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Sample records for biogas process propionate

  1. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, J.P.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold...

  2. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold of 10 mM by manipulating the feed flow. Other online parameters such as pH, biogas production, total VFA, and other individual VFA were also measured to examine process performance. The experimental results showed that a simple logic control can successfully prevent the reactor from overload, but with fluctuations of the propionate level due to the nature of control approach. The fluctuation of propionate concentration could be reduced, by adding a lower feed flow limit into the control algorithm to prevent undershooting of propionate response. It was found that use of the biogas production as a main control parameter, rather than propionate can give a more stable process, since propionate was very persistent and only responded very slowly to the decrease of the feed flow which lead to high fluctuation of biogas production. Propionate, however, was still an excellent parameter to indicate process stress under gradual overload and thus recommended as an alarm in the control algorithm. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bangso; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer

    2007-01-01

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation acetate increased significantly during the feeding periods from a level of 2-4 to 12-17 mM, but the concentration generally dropped to about the same level as before feeding. The fluctuations in the propionate were more moderate than for acetate but the average level rose during 1 week of operation from 0.6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best describe the normalizing of the process. In a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor experiment, with manure as main substrate, the prospective of using either propionate concentration or methane production as single process indicators was studied. Propionate was found to be the best indicator. Thus, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate was used as process indicator

  4. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    .6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best......, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate...

  5. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  6. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Online monitoring and control of the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.

    2006-07-01

    The demand for online monitoring and control of biogas process is increasing, since better monitoring and control system can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. A number of parameters in both the liquid and the gas phase have been suggested as process indicators. These include gas production, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and hydrogen. Of these, VFA is the most widely recognised as a direct, relevant measure of stability. The individual, rather than collective VFA concentrations are recognised as providing significantly more information for diagnosis. However, classic on-line measurement is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling, especially in particulate or slurry wastes. In this project, a new online VFA monitoring system has been developed using gas-phase VFA extraction to avoid sample filtration. The liquid sample is pumped into a sampling chamber, acidified, added with salt and heated to extract VFA into the gas phase before analysis by GC-FID. This allows easy application to manure. Sample and analysis time of the system varies from 25-40 min. depending on the washing duration. The sampling frequency is fast enough for the dynamic of a manure digester, which is in the range of several hours. This system has been validated over more than 6 months and had shown good agreement with offline VFA measurement. Response from this sensor was compared with other process parameters such as biogas production, pH and dissolved hydrogen during overload situations in a laboratory-scale digester, to investigate the suitability of each measure as a process indicator. VFA was most reliable for indicating process imbalance, and propionate was most persistent. However, when coupling the online VFA monitoring with a simple control for automatic controlling propionate level in a digester, it was found that propionate decreased so slow that the biogas production fluctuated. Therefore, it is more

  8. Review of desulfurization process for biogas purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Ma, Yunqian; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic and odorous compound present in biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials. Elimination of H2S is necessary as it is extremely hazardous to human health, poisonous to process catalysts and corrosive to equipment. The desulfurization technology is an important part for efficient utilization of biogas. In this paper, the traditional wet and dry desulfurization technology for biogas was reviewed, and the new research progress of biological desulfurization technologies are also introduced.

  9. CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING PROCESS IMBALANCES IN BIOGAS PLANTS. EMPHAS IS ON VFA DYNAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    environmental changes differ widely between the different groups. As a consequence of this, an unrestrained reactor operation can lead to disturbances in the balance between the different microbial groups, which might lead to reactor failure. Therefore, reliable parameters and tools for efficient process...... control and understanding are necessary. The work of present study was directed towards this challenge. Initially, the response of the anaerobic digestion process to various types of process imbalances was investigated with special focus on volatile fatty acid dynamics (VFA), methane production and pH...... of process imbalances in biogas plants. At Danish full-scale biogas plants the biogas production is normally the only continuously measured parameter. In order to examine the usability of propionate as control parameter a reactor experiment was constructed in which the reactor operation either was carried...

  10. Towards novel biogas upgrading processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalova, E.

    2013-06-01

    Biogas production has considerable development possibilities not only in Finland but all over the world since it it the easiest way of creating value out of various waste fractions and represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Development of efficient biogas upgrading technology has become an important issue since it improves the quality of biogas and for example facilitating its injection into the natural gas pipelines. Moreover, such upgrading contributes to resolving the issue of increasing CO{sub 2} emissions and addresses the increasing climate change concerns. Together with traditional CO{sub 2} capturing technologies a new class of recently emerged sorbents such as ionic liquids is claimed as promising media for gas separations. In this thesis, an extensive comparison of the performance of different solvents in terms of CO{sub 2} capture has been performed. The focus of the present study was on aqueous amine solutions and their mixtures, traditional ionic liquids, 'switchable' ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s in order to reveal the best option for biogas upgrading. The CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency for the most promising solvents achieved values around 50-60 L CO{sub 2}/L absorbent. These values are superior to currently widely applied water wash biogas upgrading system. Regeneration of the solvent mixtures appeared to be challenging since the loss of initial efficiency upon CO{sub 2} release was in excess of 20-40 vol %, especially in the case of aqueous amine solutions. In contrast, some of the ionic liquids displayed reversible behavior. Thus, for selected 'switchable' ionic and poly(ionic liquid)s the CO{sub 2} absorption/regeneration cycles were performed 3-4 times without any notable efficiency decrease. The viscosity issue, typical for ionic liquids upon CO{sub 2} saturation, was addressed and the information obtained was evaluated and related to the ionic interactions. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds

  11. BEAP profiles as rapid test system for status analysis and early detection of process incidents in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Berger, Stefanie; Wassmann, Kati; Hecht, Melanie; Dickhaus, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH 4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between specific BEAP profiles for standard biogas plants and for biogas reactors with process incidents (beginning of NH 4 + -N inhibition, start of acidification, insufficient hydrolysis and potential mycotoxin effects). Finally, BEAP profiles also functioned as a warning system for the early prediction of critical NH 4 + -N concentrations leading to a drop of CH 4 formation.

  12. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B K; Angelidaki, I [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy for process and substrate supervision of a full-scale biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, Hans Fabian

    2012-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the supervision of the biogas production process or parts thereof. It was examined, whether the surveillance of (a) the process and (b) substrate was feasible. The following tasks were accomplished to this end: 1. Development, construction and assembly of suitable NIRS-metrology, development of proper control-software as well as of strategies for data acquisition and data handling, 2. calculation and validation of regression models on the basis of acquired spectra and reference data for (a) suitable parameters of the biogas process, (b) composition and biogas potential of the substrate, 3. calculation of continuous time series of all parameters in order to prove the possibility of continuous surveillance, 4. integrated processing of continuously calculated biogas potentials together with plant data for the prediction of the biogas production behavior of the biogas plant. A near-infrared spectrometer was installed and equipped with NIR-measuring heads of own design and construction on a full-scale agricultural biogas plant. For 500 days spectra were continuously logged at (a) a pipe flowed through by fermenter slurry and (b) the feeding station, where silage passed. Based on regularly withdrawn reference samples and the corresponding spectra regression models were calibrated for the several constituents. Continuously logged spectra were used to calculate time series with the aid of the regression models for each constituent. Models and time series were established for the following parameters: (a) process parameters: volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, dry matter, volatile solids; (b) substrate parameters: dry matter, volatile solids, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, nitrogen-free extracts, experimentally assessed biogas potential, theoretically assessed biogas potential. Despite the partially low quality of the models it was possible to follow the course of

  14. Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A [CSM Suiker BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Velsen, A F.M.

    1985-03-01

    Process and processing of anaerobic digestion are described. Methane bacteria are only the last link in a long step by step degradation of organic wastes by a large number of microorganisms. In this article the following processes get special attention: septic tank process, used for isolated residential buildings; manure digestion systems; anaerobic sludge processes. A Dutch development is the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). Newest process is the fluid bed process, which enables a very fast sedimentation and short residence time. The sensibility for toxic compounds in waste water remains a problem in all biogas processes. (A.V.)

  15. Long-term stability of thermophilic co-digestion submerged anaerobic membrane reactor encountering high organic loading rate, persistent propionate and detectable hydrogen in biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Niu, Qigui; Shofie, Mohammad; Li, Yu You

    2013-12-01

    The performance of thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds and sludge using membrane reactor was investigated for 148 days, out of a total research duration of 263 days. The OLR was increased from 2.2 to 33.7 kg-COD/m(3)d and HRT was shortened from 70 to 7 days. A significant irreversible drop in pH confirmed the overload of reactor. Under a moderately high OLR of 23.6 kg-COD/m(3)d, and with HRT and influent total solids of 10 days and 150 g/L, respectively, the COD removal efficiency was 44.5%. Hydrogen in biogas was around 100-200 ppm, which resulted in the persistent propionate of 1.0-3.2g/L. The VFA consumed approximately 60% of the total alkalinity. NH4HCO3 was supplemented to maintain alkalinity. The stability of system relied on pH management under steady state. The 16SrDNA results showed that hydrogen-utilizing methanogens dominates the archaeal community. The propionate-oxidizing bacteria in bacterial community was insufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Functions for working with biogas data. Both low- and high-level functions are included for carrying out common tasks for analysis of biogas and related data. Molar mass and calculated oxygen demand (COD') can be determined from a chemical formula. Measured gas volume can be corrected for water...... vapor and to (possibly user-defined) standard temperature and pressure. Gas composition, cumulative production, or other variables can be interpolated to a specified time. Cumulative biogas and methane production (and rates) can be calculated using volumetric, manometric, or gravimetric methods for any...... be summarized in several different ways (e.g., omitting normalization) using the same function. Lastly, biogas and methane production can be predicted from substrate composition and additional, optional data....

  18. Process and device for processing biomass into biogas. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Verarbeitung einer Biomasse zu Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jendrike, H.

    1983-04-21

    The invention concerns a process for processing biomass such as liquid manure, solid manure or slaughterhouse waste by anaerobic decomposition in an alkaline medium into biogas. In order to achieve more intensive processing of the biomass, particularly in order to increase biogas production by removing a floating or sinking layer, a deposited biomass sinking layer is whirled at certain spacing. The whirled biomass sinking layer is sucked up and is pressed on to a biomass floating layer which forms.

  19. Processing biogas to obtain motor fuel - Operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how raw biogas can be processed in order to remove carbon dioxide and corrosive substances and thus bring it up to natural gas quality. The ecological advantages of using biogas as a fuel are discussed and the situation in Europe and Switzerland is examined. Also, feeding biogas into the normal natural gas mains is discussed and the technologies necessary for the cleaning and preparation of the biogas are described. These include absorption and adsorption processes as well as membrane systems that are used to remove excessive carbon dioxide. The costs involved are discussed on the basis of experience gained in Sweden and Switzerland. Finally, the environmental aspects of methane losses are discussed.

  20. Methane losses in biogas processing; Methanverluste bei der Biogasaufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, S.; Baier, U. [ZHAW, Zuercher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften, IBT Institut fuer Biotechnologie, Fachgruppe Umweltbiotechnologie, Waedenswil (Switzerland); Judex, J.; Biollaz, S.; Schneebeli, J. [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland, presents the results of a study made on methane losses that occur during the processing of biogas to provide natural gas quality. Such losses are considered as possibly compromising the environmental advantages offered by the feeding-in of processed biogas into the national gas mains. This processing involves the removal of carbon dioxide from the biogas. The state-of-the-art in this area is discussed, relevant factors and analysis methods are looked at. An overview of methods used to prevent methane losses is presented. The results of investigations made at an installation in Lucerne, Switzerland, are presented and discussed.

  1. Possibility of using apple pomaces in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Piwowarek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Utilization of by-products is a significant challenge for manufacturing sites and the natural environment. The solution to this problem may involve the use of pomace as a medium component for microorganism cultivation, which is a source of industrially useful metabolites. This study examined the possibility of using apple pomace as a carbon source in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation via wild strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii T82 bacteria.

  2. Influence of biogas flow rate on biomass composition during the optimization of biogas upgrading in microalgal-bacterial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serejo, Mayara L; Posadas, Esther; Boncz, Marc A; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-03

    The influence of biogas flow rate (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1)) on the elemental and macromolecular composition of the algal-bacterial biomass produced from biogas upgrading in a 180 L photobioreactor interconnected to a 2.5 L external bubbled absorption column was investigated using diluted anaerobically digested vinasse as cultivation medium. The influence of the external liquid recirculation/biogas ratio (0.5 biogas, was also evaluated. A L/G ratio of 10 was considered optimum to support CO2 and H2S removals of 80% and 100%, respectively, at all biogas flow rates tested. Biomass productivity increased at increasing biogas flow rate, with a maximum of 12 ± 1 g m(-2) d(-1) at 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1), while the C, N, and P biomass content remained constant at 49 ± 2%, 9 ± 0%, and 1 ± 0%, respectively, over the 175 days of experimentation. The high carbohydrate contents (60-76%), inversely correlated to biogas flow rates, would allow the production of ≈100 L of ethanol per 1000 m(3) of biogas upgraded under a biorefinery process approach.

  3. In-situ biogas upgrading process: modeling and simulations aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovato, Giovanna; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Kovalovszki, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biogas upgrading processes by in-situ hydrogen (H2) injection are still challenging and could benefit from a mathematical model to predict system performance. Therefore, a previous model on anaerobic digestion was updated and expanded to include the effect of H2 injection into the liquid phase of...

  4. Evaluation of silage-fed biogas process performance using microbiological and kinetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aa

    1996-10-01

    In this study, different kinetic and microbiological methods were used to evaluate the growth and activity of key groups of bacteria degrading ley silage in one-phase and two-phase biogas processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the dynamic behaviour of different trophic groups resulting from the initiation of liquid recirculation in the processes. The microbiological methods included microscopy and most probable number (MPN) counts with different substrates. The kinetic methods included measurements of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) with acetate and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} as substrates, batch assays with trace element additions and measurement of conversion rates of mannitol and lactate in the digesters. In general, the initiation of liquid recirculation at first promoted the growth and/or activity of several trophic groups of bacteria, such as butyrate and propionate degraders and acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the liquefaction/acidogenesis reactors of the two-phase processes. This was probably mainly due to the increased pH. However, after some time of liquid recirculation, an inhibition of some bacterial groups occurred, such as propionate degraders and methanogens in the methanogenic reactors of two-phase processes. This was probably due to increased concentrations of salts and free ammonia. The batch assays proved to be valuable tools in process optimization by the addition of trace elements. Here, the addition of cobalt significantly increased methane production from acetate. In this study, a more comprehensive understanding of the process behaviour in response to the initiation of liquid recirculation was achieved which could not have been obtained by only monitoring routine parameters such as pH, methane production and concentrations of organic acids and salts. 120 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  6. Dynamic biogas upgrading based on the Sabatier process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2015-01-01

    index, CO2 content and calorific value were found to be controllable by the H2/CO2 ratio fed the methanation reactor. An optimal H2/CO2 ratio of 3.45–3.7 was seen to result in a product gas with high calorific value and Wobbe index. The dynamic reactor simulation verified that the process start......This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of substitute natural gas (SNG) generation using biogas from anaerobic digestion and hydrogen from renewable energy systems. Using thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, kinetic reactor modeling and transient simulation, an integrated approach...... for the operation of a biogas-based Sabatier process was put forward, which was then verified using a lab scale heterogenous methanation reactor. The process simulation using a kinetic reactor model demonstrated the feasibility of the production of SNG at gas grid standards using a single reactor setup. The Wobbe...

