, safe, profitable; Biogass : miljoevennlig, sikker, loennsom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleengen, Svein

    2009-07-01

    This book focuses on the potential of fermentation by yeast materials in a sustainable perspective, focusing on current Norwegian agriculture and opportunities for recovery from natural gas. The author, who is an engineer and farmer, base his knowledge on his own experiences, including inspections of biogas plants abroad. (AG)

  1. The conversion of renewable biogas source into energy; A conversao da fonte renovavel biogas em energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]|[Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.sup.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant.This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  2. Sewage biogas conversion into electricity; Conversao do biogas de tratamento de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, omartins@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention no: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant. This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  3. Potentials for Commercial Production of Biogas from Domestic Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Solid waste management, food waste, anaerobic digestion, biogas ... Ministry of Environment, 2005) have not been able to ... waste management system which ensures financial returns at ... that incorporates recycling, composting, incineration.

  4. Proceedings of the 1. annual Canadian farm and food biogas conference and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for researchers, farmers, and electric utility operators to discuss issues related to the growth of Canada's biogas industry. Many farmers are now exploring methods of producing biogas from agricultural wastes using anaerobic digestion technologies. However, regulatory problems continue to stall the growth of the fledgling biogas industry. In addition, many biogas plants face challenges related to ensuring reliable grid connections. European and American perspectives on biogas development were presented at the conference along with issues related to provincial and federal regulations and policies. Technologies and strategies for connecting biogas systems with other power systems were presented. The conference was divided into 11 sessions and 2 plenary sessions: (1) B1 grid connection solutions; (2) B2D energy crops and other plant-based co-substrates; (3) B2E Ontario biogas today; (4) B3D mixed materials; (5) B3E siting, odour and safety; (6) B4D economics and policy issues; (7) B4E genset performance and efficiency panel; (8) B5D case studies of food or farm biogas systems; (9) B5E case studies of farm-based systems; (10) B6D biogas next steps; and (11) B6E biogas in an urban setting. The conference featured 42 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. A set of 12 poster presentations were also presented, as well as several networking forums. tabs., figs

  5. Transaction Costs in Collective Waste Recovery Systems in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to identify the institutional flaws of the current EU waste management model by analysing the economic model of extended producer responsibility and collective waste management systems and to create a model for measuring the transaction costs borne by waste recovery organizations. The model was approbated by analysing the Bulgarian collective waste management systems that have been complying with the EU legislation for the last 10 years. The analysis focuses on waste oils becau...

  6. Development of bioelectrochemical systems using various biogas fermenter effluents as inocula and municipal waste liquor as adapting substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Péter; Koók, László; Keller, Enikő; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin; Rózsenberszki, Tamás; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Banu, J Rajesh; Nemestóthy, Nándor

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance - treating landfill-derived waste liquor - by applying effluents of various biogas fermenters as inocula. It turned out that the differences of initial microbial community profiles notably influenced the efficiency of MFCs. In fact, the adaptation time (during 3 weeks of operation) has varied significantly, depending on the source of inoculum and accordingly, the obtainable cumulative energy yields were also greatly affected (65% enhancement in case of municipal wastewater sludge inoculum compared to sugar factory waste sludge inoculum). Hence, it could be concluded that the capacity of MFCs to utilize the complex feedstock was heavily dependent on biological factors such as the origin/history of inoculum, the microbial composition as well as proper acclimation period. Therefore, these parameters should be of primary concerns for adequate process design to efficiently generate electricity with microbial fuel cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  8. Recent updates on biogas production - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Sárvári Horváth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing the societies now and in the future is the reduction of green house gas emissions and thus preventing the climate change. It is therefore important to replace fossil fuels with renewable sources, such as biogas. Biogas can be produced from various organic waste streams or as a byproduct from industrial processes. Beside energy production, the degradation of organic waste through anaerobic digestion offers other advantages, such as the prevention of odor release and the decrease of pathogens. Moreover, the nutrient rich digested residues can be utilized as fertilizer for recycling the nutrients back to the fields. However, the amount of organic materials currently available for biogas production is limited and new substrates as well as new effective technologies are therefore needed to facilitate the growth of the biogas industry all over the world. Hence, major developments have been made during the last decades regarding the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass, the development of high rate systems, and the application of membrane technologies within the anaerobic digestion process in order to overcome the shortcomings encountered. The degradation of organic material requires a synchronized action of different groups of microorganisms with different metabolic capacities. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have provided the research community with a valuable tool for improved understanding of this complex microbiological system, which in turn could help optimize and control the process in an effective way in the future.

  9. Thermal energy recovery of air conditioning system--heat recovery system calculation and phase change materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhaolin; Liu Hongjuan; Li Yun

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat thermal energy storage systems can be used to recover the rejected heat from air conditioning systems, which can be used to generate low-temperature hot water. It decreases not only the consumption of primary energy for heating domestic hot water but also the calefaction to the surroundings due to the rejection of heat from air conditioning systems. A recovery system using phase change materials (PCMs) to store the rejected (sensible and condensation) heat from air conditioning system has been developed and studied, making up the shortage of other sensible heat storage system. Also, PCMs compliant for heat recovery of air conditioning system should be developed. Technical grade paraffin wax has been discussed in this paper in order to develop a paraffin wax based PCM for the recovery of rejected heat from air conditioning systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin wax and the mixtures of paraffin wax with lauric acid and with liquid paraffin (paraffin oil) are investigated and discussed, including volume expansion during the phase change process, the freezing point and the heat of fusion

  10. ISABEL Triggering Sustainable Biogas Energy Communities through Social Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Piedra Garcia, Diego

    2017-04-01

    The Horizon 2020 funding project ISABEL (Triggering Sustainable Biogas Energy Communities through Social Innovation) is all about promoting, supporting and developing community biogas in Europe. The project is set on providing all the framework conditions for biogas communities to shape, develop and thrive. It works on all angles to pave the way for the transition from traditional supply chains to community ownership and take full advantage of the ample societal benefits of regional community-driven biogas systems, fuelled and inspired by Social Innovation principles. The biogas communities emerge in three targeted ISABEL regions, Baden-Württemberg in Germany, Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Greece and Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and the Humber in UK. To realize this vision ISABEL is employing its "5E strategy" with the following objectives: Educate: Re-position biogas energy by re-branding it as a "public good". Engage: Enable the development of regional Biogas Communities. Empower: Utilize the created momentum through Social Innovation and Public Participation Evaluate: Assess the local interventions and drafting lessons and guidelines Expand: Maximise impact through transfer and replication

  11. Alternative policies to subsidize rural household biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Yaoqi; Zhang, Lixiao; Pang, Mingyue

    2016-01-01

    Existing policies of household biogas projects focus mainly on supports on construction, but less consider management and maintenance, resulting in high scrap rate and waste of resources. Alternative policies must be explored to balance construction and operation. Taking the costs and benefits from a typical rural household biogas project, this paper assesses the economic performance at three different subsidy levels, i.e., no subsidy, existing standard and positive externality based standard. Furthermore three subsidy alternatives, one-time, annual and combined option are applied to the externality based standard. The results show that household biogas digesters have unsatisfactory economic performance without any subsidy and even in current subsidy policies. Environmental benefits of the digester were estimated as 2732 Chinese Yuan, significantly larger than existing subsidy standard. To keep continuous work during the 20-year lifespans of digesters, the income disparity of farmers among regions must be considered for policy application. With the increasing of labor costs, the ratio of initial subsidies must be reduced. These results provide policy implications to the future development of biogas projects in terms of both their construction and follow-up management, reuse of the abandoned digesters as well as the exploitation of other emerging renewable energy projects. - Highlights: •Cost-benefit analysis of biogas was conducted involving its positive externalities. •Current subsidy level and scheme discourages sustained biogas use. •Biogas subsidy level should be raised based on the value of positive externalities. •Regionalized subsidy system is needed to address the current inefficiency.

  12. Biogas production from pineapple core - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, O. S.; Sanusi, S. N. A.; Sukor, M. Z.; Noraini, M.; Buddin, M. M. H. S.; Hamid, K. H. K.

    2017-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pineapple waste was investigated by using pineapple core as the sole substrate. Pineapple core was chosen due to its high total sugar content thus, indicating high amount of fermentable sugar. As digestion process requires the involvement of microorganisms, wastewater from the same industry was added in the current study at ratio of 1:1 by weight. Two different sources of wastewater (Point 1 and Point 2) were used in this study to distinguish the performance of microorganism consortia in both samples. The experiment was conducted by using a lab scale batch anaerobic digester made up from 5L container with separate gas collecting system. The biogas produced was collected by using water displacement method. The experiment was conducted for 30 days and the biogas produced was collected and its volume was recorded at 3 days interval. Based on the data available, wastewater from the first point recorded higher volume of biogas with the total accumulated biogas volume is 216.1 mL. Meanwhile, wastewater sample from Point 2 produced a total of 140.5 mL of biogas, by volume. The data shows that the origin and type of microorganism undeniably play significant role in biogas production. In fact, other factors; pH of wastewater and temperature were also known to affect biogas production. The anaerobic digestion is seen as the promising and sustainable alternatives to current disposal method.

  13. Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Perantoni, G.; Rao, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

  14. Hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. Development of CO{sub 2}-selective biogas membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestboe, A.P.

    2012-02-15

    The project started as a literature study and technology development project for a hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. The introduction of hydrogen (for example produced from wind turbines by surplus electricity) in the gas system makes it possible to store energy which can be selectively used with high energy conversion in fuel cells directly located at the end users. In order to make this possible, it is necessary to have a separating unit that can selectively remove hydrogen from the gas mixture and deliver it as fuel to the electrical generator (a fuel cell). In the project, several existing technologies were evaluated with regard to the application in view. It was concluded that while other technologies are ripe, they are costly in energy and unsuitable for the relatively low capacity application that are in question close to the end users. Membrane technology was evaluated to be the most suitable, although the technology is still under development in many cases. In the project it was found that metallic membranes in the form of palladium coated stainless discs would answer the needs for the high purity needed. Laboratory development yielded discs that could separate hydrogen from natural gas, however, the flux was low compared to the needs of the application. It was found that at least 2 bar pressure difference of hydrogen would be needed to get a high enough flux. The way to achieve this pressure would necessitate a compressor which would consume an energy amount high enough to invalidate the concept. When concluding on the results and the study it was found that the direction of the project could be changed towards developing CO{sub 2}-selective membranes with the goal of developing membrane technology that could upgrade biogas by removing CO{sub 2}. The laboratory equipment and setup that were developed in the first part of the project could be used directly in this second part of the project. In this second part of the project it was

  15. Hydrogen assisted biological biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria

    Wind and biomass are promoted worldwide as sustainable forms of energy. Anaerobic digestion of biomass produces biogas with ∼50−70% CH4 and 30−50% CO2. However, biogas with >90% CH4 content has higher heating value, can be injected into the natural gas grid or used as alternative to natural gas...... as vehicle fuel. Methods currently available for biogas upgrading mainly consists of physicochemical CO2 removal, requiring the use of chemical substances and energy input and, thus, increasing process costs. This PhD project proposes an alternative to existing biogas upgrading technologies, where H2......, produced by water electrolysis, using excess of electricity from wind mills, is coupled with the CO2 contained in the biogas to convert them to CH4. This process is defined as biological biogas upgrading and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea that couples CO2 with H2 to produce...

  16. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...... digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m2 /day and current density...... of 4.33 A/m2 were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic...

  17. Biogas: fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, E J

    1980-01-01

    As the energy crisis worsens, bioconversion of organic residue has become increasingly attractive in recent years. There are thousands of biogas plants in developing countries (not including China) and more programs are being launched. Because biogas is conveniently renewable, the author argues that it has a vital role to play, especially as a future source of energy for both developed and developing countries. The operation of a typical biogas plant is described.