  7. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO 2 emissions

  8. In-situ biogas upgrading process: Modeling and simulations aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Giovanna; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Kovalovszki, Adam; Peprah, Maria; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-12-01

    Biogas upgrading processes by in-situ hydrogen (H 2 ) injection are still challenging and could benefit from a mathematical model to predict system performance. Therefore, a previous model on anaerobic digestion was updated and expanded to include the effect of H 2 injection into the liquid phase of a fermenter with the aim of modeling and simulating these processes. This was done by including hydrogenotrophic methanogen kinetics for H 2 consumption and inhibition effect on the acetogenic steps. Special attention was paid to gas to liquid transfer of H 2 . The final model was successfully validated considering a set of Case Studies. Biogas composition and H 2 utilization were correctly predicted, with overall deviation below 10% compared to experimental measurements. Parameter sensitivity analysis revealed that the model is highly sensitive to the H 2 injection rate and mass transfer coefficient. The model developed is an effective tool for predicting process performance in scenarios with biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for a real time monitoring of the biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockl, Andrea; Lichti, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    In this research project Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to monitor the content of specific process parameters in anaerobic digestion. A laboratory scaled biogas digester was constantly fed every four hours with maize- and grass silage to keep a base load with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.5 kg oDM/m 3  ∗ d. Daily impact loads with shredded wheat up to an OLR of 8 kg oDM/m 3  ∗ d were added in order to generate peaks at the parameters tested. The developed calibration models are capable to show changes in process parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA), propionic acid, total inorganic carbon (TIC) and the ratio of the volatile fatty acids to the carbonate buffer (VFA/TIC). Based on the calibration of the models for VFA and TIC, the values could be predicted with an R 2 of 0.94 and 0.97, respectively. Moreover, the residual prediction deviations were 4.0 and 6.0 for VFA and TIC, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy-efficient biogas reforming process to produce syngas: The enhanced methane conversion by O_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuejing; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of O_2 content from 0 to 15% on Ni/SiO_2 are studied for biogas reforming. • The presence of O_2 in biogas improves CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. • An obvious carbon-resistance effect is observed due to the carbon gasification effect of O_2 in biogas. • The presence of O_2 in biogas greatly helps inhibit the catalyst sintering. - Abstract: We report an energy-efficient biogas reforming process with high and stable methane conversions by O_2 presence. During this biogas reforming process, the effects of various O_2 concentrations in biogas on initial conversions and stability at various temperatures on a Ni/SiO_2 catalyst were detailed investigated. In addition, theoretical energy consumption and conversions were calculated based on the Gibbs energy minimization method to compare with experimental results. Carbon formation and sintering during the reforming process were characterized by thermal gravity analysis, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the feasibility of applying this process to an inexpensive nickel catalyst. The results showed that 5% O_2 in biogas improved the CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. The enhancement of stability was attributed to the inhibited sintering, our first finding, and the reduced carbon deposition at the same time, which sustained a stable conversion of CH_4, and proved the applicability of base Ni catalyst to this process. Higher O_2 concentrations (⩾10%) in biogas resulted in severe decrease in CO_2 conversion and greater H_2O productivity. Our proposed biogas reforming process, with a high and stable conversion of CH_4, reduced energy input, and the applicability to inexpensive base metal catalyst, offers a good choice for biogas reforming with low O_2 concentrations (⩽5%) to produce syngas with high energy efficiency.

  11. Implementation of online volatile fatty acids sensor for control and optimization of anaerobic process for low cost biogas production from manure. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.; Angelidaki, I.

    2010-10-15

    Proper monitoring and control can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) is the most widely recognized as a direct, relevant measure of stability. Classic on-line measurement of individual VFA is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling when applied with manure slurries. A VFA sensor developed at DTU Environment, based on headspace chromatography technique could avoid the problems from particulate matters. In this work, the sensor had been implemented for online monitoring of the lab-scale and the pilot-scale manure digester. The industrial prototype of the VFA sensor and sample acquisition system has been constructed and implemented at a pilot scale biogas plant, located at Lundtofte, DTU. The VFA sensor has shown very satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring the biogas process. Moreover, the online VFA and biogas registration data were used as process indicators for automatic control of the biogas reactor. The results from control experiments confirmed that the combination of biogas production, total VFA concentration and propionate concentration could effectively reflect the dynamic state of the process which was very crucial for automatic control. Due to the standardized analyzing condition (pH<2, temperature>70 deg. C), the sensor responses were not affected by the manure composition (TS, VS or the addition of extra organics), which made these results representative for implementing in the full-scale biogas plant where some industrial organic wastes were added to increase the biogas production. During the project period, the sensor design and construction had been modified and tested several times to improve the robustness. However, the implementation of the sensor in full-scale biogas plant would need some further development such as improvement of mechanical design and further up-scaling depending on the dry solid content in the

  12. Study of Biogas Production from Cassava Industrial Waste by Anaerobic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production processes from tapioca wastewater have several problems that cause the biogas production is not optimal, such as pH drop at beginning of the process because the rate of acid formation is too fast and the rate of starch wastewater degradation is too slow. Therefore, to obtain optimal biogas production it is required two-stage reactor. The purposes of this research were to (i study the influence of one stage fermentation and two stage fermentation on biogas production, (ii study the effect of buffer Na2CO3 on biogas production, and (iii study the effect of methanogenic bacteria concentration on biogas production from cassava starch effluent. The first method of our research was hydrolysis process by “Saccharomyces cereviceae” as substrate activator. The second is the arrangement of pH and the last is process of methane production. The results showed that the highest biogas production is achieved at concentration of methanogenic bacteria 20% (v/v that is equal to 2458 ml. At concentration of 8% (v/v and 15% (v/v, biogas production was 2105 ml and 2117 ml. The addition of Na2CO3 can extend to 16 days with accumulation of 372 ml. While without the addition of buffer, biogas production period was only 9 days with accumulation of 620 ml. In semi continuous process, the analysis carried out every 3 days. Highest biogas production achieved in the variable addition of yeast with the accumulation 9329 ml. Without yeast, accumulation of biogas was 6831 ml. Yeast is use as substrate activator so it can accelerate the hydrolysis process and increased biogas production. The addition of Na2CO3 is increase the alkalinity so the pH drop did not occur early in the process.

  13. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  14. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process as ....... Experiments using biogas reactors fed with cow manure showed that the same biogas yield found at 550 C could be obtained at 610 C after a long adaptation period. However, propionate degradation was inhibited by increasing the temperature.......Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...

  15. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  16. Elimination of methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process by immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Min; Yang, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Fu, Shan-Fei; Sun, Meng-Ting; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-05-01

    Biogas upgrading is essential for the comprehensive utilization of biogas as substitute of natural gas. However, the methane in the biogas can be fully recovered during the upgrading process of biogas, and the exhaust gas produced during biogas upgrading may contain a very low concentration of methane. If the exhaust gas with low concentration methane releases to atmosphere, it will be harmful to environment. In addition, the utilization of large amounts of digestate produced from biogas plant is another important issue for the development of biogas industry. In this study, solid digestate was used to produce active carbon, which was subsequently used as immobilized material for methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in biofilter. Biofilter with MOB immobilized on active carbon was used to eliminate the methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process. Results showed porous active carbon was successfully made from solid digestate. The final methane elimination capacity of immobilized MOB reached about 13molh -1 m -3 , which was more 4 times higher than that of MOB without immobilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An overview of biotechnological production of propionic acid: From upstream to downstream processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Ahmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for propionic acid (PA production and its wide applications in several industries, especially the food industry (as a preservative and satiety inducer, have led to studies on the low-cost biosynthesis of this acid. This paper gives an overview of the biotechnological aspects of PA production and introduces Propionibacterium as the most popular organism for PA production. Moreover, all process variables influencing the production yield, different simple and complex carbon sources, the metabolic pathway of production, engineered mutants with increased productivity, and modified tolerance against high concentrations of acid have been described. Furthermore, possible methods of extraction and analysis of this organic acid, several applied bioreactors, and different culture systems and substrates are introduced. It can be concluded that maximum biomass and PA production may be achieved using metabolically engineered microorganisms and analyzing the most significant factors influencing yield. To date, the maximum reported yield for PA production is 0.973 g·g-1, obtained from Propionibacterium acidipropionici in a three-electrode amperometric culture system in medium containing 0.4 mM cobalt sepulchrate. In addition, the best promising substrate for PA bioproduction may be achieved using glycerol as a carbon source in an extractive continuous fermentation. Simultaneous production of PA and vitamin B12 is suggested, and finally, the limitations of and strategies for competitive microbial production with respect to chemical process from an economical point of view are proposed and presented. Finally, some future trends for bioproduction of PA are suggested.

  18. Syntrophic butyrate and propionate oxidation processes: from genomes to reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, N.; Worm, P.; Schink, B.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In anoxic environments such as swamps, rice fields and sludge digestors, syntrophic microbial communities are important for decomposition of organic matter to CO2 and CH4. The most difficult step is the fermentative degradation of short-chain fatty acids such as propionate and butyrate. Conversion

  19. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    project showed that pH-adjustment with Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be a way of compensating for the losses of volatile compounds (up to 20% of VS), which occurs when standardized reference methods are used. This is a fundamental problem and requires further research. Monitoring of a laboratory-scale anaerobic digester with NIR showed that a previously developed multivariate model could predict propionate concentrations (R2= 0,92; RMSEP 0,39 g/L) in the interval 0-5 g/L, which is a relevant interval for inhibition (limit ca 3 g/L). A commercial FT-NIR instrument was subsequently installed at the production plant. However, the organic loading was decreased during the evaluation period due to process disturbances, at which the dynamic of the process was not in the range needed for prediction of e.g. propionate. Measurements and evaluation will continue during normal conditions after the completion of this project. Evaluation of a potentiometric sensor for ammonia with potential for on-line application showed low stability and a need for daily calibration, which therefore did not fulfill the requested demand. The project has demonstrated technologies with significant potential for on-line monitoring at production scale facilities, thus improving the knowledge base for making important decisions. Knowledge about on-line implementation has increased, and important insights into the limitations of standardized reference methods and substrate characteristics have been achieved. Instrument suppliers have in general a limited insight in the conditions at a biogas plant, which suggests that this type of WR-financed project is important for development in the area

  20. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  1. Supplying the energy demand in the chicken meat processing poultry with biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrarez, A. H; Oliveira, D; Lacerda, A. F; Costa, J. M; Aparisi, F. S

    2016-01-01

    The main use of electrical energy in the chicken meat processing unit is refrigeration. About 70 % of the electricity is consumed in the compressors for the refrigeration system. Through this study, the energetic viability of using biogas from poultry litter in supplying the demand for the refrigeration process was found. The meat processing unit studied has the potential to process about a hundred and sixty thousand chickens a day. The potential biogas production from poultry litter is 60,75...

  2. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  3. Life cycle assessment of flexibly fed biogas processes for an improved demand-oriented biogas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Funda Cansu; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Neubauer, Peter; Junne, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses concepts to facilitate a demand oriented biogas supply at an agricultural biogas plant of a capacity of 500kWhel, operated with the co-digestion of maize, grass, rye silage and chicken manure. In contrast to previous studies, environmental impacts of flexible and the traditional baseload operation are compared. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to detect the environmental impacts of: (i) variety of feedstock co-digestion scenarios by substitution of maize and (ii) loading rate scenarios with a focus on flexible feedstock utilization. Demand-driven biogas production is critical for an overall balanced power supply to the electrical grid. It results in lower amounts of emissions; feedstock loading rate scenarios resulted in 48%, 20%, 11% lower global warming (GWP), acidification (AP) and eutrophication potentials, and a 16% higher cumulative energy demand. Substitution of maize with biogenic-waste regarding to feedstock substitution scenarios could create 10% lower GWP and AP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suitability of combination of calcium propionate and chitosan for preserving minimally processed banana quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, Amin; Madani, Babak; Golding, John B

    2017-08-01

    The marketability of fresh-cut banana slices is limited by the rapid rate of fruit softening and browning. However, there is no scientific literature available about the role of postharvest calcium propionate and chitosan treatment on the quality attributes of fresh-cut banana. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these effects. The application of calcium propionate plus chitosan (CaP+Chit) retained higher firmness, higher ascorbic acid content, higher total antioxidant activity and higher total phenolic compounds, along with lower browning, lower polyphenol oxidase, lower peroxidase, lower polygalacturonase and lower pectin methyl esterase activities and microbial growth, compared to control banana slices after 5 days of cold storage. The results of the present study show that CaP+Chit could be used to slow the loss of quality at the same time as maintaining quality and inhibiting microbial loads. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the optimum time interval for effluent removal after temporarily stopping stirring in otherwise continuously stirred tank reactors. Influence of temperature (10 and 55 degrees C) and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure, where...... no outside mechanical or chemical action was used, within the reactor was studied in three vertical settling columns (100 cm deep). Variations in solids and microbial distribution at top, middle and bottom layers of column were assessed over a 15 day settling period. Results showed that best solids...... separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...

  6. Causes for inhibitions of biogas process; Aarsager til haemning af biogasprocessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    It is the aim of the project to map reasons to inhibition of the biogas process. Inhibition of Danish common biogas plants in the last 5 years will be investigated in order to try to find the exact reason to the interruption of the process. Scientific literature will be investigated to describe the different reason for inhibition. The results of the project will be published in a report, an article and a popularized paper. (EHS)

  7. Comparison of VFA titration procedures used for monitoring the biogas process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Boe, Kanokwan; Fang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    (GC) analysis. Two of the procedures are commonly used in biogas plants and two are discussed in literature. The results showed that the optimal titration results were obtained when 40mL of four times diluted digested manure was gently stirred (200rpm). Results from samples with different VFA......Titrimetric determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contents is a common way to monitor a biogas process. However, digested manure from co-digestion biogas plants has a complex matrix with high concentrations of interfering components, resulting in varying results when using different...

  8. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  9. Processing biogas planet digestates into value-added products -BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T.; Rintala, J. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), Email: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Sahltroem, L.; Maunuksela, L.; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: leena.sahlstrom@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J. (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: jukka.rintala@jyu.fi; Vikman, M.; Kapanen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: minna.vikman@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products, can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic codigestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials, e.g. rendering and slaughterhouse byproducts. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation and stripping, have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The preliminary results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  10. Killing of salmonella in the biogas process; Abtoetung von Salmonellen im Biogasprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, Bianca; Lebuhn, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Pathogenic Salmonella are used in ordinances as an indicator for assessing microbial reduction in biogas plants and for the epidemic-hygienic condition of digestate. This brochure presents results of a study that examined the hygienic effect of the biogas process on Salmonella. [German] Krankheitserregende Salmonellen werden in relevanten Rechtsverordnungen als Indikator zur Beurteilung der Keimreduzierung in Biogasanlagen und des seuchenhygienischen Zustands von Gaerresten herangezogen. Die vorliegende Broschuere stellt Ergebnisse einer Studie dar, die die hygienisierende Wirkung des Biogasprozesses auf Salmonellen untersuchte.

  11. Does the addition of proteases affect the biogas yield from organic material in anaerobic digestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Liane; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Pröter, Jürgen; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical disintegration effect of hydrolytic enzymes in lab scale experiments. Influences of enzyme addition on the biogas yield as well as effects on the process stability were examined. The addition of proteases occurred with low and high dosages in batch and semi-continuous biogas tests. The feed mixture consisted of maize silage, chicken dung and cow manure. Only very high concentrated enzymes caused an increase in biogas production in batch experiments. In semi-continuous biogas tests no positive long-term effects (100 days) were observed. Higher enzyme-dosage led to a reduced biogas-yield (13% and 36% lower than the reference). Phenylacetate and -propionate increased (up to 372 mgl(-1)) before the other volatile fatty acids did. Volatile organic acids rose up to 6.8 gl(-1). The anaerobic digestion process was inhibited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The process of producing biogas is by anaerobic fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ... nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and water. Hydrogen sulfide was not detected. REFERENCES. Bauer F., Persson T., Hulteberg, C and Tamm,. D., 2013. "Biogas upgrading – technology overview, comparison and perspectives for the future" , Biofuels, Bioproducts and. Biorefining, Volume 7, Issue 5, pages. 38. A. A. ADAMU ...

  13. Biogas production from UASB and polyurethane carrier reactors treating sisal processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubindamayugi, M S.T.; Salakana, L K.P. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Faculty of Science, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The fundamental benefits which makes anaerobic digestion technology (ADT) attractive to the poor developing include the low cost and energy production potential of the technology. In this study the potential of using UASB reactor and Polyurethane Carrier Reactor (PCR) as pollution control and energy recovery systems from sisal wastewater were investigated in lab-scale reactors. The PCR demonstrated the shortest startup period, whereas the UASB reactor showed the highest COD removal efficiency 79%, biogas production rate (4.5 l biogas/l/day) and process stability than the PCR under similar HRT of 15 hours and OLR of 8.2 g COD/l/day. Both reactor systems became overloaded at HRT of 6 hours and OLR of 15.7 g COD/l/day, biogas production ceased and reactors acidified to pH levels which are inhibiting to methanogenesis. Based on the combined results on reactor performances, the UASB reactor is recommended as the best reactor for high biogas production and treatment efficiency. It was estimated that a large-scale UASB reactor can be designed under the same loading conditions to produce 2.8 m{sup 3} biogas form 1 m{sup 3} of wastewater of 5.16 kg COD/m{sup 3}. Wastewater from one decortication shift can produce 9,446 m{sup 3} og biogas. The energy equivalent of such fuel energy is indicated. (au)

  14. Biogas production from UASB and polyurethane carrier reactors treating sisal processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubindamayugi, M.S.T.; Salakana, L.K.P. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Faculty of Science, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The fundamental benefits which makes anaerobic digestion technology (ADT) attractive to the poor developing include the low cost and energy production potential of the technology. In this study the potential of using UASB reactor and Polyurethane Carrier Reactor (PCR) as pollution control and energy recovery systems from sisal wastewater were investigated in lab-scale reactors. The PCR demonstrated the shortest startup period, whereas the UASB reactor showed the highest COD removal efficiency 79%, biogas production rate (4.5 l biogas/l/day) and process stability than the PCR under similar HRT of 15 hours and OLR of 8.2 g COD/l/day. Both reactor systems became overloaded at HRT of 6 hours and OLR of 15.7 g COD/l/day, biogas production ceased and reactors acidified to pH levels which are inhibiting to methanogenesis. Based on the combined results on reactor performances, the UASB reactor is recommended as the best reactor for high biogas production and treatment efficiency. It was estimated that a large-scale UASB reactor can be designed under the same loading conditions to produce 2.8 m{sup 3} biogas form 1 m{sup 3} of wastewater of 5.16 kg COD/m{sup 3}. Wastewater from one decortication shift can produce 9,446 m{sup 3} og biogas. The energy equivalent of such fuel energy is indicated. (au)

  15. H2S and volatile fatty acids elimination by biofiltration: clean-up process for biogas potential use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sáenz, D; Zarate-Segura, P B; Guerrero-Barajas, C; García-Peña, E I

    2009-04-30

    In the present work, the main objective was to evaluate a biofiltration system for removing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contained in a gaseous stream from an anaerobic digestor (AD). The elimination of these compounds allowed the potential use of biogas while maintaining the methane (CH(4)) content throughout the process. The biodegradation of H(2)S was determined in the lava rock biofilter under two different empty bed residence times (EBRT). Inlet loadings lower than 200 g/m(3)h at an EBRT of 81 s yielded a complete removal, attaining an elimination capacity (EC) of 142 g/m(3)h, whereas at an EBRT of 31 s, a critical EC of 200 g/m(3)h was reached and the EC obtained exhibited a maximum value of 232 g/m(3)h. For 1500 ppmv of H(2)S, 99% removal was maintained during 90 days and complete biodegradation of VFAs was observed. A recovery of 60% as sulfate was obtained due to the constant excess of O(2) concentration in the system. Acetic and propionic acids as a sole source of carbon were also evaluated in the bioreactor at different inlet loadings (0-120 g/m(3)h) obtaining a complete removal (99%) for both. Microcosms biodegradation experiments conducted with VFAs demonstrated that acetic acid provided the highest biodegradation rate.

  16. Colloidal processing of porous membranes for biogas lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.C.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the urban garbage is a great economic and environmental challenge in the whole world. Solid wastes stored in continuous form in landfills are subject of natural variables, transforming them (by bioconversion) in biogas which can be used as energy font in many applications as urban lighting. However, technology to produce it has not been stabilized in Brazil yet. So, in this work porous membranes of rare earth -yttria concentrate (Ctr-Y) with potential to be used as biogas mantles were produced by replica method. The effect of solids and binder concentration on rheological behavior of Ctr-Y suspensions were evaluated by flux curves. According to the results, suspensions with 25vol% and 0,2wt% of CMC showed adequated viscosity and rheological behavior (thixotropy) for replica method. Sintered samples presented the same morphology of template and good handle strength. (author)

  17. Gas Permeation Processes in Biogas Upgrading: A Short Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárászová, Magda; Sedláková, Zuzana; Izák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2015), s. 1277-1283 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094; GA MŠk LH14006; GA ČR GA14-12695S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biogas upgrading * memranes * gas permeation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2015

  18. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  19. Copper stressed anaerobic fermentation: biogas properties, process stability, biodegradation and enzyme responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, He; Tian, Yonglan; Zhang, Huayong; Chai, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The effect of copper (added as CuCl 2 ) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied in pilot experiments by investigating the biogas properties, process stability, substrate degradation and enzyme activities at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that 30 and 100 mg/L Cu 2+ addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by up to 43.62 and 20.77% respectively, and brought forward the daily biogas yield peak, while 500 mg/L Cu 2+ addition inhibited biogas production. Meanwhile, the CH 4 content in the 30 and 100 mg/L Cu 2+ -added groups was higher than that in the control group. Higher pH values (close to pH 7) and lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) values in the Cu 2+ -added groups after the 8th day indicated better process stability compared to the control group. In the presence of Cu 2+ , the degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and other organic molecules (represented by chemical oxygen demand, COD) generated from hydrolysis was enhanced, and the ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) concentrations were more stable than in the control group. The contents of lignin and hemicellulose in the substrate declined in the Cu 2+ -added groups while the cellulose contents did not. Neither the cellulase nor the coenzyme F 420 activities could determine the biogas producing efficiency. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Cu 2+ addition on biogas yields was mainly attributable to better process stability, the enhanced degradation of lignin and hemicellulose, the transformation of intermediates into VFA, and the generation of CH 4 from VFA.

  20. The influence of secondary processing on the structural relaxation dynamics of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depasquale, Roberto; Lee, Sau L; Saluja, Bhawana; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the structural relaxation of micronized fluticasone propionate (FP) under different lagering conditions and its influence on aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of binary and tertiary carrier-based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Micronized FP was lagered under low humidity (LH 25 C, 33% RH [relative humidity]), high humidity (HH 25°C, 75% RH) for 30, 60, and 90 days, respectively, and high temperature (HT 60°C, 44% RH) for 14 days. Physicochemical, surface interfacial properties via cohesive-adhesive balance (CAB) measurements and amorphous disorder levels of the FP samples were characterized. Particle size, surface area, and rugosity suggested minimal morphological changes of the lagered FP samples, with the exception of the 90-day HH (HH90) sample. HH90 FP samples appeared to undergo surface reconstruction with a reduction in surface rugosity. LH and HH lagering reduced the levels of amorphous content over 90-day exposure, which influenced the CAB measurements with lactose monohydrate and salmeterol xinafoate (SX). CAB analysis suggested that LH and HH lagering led to different interfacial interactions with lactose monohydrate but an increasing adhesive affinity with SX. HT lagering led to no detectable levels of the amorphous disorder, resulting in an increase in the adhesive interaction with lactose monohydrate. APSD analysis suggested that the fine particle mass of FP and SX was affected by the lagering of the FP. In conclusion, environmental conditions during the lagering of FP may have a profound effect on physicochemical and interfacial properties as well as product performance of binary and tertiary carrier-based DPI formulations.

  1. New steady-state microbial community compositions and process performances in biogas reactors induced by temperature disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; De Francisci, Davide; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    that stochastic factors had a minor role in shaping the profile of the microbial community composition and activity in biogas reactors. On the contrary, temperature disturbance was found to play an important role in the microbial community composition as well as process performance for biogas reactors. Although...... three different temperature disturbances were applied to each biogas reactor, the increased methane yields (around 10% higher) and decreased volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations at steady state were found in all three reactors after the temperature disturbances. After the temperature disturbance...... in shaping the profile of the microbial community composition and activity in biogas reactors. New steady-state microbial community profiles and reactor performances were observed in all the biogas reactors after the temperature disturbance....

  2. Hygiene Aspects of the Biogas Process with Emphasis on Spore-Forming Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge, Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable source of energy which can be obtained from processing of biowaste. The digested residues can be used as fertiliser. Biowaste intended for biogas production contains pathogenic micro-organisms. A pre-pasteurisation step at 70 deg C for 60 min before anaerobic digestion reduces non spore-forming bacteria such as Salmonella spp. To maintain the standard of the digested residues it must be handled in a strictly hygienic manner to avoid recontamination and re-growth of bacteria. The risk of contamination is particularly high when digested residues are transported in the same vehicles as the raw material. However, heat treatment at 70 deg C for 60 min will not reduce spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. Spore-forming bacteria, including those that cause serious diseases, can be present in substrate intended for biogas production. The number of species and the quantity of Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. in manure, slaughterhouse waste and in samples from different stages during the biogas process were investigated. The number of species of clostridia seemed to decrease following digestion, likewise the quantity. However, Bacillus spp. seemed to pass unaffected through the biogas process. In laboratory-scale experiments the effects on clostridia during pasteurisation and digestion were investigated. Pathogenic clostridia were inoculated in substrates from homogenisation tanks and digester tanks. The inoculated clostridia remained after pasteurisation, but the impacts of digestion differ between different species. Culture followed by identification of C. chauvoei by PCR in samples from cattle died from blackleg, is faster and safer than culture followed by biochemical identification of C. chauvoei. However, for environmental samples the PCR method is not practically applicable for detection of C. chauvoei. To avoid spreading of diseases via biogas plants when digested residues are spread on arable land, a pasteurisation

  3. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations...... of ammonia or long chain fatty acids is in most cases expected to be the cause of microbial inhibitions/imbalances while foaming in the prestorage tanks and digesters is the most important practical process problem at the plants. A correlation between increased residual biogas production (suboptimal process...... conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate...

  4. Bioelectrochemical systems serve anaerobic digestion process for process monitoring and biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES), which employ microbes as catalysts to convert chemical energy stored in organic matter into sustainable electricity and high-value chemicals, is an emerging and promising technology. BES have broad applications including wastewater treatment, chemical production......, resource recovery and waste remediation. Recently, new concepts of been proposed. The purpose of this work was to optimize the AD process using BES in two aspects: developing a new volatile fatty acid (VFA) monitoring system which can be used as the AD process indicator, and for improving biogas quality...... and small external resistance were advantageous for current signal amplification. Two linear relationships between current outputs and VFA concentrations were observed. The response time was approx. 5 h and the detection range was 1 to 200 mM. The selectivity of the biosensor was demonstrated since organic...

  5. BASIC ENGINEERING FOR GENERATION PROCESS OF BIOGAS FROM PIG MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ramírez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of this project examines the effectiveness of three treatments biodigestors by means of calculation and analysis of parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fixed solids, volatile solids, pH, temperature and biogas production, taking into account that work with organic waste from pig (porquinaza, from where it determines what should be used in a farm in Tocancipá, Cundinamarca. Based on experimentation continues to perform the basic engineering for this type of system, which determined the size of the biodigestor, with the daily production of gas according to the characteristics of both the food and the farm is 4.023 m3, with a heat capacity of 14084.64 Kcal / day, which allows for comparisons of technical and economic, with the current situation of the farm. Finally concluding with the project is viable in both financial factors as energy requirements, and depend solely on the availability of resources of the owners of the property, for investment of $ 1'716 .300.

  6. Supplying the energy demand in the chicken meat processing poultry with biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique Ferrarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main use of electrical energy in the chicken meat processing unit is refrigeration. About 70% of the electricity is consumed in the compressors for the refrigeration system. Through this study, the energetic viability of using biogas from poultry litter in supplying the demand for the refrigeration process was found. The meat processing unit studied has the potential to process about a hundred and sixty thousand chickens a day. The potential biogas production from poultry litter is 60,754,298.91 m3.year-1. There will be a surplus of approximately 8,103MWh per month of electric energy generated from biogas. An economic analysis was performed considering a planning horizon of 20 years and the discount rate of 12% per year. The economic analysis was performed considering scenario 1: sale of all electricity generated by the thermoelectric facility, and scenario 2: sale of the surplus electricity generated after complying with the demands of the refrigeration process and all other electrical energy and thermal energy use. Economic indicators obtained for scenarios 1 and 2 were favorable for the project implementation.

  7. Performance of polydimethylsiloxane membrane contactor process for selective hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Ebrahim; Bayrakdar, Alper; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Çalli, Bariş

    2017-03-01

    H 2 S in biogas affects the co-generation performance adversely by corroding some critical components within the engine and it has to be removed in order to improve the biogas quality. This work presents the use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane contactor for selective removal of H 2 S from the biogas. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of different pH of absorption liquid, biogas flowrate and temperature on the absorption performances. The results revealed that at the lowest loading rate (91mg H 2 S/m 2 ·h) more than 98% H 2 S and 59% CO 2 absorption efficiencies were achieved. The CH 4 content in the treated gas increased from 60 to 80% with nearly 5% CH 4 loss. Increasing the pH (7-10) and loading rate (91-355mg H 2 S/m 2 ·h) enhanced the H 2 S absorption capacity, and the maximum H 2 S/CO 2 and H 2 S/CH 4 selectivity factors were 2.5 and 58, respectively. Temperature played a key role in the process and lower temperature was beneficial for intensifying H 2 S absorption performance. The highest H 2 S fluxes at pH 10 and 7 were 3.4g/m 2 ·d and 1.8g/m 2 ·d with overall mass transfer coefficients of 6.91×10 -6 and 4.99×10 -6 m/s, respectively. The results showed that moderately high H 2 S fluxes with low CH 4 loss may be achieved by using a robust and cost-effective membrane based absorption process for desulfurization of biogas. A tubular PDMS membrane contactor was tested for the first time to remove H 2 S from biogas under slightly alkaline conditions and the suggested process could be a promising for real scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved methane removal in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process using immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Yang, Zhi-Man; Fu, Shan-Fei; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2018-05-01

    Methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process, which is a greenhouse gas, could cause global warming. The biofilter with immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) is a promising approach for methane removal, and the selections of inoculated MOB culture and support material are vital for the biofilter. In this work, five MOB consortia were enriched at different methane concentrations. The MOB-20 consortium enriched at the methane concentration of 20.0% (v/v) was then immobilized on sponge and two particle sizes of volcanic rock in biofilters to remove methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process. Results showed that the immobilized MOB performed more admirable methane removal capacity than suspended cells. The immobilized MOB on sponge reached the highest methane removal efficiency (RE) of 35%. The rough surface, preferable hydroscopicity, appropriate pore size and particle size of support material might favor the MOB immobilization and accordingly methane removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for pasteurization

  10. Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Påledal, S; Arrhenius, K; Moestedt, J; Engelbrektsson, J; Stensen, K

    2016-02-01

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty. Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  12. Enhancing the hydrolysis process of a two-stage biogas technology for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Zeeshan; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    The Danish company Solum A/S has developed a two-stage dry anaerobic digestion process labelled AIKAN® for the biological conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into biogas and compost. In the AIKAN® process design the methanogenic (2nd) stage is separated from...... the hydrolytic (1st) stage, which enables pump-free feeding of the waste into the 1st stage (processing module), and eliminates the risk for blocking of pumps and pipes by pumping only the percolate from the 1st stage into the 2nd stage (biogas reactor tank). The biogas yield of the AIKAN® two-stage process......, however, has shown to be only about 60% of the theoretical maximum. Previous monitoring of the hydrolytic and methanogenic activity in the two stages of the process revealed that the bottleneck of the whole degradation process is rather found in the hydrolytic first stage while the methanogenic second...