  18. State Equation Determination of Cow Dung Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Wicaksono, L. B.

    2017-08-01

    A state function is a thermodynamic function which relates various macroscopically measurable properties of a system (state variable) describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. A good understanding of a biogas state function plays a very important role in an effort to maximize biogas processes and to help predicting combation performance. This paper presents a step by step process of an experimental study aimed at determining the equation of state of cow dung biogas. The equation was derived from the data obtained from the experimental results of compressibility (κ) and expansivity (β) following the general form of gas state equation dV = βdT + κdP. In this equation, dV is gas volume variation, dT is temperature variation, and dP is pressure variation. From these results, we formulated a unique state equation from which the biogas critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure were then determined (Tc = 266.7 K, Pc = 5096647.5 Pa).

  19. The biogas sector. Looking for renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Petitot, Pauline; Kim, Caroline; Marie, Olivier; Sredojevic, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    As the political will to develop biogas production in France is confirmed by the ambitious objectives defined in the French Investment Multi-year Programming, a set of articles on the biogas sector proposes an overview of what is going on in this sector. After some brief presentations of recent installations of biogas purification and of methanation, a first article outlines the problems and uncertainties raised by the new support system in terms of delays and visibility. A second article presents a methanation unit shared by pork breeders in Brittany to process and valorise effluents which cannot be scattered in fields any longer. The third article comments the bio-methane sector which is now living, and for the couple of years to come, its industrialisation phase, each project having its peculiarities, with emerging business models. The next article presents Methavos I, a methanation unit which injects its bio-methane into the gas network on both sides of the frontier between France and Germany. The sixth article presents the activities of Arkolia Energies which is developing a breakthrough technology with a continuous and thick methanation with optimal energy efficiency within a reduced volume. The seventh article comments the challenges, issues and solutions for longer lasting lubricants used in biogas generation engines. The last article addresses the issue of insurance for methanation installations which, like any other installation, are facing some exploitation risks and hazards

  20. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  1. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  2. Profile and Perceptions of Biogas as Automobile Fuel : A Study of Svensk Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anneli

    2008-01-01

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a...

  3. Climate gas balances of biogas and their significance; Klimagasbilanzen von Biogas und ihre Aussagekraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela [HAWK Hildesheim Holzminden Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik NEUTec; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The greenhouse-gas balances of production and use of biogas strongly depend on specific parameters such as the input material, the system technology and/or the way the biogas is used. These parameters can vary from region to region and from plant to plant. Considering regional, local and plant-specific factors, in the district of Celle greenhouse-gas emissions are more than 3 times higher than in the district of Goettingen (0.2 resp. 0.06 kg CO{sub 2}-eqv./kWh{sub el}). Including further parameters such as indirect land use changes or an open storage of fermentation residues increases the differences of these specific results even more. Consequently a derivation of general values to calculate a climate protection potential for the production and use of biogas for all regions and/or countries is almost impossible. Climate protection potentials, created on the basis of general values, may therefore be considerably imprecise. (orig.)

  4. Research on an IP disaster recovery storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong; Wang, Yusheng; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2008-12-01

    According to both the Fibre Channel (FC) Storage Area Network (SAN) switch and Fabric Application Interface Standard (FAIS) mechanism, an iSCSI storage controller is put forward and based upon it, an internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) SAN construction strategy for disaster recovery (DR) is proposed and some multiple sites replication models and a closed queue performance analysis method are also discussed in this paper. The iSCSI storage controller lies in the fabric level of the networked storage infrastructure, and it can be used to connect to both the hybrid storage applications and storage subsystems, besides, it can provide virtualized storage environment and support logical volume access control, and by cooperating with the remote peerparts, a disaster recovery storage system can be built on the basis of the data replication, block-level snapshot and Internet Protocol (IP) take-over functions.

  5. Biogas plants; Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the KRdL expert meeting at 30th October, 2012 in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New requirements on biomass conversion plants based on the Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance (Hans-Peter Ewens); (2) State of the art of the operation of biomass conversion plants (Christina Dornack); (3) Implementation of the regulation VDI 3475 sheet 4 (Markus Helm); (4) Handling of constraints of residents in the licensing procedure as well as during operation (Helmar Hentschke); (5) Explosion protection for biomass conversion plants considering the matters of immission control (Michael Faber); (6) Microbiological and epidemic-hygienic aspects of agricultural biomass conversion plants and their fermentation residues (Werner Philipp); (7) Emissions of climatic relevant gases at the biogas production (Jacqueline Daniel-Gromke); (8) State of the art in the biogas processing (Joachim Krassowski).

  6. Bioelectrochemical removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): an innovative method for biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Kaijun; Holmes, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    Innovative methods for biogas upgrading based on biological/in-situ concepts have started to arouse considerable interest. Bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 for biogas upgrading was proposed here and demonstrated in both batch and continuous experiments. The in-situ biogas upgrading system seemed to perform better than the ex-situ one, but CO2 content was kept below 10% in both systems. The in-situ system's performance was further enhanced under continuous operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and alkali production with CO2 absorption could be major contributors to biogas upgrading. Molecular studies showed that all the biocathodes associated with biogas upgrading were dominated by sequences most similar to the same hydrogenotrophic methanogen species, Methanobacterium petrolearium (97-99% sequence identity). Conclusively, bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 showed great potential for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Progressive retry for software error recovery in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Huang, Yennun; Fuchs, W. K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of execution retry for bypassing software errors based on checkpointing, rollback, message reordering and replaying. We demonstrate how rollback techniques, previously developed for transient hardware failure recovery, can also be used to recover from software faults by exploiting message reordering to bypass software errors. Our approach intentionally increases the degree of nondeterminism and the scope of rollback when a previous retry fails. Examples from our experience with telecommunications software systems illustrate the benefits of the scheme.

  8. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  9. Biogas of sanitary fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Camacho, Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a methodology for the preliminary estimation of the energetic potential and environmental improvement derivates of the implementation of these technologies that allows to make the first estimative of biogas generation of sanitary fillers with base in the results of the simulation of three predictive model: One Mexican, other denominated Scholl-Canyon of North American origin and the designed by the EPA. The three models use different versions and constants for a differential equation of degradation of first degree

  10. Maintenance and Recovery of Water System for Injection (WFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Ahmad Firdaus Jalil; Wan Mohd Firdaus Wan Ishak

    2015-01-01

    Water system for injection (WFI) is one of the main component in manufacturing pharmaceutical materials and radiopharmaceuticals. This system accredited in 2005. Water quality produced analyzed and give the unsatisfied results. The operation of WFI was stopped temporarily due to technical problems. In 2013, recovery works were implemented with budget of RM 226,500.00. Comprehensive maintenance were implemented by Rykertech (Asia) Sdn. Bhd. With duration of 24 months (October 2014 until September 2016) with cost RM 473,550.00. Now, this system operated in good condition and produced water that meet with the specifications. (author)

  11. 18{sup th} bioenergy symposium. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; 18. Symposium Bioenergie. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    ) Applied concepts of processing fermentation residues: Evaluation, comparison as well as material flows and nutrient flows (R. Kirchmayr); (20) Climate protection and lifestyle (P. Weish); (21) Exploration of new fuels for small power ranges by means of vortex firing (E. Hamatschek); (22) The biomass gasification project BLAUER TURM H2Herten (E. Greiler); (23) Success factors for bio energy plants with a local district heating network using evaluated biomass heating plants as an example (C. Leuchtweis); (24) Climate protection program Eco Plus: Reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions - Generation of yields (S. Sanders); (25) Significance of bio energy for an ecologic model district (T. Jenssen); (26) State of the art and perspectives of flexi-fuel vehicles (U. Kramer); (27) Biofuels - Challenges for the engines from tomorrow (B. Gehringer); (28) In-situ variable ethanol-diesel blends for the improvement of the emissions at serial diesel motors (W. Kangler); (29) Aftertreatment of exhaust gases by means of rapeseed fuels in diesel engines (V. Wichmann); (30) Towards the industrial production (O. Schulze); (31) State of the art of the realization of the bioliq procedure (E. Dinjus); (32) Biogas distribution systems as an economic alternative to the utilization of biogas (W. Urban); (33) Feed-in of biogas into the natural gas distribution system: Newest developments of the market in the area of biogas conditioning in Germany and Europe (S. Rostek); (34) Repowering of biogas plants - From sub-standard to the engine for progress (M. Paproth); (35) Biogas production in Switzerland: State of the art, organisation of the branche and economic efficiency (A. Maerki); (36) Ecobalance biogas - Success factors for the sustainable utilization of the biogas technology by means of selected biogas plants as an example (J. Pucker); (37) What role does the bio energy play in the sustainable energy supply? Bio energy in the context to climatic change, energy systems and utilization of land - Results

  12. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Buttlar, C. von; Conrad, M. [and others

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  13. Energy crops for biogas plants. Thuringia; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Thueringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Bischof, R.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Thuringia. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  14. A regional biogas infrastructure, prospects for the biogas grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    A model to describe biogas transport costs in a regional grid is presented. In the model biogas is collected to a central location by transport through dedicated pipelines. Costs have been calculated for two different lay-outs of the grid i.e. star and fishbone lay-out. The costs depend on the

  15. Valorisation of organic wastes: little biogas plant will grow big

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; Courtel, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This set of articles first proposes a description of the operation principle of biogas production from the recovery of organic wastes from various origins to their processing to produce biogas and use this bio gas for fuel production or energy co-generation. It addresses the present situation in France where the publication of a new electricity purchase support mechanism is expected and will help reaching ambitious objectives defined in the French multi-year energy planning. The number of projects and the level of supports are indeed increasing. A third article presents an example of biogas production in a farm in Normandy, and outlines that this production is profitable. The next article evokes an Ademe's study which is to be published, which addresses returns on experience from small biogas production units (less than 75 kW), identifies that the liquid process gives a lower kWe cost than the dry process, and outlines the positive influence of new electricity purchase tariffs. An article outlines the role of cooperatives in the emergence of farm biogas production. Issues to be addressed and assessed before launching a project are evoked in an interview. An article then gives an historical overview of the development of waste-based biogas production in France since the 1970's: it was first considered only as a waste processing way, and became a mean for energy production. The types of installations and their share in heat production are indicated. The evolutions (in terms of number and of production) of farm-based installations, of centralised installation, of installations of processing domestic wastes, of industrial installations, of urban water treatment plants are indicated and commented. Finally, the Sinoe database is presented: it contains information about all biogas production installations in France

  16. Biogas - the calculable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  17. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90* to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy

  18. Processing biogas to obtain motor fuel - Operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how raw biogas can be processed in order to remove carbon dioxide and corrosive substances and thus bring it up to natural gas quality. The ecological advantages of using biogas as a fuel are discussed and the situation in Europe and Switzerland is examined. Also, feeding biogas into the normal natural gas mains is discussed and the technologies necessary for the cleaning and preparation of the biogas are described. These include absorption and adsorption processes as well as membrane systems that are used to remove excessive carbon dioxide. The costs involved are discussed on the basis of experience gained in Sweden and Switzerland. Finally, the environmental aspects of methane losses are discussed.

  19. Biogas industry, multi-faceted and essential for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpin, Juliette; Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane; Dejeu, Mathieu; Petitot, Pauline; Le Clech, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In France, biogas industry will play a key role is the coming energy transition, both in terms of activity and employment. According to the white book of the Biogas Club of the Energy-Environment Technical Association (ATEE), which synthesizes the present-day situation and the recommendations of professionals concerning the future of projects - in particular the methanation ones, this role is going to occupy a strategic position. Projects will have various sizes and several studies have analysed the conditions of their technical optimization and profitability. Whatever biogas origin, a proper exploitation is of prime importance to reach efficiency. This dossier presents in 10 articles an overview of the development of biogas industry in France, from the regulatory aspects to some examples of methanation facilities and the use of methane in cogeneration units and transportation systems

  20. Enterprise systems backup and recovery a corporate insurance policy

    CERN Document Server

    de Guise, Preston

    2008-01-01

    The success of information backup systems does not rest on IT administrators alone. Rather, a well-designed backup system comes about only when several key factors coalesce-business involvement, IT acceptance, best practice designs, enterprise software, and reliable hardware. Enterprise Systems Backup and Recovery: A Corporate Insurance Policy provides organizations with a comprehensive understanding of the principles and features involved in effective enterprise backups.Instead of focusing on any individual backup product, this book recommends corporate procedures and policies that need to be established for comprehensive data protection. It provides relevant information to any organization, regardless of which operating systems or applications are deployed, what backup system is in place, or what planning has been done for business continuity. It explains how backup must be included in every phase of system planning, development, operation, and maintenance. It also provides techniques for analyzing and impr...