  13. Device and methods for processing biomass to biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-16

    In the title process, which gives high yields and can be used profitably in agriculture, biomass (e.g. manure, slaughterhouse wastes) is acidified prior to anaerobic gasification in a neutral alkaline medium.

  14. Modeling of Biogas Production Process from Cow Manure with Completely Stirred Tank Reactor under Semi Continuously Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Anaerobic digestion (AD is a process of breaking down organic matter, such as manure, in the absence of oxygen by concerted action of various groups of anaerobic bacteria. The AD process generates biogas, an important renewable energy source that is composed mostly of methane (CH4, and carbon dioxide (CO2 which can be used as an energy source. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is therefore a type of biofuel. Enhancement of biogas production from cattle dung or animal wastes by co-digesting with crop residues like sugarcane stalk, maize stalks, rice straw, cotton stalks, wheat straw, water hyacinth, onion waste and oil palm fronds as well as with liquid waste effluent such as palm oil mill effluent. Nevertheless, the search for cost effective and environmentally friendly methods of enhancing biogas generation (i.e. biogas yield still needs to be further investigated. Many workers have studied the reaction kinetics of biogas production and developed kinetic models for the anaerobic digestion process. Objective of this study is to investigate the effect of biological additive using of organic loading rate (OLR in biogas production from cow dung. In addition, cumulative biogas production was simulated using logistic growth model, and modified Gompertz models, respectively. Materials and Methods The study was performed in 2015-2016 at the agricultural research center of Ardabil Province, Moghan (39.39 °N, 48.88° E. Fresh cow manure used for this research was collected from the research farm of the Institute for Animal Breeding and Animal Husbandry, Moghan. It was kept in 30 l containers at ambient temperature until fed to the reactors. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of cow manure (CM with effect of organic loading rate (OLR at mesophilic temperature (35°C±2 in a long time experiment with completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR under semi continuously

  15. Vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. R. H.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Kendrick, J.; Scowen, I. J.

    2009-03-01

    Fluticasone propionate is a synthetic glucocorticoid with potent anti-inflammatory activity that has been used effectively in the treatment of chronic asthma. The present work reports a vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate and gives proposed molecular assignments on the basis of ab initio calculations using BLYP density functional theory with a 6-31G* basis set and vibrational frequencies predicted within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Several spectral features and band intensities are explained. This study generated a library of information that can be employed to aid the process monitoring of fluticasone propionate.

  16. Optimization of the digestion process of Scenedesmus sp. and Opuntia maxima for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Suárez, Juan Luis; Martínez, Alejandro; Carreras, Nely

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Scenedesmus biomass showed low biodegradability and biogas production. • Methane yield and kinetics of the batch process were improved by co-digestion. • Scenedesmus and Opuntia maxima were successfully co-digested in CSTR. • High biogas yields were obtained and no inhibition by ammonia was observed. - Abstract: Scenedesmus biomass is not an adequate substrate for anaerobic digestion due to its low biodegradability and low biogas yield. This study aims to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of Scenedesmus microalgal biomass and Opuntia maxima cladodes, the latter added in order to improve the digestion process. Batch assays were conducted to evaluate possible synergistic effects in different mixtures of both substrates. Mixture with highest methane yield was digested in semi-continuous mode at different VS concentrations. Feedstock composed of 75% O.maxima and 25% Scenedesmus (VS basis) showed the highest methane yield increasing 66.4% and 63.9% that of Scenedesmus and O.maxima, respectively. In semi-continuous mode, ideal organic loading rate (OLR) with 6%VS feed concentration was 4 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 292 ± 39 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). In the case of 8%VS feed concentration ideal OLR was 5.33 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 308 ± 22 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). The co-digestion of O.maxima and Scenedesmus biomass enhanced the anaerobic digestion process and avoided inhibition caused by low C/N ratio of microalgae

  17. Energy recovering and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    In spite of the advantages of the methanation and the biogas valorization, the France is one of the european countries where these energy recovery techniques have less developed. Liquid industrial effluents, sewage sludges, waste waters, oils or vinification residues can be processed to produce biogas. In this innovative context biogas combustion installations will have to anticipate the regulations on CO 2 emissions. (A.L.B.)

  18. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  19. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for

  20. What does the hydrolysis perform in the fermentation of biogas? Biogas, hydrolysis, fermenter biology, multistage process operation; Was kann die Hydrolyse bei der Biogasvergaerung leisten? Biogas, Hydrolyse, Fermenterbiologie, mehrphasige Prozessfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechsner, H.; Lemmer, A. [Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie, Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays renewable primary products are normally favored for fermentation in agricultural biogas plants. Since this substrate has to be cultivated for biogas fermentation in particular and hence causes production costs, the energy content of the material should be dissipated in biogas completely. For this the fermentation process has to run as efficient as possible. In case of one-phase process management with high space loading there is a risk of imbalance and maybe even collapse of process biology in the fermenter. In case of high space loading and short retention time the substrate won't be fermented completely. The aim is to create good conditions for microorganism participating in the process by a two-phase process management which integrates a stage of hydrolysis. In the stage of hydrolysis the microorganisms and enzymes metabolize the organic matter into readily biodegradable carbonic acids, which can be supplied targeted in the following methanisation as substrate for methanogenic bacteria. The hydrolysis proceeds under various terms and conditions (aerobic/anaerobic, different pH-value, different temperature level). This necessitates a safe control of operation and process parameters, which is often difficult to ensure in practice. In a malfunctioning hydrolysis also methane can be produced, that causes energy losses and environmental damage when emitted in atmosphere. Hydrogen can be produced in the hydrolysis as well what can involve a safety risk. Urgent need for research exists concerning the two-phase fermentation of renewable primary products. By systematic laboratory analysis the knowledge should be expanded, to improve the planning reliability in this field. (orig.)

  1. Realization of microcontroller-based process control systems examplified on process state monitor for anaerobic biogas fermentation; Realisierung mikrocontrollerbasierter Prozessfuehrungssysteme am Beispiel eines Prozesszustandsmonitors fuer die anaerobe Biogasfermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzwahl, S.; Kramer, K.D. [Hochschule Harz, Wernigerode (Germany). Fachbereich Automatisierung und Informatik; Nacke, T. [Institut fuer Bioprozess- und Analysenmesstechnik e.V., Heilbad Heiligenstadt (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes possibilities to realize microcontroller-based process control systems with use strategies of computational intelligence. All design steps are comprised in a design process with direct interface to the process. A further issue is a development system for firmware, which was programmed especially for main steps of the design process. The process of anaerobic fermentation in biogas plants serves as an sample for a control application. By using the design process and the programmed software a process state monitor was developed for this fermentation process. The system is able to classify the process state online in biogas fermentation plants. (orig.)

  2. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  4. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-PROCESSED EXCIPIENT-PREGELATINIZED CASSAVA STARCH PROPIONATE AS A MATRIX IN THE GASTRORETENTIVE DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaedi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastroretentive dosage form is designed to prolong the gastric residence time of the drug delivery system whichalso results in the development of an appropriate excipient. The purpose of this study is to develop and characterize coprocessedexcipient made from carrageenan (kappa-iota = 1:1 and pregelatinized cassava starch propionate (PCSP inratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. PCSP was prepared with propionic anhydride in an aqueous medium. The product was mixedwith carrageenan (kappa-iota = 1:1, as well as characterized physicochemical and functional properties. The coprocessedexcipient was then used as a mucoadhesive granule and floating tablet. The USP Basket was selected toperform the dissolution test of the granules in HCl buffer (pH 1.2 and distilled water for 8 hours each. Mucoadhesiveproperties were evaluated using bioadhesive through a vitro test and wash-off test. As for the floating tablet, the USPPaddle was selected to perform the dissolution test of the tablets in 0.1 N HCl for 10 hours. The floating lag time andfloating time were tested in 0.1 N HCl for 24 hours. The result of these studies indicated that co-processed excipientcarrageenan-PCSP can retard dosage form in gastric and drug controlled release, thus making it a suitable material forthe gastroretentive dosage form.

  5. Innovative process for biogas upgrading with CO2 storage: Results from pilot plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciocchi, Renato; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea; Costa, Giulia; Lombardi, Lidia; Olivieri, Tommaso; Zanchi, Laura; Zingaretti, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    An innovative biogas upgrading method that, differs from the currently employed commercial techniques, allows also to capture and store the separated CO 2 is investigated. This process, named Alkali absorption with Regeneration (AwR), consists in a first step in which CO 2 is separated from the biogas by chemical absorption with an alkali aqueous solution followed by a second step in which the spent absorption solution is regenerated for reuse in the first step of the upgrading process and the captured CO 2 is stored in a solid and thermodynamically stable form. The latter process is carried out contacting the spent absorption solution, rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions, with a waste material – air pollution control (APC) residues from Waste-to-Energy plants – characterized by a high content of calcium hydroxide and leads to the precipitation of calcium carbonate and to the regeneration of the alkali hydroxide content of the solution. The process was tested in a specifically designed pilot plant fed with 20 m 3 h −1 (gas at standard conditions of 273 K and 1001 kPa) of landfill gas. Results showed that a high CH 4 content in the outlet gas can be obtained using a 3.8 mol L −1 NaOH aqueous solution with a solution/landfill gas ratio of about 9 L m −3 (gas at standard conditions of 273 K and 1001 kPa). The regeneration process proved to be feasible, but its efficiency was limited by several factors to maximum values in the range of 50–60 %, showing to decrease with higher NaOH concentrations in the absorption solution. Absorption tests with regenerated load solutions after appropriate NaOH makeup, did not show appreciable differences with respect to raw solutions

  6. Carbon and energy footprint of the hydrate-based biogas upgrading process integrated with CO2 valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Beatrice; Rinaldi, Sara; Bonamente, Emanuele; Nicolini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; Cotana, Franco

    2018-02-15

    The present paper aims at assessing the carbon and energy footprint of an energy process, in which the energy excess from intermittent renewable sources is used to produce hydrogen which reacts with the CO 2 previously separated from an innovative biogas upgrading process. The process integrates a hydrate-based biogas upgrading section and a CO 2 methanation section, to produce biomethane from the biogas enrichment and synthetic methane from the CO 2 methanation. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds, formed by gas enclathrated in cages of water molecules and are applied to the selective separation of CO 2 from biogas mixtures. Data from the experimental setup were analyzed in order to evaluate the green-house gas emissions (carbon footprint CF) and the primary energy consumption (energy footprint EF) associated to the two sections of the process. The biosynthetic methane production during a single-stage process was 0.962Nm 3 , obtained mixing 0.830Nm 3 of methane-enriched biogas and 0.132Nm 3 of synthetic methane. The final volume composition was: 73.82% CH 4 , 19.47% CO 2 , 0.67% H 2 , 1.98% O 2 , 4.06% N 2 and the energy content was 28.0MJ/Nm 3 . The functional unit is the unitary amount of produced biosynthetic methane in Nm 3 . Carbon and energy footprints are 0.7081kgCO 2eq /Nm 3 and 28.55MJ/Nm 3 , respectively, when the electric energy required by the process is provided by photovoltaic panels. In this scenario, the overall energy efficiency is about 0.82, higher than the worldwide average energy efficiency for fossil methane, which is 0.75. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of biogas transformation in experimental biogas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jelínková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the analysis of anaerobic fermentation in an experimental biogas plant. Technological processes and operation parameters were monitored; these processes and parameters include, for example, the optimal structure of the input material and the consideration of the prolonging of the duration of the fermentation process. The goal of prolonging the fermentation process is to obtain higher biogas (and methane production and to decrease the fermentation residue effluvial emissions. Emphasis is also laid on the mutual co-fermentation of substrates with regard to further use of the results in solving technological problems in other biogas plants. This technological process was first monitored in 2009; that is, before the planned intensification and modernization of the experimental biogas plant. Thus, the evaluation of the process could become part of the planned intensification and modernization of the chosen biogas plant (extended by the addition of the second stage of methanogenesis. The results obtained from the experimental biogas plant, which is one of the pioneering biogas plants in the Czech Republic, may serve, to other biogas operators, as a base for the preparation of suitable input, and for improving the efficiency of anaerobic fermentation within their biogas plants. The goal of the improvement of the fermentation process is to fulfill the ecological aspects; that is, to cut down CO2 emissions and to reduce the negative impact of the fermentation process on the environment (reduction of effluvium and noise originating in biogas plants.

  8. The biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, Ch.; Laffargue, C.; Zebboud, I.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed of methane and carbon dioxide the biogas can be produced by many sources for the heat or the electricity production and the fuel production. This document aims to better understand the biogas, its characteristics, its valorization, the plants concerned, the installations and the regulation. It provides also an example of a biogas power plant and the biogas use in the farms. (A.L.B.)

  9. Biogas everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.; Pegret-Rosa, A.S.; Leca, Ch.; Adlec, E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the publication in July 2006 of the new purchase tariff of electricity produced by biogas, the methanation channel is increasing. In the past ten years the number of biogas plants from domestic wastes, passed from 1 to 20. This document presents an economic analysis of the different sources of biogas, the performances and the injection of biogas in the public network of the gas utilities. (A.L.B.)

  10. Comparison of VFA titration procedures used for monitoring the biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Boe, Kanokwan; Fang, Cheng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-05-01

    Titrimetric determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contents is a common way to monitor a biogas process. However, digested manure from co-digestion biogas plants has a complex matrix with high concentrations of interfering components, resulting in varying results when using different titration procedures. Currently, no standardized procedure is used and it is therefore difficult to compare the performance among plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate four titration procedures (for determination of VFA-levels of digested manure samples) and compare results with gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. Two of the procedures are commonly used in biogas plants and two are discussed in literature. The results showed that the optimal titration results were obtained when 40 mL of four times diluted digested manure was gently stirred (200 rpm). Results from samples with different VFA concentrations (1-11 g/L) showed linear correlation between titration results and GC measurements. However, determination of VFA by titration generally overestimated the VFA contents compared with GC measurements when samples had low VFA concentrations, i.e. around 1 g/L. The accuracy of titration increased when samples had high VFA concentrations, i.e. around 5 g/L. It was further found that the studied ionisable interfering components had lowest effect on titration when the sample had high VFA concentration. In contrast, bicarbonate, phosphate and lactate had significant effect on titration accuracy at low VFA concentration. An extended 5-point titration procedure with pH correction was best to handle interferences from bicarbonate, phosphate and lactate at low VFA concentrations. Contrary, the simplest titration procedure with only two pH end-points showed the highest accuracy among all titration procedures at high VFA concentrations. All in all, if the composition of the digested manure sample is not known, the procedure with only two pH end-points should be the procedure of

  11. What is required for purification and processing of biogas to the natural gas standard?; Was brauchen wir zur Reinigung/Aufbereitung von Biogas zu Erdgasqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentscher, W. [eco Naturgas Handels GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The most common gas scrubbing process in Europe, i.e. the wet scrubbing process, is described. Preliminary stages are coarse filtering, coarse dehydration and coarse desulphurisation. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide are absorbed in counterflow in water at a pressure of 6 to 10 bar. The water can be generated by pressure relief and can be recirculated. Plant components like compressors, absorption column, strippers and dryers are gone into as well as the mode of operation and control. [German] Das europaweit zur Aufbereitung von Biogas am meisten genutzte Verfahren der nassen Gaswaesche wird beschrieben. Vorausgehende Reinigungsschritte des Biogases sind Grobfilterung, Grobentfeuchtung und Grobentschwefelung. Kohlendioxid und gleichzeitig H{sub 2}S werden im Gegenstrom unter Druck von 6 bis 10 bar in Wasser absorbiert. Das Wasser kann durch Entspannung regeneriert und im Kreislauf gefuehrt werden. Auf die Komponenten der Anlage wie Kompressor, Absorptionskolonne, Stripper und Trockner wird ebenso eingegangen wie auf die Betriebsfuehrung und Steuerung. (orig.)

  12. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  13. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischan, J; Makaruk, A; Harasek, M

    2012-05-15

    Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H(2)S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H(2)S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H(2)S with H(2)O(2), high H(2)S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO(2) absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180m(3)/h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H(2)S contents in the crude gas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krischan, J.; Makaruk, A.; Harasek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Alkaline oxidative scrubbing proved for biogas desulfurization ► Effect of operating conditions on hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency. ► Minimization of caustic and oxidant consumption. ► Process control via pH, redox potential and conductivity measurement. ► Investigation of long-term behavior of pilot plant operation. - Abstract: Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H 2 S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H 2 S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H 2 S with H 2 O 2 , high H 2 S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO 2 absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180 m 3 /h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H 2 S contents in the crude gas.

  15. Application of multi-enzymatic hydrolysis for improving the efficiency of the biogas production in solid waste fermentation process in Ostróda WWTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Kamil; Umiejewska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    Biomass fermentation is one of the important sources of renewable energy in EU. Application of multi-enzymatic hydrolysis process enables a significant increase in efficiency of biogas production. The main goal of the paper is to present the results of the pilot scale research performed in WWTP in óstroda. The fixed combination of three enzymes was continiously introduced: amylase, lipase and protease. Research aimed at verifying the impact of enzyme dose on sludge digestion process and on the amount of biogas produced. Statistical analysis of the research results allows to determine the influence of dosing the enzymes in mesophilic digestion on the biogas production.

  16. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  17. Comparing methods for measuring the digestibility of miscanthus in bioethanol or biogas processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Frydendal; Jørgensen, Uffe; Hjorth, Maibritt

    2017-01-01

    expected to have different digestibilities due to maturity stage, dry matter content and the implementation of extrusion as a mechanical pretreatment. The results of the DNS and the biogas batch test methods were highly correlated (R2 between 0.75 and 0.92), but not with the results of the HTPH method....... The DNS and biogas batch test showed that digestibility differed between samples, probably due to the degree of lignification and content of soluble sugars. For the HTPH method, the digestibility for biorefining was the same irrespective of the variation in the other analyses. The HTPH method had higher...... biomass use efficiency, closely followed by the biogas batch test running for 91 days on the mechanically pretreated biomass. The HTPH method provided information on the overall quantity of carbohydrates that can be made available from a given biomass. Additionally, DNS and biogas batch test visualize...

  18. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The energy recovery of biogas has kept on increasing in the European Union in 2013: +10.2%. Almost 13.4 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent) of biogas primary energy was produced but the growth of the biogas sector is decreasing (it was 16.9% between 2011 and 2012). The growth for the coming years is expected to fall further because of political decisions in some countries to limit the use of land for farming purposes and to manage the biogas sector more efficiently. Germany ranks first for the production of biogas primary energy with 6717 ktep followed by United Kingdom with 1824 ktep. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. The total production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. in 2013 reached 53327 GWh and 432 ktep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of methanation, 10 companies are listed among which 2 are Italian: AB Energy (Gruppo AB), BTS Italia and 8 are German: MT Energie, Envitec Biogas AG, Biogas Weser-Ems, Planet Biogastechnik, Schmack Biogas GmbH, Weltec Biopower GmbH, UTS Biogastechnik (Anaergia Group), Bioconstruct and BTS Italia. (A.C.)

  19. Use of the Sabatier Process for Dynamic Biogas Upgrading in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 8000 farm scale biogas plants are present in Germany which produce electricity (mainly using energy crops as substrates) . The potential role of biogas plants in energy systems penetrated by high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy production is discussed in this paper. Today th...... in northernmost four counties of Germany. In these four counties, 529 mostly farm scaled biogas plants could potentially produce up to 100 · 106 m3/a SNG using surplus electricity from wind and solar power generation systems availavble from 1600 h/a.......Approximately 8000 farm scale biogas plants are present in Germany which produce electricity (mainly using energy crops as substrates) . The potential role of biogas plants in energy systems penetrated by high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy production is discussed in this paper. Today......, their distribution and the reasons for feed-in management was carried out to derive the potential for an energy storage scheme based on the use of biogas as a cheap and available carbon dioxide source for the production of substitute natural gas. It was found that there is a need for such a storage scheme...

  20. Biogas production of Chicken Manure by Two-stage fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin Yuan; Wang, Jing Jing; Nie, Jia Min; Wu, Nan; Yang, Fang; Yang, Ren Jie

    2018-06-01

    This paper performs a batch experiment for pre-acidification treatment and methane production from chicken manure by the two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. Results shows that the acetate was the main component in volatile fatty acids produced at the end of pre-acidification stage, accounting for 68% of the total amount. The daily biogas production experienced three peak period in methane production stage, and the methane content reached 60% in the second period and then slowly reduced to 44.5% in the third period. The cumulative methane production was fitted by modified Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters of the methane production potential, the maximum methane production rate and lag phase time were 345.2 ml, 0.948 ml/h and 343.5 h, respectively. The methane yield of 183 ml-CH4/g-VSremoved during the methane production stage and VS removal efficiency of 52.7% for the whole fermentation process were achieved.

  1. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  2. A combined process to treat lemon industry wastewater and produce biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A.R.; Rubio, M.C.; Maldonado, M.C. [Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Bioquimica, Ayacucho, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    We studied a process employed for treating lemon industry effluents, using the macrophyte Eishhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) in a phytoremediation tank with a 6000-L workload. The diluted effluents BOD and COD were reduced to 70 and 61%, respectively, working with a 1.5-h hydraulic residence time (HRT). We investigated the effect of adding every 12 h an inoculum consisting of a consortium of microorganisms isolated from the macrophyte roots and recirculating 30% of the outflow. In this way, we achieved a volumetric removal rate (VRR) of BOD = 354 g/m{sup 3} day. Plants were daily harvested from the tank to maintain growth rate and the density originally planted. We studied their use for biogas production in an anaerobic digester working with 12 and 16 days of hydraulic residence time. The yield obtained was 0.87 L/g and productivity 0.87 L/L day with a loading rate of 5 g/L day. Integrating both processes on an industrial scale would solve the effluent pollution problem and generate an energy source that could be used by the industry itself to lower its production costs. (orig.)

  3. Estimation of biogas and methane yields in an UASB treating potato starch processing wastewater with backpropagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Philip; Li, Jianzheng; Boadi, Portia Opoku; Meng, Jia; Shi, En; Deng, Kaiwen; Bondinuba, Francis Kwesi

    2017-03-01

    Three-layered feedforward backpropagation (BP) artificial neural networks (ANN) and multiple nonlinear regression (MnLR) models were developed to estimate biogas and methane yield in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating potato starch processing wastewater (PSPW). Anaerobic process parameters were optimized to identify their importance on methanation. pH, total chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, alkalinity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, volatile fatty acids and hydraulic retention time selected based on principal component analysis were used as input variables, whiles biogas and methane yield were employed as target variables. Quasi-Newton method and conjugate gradient backpropagation algorithms were best among eleven training algorithms. Coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of the BP-ANN reached 98.72% and 97.93% whiles MnLR model attained 93.9% and 91.08% for biogas and methane yield, respectively. Compared with the MnLR model, BP-ANN model demonstrated significant performance, suggesting possible control of the anaerobic digestion process with the BP-ANN model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen assisted biological biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria

    Wind and biomass are promoted worldwide as sustainable forms of energy. Anaerobic digestion of biomass produces biogas with ∼50−70% CH4 and 30−50% CO2. However, biogas with >90% CH4 content has higher heating value, can be injected into the natural gas grid or used as alternative to natural gas...... as vehicle fuel. Methods currently available for biogas upgrading mainly consists of physicochemical CO2 removal, requiring the use of chemical substances and energy input and, thus, increasing process costs. This PhD project proposes an alternative to existing biogas upgrading technologies, where H2......, produced by water electrolysis, using excess of electricity from wind mills, is coupled with the CO2 contained in the biogas to convert them to CH4. This process is defined as biological biogas upgrading and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea that couples CO2 with H2 to produce...

  5. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H. Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. PMID:26497462

  6. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-01-15

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  8. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the other renewable energy sectors, biogas production did not result from concerns over energy but rather from environmental preoccupations (elimination of pollution, treatment of waste, control of greenhouse gas emissions). Biogas produced in this manner constitutes a sizeable and renewable deposit, with European production (EU 15) in the region of 3219 ktoe in 2003. (author)

  9. Exploitation of algal-bacterial associations in a two-stage biohydrogen and biogas generation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Minárovics, János; Nagy, Katalin; Kondorosi, Éva; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-01-01

    The growing concern regarding the use of agricultural land for the production of biomass for food/feed or energy is dictating the search for alternative biomass sources. Photosynthetic microorganisms grown on marginal or deserted land present a promising alternative to the cultivation of energy plants and thereby may dampen the 'food or fuel' dispute. Microalgae offer diverse utilization routes. A two-stage energetic utilization, using a natural mixed population of algae (Chlamydomonas sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and mutualistic bacteria (primarily Rhizobium sp.), was tested for coupled biohydrogen and biogas production. The microalgal-bacterial biomass generated hydrogen without sulfur deprivation. Algal hydrogen production in the mixed population started earlier but lasted for a shorter period relative to the benchmark approach. The residual biomass after hydrogen production was used for biogas generation and was compared with the biogas production from maize silage. The gas evolved from the microbial biomass was enriched in methane, but the specific gas production was lower than that of maize silage. Sustainable biogas production from the microbial biomass proceeded without noticeable difficulties in continuously stirred fed-batch laboratory-size reactors for an extended period of time. Co-fermentation of the microbial biomass and maize silage improved the biogas production: The metagenomic results indicated that pronounced changes took place in the domain Bacteria, primarily due to the introduction of a considerable bacterial biomass into the system with the substrate; this effect was partially compensated in the case of co-fermentation. The bacteria living in syntrophy with the algae apparently persisted in the anaerobic reactor and predominated in the bacterial population. The Archaea community remained virtually unaffected by the changes in the substrate biomass composition. Through elimination of cost- and labor-demanding sulfur deprivation, sustainable

  10. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krischan, J., E-mail: jutta_krischan@hotmail.com [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Makaruk, A., E-mail: aleksander.makaruk@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Harasek, M., E-mail: michael.harasek@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline oxidative scrubbing proved for biogas desulfurization Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of operating conditions on hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minimization of caustic and oxidant consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process control via pH, redox potential and conductivity measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of long-term behavior of pilot plant operation. - Abstract: Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H{sub 2}S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H{sub 2}S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H{sub 2}S with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO{sub 2} absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180 m{sup 3}/h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H{sub 2}S contents in the crude gas.

  11. District heating for increased biogas production. Technical and economical evaluation of district heating as heating source in biogas processes; Fjaerrvaerme foer utoekad biogasproduktion. Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av fjaerrvaerme foer uppvaermning av biogasprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Per (AaF-Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    This report presents a technical evaluation, the potential and an economical evaluation of the increased net biogas production by using district heating as energy supply for different types of biogas production units. The study presents generalized results for different plant sizes. The district heating is considered as replacement of the heat produced by burning biogas in a hot-water boiler. Hence more biogas could be available for upgrading to fuel-gas quality to be used in vehicles as a renewable fuel. The study is aimed at biogas producers, district heating and combined heat and power (CHP) companies. Biogas has a composition of mostly methane (about 65 %) and carbon dioxide (about 35 %) and small amounts of other gases e.g. sulphur dioxide (H{sub 2}S). Biogas up-grading is a process where the methane content is increased to about 97 % by removing most of the other gases in e.g. an absorption unit. The Swedish biogas is mainly produced in several sewage treatment plants and some co-digestion units but is also collected from dumps. Biogas is produced by anaerobic microorganisms at temperatures of about 36 and 55 deg C which correspond to the thermal optimum for mesophile and thermophile bacteria respectively. Co-digestion of animal material which e.g. is contained in collected organic household waste has to be pasteurized at 70 deg C for 1h according to EU-regulations. Such regulations may also be introduced to the sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants. Due to the fact that the process temperature is higher than the temperature of the substrate (sludge or organic waste material) as well as the outdoor temperature, both heating of the incoming substrate and compensation of heat losses are required. Traditionally most of the biogas has been burnt to generate the necessary heat for the process and premises at the plant. The excess gas has been burnt in a torch. In recent years the biogas produced in Sweden has found increased use as a renewable vehicle fuel

  12. Biogas production from food-processing industrial wastes by anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng

    Konfronteret med energikrise og klimaforandringer, har verden brug for grønne, effektive og kulstofneutrale energikilder, som kan erstatte fossile brændstoffer. Biogas, som dannes ved anaerob nedbrydning af organisk materiale, er en bæredygtig, pålidelig og vedvarende energikilde. Der er stor...

  13. Sustainability of biogas production from biomass waste streams : grass & cow manure co-digestion process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biogas plays an important role in many future renewable energy scenarios as a source of storable and easily extracted form of renewable energy. However, there remains uncertainty as to which sources of biomass can provide a net energy gain while being harvested in a sustainable, ecologically

  14. Valorizing waste iron powder in biogas production: Hydrogen sulfide control and process performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Fetra J; Shirai, Tomoya; Yamashiro, Takaki; Yasui, Seiichi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Ihara, Ikko; Nishida, Takehiro; Tangtaweewipat, Suchon; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2018-02-15

    Biogas is composed of different gases including hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is a hazardous gas that damages pipes and generators in anaerobic digestion system. The objective of this study was to control H 2 S by waste iron powder produced by laser cutting machine in a steel and iron industry. Waste iron powder was mixed with dairy manure at a concentration between 2.0 and 20.0 g/L in batch experiments, while the concentration was varied between 1.0 and 4.0 g/L in bench experiment. In batch experiment, a reduction of up to 93% of H 2 S was observed at waste iron powder of 2.0 g/L (T1), while the reduction was of more than 99% at waste iron powder beyond 8.0 g/L (T4 ∼ T6). The total sulfide concentration (S T ) increased together with waste iron powder concentration and was fitted with a quadratic equation with a maximum S T of 208.0 mg/L at waste iron powder of 20.2 g/L. Waste iron powder did not have significant effect on methane yield in batch and bench experiments. However, hydrolysis rate constant was increased by almost 100%, while the lag-phase period was reduced to half in test digesters compared to that in control digester. In bench experiment, H 2 S concentration was reduced by 89% at 2.0 g/L, while 50% at 1.0 g/L. Therefore, waste iron powder was effectively removed H 2 S and did not affect negatively anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilization of auxiliary means for the enhancement of the efficiency and stability of the biogas process; Einsatz von Hilfsmitteln zur Steigerung der Effizienz und Stabilitaet des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the Guelzow expert discussions at 29th September 2010 in Guelzow (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) State of the promotional work of the FNR on the subject auxiliary means - open questions (Petra Schuesseler); (2) Utilization of auxiliary means in the biogas production - Survey and experiences from laboratory and practice (Konrad Koch); (3) ORGA - test: Development of a test procedure for the practical evaluation of the fermentation biology of NaWaRo biogas plants (Nils Engler); (3) Investigations for the utilization of minerals in biogas plants - Significance of minerals for anaerobic microorganisms and causes for concentration differences in biogas fermentation plants (Andreas Lemmer); (4) Quantification of the efficiency of mineral biogas additives at the fermentation of renewable raw materials and their verification in the practice (Dirk Wagner); (5) Optimization of processes by means of enzymes in biogas plants (Monika Heiermann); (6) Utilization of microorganisms for the enhancement of the gas yield (Doris Schmack); (7) Results of the discussion and summary (Petra Schuesseler).