  1. Biogas in Austria and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    Several well-functioning biogas plants in Austria and in Switzerland are briefly described. The profitability of the combination of dairy farming and pig breeding is emphasized. The whey produced by the cheese-dairies is fed to the pigs and the pigs dung is fermented to biogas.

  2. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  3. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  4. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  5. Upgrading biogas by a low-temperature CO2 removal techni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.I. Yousef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, a renewable energy source, is primarily composed of methane and carbon dioxide and other gaseous species. Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as vehicle fuel or injected into the natural gas grid. Therefore, the present work aimed to propose a low-temperature CO2 removal process as an alternative to the conventional biogas upgrading technologies (water scrubbing, chemical and physical scrubbing, membranes and Pressure swing adsorption. A typical model biogas mixture of 60 mol.% CH4 and 40 mol.% CO2 is considered. The present process showed that a product purity of 94.5 mol.% CH4 is obtained from compressed biogas by combining distillation, flash separation, auxiliary refrigeration and internal heat recovery with a potential specific energy consumption of 0.26 kW h/Nm3 raw biogas. The process has been simulated in Aspen HYSYS with avoiding the occurrence of CO2 freeze-out. The process delivers the captured CO2 in liquid form with a purity of 99.7 mol.% as a by-product for transport at 110 bar. It is concluded that the proposed upgrading process can serve as a new environmentally friendly approach to CO2 removal with an interesting energy-efficient alternative to the conventional upgrading techniques.

  6. Energy utilization from landfill biogas; Aproveitamento energetico do biogas de aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candiani, Giovano [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Hoffmann, Gustavo; Silva, Elissandro Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Tomioka, Jorge

    2008-07-01

    Landfills for solid waste disposal are used in Brazil and in most of countries in the world. The organic part of the solid wastes produces gas out of the decomposition of its organic content. This gas, named biogas and mostly made of carbon dioxide and methane, may be collected and used as an energy source due the methane presence. In this work we analyze the possible energy utilization of landfill biogas in Brazil in which the organic content of the solid waste is about 60%. The use of biogas as energy source can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and improve the sanitation conditions of landfills. Moreover, it allows financial gains through selling of energy and carbon credits. In order to make possible the biogas utilization it is necessary to recognize the differences among the many landfills which exist in the country. There are the large and small landfills. The large ones usually have good instrumentation and gas exhaustion systems while the small ones have passive exhaustion systems and very few field instrumentation. The small landfills need to improve their instrumentation system and to incorporate exhaustion systems. (author)

  7. A case study for biogas generation from covered anaerobic ponds treating abattoir wastewater: Investigation of pond performance and potential biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Bernadette K.; Hamawand, Ihsan; Harris, Peter; Baillie, Craig; Yusaf, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report on the performance of a novel covered anaerobic pond system. • Potential biogas production was estimated using BioWin modelling software. • Ponds maintained stable operation; however, accumulation of crust was an issue. • Modelling indicated that biogas yield can be influenced by decomposition efficiency. • Configuration and operation of ponds can also impact potential biogas production. - Abstract: Covered anaerobic ponds offer significant advantages to the red meat processing industry by capturing methane rich gas as a fuel source for bioenergy while reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This paper presents the results of a novel-designed anaerobic pond system at an Australian abattoir in relation to pond performance and potential biogas production. Key findings in assessing the effectiveness of the system revealed that the covered ponds are capable of efficient wastewater decomposition and biogas production. The primary issue with the covered ponds at the abattoir was the build-up of fat/crust that prevented the accurate measurement of biogas and effective use of the cover. In the absence of field biogas data the novel application of the computer modelling software BioWin® was carried out to simulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates and subsequent biogas yield. The unique parameter used to fit field data was the fraction of the inlet COD due to a superficial crust which did not follow anaerobic digestion. Field data effluent COD removal rates were matched to simulated rates predicted by BioWin when measured influent COD was reduced to 30%. Biogas modelling results suggest significant variation in the economic benefit of biogas energy, with the quantity of biogas potentially varying tenfold (from 328 m 3 /d to 3284 m 3 /d) depending on site factors such as pond efficiency, pond configuration and operational practices

  8. Aquifer storage and recovery: recent hydrogeological advances and system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliva, Robert G; Guo, Weixing; Missimer, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is part of the solution to the global problem of managing water resources to meet existing and future freshwater demands. However, the metaphoric "ASR bubble" has been burst with the realization that ASR systems are more physically and chemically complex than the general conceptualization. Aquifer heterogeneity and fluid-rock interactions can greatly affect ASR system performance. The results of modeling studies and field experiences indicate that more sophisticated data collection and solute-transport modeling are required to predict how stored water will migrate in heterogeneous aquifers and how fluid-rock interactions will affect the quality of stored water. It has been well-demonstrated, by historic experience, that ASR systems can provide very large volumes of storage at a lesser cost than other options. The challenges moving forward are to improve the success rate of ASR systems, optimize system performance, and set expectations appropriately.

  9. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  10. Water Recovery System Architecture and Operational Concepts to Accommodate Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  11. Performance of a cycle Otto engine using biogas; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto utilizando biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Juliano de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jsouza@unioeste.br; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de, [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Machado, Paulo Romeu M [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    The rising of the oil prices is increasing the search for alternative fuels. Brazil has a great availability of biogas from anaerobic digestion in the rural area, urban waste in the landfills and treatment of the municipal sewer. In this work were evaluated in dynamometer a cycle Otto engine using biogas, and were obtained the characteristics curves of torque and power. First was done the evidence test with gasoline, biogas and natural gas, using commercial systems for this fuels, using as comparison for other tests. After has been done tests for some combinations of ignition point, mixer of gas and compression tax. By the analysis of the results has been concluded that the better results for power and torque using biogas as fuel were with a tax compression of 12,5:1, gas mixer long and ignition point advanced in 45 deg. (author)

  12. Guide biogas. From production to utilization. 5. compl. rev. ed.; Leitfaden Biogas. Von der Gewinnung zur Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book under consideration is a guide for biogas and consists of the following contributions: (a) Targets of the guide (M. Kaltschmitt); (b) Fundamentals of anaerobic fermentation (J. Friehe); (c) Systems engineering for supplying biogas (J. Postel); (d) Description of selected substrates (J. Friehe); (e) Operation of biogas plants (J. Liebetrau); (f) Gas processing and possibilities of utilization (M. Wetthaeuser); (g) Legal and administrative framework conditions (H. von Bredow); (g) Economy (S. Hartmann); (h) Company organisation (G. Reinhold); (i) Quality and utilization of fermentation residues (H. Doehler); (j) Implementation of a project (E. Fischer); (k) Position and significance of biogas as a renewable energy resource in Germany (M. Kaltschmitt); (l) Project examples (J. Friehe).

  13. The potential of biogas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acaroglu, M.; Hepbasli, A.; Kocar, G.

    2005-01-01

    Biogas technology has been known about for a long time, but in recent years the interest in it has significantly increased, especially due to the higher costs and the rapid depletion of fossil fuels as well as their environmental considerations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of biogas energy in the 15 European Union (EU) countries and in Turkey, which is seeking admission to the EU and is trying to meet EU environmental standards. Biogas energy potential of the 15 EU countries is estimated to be about 800 PJ. Besides this, Turkey's annual animal waste potential is obtained to be about 11.81 million tons with a biogas energy equivalent of 53.6 PJ. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies towards the optimum utilization of biogas energy. (author)

  14. Biogas generation from in-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, David; Choiniere, Denis; Cordeau, Sébastien; Barrington, Suzelle

    2013-01-01

    In-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (ISPAD) is a technology allowing livestock producers to operate an anaerobic digester with minimum technological know-how and for the cost of a conventional storage cover. Nevertheless, the system is exposed to ambient temperatures and biogas production is expected to vary with climatic conditions. The objective of the project was therefore to measure ISPAD biogas production during the winter and fall seasons for a region east of Montreal, Canada. A calibrated biogas monitoring system was used to monitor biogas methane and carbon dioxide concentrations inside a two-year-old field installation with a 1000 m3 storage capacity. Despite a leaking pumping hatch, winter 2010 (January to March) methane concentrations varied directly with solar radiation and maximum exterior temperature, rather than with manure temperature at 2.4 and 1.2 m depths which remained relatively constant between 1 and 5 degrees C. During a six-month-period from November 2009 to April 2010, inclusively, the field ISPAD degraded 34% of the manure volatile solids corresponding to an average methane production of 40 m3/d. The ISPAD biogas production could be further increased by improving its air tightness and intrusion and by regularly pumping out the biogas.

  15. Prospects for expanded utilization of biogas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for expanded utilization of biogas systems in German was analysed, by identifying the operational and policy factors affecting the complete chain of processes from implementation process for biogas plants, through to biogas production and utilization. It was found that the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and energy tax reliefs provide bases for the support of expanded utilization. Upgrading of biogas to natural gas quality for utilization in the transportation sector was arguably the most promising technology that could support rapid utilization expansion. Sustainable deployment of biogas systems in light of the unstable feedstock prices and availability, and the need for subsidy-free operation in the long term requires; enhancement of feedstock flexibility and quality characteristics to maximise gas yield, and optimisation of the anaerobic digestion process management. Assessment of energy balance and potential environmental impacts of the integrated process chain provides a holistic assessment of sustainability. The results also support the development and foster of policies and framework for development of biogas as environmentally friendly energy resource, among a mix of renewable energy sources, hence, compete favourably with fossil fuels to enhance the prospects for expanded utilization. (author)

  16. Small Scale Regenerative Desulfurization of Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, M.J.G.; Stille, L.C.; Miedema, M.C.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2016-01-01

    The application of small scale biogas digesters to supply biogas to households in developing countries is well established. The biogas is used for different applications, amongst other cooking. Generally, no further treatment of the biogas is applied. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is present in varying

  17. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production For The Purpose of Rnewable Fuel Generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in A Pilot Scale CSTR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabraeil Taghinazhad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure (CM and corn straw residue (CSR were experimentally investigated using a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR under semi- continuously feeding circumstance at mesophilic (35°C±2 temperature. The pilot-scale digester with 180 L in volume was employed under experimental protocol to examine the effect of the change in organic loading rate on efficiency of biogas production and to report on its steady-state performance. An average organic loading rates of 2 and 3 kg VS. (m-3.d-1 and a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 25 days was examined with respect to two different CM to CSR mixing ratios of 100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The results showed both organic loading rates at co-digestion of CM+ CSR gave better methane yields than single digestion of cow manure. The biogas production efficiency was obtained 0.242, 0.204, 0.311 0.296, 259.5 and 235 m3.(kg VS input-1 for 2 and 3 kg VS.(m-3.d-1 at CM to CSR mixing ratios of100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The reactor showed stable performance with VS reduction between 55-74% during different runs. With increment of loading rate, the VS degradation and biogas yield decreased. Modified Gompertz and logistic plot equation was employed to model the methane production at different organic loading rates and substrate concentrations. The equations gave a good approximation of the maximum methane production (rm and the methane yield potential (P with correlation coefficient (R2 over 0.99. Keywords: Biogas; cow manure; corn straw; Kinetic; semi-continuously Article History: Received Oct 25th 2016; Received in revised form Dec 19th 2016; Accepted 2nd January 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Taghinazhad. J., Abdi, R. and Adl, M. (2017. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production for the purpose of renewable fuel generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in a Pilot Scale CSTR System. Int Journal of Renewable