  16. Biomass and biogas : potentials, efficiencies and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert; Wouterse, Brian; Faber, Folkert; Nap, Jan Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the field of ‘renewable energy resources’ formation of biogas Biomass and biogas: potentials, efficiencies and flexibility is an important option. Biogas can be produced from biomass in a multistep process called anaerobic digestion (AD) and is usually performed in large digesters. Anaerobic

  17. Bioenergy, protein and fibres from grass - biogas process monitoring; Bioenergie, Protein und Fasern aus Gras - Monitoring des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, U.; Delavy, P.

    2003-07-01

    Starting in Summer 2001 the first full scale Swiss Bio-refinery for grass processing took up operation in Schaffhausen. Grass processing covers the production of technical fibres and protein concentrate as well as anaerobic digestion of residual slops for the production of biogas and 'green' electricity. The refinery is operated by the company Bioenergie Schaffhausen as a P+D (pilot + demonstration) project of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. Under full load it will deliver 2,000 MWh of 'green' electricity (10% own needs) and 3,000 MWh heat (50% own needs). Prior to start up the Swiss technology holder 2B Biorefineries AG mandated the University of Applied Sciences HSW with lab scale testing of the mesophilic biogas potential and anaerobic degradability of residual grass processing slops. Nutrient limitations and possible inhibition risks were evaluated. During the initial 8 months of full scale operation of the refinery in Schaffhausen an intensive monitoring of the anaerobic digester's performance was carried out. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances have been set up and the development of the granular EGSB sludge was characterised. From operational data a set of performance values was elaborated. The first year of operation was characterised by only partial exploitation of the refinery's grass processing capacity. Furthermore the protein separation and production unit has not yet been incorporated. Consequently, the EGSB biogas reactor showed a significant hydraulic underload when compared to dimensioning basics. Raw residuals were characterised by a higher particulate protein fraction. Operational conditions for the EGSB reactor were worked out to allow stable operation at elevated load conditions and with protein separation in operation. (author)

  18. Bioenergy, protein and fibres from grass - biogas process monitoring; Bioenergie, Protein und Fasern aus Gras - Monitoring des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, U; Delavy, P

    2003-07-01

    Starting in Summer 2001 the first full scale Swiss Bio-refinery for grass processing took up operation in Schaffhausen. Grass processing covers the production of technical fibres and protein concentrate as well as anaerobic digestion of residual slops for the production of biogas and 'green' electricity. The refinery is operated by the company Bioenergie Schaffhausen as a P+D (pilot + demonstration) project of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. Under full load it will deliver 2,000 MWh of 'green' electricity (10% own needs) and 3,000 MWh heat (50% own needs). Prior to start up the Swiss technology holder 2B Biorefineries AG mandated the University of Applied Sciences HSW with lab scale testing of the mesophilic biogas potential and anaerobic degradability of residual grass processing slops. Nutrient limitations and possible inhibition risks were evaluated. During the initial 8 months of full scale operation of the refinery in Schaffhausen an intensive monitoring of the anaerobic digester's performance was carried out. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances have been set up and the development of the granular EGSB sludge was characterised. From operational data a set of performance values was elaborated. The first year of operation was characterised by only partial exploitation of the refinery's grass processing capacity. Furthermore the protein separation and production unit has not yet been incorporated. Consequently, the EGSB biogas reactor showed a significant hydraulic underload when compared to dimensioning basics. Raw residuals were characterised by a higher particulate protein fraction. Operational conditions for the EGSB reactor were worked out to allow stable operation at elevated load conditions and with protein separation in operation. (author)

  19. Lab-scale demonstration of recuperative thickening technology for enhanced biogas production and dewaterability in anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Aubry, Nicholas; Zhang, Victor; Rollings-Scattergood, Sasha; Latulippe, David R

    2016-05-15

    There is growing interest in the use of high performance anaerobic digestion (AD) processes for the production of biogas at wastewater treatment facilities to offset the energy demands associated with wastewater treatment. Recuperative thickening (RT) is a promising technique which involves recycling a portion of the digested solids back to the incoming feed. In general there exists a significant number of knowledge gaps in the field of RT because the studies that have been conducted to date have almost exclusively occurred in pilot plant or full scale trials; this approach greatly limits the amount of process optimization that can be done in a given trial. In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study of RT was conducted at the lab scale; two custom designed digesters (capacity = 1.5 L) were operated in parallel with one acting as a 'control' digester and the other operating under a semi-batch RT mode. There was no significant change in biogas methane composition for the two digesters, however the RT digester had an average biogas productivity over two times higher than the control one. It was found that the recycling of the polymer flocculant back into the RT digester resulted in a significant improvement in dewatering performance. At the highest polymer concentration tested, the capillary suction time (CST) values for flocculated samples for the RT digester were over 6 times lower than the corresponding values for the control digester. Thus, there exists an opportunity to decrease the overall consumption of polymer flocculants through judicious selection of the dose of polymer flocculant that is used both for the thickening and end-stage dewatering steps in RT processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exergy analysis of the biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process integrated with a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemanand, Sarunyou; Im-orb, Karittha; Tippawan, Phanicha; Wiyaratn, Wisitsree; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A biogas reforming and fuel cell integrated process is considered. • Energy and exergy analyses of the integrated process are performed. • Increasing the nickel oxide-to-biogas ratio decreases the exergy efficiency. • The exergy destruction of the fuel cell increases with increasing cell temperature. • The exergy efficiency of the process is improved when heat integration is applied. - Abstract: A biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process integrated with a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell is analyzed. Modeling of such an integrated process is performed by using a flowsheet simulator (Aspen plus). The exergy analysis is performed to evaluate the energy utilization efficiency of each unit and that of the integrated process. The effect of steam and nickel oxide to biogas ratios on the exergetic performance of the stand-alone biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process is investigated. The total exergy destruction increases as the steam or nickel oxide to biogas ratio increases. The main exergy destruction is found at the air reactor. For the high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, the main exergy destruction is found at the cathode. The total exergy destruction increases when cell temperature increases, whereas the inverse effect is found when the current density is considered as a key parameter. Regarding the exergy efficiency, the results show opposite trend to the exergy destruction. The heat integration analysis is performed to improve the exergetic performance. It is found that the integrated process including the heat integration system can improve the exergy destruction and exergy efficiency of 48% and 60%, respectively.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Potential: Simulation of Lab and Industrial-Scale Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan Hamawand; Craig Baillie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simulation was carried out using BioWin 3.1 to test the capability of the software to predict the biogas potential for two different anaerobic systems. The two scenarios included: (1) a laboratory-scale batch reactor; and (2) an industrial-scale anaerobic continuous lagoon digester. The measured data related to the operating conditions, the reactor design parameters and the chemical properties of influent wastewater were entered into BioWin. A sensitivity analysis was carried...

  2. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  3. Phosphorus recovery from biogas slurry by ultrasound/H2O2 digestion coupled with HFO/biochar adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemeng; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Hongqiang; Li, Guoxue; Ding, Lili; Pawlowski, Lucjan

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from biogas slurry has recently attracted considerable interest. In this work, ultrasound/H 2 O 2 digestion coupled with ferric oxide hydrate/biochar (HFO/biochar) adsorption process was performed to promote P dissolution, release, and recovery from biogas slurry. The results showed that the optimal total phosphorus release efficiency was achieved at an inorganic phosphorus/total phosphorus ratio of 95.0% at pH 4, 1mL of added H 2 O 2 , and ultrasonication for 30min. The P adsorption by the HFO/biochar followed pseudo second-order kinetics and was mainly controlled by chemical processes. The Langmuir-Freundlich model matched the experimental data best for P adsorption by HFO/biochar at 298 and 308K, whereas the Freundlich model matched best at 318K. The maximum amount of P adsorbed was 220mg/g. The process was endothermic, spontaneous, and showed an increase in disorder at the solid-liquid interface. The saturated adsorbed HFO/biochar continually releases P and is most suitable for use in an alkaline environment. The amount of P released reached 29.1mg/g after five extractions. P mass balance calculation revealed that 11.3% of the total P can be made available. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration Processes in Biogas Tri-Reforming Process. The Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Izquierdo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies Ni-based catalyst deactivation and regeneration processes in the presence of H2S under a biogas tri-reforming process for hydrogen production, which is an energy vector of great interest. 25 ppm of hydrogen sulfide were continuously added to the system in order to provoke an observable catalyst deactivation, and once fully deactivated two different regeneration processes were studied: a self-regeneration and a regeneration by low temperature oxidation. For that purpose, several Ni-based catalysts and a bimetallic Rh-Ni catalyst supported on alumina modified with CeO2 and ZrO2 were used as well as a commercial Katalco 57-5 for comparison purposes. Ni/Ce-Al2O3 and Ni/Ce-Zr-Al2O3 catalysts almost recovered their initial activity. For these catalysts, after the regeneration under oxidative conditions at low temperature, the CO2 conversions achieved—79.5% and 86.9%, respectively—were significantly higher than the ones obtained before sulfur poisoning—66.7% and 45.2%, respectively. This effect could be attributed to the support modification with CeO2 and the higher selectivity achieved for the Reverse Water-Gas-Shift (rWGS reaction after catalysts deactivation. As expected, the bimetallic Rh-Ni/Ce-Al2O3 catalyst showed higher resistance to deactivation and its sulfur poisoning seems to be reversible. In the case of the commercial and Ni/Zr-Al2O3 catalysts, they did not recover their activity.

  5. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  6. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1997-02-01

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  7. Biogas production from potato-juice, a by-product from potato-starch processing, in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/gVS-added. Ana......In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/g...

  8. Multi-response optimization of process parameters in biogas production from food waste using Taguchi – Grey relational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepanraj, B.; Sivasubramanian, V.; Jayaraj, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of process parameters on biogas production was experimentally investigated. • The optimum conditions were determined using Taguchi based Grey relational analysis. • Percentage contribution of chosen parameters were determined using ANOVA. • Empirical relationship between the input and output variables were derived. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of process parameters and pretreatment on biogas production, volatile solid degradation and COD degradation during anaerobic digestion of food waste were experimentally investigated. Using Taguchi based Grey relational analysis, the optimum condition for anaerobic digestion was found. Taguchi technique was coupled with grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple outputs. A L_1_6 orthogonal array was selected and designed for five parameters varied through four levels by applying Taguchi’s design of experiments. The optimum level values of parameters obtained for anaerobic digestion of food waste is solid concentration of 7.5% TS, pH of 7, temperature of 50 °C, C/N ratio of 20.19 and ultrasonication pretreatment. Percentage contribution of input parameters on output was determined using ANOVA. The results showed that pretreatment is the prominent parameter that contributes towards output responses followed by pH, solid concentration, temperature and C/N ratio.

  9. Innovative CO{sub 2} separation process for biogas upgrading using polymeric resins; Innovatives CO{sub 2}-Abscheideverfahren zur Biogasaufbereitung mit Hilfe von Polymerharzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrivelle, Carole; Safai, Daniel; Raab, Katharina; Klein, Barbara [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. Brennstoffe und Rauchgasreinigung; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2016-08-01

    Upgraded biogas can be injected into the natural gas grid. The Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology (IFK) is investigating several innovative biogas upgrading processes with the aim to develop treatment methods adapted for small biogas plants. This paper presents a process to separate CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4} by concentration swig adsorption using an amine functionalized polymer resin. The experiments were carried out at a continuous laboratory scale plant. The results are compared with previous experiments from earlier work at the IFK. The new resin shows a significant increase of working capacity and CH{sub 4} purity as well as a decrease of CH{sub 4} loss.

  10. Challenges in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennuit, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a sustainable process combining waste treatment, nutrient recycling and energy production which can contribute to limit climate change and environmental problems. However, in order for this technique to be more widely used, production of biogas from available wastes...... from a mixture of pig manure and other waste materials by separating the solid fraction of digestate and recycling it back to the digester. It is shown that separation and recycling of the dry matter rich solid fraction could successfully increase biogas production and a preliminary economic evaluation...... showed a potential increase of 1.9 to 6.8€ per ton of biomass treated. In the second part of this study, a biological treatment to improve energy production from wastewater sludge was investigated. Wastewater sludge was subjected to thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) from 2h to 5d. Increase in biogas...

  11. The Development of Biogas Technology in Denmark: Achievements & Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Sannaa, Mohamed Najib

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is one of the most advanced countries in biogas technology. This country added several improvements to the biogas process in order to increase the biogas yield and thereby improve the economical profitability. Consequently, this project studied the developments of biogas technology in Denmark. The study includes a historical progress of biogas plants since 1970s; the different problems interrupted the expansion of this technology and the actions taken to overcome these obstacles. This...

  12. Co-digestion of manure and whey for in situ biogas upgrading by the addition of H2: process performance and microbial insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    composition. The best biogas composition (75:6.6:18.4) was obtained at stirring speed 150 rpmand using ceramic diffuser, while the biogas in the control reactor consisted of CH4 and CO2 at a ratio of 55:45. The consumed hydrogen was almost completely converted to CH4, and there was no significant accumulation......In situ biogas upgrading was conducted by introducing H2 directly to the anaerobic reactor. As H2 addition is associated with consumption of the CO2 in the biogas reactor, pH increased to higher than 8.0 when manure alone was used as substrate. By co-digestion of manure with acidic whey, the p......H in the anaerobic reactor with the addition of hydrogen could be maintained below 8.0, which did not have inhibition to the anaerobic process. The H2 distribution systems (diffusers with different pore sizes) and liquid mixing intensities were demonstrated to affect the gas-liquid mass transfer of H2 and the biogas...

  13. Investigation of Biogas Production Process by the Mixture of Landfill Leachate and Animal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein alidadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Energy consumption is on a rapidly growing trend in the world. Accordingly, the non-renewable energy sources are expected to be run out in the future. This issue has resulted in the establishment of efforts targeted toward the development of new energy-generating methods around the world. Biogas energy is one of the new and clean energies that is produced from the anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Anaerobic digestion is a cost-effective and environment-friendly method, which facilitates fertilizer and biogas production as well as landfill leachate treatment. Given the high environmental hazards of leachate and its mixture with animal wastes, the present study aimed to estimate the possibility of producing biogas in various mixture ratios. Methods: In this pilot-scale experimental study, the landfill leachate of Mashhad, Iran, were mixed with caw fresh dung in different ratios, but same conditions, under anaerobic digestion. This was conducted to consider the ability to produce methane gas in different proportions and landfill leachate. At the beginning and end of the project, the parameters of EC, pH, VS, TS, COD, TOC, P, K, N, and Na were measured. Additionally, the composition of the gases produced under different operating conditions was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Gas production began three weeks after uploading and continued for five weeks. The analysis of gas production in three ratios was indicative of the CH4 production in all three proportions. In this regard, 1/1 ratio produced the highest percentage of CH4. No gas production was observed in the two months of study. Other physical and chemical parameters, such as COD, TS, TKN, and TOC were reduced in the given mixtures during the biogas production procedure. For instance, the case with 1/1 ratio, which showed the best results, had almost 80% decrease in the given parameters. However, no gas

  14. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Potential: Simulation of Lab and Industrial-Scale Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Hamawand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simulation was carried out using BioWin 3.1 to test the capability of the software to predict the biogas potential for two different anaerobic systems. The two scenarios included: (1 a laboratory-scale batch reactor; and (2 an industrial-scale anaerobic continuous lagoon digester. The measured data related to the operating conditions, the reactor design parameters and the chemical properties of influent wastewater were entered into BioWin. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the sensitivity of the most important default parameters in the software’s models. BioWin was then calibrated by matching the predicted data with measured data and used to simulate other parameters that were unmeasured or deemed uncertain. In addition, statistical analyses were carried out using evaluation indices, such as the coefficient of determination (R-squared, the correlation coefficient (r and its significance (p-value, the general standard deviation (SD and the Willmott index of agreement, to evaluate the agreement between the software prediction and the measured data. The results have shown that after calibration, BioWin can be used reliably to simulate both small-scale batch reactors and industrial-scale digesters with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of less than 10% and very good values of the indexes. Furthermore, by changing the default parameters in BioWin, which is a way of calibrating the models in the software, as well, this may provide information about the performance of the digester. Furthermore, the results of this study showed there may be an over estimation for biogas generated from industrial-scale digesters. More sophisticated analytical devices may be required for reliable measurements of biogas quality and quantity.

  15. Theoretical analysis of a biogas-fed PEMFC system with different hydrogen purifications: Conventional and membrane-based water gas shift processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authayanun, Suthida; Aunsup, Pounyaporn; Patcharavorachot, Yaneeporn; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of the biogas-fed PEMFC system is performed. • Conventional and membrane-based WGS processes for H 2 purification are studied. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC system is developed. • Effect of key parameters on yields of H 2 and carbon in the biogas reformer is shown. • Performance of PEMFC systems with different H 2 purification processes is analyzed. - Abstract: This study presents a thermodynamic analysis of biogas reforming and proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) integrated process with different hydrogen purifications: conventional and membrane-based water gas shift processes. The aim is to determine the optimal reforming process for hydrogen production from biogas in the PEMFC system. The formation of carbon is concerned in the hydrogen production. The simulation results show that increases in the steam-to-methane ratio and reformer temperature can improve the hydrogen yield and reduce the carbon formation. From the performance analysis, it is found that when the PEMFC is operated at high temperature and fuel utilization, the overall system efficiency enhances. The performance of the PEMFC system with the installation of a water gas shift membrane unit in the hydrogen purification step is slightly increased, compared with a conventional process

  16. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K. L.; Ács, N.; Kovács, E.; Wirth, R.; Rákhely, G.; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  17. Anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable processing wastes for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanath, P.; Sumithra Devi, S.; Nand, K. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (IN))

    1992-01-01

    The effect of feeding different fruit and vegetable wastes, mango, pineapple, tomato, jackfruit, banana and orange, was studied in a 60-litre digester by cycling each waste every fifth day in order to operate the digester as and when there was supply of feed. The characteristics of the anaerobically digested fluid and digester performance in terms of biogas production were determined at different loading rates (LR) and at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and the maximum biogas yield of 0.6 m{sup 3}/kg VS added was achieved at a 20-day HRT and 40 kg TS m{sup -3}day{sup -1} loading rate. The hourly gas production was observed in the digesters operated at 16 and 24 days HRT. The major yield (74.5%) of gas was produced within 12h of feeding at a 16-day HRT whereas at a 24-day HRT only 59.03% of the total gas could be obtained at this time. (author).

  18. Enhancing biogas production from vinasse in sugarcane biorefineries: Effects of urea and trace elements supplementation on process performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Batista, Karla; Silva, Witan; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate and trace elements supplementation were investigated in a semi-continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system to enhance process stability and biogas production from sugarcane vinasse. Phosphate in form of KH2PO4 induced volatile fatty acids accumulation possibly due to potassium inhibition of the methanogenesis. Although nitrogen in form of urea increased the reactor's alkalinity, the process was overloaded with an organic loading rate of 6.1gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 3.6days. However, by supplementing urea and trace elements a stable operation even at an organic loading rate of 9.6gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 2.5days was possible, resulting in 79% higher methane production rate with a stable specific methane production of 239mLgCOD(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-01-01

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  20. A membrane based process for the upgrading of biogas to substituted natural gas (SNG) and recovery of carbondioxide for industrial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; dePreez, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A low pressure carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane based process to upgrade biogas from anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste to a substitute natural gas (SNG) has been tested on a pilot scale. The data extracted from the pilot plant was used to estimate membrane permeance and ideal selecti...

  1. Performance of a biogas upgrading process based on alkali absorption with regeneration using air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciocchi, Renato; Carnevale, Ennio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Lidia; Olivieri, Tommaso; Zanchi, Laura; Zingaretti, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    This work analyzes the performance of an innovative biogas upgrading method, Alkali absorption with Regeneration (AwR) that employs industrial residues and allows to permanently store the separated CO2. This process consists in a first stage in which CO2 is removed from the biogas by means of chemical absorption with KOH or NaOH solutions followed by a second stage in which the spent absorption solution is contacted with waste incineration Air Pollution Control (APC) residues. The latter reaction leads to the regeneration of the alkali reagent in the solution and to the precipitation of calcium carbonate and hence allows to reuse the regenerated solution in the absorption process and to permanently store the separated CO2 in solid form. In addition, the final solid product is characterized by an improved environmental behavior compared to the untreated residues. In this paper the results obtained by AwR tests carried out in purposely designed demonstrative units installed in a landfill site are presented and discussed with the aim of verifying the feasibility of this process at pilot-scale and of identifying the conditions that allow to achieve all of the goals targeted by the proposed treatment. Specifically, the CO2 removal efficiency achieved in the absorption stage, the yield of alkali regeneration and CO2 uptake resulting for the regeneration stage, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid product are analyzed as a function of the type and concentration of the alkali reagent employed for the absorption reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  3. Monitoring of biogas test plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    realistic bioreactor scales, it is necessary to obtain a fairly constant level of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, which furthers a stable biogas production. Uncontrolled VFA contents have a significant negative impact on biogas production; VFA concentrations should not exceed 5–6000 mg/L lest......Most studies reported in the literature have investigated near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in laboratory-scale or minor pilot biogas plants only; practically no other studies have examined the potential for meso-scale/full-scale on-line process monitoring. The focus of this study is on a meso......-scale biogas test plant implementation of process analytical technologies (PAT) to develop multivariate calibration/prediction models for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. A 150 L bioreactor was fitted with a recurrent loop at which NIR spectroscopy and attendant reference sampling were carried out. In all...

  4. Biotechnological intensification of biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Z.; Acs, N.; Balint, B.; Horvath, L.; Dobo, K.; Perei, K.R.; Rakhely, G.; Kovacs, K.L. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics

    2007-08-15

    The importance of syntrophic relationships among microorganisms participating in biogas formation has been emphasized, and the regulatory role of in situ hydrogen production has been recognized. It was assumed that the availability of hydrogen may be a limiting factor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. This hypothesis was tested under laboratory and field conditions by adding a mesophilic (Enterobacter cloacae) or thermophilic hydrogen-producing (Caldicellulosyruptor saccharolyticus) strain to natural biogas-producing consortia. The substrates were waste water sludge, dried plant biomass from Jerusalem artichoke, and pig manure. In all cases, a significant intensification of biogas production was observed. The composition of the generated biogas did not noticeably change. In addition to being a good hydrogen producer, C. saccharolyticus has cellulolytic activity; hence, it is particularly suitable when cellulose-containing biomass is fermented. The process was tested in a 5-m{sup 3} thermophilic biogas digester using pig manure slurry as a substrate. Biogas formation increased at least 160-170% upon addition of the hydrogen-producing bacteria as compared to the biogas production of the spontaneously formed microbial consortium. Using the hydrogenase-minus control strain provided evidence that the observed enhancement was due to interspecies hydrogen transfer. The on-going presence of C. saccharolyticus was demonstrated after several months of semicontinuous operation. (orig.)

  5. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhongtang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Hitzhusen, Fredrick [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  6. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Biogas may contain unwanted and harmful components, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as terpenes. These terpenes (organic oils) are mainly present in citrus peel and plant residues; that is why especially raw biogas from organic waste digestion plants contains high concentrations of terpenes. If terpenes end up in the gas grid (with the injected biomethane) there is a risk that plastics (PE pipes) lose their mechanical properties by absorbing liquids or extracting ethereal plasticizers. This can lead to embrittlement greatly lowering the reliability of the piping. In addition, soft components are als o affected (gaskets and rubber O-rings). Besides the impact on the integrity of the gas grid, terpenes also mask the odor of natural gas odorants such as THT. This impedes the detection of gas leaks which is a significant security risk. Furthermore, the presence of terpenes in biogas leads to fouling of equipment used for the drying of biomethane, as well as contamination of adsorption liquids and membranes used in the upgrading process. Currently, terpenes are removed by activated carbon filters. The tool life of such a filter can be relatively short if terpene concentrations are high in the biogas; this results in a significant increase of the operational costs, due to the replacement of the carbon. This study looked at alternative techniques for removing much of the terpenes from biogas in a simple, efficient and cheap way. In a workshop with stakeholders two techniques were chosen to be tested on laboratory scale in order to demonstrate the proof of principle. These techniques are photo-oxydation and a gas scrubbing. Of all investigated techniques for the removal of limonene the application of UV radiation seems to be the most promising option because of the simplicity of the process, the high efficiency (up to 94%), the comparable operational costs with activated carbon (6.7 to 9.5 euro/kg limonene removed, compared to 10 euro/kg limonene removed for activated

  7. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propionic acid. 582.3081 Section 582.3081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. Biogas from manure and waste residues; Biogas ur goedsel, avfall och restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The consumption of fossil fuels must be reduced if we are to meet environmental and climate related goals and reduce the greenhouse effect. In contrast to fossil fuels, biogas is renewable and carbon dioxide neutral. Biogas is also the cleanest fuel on the market and has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuel used in Sweden. The residue produced after anaerobic digestion is a valuable fertilizer and soil conditioner. Organic wastes are recycled through the biogas process to become a resource. This creates a sustainable recycling of nutrients and energy between urban and rural areas, and between consumption and production. This handbook is intended as a source of information on biogas, targeting politicians and decision- and policy makers in local authorities, farmers and farmers' organisations, and indeed anyone with an interest in biogas in Sweden and abroad. The handbook starts with an introduction of biogas in Sweden today. In part two general information is given about biogas technologies, a description of the biogas process, from the use of substrates to the final distribution of biogas and organic residues, followed by short information about economic support and incentives. In the last part twelve Swedish biogas plants are described, which have been particularly successful, and which can therefore serve as models for the future. The plants are grouped into four different categories: codigestion plants, farm-based biogas plants, sewage treatment plants and industrial plants. Each case study is described as of March 2012. Production figures are given for 2011, unless otherwise stated.

  9. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  10. Full-scale agricultural biogas plant metal content and process parameters in relation to bacterial and archaeal microbial communities over 2.5 year span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repinc, Sabina Kolbl; Šket, Robert; Zavec, Domen; Mikuš, Katarina Vogel; Fermoso, Fernando G; Stres, Blaž

    2018-05-01

    A start-up of 4 MW agricultural biogas plant in Vučja vas, Slovenia, was monitored from 2011 to 2014. The start-up was carried out in 3 weeks with the intake of biomass from three operating full-scale 1-2 MW donor agricultural biogas plants. The samples were taken from donor digesters and from two serial digesters during the start-up over the course of 2.5 years. Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities progressively diverged from the composition of donor digesters during the start-up phase. The rate of change of Bacterial community decreased exponentially over the first 2.5 years as dynamics within the first 70 days was comparable to that of the next 1.5 years, whereas approximately constant rate was observed for Archaea. Despite rearrangements, the microbial communities remained functionally stable and produced biogas throughout the whole 2.5 years of observation. All systems parameters measured were ordered according to their Kernel density (Gaussian function) ranging from the most dispersed (substrate categories used as cosubstrates, quantities of each cosubstrate, substate dry and volatile matter, process parameters) towards progressively least dispersed (trace metal and ion profiles, aromatic-polyphenolic compounds, biogas plant functional output (energy)). No deficiency was detected in trace metal content as the distribution of metals and elements fluctuated within the suggested limits for biogas over 2.5 year observation. In contrast to the recorded process variables, Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities exhibited directed changes oriented in time. Variation partitioning showed that a large fraction of variability in the Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities (55% and 61%, respectively) remained unexplained despite numerous measured variables (n = 44) and stable biogas production. Our results show that the observed reorganization of microbial communities was not directly associated with impact on the full-scale biogas reactor

  11. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  12. Promotion and marketing of the biogas way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, P.B.; Lindboe, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The biological process of anaerobic digestion is used primarily as a tool for waste treatment. It also produces energy in the form of biogas - a feature by which it is often called the biogas technology. This paper outlines special features of this process, together with other advantages and disadvantages of applying the AD or the biogas technology, to satisfy ever increasing regulatory requirements and public concerns over pollution at both global and local levels. The paper then gives suggestions which could be implemented at the Commission, national and regional levels to propagate the implementation of the biogas technology. (au)

  13. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers; Attenuazione naturale del flusso di biogas nella copertura superficiale delle discariche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R. [Padova Univ., Padova (Italy). IMAGE, Dipartimento di Idraulica, Marittima, Ambiente e Geotecnica; Zane, M. [SPINOFF S.R.L., Padova (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed. [Italian] Nella valutazione del pericolo di emissioni incontrollate di biogas da una discarica, il processo dell'attenuazione naturale della copertura superficiale assume un ruolo molto importante. La capacita' di ossidazione del biogas nel terreno di copertura sembra rappresentare il controllo piu' importante nella mitigazione di fughe incontrollate di biogas, soprattutto nel lungo periodo quando la captazione del biogas perde efficienza. Nel presente lavoro si riportano alcune esperienze di laboratorio per valutare l'ossidazione di metano in diverse tipologie di copertura.

  14. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  15. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  16. empirical model for predicting rate of biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale ... Biogas is a Gas obtained by anaerobic ... A. A. Adamu, Petroleum and Natural Gas Processing Department, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B..

  17. CO2/CH4 Separation Performance of Ionic-Liquid-Based Epoxy-Amine Ion Gel Membranes under Mixed Feed Conditions Relevant to Biogas Processing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friess, K.; Lanč, M.; Pilnáček, Kryštof; Fíla, V.; Vopička, O.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Cowan, M.G.; McDaniel, W.M.; Noble, R.D.; Gin, D.L.; Izák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 528, APRIL (2017), s. 64-71 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-12695S; GA MŠk LH14006; GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : epoxy-amine-based ion gel membranes * biogas processing * humid mixed-gas permeation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  18. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: Influence of aggregate formation on process stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleyböcker, A.; Liebrich, M.; Kasina, M.; Kraume, M.; Wittmaier, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of process recovery with calcium oxide. ► Formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids and phosphate. ► Adsorption of VFAs by the precipitates resulting in the formation of aggregates. ► Acid uptake and phosphate release by the phosphate-accumulating organisms. ► Microbial degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. - Abstract: Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH > 7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4) the degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. Furthermore, this mechanism enabled a stable process performance

  19. Research progress of siloxane removal from biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ruiling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Siloxanes in biogas are detrimental to engine, turbine, fuel cell, etc., thus it is necessary to remove siloxanes from biogas before biogas high-value utilization. At present, there are few domestic researches and related reports in view of siloxanes removal from biogas. This paper introduces the property of siloxanes as well as sampling and analysis method, and then presents the research progress of siloxanes removal from biogas. Three commercial technologies overseas are adsorption, absorption and cryogenic condensation. Among them, adsorption on activated carbon is the most widely used method. Other technologies, such as biological removal, catalytic processes, membranes, source controlling, etc. are under exploration and development. At last, this paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of siloxanes removal technologies as well as the applicability and analyzes the future research trend and emphasis. This paper could provide a reference in the field of biogas high-value utilization.