  18. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  19. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  20. Nondestructive assay system development for a plutonium scrap recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Baker, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    A plutonium scrap recovery facility is being constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The safeguards groups of the Los Alamos National Laboratory have been working since the early design stage of the facility with SRP and other national laboratories to develop a state-of-the-art assay system for this new facility. Not only will the most current assay techniques be incorporated into the system, but also the various nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments are to be integrated with an Instrument Control Computer (ICC). This undertaking is both challenging and ambitious; an entire assay system of this type has never been done before in a working facility. This paper will describe, in particular, the effort of the Los Alamos Safeguards Assay Group in this endeavor. Our effort in this project can be roughly divided into three phases: NDA development, system integration, and integral testing. 6 references

  1. Piloted Simulation of a Model-Predictive Automated Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James (Yuan); Litt, Jonathan; Sowers, T. Shane; Owens, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  2. Special file: biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Zebboudj, Idir; Mounissamy, Alice; Sandrin-Deforge, Armelle; Petitot, Pauline; De Santis, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    With some graphs indicating the number and types of existing and projected biogas production units, a first article outlines that the development rate is presently too low to be able to reach objectives defined for 2020. A second article comments the results of a benchmark study performed by the ADEME on the biogas sector status in European countries (a map indicates the levels of production and electricity purchase tariffs, the evolution of development conditions, and the types of financial support). In an interview, a GrDF manager in charge of strategy discusses the GrDF strategy on biomethane, the future management of gas networks, the operation of existing biomethane injection sites, future projects, the management of consumption variations, and the issue of biomethane injection tariff. An article then presents an experiment made by farmers in western France who gathered about a methanization site with a unit of injection of biomethane into the natural gas network. The assessment of another experiment (a Methanea methanization unit operated by two farmers in the Ain district) is then presented. The next article gives an overview of the various possibilities proposed by the legal framework for the contract between input providers and the methanization unit operator. Different assessment tools are then presented: Flash BMP (a fast and affordable method of measurement of the biochemical methane potential or BMP to perform feasibility studies), and a software for the precise assessment of the profitability of a methanization unit. In an interview, a member of Weltec Biopower proposes a brief overview of services and products proposed by this company which installs biogas and bio-methanization every where in the world. A last article addresses the recent evolutions and progress of certification of French digestates

  3. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  4. Production and utilization of biogas in rural areas of industrialized and developing countries. Rev. Ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeling, G; Mackensen, G; Sasse, L [comps.

    1986-01-01

    This handbook describes and compares the various phases of biogas technology and its parallel development in industrialized countries and developing nations for the given agricultural situation in each. Special emphasis is placed on the microbiological fundamentals of anaerobic fermentation, their technical application, examples of biogas systems in industrialized and emerging nations, cost efficiency and implementation. In their treatment of various common characteristics, parallels and differences, the authors have attempted to build a bridge between biogas practice in industrialized countries and biogas practice in developing countries.

  5. Understanding Ammonium Transport in Bioelectrochemical Systems towards its Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Qin, Mohan; Luo, Shuai; He, Zhen; Qiao, Rui

    2016-03-01

    We report an integrated experimental and simulation study of ammonia recovery using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The transport of various species during the batch-mode operation of an MEC was examined experimentally and the results were used to validate the mathematical model for such an operation. It was found that, while the generated electrical current through the system tends to acidify (or basify) the anolyte (or catholyte), their effects are buffered by a cascade of chemical groups such as the NH3/NH4+ group, leading to relatively stable pH values in both anolyte and catholyte. The transport of NH4+ ions accounts for ~90% of the total current, thus quantitatively confirming that the NH4+ ions serve as effective proton shuttles during MEC operations. Analysis further indicated that, because of the Donnan equilibrium at cation exchange membrane-anolyte/catholyte interfaces, the Na+ ion in the anolyte actually facilitates the transport of NH4+ ions during the early stage of a batch cycle and they compete with the NH4+ ions weakly at later time. These insights, along with a new and simple method for predicting the strength of ammonia diffusion from the catholyte toward the anolyte, will help effective design and operation of bioeletrochemical system-based ammonia recovery systems.

  6. Hybrid Fv - Biogas/Diesel System Measuring With Homer. Case of Application: Farm Pozo Verde, Jamundi Municipality, Cauca Valley, Colombia; Dimensionado de un Sistema Hibrido Fv - Biogas/Diesel mediante el Empleo de la Herramienta Homer. Caso de Aplicacion: Granja Pozo Verde, Municipio de Jamundi, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, J.; Manrique, P. A.; Pinedo, I.

    2009-11-25

    This report completes the previous one, by adding the characterization of renewable energy systems based on optimization and sizing tools. A case study has been carried out in the Valley of Cauca (Colombia) using HOMER, once the solar energy potential was defined. This work is about the production of electricity using hybrid power systems (HPS). The HPS chosen for this study is based on two of the most common energy resources in most of Colombian rural areas: solar energy and biomass waste. The biomass waste is obtained by animal manure from livestock farms, particularly from pigs, which is highly valued in terms of energy production. The breeding of pigs has a huge economic, environmental and social importance in this Colombian region. In this report, the HPS technology and the energy contribution of the biogas produced from animal manure are described. A technical and economic simulation of a HPS has been performed using the optimization tool HOMER. These reports are the result of a collaboration established between Universidad del Valle (Colombia) and CIEMAT (Spain), and have been done by the author while his staying at our center included on his PhD program. Keywords: renewable energies, hybrid systems, biogas, technology sizing, rural electrification, Latin America. (Author) 8 refs.

  7. International scientific conference biogas science 2009. Vol. 1. Lectures; Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009. Bd. 1. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Within the international conference of the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) at 2nd to 4th December, 2009, in Erding (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Significance of the sector biogas within the scope of renewable energies (P. Schuesseler); (2) Anaerobic digestion, a superior renewable energy degradation method (G. Lettinga); (3) Trends of the biogas technology - Challenges for the practice (J. Pellmeyer); (4) Extensification of cultivation procedures for the production of biogas substrates (K. Deiglmayer et al.); (5) Approaches for the optimization of crop rotations for biogas plants at Bavarian conditions of cultivation (E. Sticksel et al.); (6) Development and comparison of site specific production systems for energy crops (Ch. Strauss et al.); (7) Which type of maize is useful for the production of biogas? (B. Eder et al.); (8) Fermentation of interim fruits, food stocks and residues of harvest: Review on the possibilities of power generation and avoidance of direct and indirect emissions of climatic gases (W. Stinner et al.); (9) Optimization of anaerobic fermentation by means of mineral additives (H. Heuwinkel et al.); (10) The accuracy of the measurement of gas yields of substrates using the batch method (H. Heuwinkel et al.); (11) Combined mechanical-enzymatic pre-treatment of an improved digestion of substrates during the fermentation of renewable raw materials (D. Schiedr et al.); (12) Anaerobic semi-continuous co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and agricultural residues: Effect of operational parameters (E. Alkaya et al.); (13) Do hydrolytic enzymes enhance methane formation of agricultural feedstock? (T. Suarez Quinones et al.); (14) DAUMEN-Energy ''Design fo Separation and Augmented Methanisation of Fibres Substrates - Contribution to sustainable biogas production'' (P. Stopp et al.); (15) Continuous two-phase solid-state anaerobic digestion

  8. System Behaviour Charts Inform an Understanding of Biodiversity Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Black

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practitioners working with species and ecosystem recovery typically deal with the complexity of, on one hand, lack of data or data uncertainties and, on the other hand, demand for critical decision-making and intervention. The control chart methods of commercial and industrial and environmental monitoring can complement an ecological understanding of wildlife systems including those situations which incorporate human activities and land use. Systems Behaviour Charts are based upon well-established control chart methods to provide conservation managers with an approach to using existing data and enable insight to aid timely planning of conservation interventions and also complement and stimulate research into wider scientific and ecological questions. When the approach is applied to existing data sets in well-known wildlife conservation cases, the subsequent Systems Behaviour Charts and associated analytical criteria demonstrate insights which would be helpful in averting problems associated with each case example.

  9. Space systems for disaster warning, response, and recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a general overview of the role of satellite applications for disaster mitigation, warning, planning, recovery and response. It covers both the overall role and perspective of the emergency management community as well as the various space applications that support their work. Key insights are provided as to how satellite telecommunications, remote sensing, navigation systems, GIS, and the emerging domain of social media are utilized in the context of emergency management needs and requirements. These systems are now critical in addressing major man-made and natural disasters. International policy and treaties are covered along with various case studies from around the world. These case studies indicate vital lessons that have been learned about how to use space systems more effectively in addressing the so-called “Disaster Cycle.” This book is appropriate for practicing emergency managers, Emergency Management (EM) courses, as well as for those involved in various space applica...

  10. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  11. Biotechnological intensification of biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Z.; Acs, N.; Balint, B.; Horvath, L.; Dobo, K.; Perei, K.R.; Rakhely, G.; Kovacs, K.L. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics

    2007-08-15

    The importance of syntrophic relationships among microorganisms participating in biogas formation has been emphasized, and the regulatory role of in situ hydrogen production has been recognized. It was assumed that the availability of hydrogen may be a limiting factor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. This hypothesis was tested under laboratory and field conditions by adding a mesophilic (Enterobacter cloacae) or thermophilic hydrogen-producing (Caldicellulosyruptor saccharolyticus) strain to natural biogas-producing consortia. The substrates were waste water sludge, dried plant biomass from Jerusalem artichoke, and pig manure. In all cases, a significant intensification of biogas production was observed. The composition of the generated biogas did not noticeably change. In addition to being a good hydrogen producer, C. saccharolyticus has cellulolytic activity; hence, it is particularly suitable when cellulose-containing biomass is fermented. The process was tested in a 5-m{sup 3} thermophilic biogas digester using pig manure slurry as a substrate. Biogas formation increased at least 160-170% upon addition of the hydrogen-producing bacteria as compared to the biogas production of the spontaneously formed microbial consortium. Using the hydrogenase-minus control strain provided evidence that the observed enhancement was due to interspecies hydrogen transfer. The on-going presence of C. saccharolyticus was demonstrated after several months of semicontinuous operation. (orig.)

  12. Recovery Audit Contractor medical necessity readiness: one health system's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Judith A; Camden, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    To develop a sustainable approach to Recovery Audit Contractor medical necessity readiness that mitigates the regulatory and financial risks of the organization. Acute care hospitals. Utilizing the model for improvement and plan-do-study-act methodology, this health system designed and implemented a medical necessity case management program. We focused on 3 areas for improvement: medical necessity review accuracy, review timeliness, and physician adviser participation for secondary reviews. Over several months, we improved accuracy and timeliness of our medical necessity reviews while also generating additional inpatient revenue for the health system. We successfully enhanced regulatory compliance and reduced our financial risks associated with Recovery Audit Contractor medical necessity audits. A successful medical necessity case management program can not only enhance regulatory compliance and reduce the amount of payments recouped by Medicare, but also generate additional inpatient revenue for your organization. With health care reform and accountable care organizations on the horizon, hospitals must find ways to protect and enhance revenue in order to carry out their missions. This is one way for case managers to help in that cause, to advocate for the care of their patients, and to bring value to the organization.

  13. Advanced Waste Heat Recovery Systems within Hybrid Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A waste heat recovery system (WHRS is very well known to provide no advantage during the cold start driving cycles, such as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC, which are used for certification of emissions and assessment of fuel economy. Here, we propose a novel integrated WHRS using the internal combustion engine (ICE coolant passages and an exchanger on the exhaust working as pre-heater / boiler / super-heater of a Rankine cycle. The expander is connected to an electric generator unit (GU, and the pump is connected to an electric motor unit (MU. The vehicle is also fitted with an electric, kinetic energy recovery system (KERS. The expander and condenser are bypassed during the first part of the NEDC when the vehicle covers the four ECE-15 (Economic Commission for Europe - 15 - UDC (Urban Drive Cycle segments where the engine warms-up.  Only after the engine is fully warmed up, during the last part of the NEDC, the extra urban driving cycle (EUDC segment, the expander and condenser are activated to recover part of the coolant and exhaust energy.

  14. Value Chain Optimisation of Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted

    economically feasible. In this PhD thesis, the focus is to create models for investigating the profitability of biogas projects by: 1) including the whole value chain in a mathematical model and considering mass and energy changes on the upstream part of the chain; and 2) including profit allocation in a value......, the costs on the biogas plant has been included in the model using economy of scale. For the second point, a mathematical model considering profit allocation was developed applying three allocation mechanisms. This mathematical model can be applied as a second step after the value chain optimisation. After...... in the energy systems model to find the optimal end use of each type of gas and fuel. The main contributions of this thesis are the methods developed on plant level. Both the mathematical model for the value chain and the profit allocation model can be generalised and used in other industries where mass...

  15. Biogas - energetical and environmental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skele, A.; Upitis, A.; Kristapsons, M.; Goizevskis, O.; Ziemelis, I.

    2003-01-01

    Energy sector has been one of the most important priorities since reestablishment of independence of Latvia. The deficiency of energy resources in Latvia has created a need to assess all the possibilities to utilise all possibilities to utilise all the energy resources, including the biological ones, to motivate the trends in the development of energetic in Latvia. A huge non-utilised reserve in Latvia is methane fermentation of organic agricultural and municipal residue and sewage from food industry. The organic mass of solid and liquid waste of different origin and its energetic potential for rural region have been investigated. The work deals with an integrated system of the utilisation of agricultural waste with the anaerobic (biogas) and the thermal processes. Presently the anaerobic waste utilisation, in combination with the production of biogas and organic fertiliser, is considered as one of the energetically most efficient and environment-friendly ways of organic fertiliser utilisation (authors)

  16. Life cycle assessment of biogas from sewage treatment sludge; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan avloppsreningsverksslam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, David; Ek, Mats (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-08-15

    This report analyses the environmental impact from 1MJ of biogas (as vehicle fuel) produced by anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Data are primarily taken from Kaeppala sewage treatment plant, but have been complemented with data from literature. As a base case, the biogas has only been given the environmental burden from upgrading and purification of raw gas. This is because the anaerobic digestion is an inherent part of the waste water treatment in Sweden, biogas being produced regardless of its chosen end utilization. Calculations have also been performed with system expansion where the anaerobic digestion, sludge treatment and replaced mineral fertilizer have been included in the analysis, as well as calculations based on economic and energy allocation. The results have been characterised in accordance to CML (2007) for the potential of global warming on a 100 year perspective, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidation creation and particles. The study represents a Swedish state-of-the-art plant for biogas production but also includes a sensitivity analysis that cover a Swedish average plant and a worst case plant. The sensitivity analysis shows a major impact on the results from methane leakage during anaerobic digestion and upgrading. The electricity consumption and choice of Swedish average electricity versus Swedish marginal electricity is of less importance for the outcome of the study

  17. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. V. Vu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required.

  19. Energy Recovery from a Non-Linear Electromagnetic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęcik Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents study of a pseudo-magnetic levitation system (pseudo-maglev dedicated for energy harvesting. The idea rely on motion of a pseudo-levitating magnet in a coil’s terminal. The study based on real prototype harvester system, which in the pendulum dynamic vibration absorber is applied. For some parameters, the stability loss caused by the period doubling bifurcation is detected. The coexistence of two stable solutions, one of which is much better for energy harvesting is observed. The influence of the pseudo-maglev parameters on the recovered current and stability of the periodic solutions is presented in detail. The obtained results show, that the best energy recovery occurs for the high pseudo-maglev stiffness and close to the coil resistance. The amplitude’s excitation, the load resistances and the coupling coefficient strongly influence on the system’s response.

  20. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haen, C; Barra, V; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on the Online system, which includes a very large and heterogeneous computing cluster. Ensuring the proper behavior of the different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small operator team and is a 24/7 task. At CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with steadily improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on Reinforcement Learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the submission at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present an implementation with improved algorithms and manipulation tools, and report on the experience gained with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  1. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University......In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunc-tional ventilation concept...... of Denmark. Through building integration in high performance offices the system is optimized to incorporate multiple functions like heating, cooling and ventilation, thus saving the expenses of separate cooling and heating systems. The simulation results are derived using the state-of-the-art building...

  2. Example of garbage recycling. Pt. 1. On-site energy recovery by microbial treatment of garbage at a shopping mall; Namagomi recycle jirei. 1. Tenpo deno namagomi recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, M.; Tatara, M.; Togo, Y. [Kajima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-05

    A total treatment and energy recovery system for garbage was developed, and has been installed at 2 large-scale shopping malls. The system consists of garbage separation-pretreatment process, thermophilic methane fermentation process, biogas utilization process and secondary treatment system for fermentation effluent. Operational data of the past 2.5 years indicate that the system produces ca. 210 {approx} 240 m{sup 3} of biogas (ca. 66 % methane content) per 1,000 kg garbage treated per day, which is used as a hotwater boiler fuel on the sites. A demonstration project on fuel cell power generation by using the biogas has also been successfully conducted in a pilot-scale garbage treatment system. (author)

  3. Biogas production and biogas as vehicle fuel - Swedish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, A E [VBB Viak AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    In Sweden there are totally about 220 biogas plants in operation. The major part of these plants (134) are represented by sewage sludge treatment facilities at waste water treatment plants. At 60 sites the biogas is generated from landfills or cell digesters at landfills. In 1996, the amount produced had a total energy content of about 1,35 TWh (or 4 900 PJ). (EG)

  4. Development of the Next Generation Type Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Tachihara, Satoru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Ueoka, Terumi; Soejima, Fujito; Teranishi, Hiromitsu

    According to NASA, an astronaut living on the International Space Station (ISS) requires approximately 7 kg of water per day. This includes 2 kg of drinking water as well as sanitary fresh water for hand washing, gargling, etc. This water is carried to the space station from the earth, so when more people are staying on the space station, or staying for a longer period of time, the cost of transporting water increases. Accordingly, water is a valuable commodity, and restrictions are applied to such activities as brushing teeth, washing hair, and washing clothes. The life of an astronaut in space is not necessarily a healthy one. JAXA has experience in the research of water recovery systems. Today, utilizing knowledge learned through experiences living on the space station and space shuttles, and taking advantage of the development of new materials for device construction, it is possible to construct a new water recovery system. Therefore, JAXA and New Medican Tech Corporation (NMT) have created a system for collaborative development. Based on the technologies of both companies, we are proceeding to develop the next generation of water recovery devices in order to contribute to safe, comfortable, and healthy daily life for astronauts in space. The goal of this development is to achieve a water purification system based on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that can perform the following functions. • Preprocessing that removes ammonia and breaks down organic matter contained in urine. • Post-processing that adds minerals and sterilizes the water. • Online TOC measurement for monitoring water quality. • Functions for measuring harmful substances. The RO membrane is an ultra-low-pressure type membrane with a 0.0001 micron (0.1 nanometer) pore size and an operating pressure of 0.4 to 0.6 MPa. During processing with the RO membrane, nearly all of the minerals contained in the cleaned water are removed, resulting in water that is near the quality of deionized water

  5. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m(2) /day and current density of 4.33 A/m(2) were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic benefits of biogas enhancement and possible wastewater treatment, the SMDC may represent a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for waste resources recovery and biomethanation of ammonia-rich residues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Flexible Biogas in Future Energy Systems—Sleeping Beauty for a Cheaper Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lauer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energies asks for further technologies for balancing demand and supply in the energy system. In contrast to other countries, Germany is characterized by a high installed capacity of dispatchable biogas plants. For this paper, we analyzed the total system costs varying biogas extension paths and modes of operation for the period of 2016–2035 by using a non-linear optimization model. We took variable costs of existing conventional power plants, as well as variable costs and capital investments in gas turbines, Li-ion batteries, and pumped-storage plants into account. Without the consideration of the costs for biogas plants, an increasing proportion of biogas plants, compared to their phase out, reduces the total system costs. Furthermore, their flexible power generation should be as flexible as possible. The lowest total system costs were calculated in an extension path with the highest rate of construction of new biogas plants. However, the highest marginal utility was assessed by a medium proportion of flexible biogas plants. In conclusion, biogas plants can be a cost-effective option to integrate intermittent renewable energies into the electricity system. The optimal extension path of biogas plants depends on the future installed capacities of conventional and renewable energies.

  7. Vacuum system of the compact Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T., E-mail: tohru.honda@kek.jp; Tanimoto, Y.; Nogami, T.; Takai, R.; Obina, T.; Asaoka, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Nakamura, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan) (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), a test accelerator to establish important technologies demanded for future ERL-based light sources, was constructed in late 2013 at KEK. The accelerator was successfully commissioned in early 2014, and demonstrated beam circulation with energy recovery. In the cERL vacuum system, low-impedance vacuum components are required to circulate high-intensity, low-emittance and short-bunch electron beams. We therefore developed ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-compatible flanges that can connect beam tubes seamlessly, and employed retractable beam monitors, namely, a movable Faraday cup and screen monitors. In most parts of the accelerator, pressures below 1×10{sup −7} Pa are required to mitigate beam-gas interactions. Particularly, near the photocathode electron gun and the superconducting (SC) cavities, pressures below 1×10{sup −8} Pa are required. The beam tubes in the sections adjoining the SC cavities were coated with non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials, to reduce gas condensation on the cryo-surfaces. During the accelerator commissioning, stray magnetic fields from the permanent magnets of some cold cathode gauges (CCGs) were identified as a source of the disturbance to the beam orbit. Magnetic shielding was specially designed as a remedy for this issue.

  8. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  9. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  10. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    -substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare......Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  11. Monitoring of biogas test plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    realistic bioreactor scales, it is necessary to obtain a fairly constant level of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, which furthers a stable biogas production. Uncontrolled VFA contents have a significant negative impact on biogas production; VFA concentrations should not exceed 5–6000 mg/L lest......Most studies reported in the literature have investigated near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in laboratory-scale or minor pilot biogas plants only; practically no other studies have examined the potential for meso-scale/full-scale on-line process monitoring. The focus of this study is on a meso......-scale biogas test plant implementation of process analytical technologies (PAT) to develop multivariate calibration/prediction models for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. A 150 L bioreactor was fitted with a recurrent loop at which NIR spectroscopy and attendant reference sampling were carried out. In all...

  12. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  13. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  14. Application of biogas for combined heat and power production in the rural region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, T.; Majchrzycka, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses combined production of heat and power (CHP) from biogas in a small-scale power plant placed in the rural region. Based on power and heat demands of the rural region and biomass supply, the CHP system was selected. Keywords: biogas, cogeneration

  15. MATHEMATIC MODELING IN ANALYSIS OF BIO-GAS PURIFICATION FROM CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Losiouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to involve bio-gas generated at testing grounds of hard domestic garbage in power supply system in the Republic of Belarus. An example of optimization using mathematical modeling of plant operation which is used for bio-gas enrichment is given in the paper. 

  16. Energy-Recovery Pressure-Reducer in District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Borkowski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Already existing man-made infrastructures that create water flow and unused pressure are interesting energy sources to which micro-hydropower plants can be applied. Apart from water supply systems (WSSs, which are widely described in the literature, significant hydropower potential can also be found in district heating systems (DHSs. In this paper, a prototype, a so-called energy-recovery pressure-reducer (ERPR, utilized for a DHS, is presented. It consisted of a pump as a turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The latter was connected to the power grid through the power electronic unit (PEU. The variable-speed operation allowed one to modify the turbine characteristics to match the substation’s hydraulic conditions. The proposed ERPR device could be installed in series to the existing classic pressure reducing valve (PRV as an independent device that reduces costs and simplifies system installation. The test results of the prototype system located in a substation of Cracow’s DHS are presented. The steady-state curves and regulation characteristics show the prototype’s operating range and efficiency. In this study, the pressure-reducer impact on the electrical and hydraulic systems, and on the environment, were analyzed. The operation tests during the annual heating season revealed an average system’s efficiency of 49%.

  17. Trenton Biogas LLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, William Brian [Trenton Biogas LLC, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    2017-06-13

    During the total period of funding, the project objectives changed. The initial objective of the project was to research the health and efficacy of two commercial derivative products of levulinic acid extracted from food waste and to optimize conversion methods for manufacturing. Unfortunately, and prior to any final conclusions, the scientist performing the studies passed away leaving much of the work incomplete. Analysis of the initial work product suggested that the process for commercializing levulinic acid from the food waste product was cost prohibitive mostly due to the market readiness for the levulinic acid product. The second phase of funding research period focused on utilizing the food waste (which had already been researched from phase 1) for other sources of energy. The focus and objectives of this phase were more focused on the technology transfer necessary to commercialize anaerobic digestion of food waste in a somewhat urban environment. During this transition, the project name changed from Trenton Fuel Works to Trenton Biogas.

  18. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  19. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  20. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  1. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  2. Barriers to the development of the biogas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, N.

    2009-01-01

    Barriers to the development of Canada's biogas industry were explored with the aim of resolving conflicting regulatory issues related to biogas. Four biogas farm systems are currently operating in Ontario, and funding for a further 20 systems is available. However, most projects have been blocked before construction, and other projects continue to be delayed by grid connection and power purchase issues. Planning permission, zoning, environmental regulations, and property taxation issues are also currently challenging the development of the industry. The use of off-farm waste for the plants has also caused planning problems and delays. Land used to transform or manufacture electricity will soon be included in the industrial tax class. The installation of generation capacity may also alter property values. The use of fats, oils, and greases also requires complicated monitoring and processing procedures. Obtaining certificates for waste handling is difficult and time-consuming. Biogas plants also face significant transmission constraints. Prospective generators are required to determine if their local sub-stations have spare capacity. Generators are also required to pay for all the costs associated with their connection to the grid. Connection to Hydro One is more expensive than connections to other distribution companies in Canada, and there are no existing connection standards. Biogas system operators also face difficulties with rural connections. The cost of anti-islanding protection is high. It was concluded that grid access is the key to renewable energy development in Ontario. tabs., figs

  3. Process options and projected mass flows for the HTGR refabrication scrap recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, S.M.

    1979-03-01

    The two major uranium recovery processing options reviewed are (1) internal recovery of the scrap by the refabrication system and (2) transfer to and external recovery of the scrap by the head end of the reprocessing system. Each option was reviewed with respect to equipment requirements, preparatory processing, and material accountability. Because there may be a high cost factor on transfer of scrap fuel material to the reprocessing system for recovery, all of the scrap streams will be recycled internally within the refabrication system, with the exception of reject fuel elements, which will be transferred to the head end of the reprocessing system for uranium recovery. The refabrication facility will be fully remote; thus, simple recovery techniques were selected as the reference processes for scrap recovery. Crushing, burning, and leaching methods will be used to recover uranium from the HTGR refabrication scrap fuel forms, which include particles without silicon carbide coatings, particles with silicon carbide coatings, uncarbonized fuel rods, carbon furnace parts, perchloroethylene distillation bottoms, and analytical sample remnants. Mass flows through the reference scrap recovery system were calculated for the HTGR reference recycle facility operating with the highly enriched uranium fuel cycle. Output per day from the refabrication scrap recovery system is estimated to be 4.02 kg of 2355 U and 10.85 kg of 233 U. Maximum equipment capacities were determined, and future work will be directed toward the development and costing of the scrap recovery system chosen as reference

  4. Microbial Electrolytic Capture, Separation and Regeneration of CO2 for Biogas Upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Zhang, Yifeng; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-08-15

    Biogas upgrading to natural gas quality is essential for the efficient use of biogas in various applications. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which constitutes a major part of the biogas is generally removed by physicochemical methods. However, most of the methods are expensive and often present environmental challenges. In this study, an innovative microbial electrolytic system was developed to capture, separate and regenerate CO 2 for biogas upgrading without external supply of chemicals, and potentially to treat wastewater. The new system was operated at varied biogas flow rates and external applied voltages. CO 2 was effectively separated from the raw biogas and the CH 4 content in the outlet reached as high as 97.0 ± 0.2% at the external voltage of 1.2 V and gas flow rate of 19.6 mL/h. Regeneration of CO 2 was also achieved in the regeneration chamber with low pH (1.34 ± 0.04). The relatively low electric energy consumption (≤0.15 kWh/m 3 biogas) along with the H 2 production which can contribute to the energy input makes the overall energy need of the system low, and thereby makes the technology promising. This work provides the first attempt for development of a sustainable biogas upgrading technology and potentially expands the application of microbial electrochemical technologies.

  5. Assessing nuclear power plant safety and recovery from earthquakes using a system-of-systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, E.; Zio, E.

    2014-01-01

    We adopt a ‘system-of-systems’ framework of analysis, previously presented by the authors, to include the interdependent infrastructures which support a critical plant in the study of its safety with respect to the occurrence of an earthquake. We extend the framework to consider the recovery of the system of systems in which the plant is embedded. As a test system, we consider the impacts produced on a nuclear power plant (the critical plant) embedded in the connected power and water distribution, and transportation networks which support its operation. The Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment of such system of systems is carried out by Hierarchical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation. First, we perform a top-down analysis through a hierarchical model to identify the elements that at each level have most influence in restoring safety, adopting the criticality importance measure as a quantitative indicator. Then, we evaluate by Monte Carlo simulation the probability that the nuclear power plant enters in an unsafe state and the time needed to recover its safety. The results obtained allow the identification of those elements most critical for the safety and recovery of the nuclear power plant; this is relevant for determining improvements of their structural/functional responses and supporting the decision-making process on safety critical-issues. On the test system considered, under the given assumptions, the components of the external and internal water systems (i.e., pumps and pool) turn out to be the most critical for the safety and recovery of the plant. - Highlights: • We adopt a system-of-system framework to analyze the safety of a critical plant exposed to risk from external events, considering also the interdependent infrastructures that support the plant. • We develop a hierarchical modeling framework to represent the system of systems, accounting also for its recovery. • Monte Carlo simulation is used for the quantitative evaluation of the

  6. Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

  7. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach. PMID:27341657

  8. AMMONOX-Ammonia for enhancing biogas yield & reducing NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Kristensen, P.G.; Paamand, K.

    2013-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. However...... of innovative ammonia recovery technology and c) the coupling of the excess ammonia obtained from manure with the catalytic elimination of NOx emissions when the biogas is used for subsequent electricity generation with gas engines.......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. However......, biogas plants digesting liquid manure alone are not economically viable due to the relatively low organic content of the manure, usually 3-5%.Thus, their economical profitable operation relies partly on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction, usually called...

  9. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  10. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  11. Duct burners in heat recovery system for cogeneration and captive power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, J.

    1992-01-01

    Our oil explorations both onshore and offshore have thrown open bright prospects of cogeneration by using natural gas in gas turbine power plants with heat recovery units. Both for co-gen and combined cycle systems, supplementary firing of GT exhaust gas is normally required. Hence, duct burners have significant role for effective contribution towards of efficacy of heat recovery system for gas turbine exhaust gas. This article details on various aspects of duct burners in heat recovery systems. (author)

  12. Proposal for an multi-sectoral biogas strategy. Final report; Foerslag till en sektorsoevergripande biogasstrategi. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    benefit when used in heavy traffic in urban areas. It is particularly suitable for bus fleets in inner city traffic, which has an even and high demand for fuel and where the alternative is diesel and where health effects of particulate matter reduction is greatest. - The volumes of biogas in the near future are too small to justify large-scale investments in gas pipelines and distribution systems. - The collection of household waste should be developed to strengthen biogas development. In municipalities where food waste collected for composting there are reasons to switch to anaerobic digestion. - The goal of 35% biological treatment of waste has been important for that municipalities should prioritize digestion to incineration. - It is important that knowledge about different digestion processes, optimization of digestate processes and nutrient value of digestates are developed and brought out to biogas producers, farmers and others

  13. High temperature heat recovery systems; Les recuperateurs de chaleur a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.

    2003-07-15

    A state-of-the-art of high temperature heat recovery systems has been made to highlight the advantages of recovery in different energy cycles, and to compare the different geometries, materials and fabrication processes used by the different manufacturers. This leads to define the criteria that a heat recovery system must satisfy in gas turbine cogeneration applications. The pre-dimensioning of a recovery system has been performed in order to compare different geometries and to evaluate them with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. Finally, the new configuration of the 'Claire' loop has permitted to experimentally characterize a recovery system with an innovative technology based on an helical geometry. These tests have permitted to obtain the global data of the recovery system (efficiency, pressure drop, global exchange coefficient, friction coefficient, velocity and temperature profiles) and to position it with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. (J.S.)

  14. Lithium test module on ITER: engineering design of the tritium recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The design presented is an overview of the tritium recovery system for a lithium module on an ITER type reactor. The design of a tritium recovery system for larger blanket units, sectors, etc. could use the information developed in this report. A goal of this design was to ensure that a reliable, integrated performance of the tritium recovery system could be demonstrated. An equally important goal was to measure and account for the tritium in the liquid lithium blanket module and its recovery system in order to validate the operation of the blanket module

  15. CO2 separation from biogas with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassauer, Burkhardt; Richter, Hannes; Schwarz, Bjoern; Reger-Wagner, Norman; Kaemnitz, Susanne; Lubenau, Udo; Mothes, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Biogas contains after the production of up to 55% CO 2 . In order to use biogas as a fuel or to feed it into the natural gas network, it must be purified before. Adsorption and scrubbing processes are primarily used technically. Membrane processes offer the advantage of continuous operation and a simple modular and flexible system design, which imply relatively low investment costs and low energy needs. Moreover, membrane systems can be started up and shut down quickly without any problems. Ceramic membranes are characterised by high stability (thermal, chemical, mechanical) and very high flows in comparison to polymeric membranes. [de

  16. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: system performance data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. The resource recovery systems investigated were divided into three categories: thermal processng, mechanical separation, and biological processing. Thermal processing systems investigated are: excess-air incineration; starved-air incineration/gasification; and pyrolysis (indirect heating). Mechanical processing systems investigated are: coarse refuse derived fuel; materials separation; dust refuse derived fuel; densified refuse derived fuel; and fine refuse derived fuel. Mechanical processing components investigated include: receiving module; primary size reduction module; combustible separation module; refuse derived fuel preparation module; fuel densification; fuel storage module; ferrous separation; and building and facilities. Pretreatment processes and principle methods of bioconversion of MSW dealing with biological processing are investigated. (MCW)

  17. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a condition...

  18. Hybrid heat recovery - flat plate Stirling engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanizh, A.M.; Budin, R.; Sutlovizh, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of process condensate heat recovery for boiler water preheating as well as for combined heat and power production for chosen process in textile industry has been investigated. The garment industry requires low pressure process steam or hot water for which production expensive fossil fuel should be used. Fuel usage can be reduced by various energy conservation methods. During the process a great quantity of hot condensate or waste hot water is rejected in the sewage system. To reduce heat wastes and improve technological process this condensate could be returned to the boiler for feed water preheating. When 60% condensate is returned to the steam generator about 8 % natural gas is saved. The rest of the condensate should be used for driving low temperature flat plate Stirling motor the advantage of the flat plate Stirling engine is ability to work at low temperatures. This engine produces electrical energy which can put in motion an electrogenerator in the same plant. While Stirling engine can be used electrical power and economical effect could be much greater using such a hybrid system the process waste heat is not only converted into useful work but at the same time thermal pollution is greatly diminished. (Author)

  19. LHCb: Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    CERN Multimedia

    Haen, C; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    The backbone of the LHCb experiment is the Online system, which is a very large and heterogeneous computing center. Making sure of the proper behavior of the many different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small expert-operator team and is a 24/7 task. At the occasion of CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with always improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on reinforcement learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the presentation made at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present a version with improved algorithms, manipulation tools, and report on experience with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  20. Prospect of bio-gas as one of the sources of energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, A B; Coburn, B A

    1977-01-01

    Nepal is a small Himalayan country plagued by a severe indigenous energy shortage, with wood for cooking constituting the vast bulk of the domestic energy consumption. Forest cutting for fuelwood exceeds growth by a factor of seven to one. Petrofuels and hydro-electricity, currently limited to small areas, will require importation or expensive foreign technology if they are to be developed on a large scale. The recovery of methane gas (CH/sub 4/) and an enriched fertilizer by-product from animal and human wastes is a technology which has proven itself in India (over 35,000 operating plants) and has been successful for the more than 250 plants now operating in Nepal. These bio-gas digestor plants are largely adaptable from local materials, and the socio-economic barriers to their development are minor. Over 10,000 homesteads have sites where a bio-gas digestor system would yield a benefit-to-cost ratio of greater than 2:1. To reach the poorer farmer who cannot afford or who does not have the organic matter necessary to operate a 'gobar (dung) gas' plant, current research has shown that large-scale community gas-cum-fertilizer digestor plants can operate effectively. A single-unit community latrine gas plant in the Kathmandu Valley, which digests and stores the sewage from 800 to 1000 persons daily, is producing gas for cooking, valuable fertilizer and is the city's only successful sanitation scheme. The technologies of cost reduction and temperature control, heretofore limiting factors in bio-gas application, are being continually improved.

  1. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  2. The role of energy policy in agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.

  3. Panorama 2018 - Biogas in Europe: future prospects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Grandjean, Julien; Bouter, Anne; Collet, Pierre; Gauthier, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    Biogas, produced from all kinds of organic matter, is used to produce electricity and heat. Biomethane, which is biogas stripped of its CO 2 component, can be injected into the natural gas network or upgraded to biofuel for use in the transport sector. In Europe, biogas represented 8% of renewable fuel production in 2015, equivalent to 4% of European natural gas consumption. (authors)

  4. Biomass and biogas : potentials, efficiencies and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert; Wouterse, Brian; Faber, Folkert; Nap, Jan Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the field of ‘renewable energy resources’ formation of biogas Biomass and biogas: potentials, efficiencies and flexibility is an important option. Biogas can be produced from biomass in a multistep process called anaerobic digestion (AD) and is usually performed in large digesters. Anaerobic

  5. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure......Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where...

  6. Enhancing protein to extremely high content in photosynthetic bacteria during biogas slurry treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anqi; Zhang, Guangming; Meng, Fan; Lu, Pei; Wang, Xintian; Peng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This work proposed a novel approach to achieve an extremely high protein content in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) using biogas slurry as a culturing medium. The results showed the protein content of PSB could be enhanced strongly to 90% in the biogas slurry, which was much higher than reported microbial protein contents. The slurry was partially purified at the same time. Dark-aerobic was more beneficial than light-anaerobic condition for protein accumulation. High salinity and high ammonia of the biogas slurry were the main causes for protein enhancement. In addition, the biogas slurry provided a good buffer system for PSB to grow. The biosynthesis mechanism of protein in PSB was explored according to theoretical analysis. During biogas slurry treatment, the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase were increased by 26.55%, 46.95% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbagbo, J.K.N.

    1997-04-01

    This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a biogas plant is, and how it functions. Chapter 2, describes the entire process. Chapter 3, discusses the necessary conditions for fermentation. Chapter 4, the measuring parameters for monitoring the system. Chapter 5, describes the various types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Chapter 6, describes a planning guide for Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 7, discusses digester sizing and finally, Chapter 8, describes a concise biogas plant construction suitable for the rural areas of Ghana and other tropical countries. (au)

  8. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process as ....... Experiments using biogas reactors fed with cow manure showed that the same biogas yield found at 550 C could be obtained at 610 C after a long adaptation period. However, propionate degradation was inhibited by increasing the temperature.......Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...

  9. The Finnish biogas register no 16. Information compiled from 2012; Suomen biokaasulaitosrekisteri n:o 16. Tiedot vuodelta 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.; Kuittinen, V.

    2013-11-01

    In Finland altogether 16 biogas reactor plants have been in operation at different municipal wastewater treatment plants by the end of 2012. Industrial wastewaters were treated anaerobically at three different plants. Farm-scale biogas plants were operating at 10 places. Municipal solid wastes were treated at 10 biogas plants. In 2012, the amount of biogas produced by the reactor installations was 55.9 million m{sup 3} and the combustion of surplus biogas 6.1 million m{sup 3}. Production of thermal, electrical and mechanical energy was 256.2 GWh. As compared to the previous year, there was a notable increase in the total amount of the produced biogas and the energy. There were altogether 40 landfill gas recovery plants operating at the end of 2012. The amount of the recovered biogas was 94.5 million m{sup 3}. The amount of recovered biogas used for the production of electrical and thermal energy was 74.8 million m{sup 3}, producing 312.2 GWh. (orig.)

  10. Economic and ecological evaluation of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the power supply towards renewable energy (RE) sources will depend on a large scale of fluctuating RE sources, primarily of wind energy and photovoltaics. However, the variable power generation of these renewable sources will lead to an increased need of flexible power producers in order to balance differences between energy generation and consumption. Among the different types of RE sources, biogas plants have the advantage that their input biomass and the produced biogas can be stored and electricity can consequently be generated on demand. Since electricity from biogas has not been used to balance fluctuations of intermittent RE in the past, new concepts are required. These concepts should be able to meet the requirements of highly renewable electricity systems and to supply biogas according to the varying demand for long-and short-term balance power generation. In this regard, this thesis focused on the identification of biogas plant concepts for flexible power generation, as well as on ranking them regarding their economic and life cycle performance.

  11. Economic and ecological evaluation of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Henning

    2015-07-01

    The transformation of the power supply towards renewable energy (RE) sources will depend on a large scale of fluctuating RE sources, primarily of wind energy and photovoltaics. However, the variable power generation of these renewable sources will lead to an increased need of flexible power producers in order to balance differences between energy generation and consumption. Among the different types of RE sources, biogas plants have the advantage that their input biomass and the produced biogas can be stored and electricity can consequently be generated on demand. Since electricity from biogas has not been used to balance fluctuations of intermittent RE in the past, new concepts are required. These concepts should be able to meet the requirements of highly renewable electricity systems and to supply biogas according to the varying demand for long-and short-term balance power generation. In this regard, this thesis focused on the identification of biogas plant concepts for flexible power generation, as well as on ranking them regarding their economic and life cycle performance.

  12. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Neufeld, Niko

    The administration of a large computer infrastructure is a great challenge in many aspects and requires experts in various domains to be successful. One criterion to which the users of a data center are directly exposed is the availability of the infrastructure. A high availability comes at the cost of constant and performant monitoring solutions as well as experts ready to diagnose and solve the problems. It is unfortunately not always possible to have an expert team constantly on site. This work presents a tool which is meant to support system administrators in their tasks by diagnosing problems, offering recovery solutions, and acting as a history and knowledge database. We will first detail what large data centers are composed of and what are the various competences that are required in order to successfully administrate them. This will lead us to consider the problems that are traditionally encountered by the administrators. Those problems are at the source of this project, and we will define our goals f...

  13. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhring, Michael; Böttger, Stefan; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors. PMID:26007746

  14. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köhring

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors.

  15. Comparative Analysis Between Intelligent Biogas Engineering and Traditional Biogas Engineering%智能化沼气工程技术及其优势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林斌; 徐庆贤; 官雪芳; 林碧芬

    2012-01-01

    以福建省建瓯市新星养猪场为例,阐述智能化沼气工程系统的工艺流程及技术要点,包括酸化池和沼气池的pH值监测系统、智能化进料系统、玻璃钢沼气池加热系统,沼气自动搅拌系统、沼气流量监测系统和互联网远程控制系统;比较智能化沼气工程与传统沼气工程的成本和产气率情况,认为从沼气工程可持续运行的角度出发,智能化沼气工程更符合成本效益原则;智能化沼气工程技术系统能为沼气发酵创造最佳发酵环境,获得高效的产气率.%Firstly, this paper introduces the key technological points of the intelligent biogas engineering system by taking Xin-xing seed—pig pig farms as an example, including pH monitoring system of acidification tank and biogas digester, intelligent feeding system, heating system for FRP digester, bio—gas automatic mixing system, gas flowing metering system and internet remote control system. Then, it takes a comparison of the cost and gas production rate between intelligent biogas engineering and traditional biogas engineering, the result showing that: for the long—term sustainable operation of biogas engineering, intelligent biogas engineering is more according with the cost—benefit principle; technology system of intelligent biogas engineering can create the best environment for biogas fermentation, thus it can get the highest efficiency of gas production.

  16. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    , being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas......Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co...

  17. Integrated rural industrialization through biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Role of biogas in rural industrialization in India is explained. The Khadi and Village Industries Commission has installed over 2 lakhs (0.2 million) biogas plants during the last 30 years. A 15 cu.m. capacity plant costs Rs. 35,000/-. It produces 65 tons bio-manure worth Rs. 13,000/- in a year and fuel gas equivalent to 3,285 litres of kerosene worth Rs. 9855/-. It provides employment to 300 man days. In addition to serving as a source of energy and manure, it reduces deforestation, solves rural sanitation problem and maintain environmental equilibrium. Industrial activities suitable for rural areas and which can use biogas as a source of power are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  18. A Novel Low-Overhead Recovery Approach for Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed the complex problem of recovery for concurrent failures in distributed computing environment. We have proposed a new approach in which we have effectively dealt with both orphan and lost messages. The proposed checkpointing and recovery approaches enable each process to restart from its recent checkpoint and hence guarantee the least amount of recomputation after recovery. It also means that a process needs to save only its recent local checkpoint. In this regard, we have introduced two new ideas. First, the proposed value of the common checkpointing interval is such that it enables an initiator process to log the minimum number of messages sent by each application process. Second, the determination of the lost messages is always done a priori by an initiator process; besides it is done while the normal distributed application is running. This is quite meaningful because it does not delay the recovery approach in any way.

  19. Implementing forward recovery using checkpointing in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a forward recovery scheme using checkpoints and replicated tasks. The implementation is based on the concept of lookahead execution and rollback validation. In the experiment, two tasks are selected for the normal execution and one for rollback validation. It is shown that the recovery strategy has nearly error-free execution time and an average redundancy lower than TMR.

  20. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; de Jager, A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the

  1. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Monitoring Produksi Biogas pada Biodigester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Alfanz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one of the flammable natural gas. The most observed content of biogas in this study is methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2. Therefore, biogas can be developed and used as an alternative energy. Nowadays, the used of plant biodigester, as the biogas producer, is still in very simple design. So, the system design should be developed to assist the monitoring process of biogas production. In this study, a system is design which can do the data acquisition using MQ4 sensor of methane, MQ8 sensor of hydrogen and MG811 sensor of carbon dioxide also the parameter which influencing to the process of biogas production such as temperature, humidity and pressure. Based on the measurement of methane, it is spotted that the highest point of methane production occured at 10:00 a.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 67% RH, and pressure 100,6 kPa which can produce 95.672 ppm of methane. In the measurement of hydrogen, it is figured out that the highet point of hydrogen production occured at 02:00 p.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 74% RH, and a pressure of 100,4 kPa to produce 4,738 ppm of hydrogen. Then, the highest point of the measurement of carbon dioxide production occurred at 11:00 a.m. The details were temperature 33 °C, humidity 68% RH, and a pressure of 100,5 kPa to 16,89 ppm of carbon dioxide.

  2. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Lignocellulosic substrates are abundant in agricultural areas around the world and lately, are utilized for biogas production in full-scale anaerobic digesters. However, the anaerobic digestion (AD) of these substrates is associated with specific difficulties due to their recalcitrant nature which...... protects them from enzymatic attack. Hence, the main purpose of this work was to define diverse ways to improve the performance of AD systems using these unconventional biomasses. Thus, mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatments, microaeration and bioaugmentation with hydrolytic microbes were examined...... conductivity, soluble chemical oxygen demand and enzymatic hydrolysis) as a rapid way to predict the methane production. However, the precision of methane yield prediction was not high (R2

  3. Biogas plants: Design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the big readiness of waste coming from the agricultural activities are looked for the production of Energy and Payments, the biogas like product of the organic decomposition under anaerobic conditions, their composition and characteristic. The elements that conform the design as the digester, the storage, the load tanks and it discharges and the conduction is described and analyzed. They are given a series of elements to obtain the characteristics of the system possible to place as: planning, calculations, evaluation, execution and operation. Lastly the steps are indicated that should be continued in the construction of the plant including planning for the work

  4. Evaluating operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbricino, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a practical methodology for estimating the operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction from municipal landfills. The procedure is based on two sub-models which simulate landfill gas production from organic waste decomposition and distribution of gas pressure and gas movement induced by suction at a blower station. The two models are coupled in a single mass balance equation, obtaining a relationship between the operational vacuum and the amount of landfill gas that can be extracted from an assigned system of vertical wells. To better illustrate the procedure, it is applied to a case study, where a good agreement between simulated and measured data, within +/- 30%, is obtained.

  5. Principal methods for biogas desulphurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, Lianys; Fernández Santana, Elina; Muñoz, Susana Rodríguez; Bárcenas Pérez, Liuver

    2015-01-01

    At present the world is facing an energy crisis, where one of the factors contributing to it is the indiscriminate use of conventional fuels, therefore, alternatives for obtaining biofuels such as biogas are being sought. Biogas contains hydrogen sulphide, which has a high toxicity and corrosive properties, which limits their use. Methods for efluent gas desulphurization can be classified according to their physico-chemical principles as follows: absorption using inorganic and organic chemicals, physical adsorption, biotecnologichal methods and membrane filtration. In this paper an analysis of the methods used worldwide is presented as well as the results achieved from the Cuban experience. (author)

  6. Control optimizations for heat recovery from CO2 refrigeration systems in supermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of supermarket energy control system model. • Heat recovery from CO 2 refrigeration system in supermarket space conditioning. • Effect of pressure controls of CO 2 refrigeration system on heat recovery potentials. • Control optimization of CO 2 refrigeration system for heat recovery in supermarket. - Abstract: A modern supermarket energy control system has a concurrent need for electricity, food refrigeration and space heating or cooling. Approximately 10% of this energy is for conventional gas-powered heating. In recent years, the use of CO 2 as a refrigerant in supermarket systems has received considerable attention due to its negligible contribution to direct greenhouse gas emissions and excellent thermophysical and heat transfer properties. CO 2 refrigeration systems also offer more compact component designs over a conventional HFC system and heat recovery potential from compressor discharge. In this paper, the heat recovery potential of an all-CO 2 cascade refrigeration system in a supermarket has been investigated using the supermarket simulation model “SuperSim” developed by the authors. It has been shown that at UK weather conditions, the heat recovery potential of CO 2 refrigeration systems can be increased by increasing the condenser/gas cooler pressure to the point where all the heat requirements are satisfied. However, the optimum level of heat recovery will vary during the year and the control system should be able to continuously optimize this level based on the relative cost of energy, i.e., gas and electricity

  7. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  8. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K. L.; Ács, N.; Kovács, E.; Wirth, R.; Rákhely, G.; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  9. A Review of Biogas Applications across Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; kofi Ackom, Emmanuel; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem

    This paper analyses the biogas development within Ghana, Thailand and Denmark to shed light on the different development patterns and future trends that is seen within the biogas sector. Literature review in the form of journal articles and reports is assessed, interviews with agricultural...... and biogas experts - as well as policy makers within the field of renewable energy - is being conducted. The biogas technology was analysed according to ‘historical development’, ‘feedstock utilization’ and ‘future development’. As far as the future prospects for the biogas technology the paper concludes...... are required to move forward. Thailand and Denmark has set up support programs and emphasized on using industrial organic feedstock for biogas production, and Denmark has formulated political targets for utilizing organic household waste as biogas feedstock. For all three countries apply, despite...

  10. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  11. Silage seepage and water protection. Production and recovery of silage seepage from animal feed and biomass for biogas plants. 7. ed.; Silagesickersaft und Gewaesserschutz. Anfall und Verwertung von Silagesickersaft aus Futtermitteln und Biomasse fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiekers, Hubert [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Attenberger, Erwin [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The production of silage is now standard and an important basis for a successful milk and beef production. Silage is also needed in agricultural biogas plants as a substrate for energy production. This publication is intended to serve agriculture as a source of information and guidance document for the construction and operation of silos and the administration as an orientating work aid. The factors influencing the accumulation of silage seepage and the possibilities of prevention in silage and silage management are presented and evaluated from environmental and legal perspective. [German] Die Produktion von Silage ist heute Standard und eine wichtige Grundlage fuer eine erfolgreiche Milch- und Rindfleischerzeugung. Silage wird auch in landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen als Substrat zur Energieerzeugung benoetigt. Die vorliegende Publikation soll der Landwirtschaft als Informationsquelle und Handlungsanleitung fuer den Bau und Betrieb von Siloanlagen und der Verwaltung als orientierende Arbeitshilfe dienen. Die Einflussgroessen auf den Anfall an Sickersaeften und die Moeglichkeiten der Vermeidung bei der Silierung und dem Silagemanagement werden dargestellt und aus umwelt- und rechtlicher Sicht bewertet.

  12. Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy NREL's waste-to-energy research and development required for upgrading biogas to fuels and high-value co-products. Featured (2014) Biogas Potential in the United States, NREL Fact Sheet (2013) View all NREL biogas upgrading and

  13. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling

  14. Preliminary design and economical study of a biogas production-plant using cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents considerations and results from designing a large- scale biogas production-plant using cow manure. The so designed plant capacity allowed processing the dung from 1,300 cows, producing 500 kW of electrical energy from operating a generator which works on a mixture of diesel and biogas fuel. The design included sizing the cowsheds, the manure-collecting systems, transporting the dung, the digester, the effluent tank and the biogas treatment system. An economic study was also done, concluding that project was viable and the importance of the cost of diesel evolving for determining return on investment time.

  15. In-situ biogas upgrading process: modeling and simulations aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovato, Giovanna; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Kovalovszki, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biogas upgrading processes by in-situ hydrogen (H2) injection are still challenging and could benefit from a mathematical model to predict system performance. Therefore, a previous model on anaerobic digestion was updated and expanded to include the effect of H2 injection into the liquid phase of...

  16. Performance analysis of a biogas-fueled micro gas turbine using a validated thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikpey Somehsaraei, Homam; Mansouri Majoumerd, Mohammad; Breuhaus, Peter; Assadi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on an investigation of the fuel flexibility and performance analysis of micro gas turbines (MGTs) in biogas application. For this purpose, a steady state thermodynamic model of an MGT was developed and validated by experimental data obtained from a 100 kW MGT test rig. Quite good agreement was obtained between the measurements and the simulation results. A wide range of biogas compositions with varying methane content was simulated for this study. Necessary minor modifications to fuel valves and compressor were assumed to allow engine operation with the simulated biogas composition. The effects of biogas on the engine performance were fully analyzed at various operational conditions by changing the power demand and also the ambient temperature. Compared to the natural gas fueled case, the mass flow and pressure ratio in the MGT decreased, which resulted in a slight reduction of the surge margin. This effect became more severe, however, at low power loads and/or low ambient temperatures. For all operational conditions, the electrical efficiency decreased with decreasing methane content of the biogas. The results also indicated the negative effect of the biogas on the heat recovery in the recuperator, which lowered as the methane content of the fuel decreased. - Highlights: •The MGT performance and fuel flexibility were investigated in biogas application. •A thermodynamic model of the MGT was developed and validated with experimental data. •Changes in performance and operating conditions of components were studied. •The results showed the viability of the MGT for use in biogas application

  17. Carbon footprint of urban source separation for nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Spångberg, J; Davidsson, Å

    2017-07-15

    Source separation systems for the management of domestic wastewater and food waste has been suggested as more sustainable sanitation systems for urban areas. The present study used an attributional life cycle assessment to investigate the carbon footprint and potential for nutrient recovery of two sanitation systems for a hypothetical urban area in Southern Sweden. The systems represented a typical Swedish conventional system and a possible source separation system with increased nutrient recovery. The assessment included the management chain from household collection, transport, treatment and final return of nutrients to agriculture or disposal of the residuals. The results for carbon footprint and nutrient recovery (phosphorus and nitrogen) concluded that the source separation system could increase nutrient recovery (0.30-0.38 kg P capita -1 year -1 and 3.10-3.28 kg N capita -1 year -1 ), while decreasing the carbon footprint (-24 to -58 kg CO 2 -eq. capita -1 year -1 ), compared to the conventional system. The nutrient recovery was increased by the use of struvite precipitation and ammonium stripping at the wastewater treatment plant. The carbon footprint decreased, mainly due to the increased biogas production, increased replacement of mineral fertilizer in agriculture and less emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. In conclusion, the study showed that source separation systems could potentially be used to increase nutrient recovery from urban areas, while decreasing the climate impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy production from biogas in the Italian countryside: Modernization vs. repeasantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrosio, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Italy is experiencing a proliferation of biogas energy plants. In only a few years, the number of plants has grown from ten to nearly five hundred. Public policies have played an important role in stimulating and shaping the spread of biogas plants. Following the European Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) Italian public policy began to support the spread of biogas with a system of obligations and incentives. This system, combined with a rigid institutional framework, has shaped the organizational models adopted by farms for biogas technology implementation. From the point of view of sociological investigation, the article investigates the two main agricultural biogas organizational models: modernization and repeasantization. We present the two models through the study of two empirical cases, which highlight how different ways to introduce new technologies on farms can lead to different outcomes in ecological terms. - Highlights: • Energy production from biogas is a recent phenomenon in the Italian countryside. • The production of biogas requires an organizational change of the farms. • The most important organizational models are modernization and repeasantization. • Uses of land change depending on the organizational models with which the energy production fits in farm

  19. Performance and emission characteristics of biogas used in diesel engine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle; Pukalskas, Saugirdas; Rimkus, Alfredas; Vegneris, Ricardas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas is an environmentally friendly biofuel for diesel engines. • Results of diesel engine tests when fuelling with biogas are presented. • Engine and environmental characteristics depends on carbon dioxide content in biogas. • Using biogas in a diesel engine requires certain operational modifications. - Abstract: The objective of this study it to evaluate the impact of the carbon dioxide concentration in biogas on the operating characteristics and exhaust gas emissions of a diesel engine running on a mixture of biogas and mineral diesel fuel. The tests were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the impact of different biogas compositions and the exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR) on the engine parameters was determined. Lower pollutant levels were measured in the studies without the EGR system, except for the nitrogen oxides NO x levels. The NO x concentration decrease was directly proportional to the concentration of methane in the common fuel mixture. In the second stage, the gas with the highest methane content was used to determine the impact of the start of injection timing on the engine operating parameters. As the methane content in the common fuel mixture increased, the start of injection timing had to be progressively advanced to increase the thermal efficiency and to lower the fuel consumption, the CO and HC concentrations and the smokiness of the exhaust; however, advancing the start of injection timing increased NO x pollution

  20. The effect of short recovery period investment on least-cost generation system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun He; David, A.K.; Fernando, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the short recovery period of private investment on least-cost generation system expansion is analysed, and a trade-off method for generation system expansion, which gives consideration to both the least-cost strategy and the short recovery period of private investment, is presented. First, the optimal mix of generation units under a standard recovery period for all units is established, and then the surcharge, due to the difference between the short recovery period and the standard recovery period, is calculated and shared between all units. The former is an optimization to make best use of natural resources, and the latter is a trade-off method to spread the surcharge throughout the system. (Author)