  20. Biogas from farms will be tomorrow's fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecker, U.; Limacher, L.; Krummenacher, S.; Schmid, J.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a preliminary study on the technical, logistical and economic possibilities of agricultural biogas production for use as motor fuel. The study was made for a geographically limited region in the Swiss Canton of Lucerne. The reason for the choice of this area - which exhibits a high density of cattle and fowl - and its high potential for the production of biogas from animal excrements are discussed. The economic viability of three possible variants of biogas usage are discussed - its use as a fuel for electricity generation, the processing of the biogas and its injection into the natural gas mains and storage of the biogas in compressed-gas cylinders. Also, the relevance of biogas production in terms of environmental protection is emphasised - ammonia emissions from liquid manure poses a serious problem for the region. Further, political and market development aspects are discussed

  1. Planning for Biogas Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landt, Cristina C.; Gaarsmand, Regin; Palsberg, Aske

    2016-01-01

    This article is about establishing biogas in Denmark in the region of Zealand, the challenges that are related to this establishment and how to overcome this challenges. The article highlights three reasons for these challenges: 1) Regulation, 2) The municipal planning and 3) Involved various...... stakeholders. It investigates how these challenges affected the process and were overcome in the establishment of Solrod Biogas. In terms of ownership and biomass input, this biogas plant is unique compared to other Danish biogas plants. The biogas plant is based on organic by-products from local industries...... and seaweed. The plant solves an essential environmental issue for the municipality and citizens who were affected by the smell of rotten seaweed washed up in Koge Bay. The seaweed is used as input; this solves several problems at the same time. The method used to establish Solrod Biogas was an integrated...

  2. Evaluation of the rotary drum reactor process as pretreatment technology of municipal solid waste for thermophilic anaerobic digestion and biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Batistatos, Nicolas Ion; Zhang, Ruihong

    2018-06-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains a large fraction of biodegradable organic materials. When disposed in landfills, these materials can cause adverse environmental impact due to gaseous emissions and leachate generation. This study was performed with an aim of effectively separating the biodegradable materials from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) facility and treating them in well-controlled anaerobic digesters for biogas production. The rotary drum reactor (RDR) process (a sub-process of the MBT facilities studied in the present work) was evaluated as an MSW pretreatment technology for separating and preparing the biodegradable materials in MSW to be used as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The RDR processes used in six commercial MSW treatment plants located in the USA were surveyed and sampled. The samples of the biodegradable materials produced by the RDR process were analyzed for chemical and physical characteristics as well as anaerobically digested in the laboratory using batch reactors under thermophilic conditions. The moisture content, TS, VS and C/N of the samples varied between 64.7 and 44.4%, 55.6 to 35.3%, 27.0 to 41.3% and 24.5 to 42.7, respectively. The biogas yield was measured to be between 533.0 and 675.6 mL g -1 VS after 20 days of digestion. Approximately 90% of the biogas was produced during the first 13 days. The average methane content of the biogas was between 58.0 and 59.9%. The results indicated that the biodegradable materials separated from MSW using the RDR processes could be used as an excellent feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The digester residues may be further processed for compost production or further energy recovery by using thermal conversion processes such as combustion or gasification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous...... °C. Full conversion to Lu2O3 is achieved at about 1000 °C. Whereas the temperatures and solid reaction products of the first two decomposition steps are similar to those previously reported for the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) propionate monohydrate, the final decomposition...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  4. Clinical Spectrum of Propionic Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical features, physical findings, diagnosis, and laboratory parameters of the patients with propionic acidaemia (PA. Methods. The records of diagnosed cases of propionic acidaemia were reviewed, retrospectively. Results. Twenty-six patients with PA had 133 admissions. The majority (85% of the patients exhibited clinical manifestations in the 1st week of life. Regarding clinical features, lethargy, fever, poor feeding, vomiting, dehydration, muscular hypotonia, respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy, disturbance of tone and reflexes, and malnutrition were observed in 51–92% admissions. Metabolic crises, respiratory diseases, hyperammonaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed in 30–96% admissions. Pancytopenia, ketonuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycaemia, and mildly disturbed liver enzymes were found in 12–41% admissions. Generalised brain oedema was detected in 17% and cerebral atrophy in 25% admissions. Gender-wise odd ratio analysis showed value of 1.9 for lethargy, 1.99 for respiratory diseases, 0.55 for anaemia, and 1.82 for hypocalcaemia. Conclusion. Propionic acidaemia usually presents with wide spectrum of clinical features and disturbances of laboratory parameters in early neonatal age. It is associated with significant complications which deteriorate the patients’ quality of life. Perhaps with early diagnosis of the disease and in time intervention, these may be preventable.

  5. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  6. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  7. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  8. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  9. Biogas plants; Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the KRdL expert meeting at 30th October, 2012 in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New requirements on biomass conversion plants based on the Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance (Hans-Peter Ewens); (2) State of the art of the operation of biomass conversion plants (Christina Dornack); (3) Implementation of the regulation VDI 3475 sheet 4 (Markus Helm); (4) Handling of constraints of residents in the licensing procedure as well as during operation (Helmar Hentschke); (5) Explosion protection for biomass conversion plants considering the matters of immission control (Michael Faber); (6) Microbiological and epidemic-hygienic aspects of agricultural biomass conversion plants and their fermentation residues (Werner Philipp); (7) Emissions of climatic relevant gases at the biogas production (Jacqueline Daniel-Gromke); (8) State of the art in the biogas processing (Joachim Krassowski).

  10. A decision support system for planning of flexible biogas chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbrandi, W. E.; Lazovik, E.; Azzopardi, G.; Pierie, Frank

    Decentralized biogas produced through co-digestion of biomass can play an important role in our future renewable energy mix. However the optimal design, planning and use of a biogas production chain is a daunting process. When looking into a biogas production chain one must take into account, first,

  11. The progress and prospects of rural biogas production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ling; Zhao, Lixin; Ren, Changshan; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production is an important aspect of China's energy strategy. After decades’ application and research, China biogas has achieved considerable accomplishments. This study presents the progress and prospect of biogas technologies and industry in China. Two biogas patterns exist in China, that is, household-scaled digester for scattered farmers and biogas plant for centralized biogas production. Household-scaled digester which is simple and practical has been widely used and fully developed. Biogas plants have being sprung up with different materials, process and biogas utilization technologies. By the end of 2010, 38.51 million household-scaled digesters, and 27,436 large- and medium-scaled biogas plants for agricultural wastes were built. The calculation result of biogas potential from agricultural wastes shows that those used raw materials account for only 1.90% of the total availability. Chinese government promulgated several laws and policies, and gave financial supports to promote the development of biogas. However, some problems such as inferior equipment technology, imperfect policy incentive hamper its wide application and promotion. With the rapid development of economy and the improvement of rural living condition, China biogas industry is expected to advance toward orientation of scalization, industrialization and commercialization. - Highlights: ► Developing progress of biogas production in China is evaluated comprehensively. ► Status of biogas industrialization is estimated. ► New problems which occurred during rural biogas construction were analyzed. ► Biogas production potentials from agricultural wastes in China were calculated. ► Prospect of China rural biogas is expected.

  12. Parameter estimation and long-term process simulation of a biogas reactor operated under trace elements limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lübken, Manfred; Koch, Konrad; Gehring, Tito; Horn, Harald; Wichern, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of ADM1 parameter uncertainty by nonlinear, correlated parameter analysis. • Unbounded confidence regions were obtained for single hydrolysis rate constants. • ADM1 carbohydrates were divided into a slowly and readily degradable part. • Bioavailability of trace metals explained discrepancies between modeled and measured data. - Abstract: The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to describe the long-term process stability of a two-stage agricultural biogas system operated for 494 days with a mono-substrate. The ADM1 model fraction for carbohydrates was divided into a slowly and readily degradable part. Significant different hydrolysis rate constants were found for proteins and single fractions of carbohydrates in batch experiments. Degradation of starch, xylan (hemicellulose), cellulose and zein (protein) were modeled with first order hydrolysis rate coefficients of 1.20 d −1 , 0.70 d −1 , 0.18 d −1 and 0.30 d −1 , respectively. While the hydrolysis rate coefficients found in batch experiments could be used for predicting continuous process data, the statistically calculated confidence regions (nonlinear parameter estimation) showed that the upper limits were unbounded. Single discrepancies between measured and modeled process data of the two-stage pilot system could be explained by the lack of bioavailability of trace elements. Addition of iron, as Fe(III)Cl 3 , allowed stable process conditions for an organic loading rate (OLR) up to 2.5 g VS L −1 d −1 . Additional supplement of trace elements was necessary for process operation at OLRs above 2.5 g VS L −1 d −1

  13. Reviewing the anaerobic digestion and co-digestion process of food waste from the perspectives on biogas production performance and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, factors that affect biogas production in the anaerobic digestion (AD) and anaerobic co-digestion (coAD) processes of food waste are reviewed with the aim to improve biogas production performance. These factors include the composition of substrates in food waste coAD as well as pre-treatment methods and anaerobic reactor system designs in both food waste AD and coAD. Due to the characteristics of the substrates used, the biogas production performance varies as different effects are exhibited on nutrient balance, inhibitory substance dilution, and trace metal element supplement. Various types of pre-treatment methods such as mechanical, chemical, thermal, and biological methods are discussed to improve the rate-limiting hydrolytic step in the digestion processes. The operation parameters of a reactor system are also reviewed with consideration of the characteristics of the substrates. Since the environmental awareness and concerns for waste management systems have been increasing, this paper also addresses possible environmental impacts of AD and coAD in food waste treatment and recommends feasible methods to reduce the impacts. In addition, uncertainties in the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies are also discussed.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propionic acid. 184.1081 Section 184.1081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1081 Propionic acid. (a) Propionic acid (C3H6O2, CAS Reg. No. 79-09-4) is...

  15. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency.

  16. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  17. Biogas upgrading and utilization: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Treu, Laura; Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    Biogas production is an established sustainable process for simultaneous generation of renewable energy and treatment of organic wastes. The increasing interest of utilizing biogas as substitute to natural gas or its exploitation as transport fuel opened new avenues in the development of biogas...... upgrading techniques. The present work is a critical review that summarizes state-of-the-art technologies for biogas upgrading and enhancement with particular attention to the emerging biological methanation processes. The review includes comprehensive description of the main principles of various biogas...

  18. Two-year microbial adaptation during hydrogen-mediated biogas upgrading process in a serial reactor configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis; de Diego-Díaz, B.

    2018-01-01

    Microbial dynamics in an upgrading biogas reactor system undergoing a more than two years-period at stable operating conditions were explored. The carbon dioxide generated during biomass degradation in the first reactor of the system was converted to methane into the secondary reactor by addition...... of external hydrogen. Considering the overall efficiency, the long-term operation period resulted in an improved biogas upgrading performance (99% methane content). However, a remarkable accumulation of acetate was revealed, indicating the enhancement of homoacetogenic activity. For this reason, a shift...

  19. Biogas from farms will be tomorrow's fuel; 'Biogas vom Bauer wird zum Treibstoff von morgen'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecker, U [ITZ Innovations Transfer Zentralschweiz, Horw (Switzerland); Limacher, L; Krummenacher, S [Energie Treuhand ETL AG, Lucerne (Switzerland); Schmid, J [Schmid Management und Kommunikation AG, Chur (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a preliminary study on the technical, logistical and economic possibilities of agricultural biogas production for use as motor fuel. The study was made for a geographically limited region in the Swiss Canton of Lucerne. The reason for the choice of this area - which exhibits a high density of cattle and fowl - and its high potential for the production of biogas from animal excrements are discussed. The economic viability of three possible variants of biogas usage are discussed - its use as a fuel for electricity generation, the processing of the biogas and its injection into the natural gas mains and storage of the biogas in compressed-gas cylinders. Also, the relevance of biogas production in terms of environmental protection is emphasised - ammonia emissions from liquid manure poses a serious problem for the region. Further, political and market development aspects are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of biogas of waste from poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Paes, Juliana; Ferreira Matos, Camila; Souza Pereira, Diego José de; Bruggianesi, Giancarlo; Silva Misquita, Ícaro da

    2015-01-01

    Most of the farms, the waste of agricultural production do not receive adequate treatment for the stabilization of organic matter and reduce its pollution potential. The anaerobic digestion is an alternative for the treatment of waste, as well as allowing the reduction of pollution potential and the health risks of waste to a minimum, promotes the generation of biogas used as a heat source for various uses on the farm. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biogas production efficiency from the chicken waste. For the supply of biodigesters, adopted the total solids content of 8% and discontinuous supply system. The biogas potential was determined on the basis of their daily production and explosive rate. It was observed that the biogas production started 24 hours after the start of supplying the digesters. The maximum biogas production was approximately 0.87 L after the ninth and the 54th day starting the digestion process. The average daily production of biogas generated from bird manure was 0.022 L, while the cumulative 0.91 L after 72 days of digestion. The explosive rate of biogas generated by poultry origin residues peaked at 51% after 32 days of the start of the digestion process. In this analysis, we found the presence of methane in the biogas produced in all substrates tested after 24 h of digestion, because it’s burning in the presence of an ignition source (Fire). (full text)

  1. Propionate induces cell swelling and K+ accumulation in shark rectal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.M.; Ziyadeh, F.N.; Mills, J.W.; Booz, G.W.; Kleinzeller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Small organic anions have been reported to induce cell solute accumulation and swelling. To investigate the mechanism of swelling, we utilized preparations of rectal gland cells from Squalus acanthias incubated in medium containing propionate. Propionate causes cells to swell by diffusing across membranes in its nonionic form, acidifying cell contents, and activating the Na+-H+ antiporter. The Na+-H+ exchange process tends to correct intracellular pH (pHi), and thus it maintains a favorable gradient for propionic acid diffusion and allows propionate to accumulate. Activation of the Na+-H+ antiport also facilitates Na+ entry into the cell and Nai accumulation. At the same time Na+-K+-ATPase activity, unaffected by propionate, replaces Nai with Ki, whereas the K+ leak rate, decreased by propionate, allows Ki to accumulate. As judged by 86 Rb+ efflux, the reduction in K+ leak was not due to propionate-induced cell acidification or reduction in Cli concentration. Despite inducing cell swelling, propionate did not disrupt cell structural elements and F actin distribution along cell membranes

  2. Propionate induces cell swelling and K+ accumulation in shark rectal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, G.M.; Ziyadeh, F.N.; Mills, J.W.; Booz, G.W.; Kleinzeller, A. (Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Small organic anions have been reported to induce cell solute accumulation and swelling. To investigate the mechanism of swelling, we utilized preparations of rectal gland cells from Squalus acanthias incubated in medium containing propionate. Propionate causes cells to swell by diffusing across membranes in its nonionic form, acidifying cell contents, and activating the Na+-H+ antiporter. The Na+-H+ exchange process tends to correct intracellular pH (pHi), and thus it maintains a favorable gradient for propionic acid diffusion and allows propionate to accumulate. Activation of the Na+-H+ antiport also facilitates Na+ entry into the cell and Nai accumulation. At the same time Na+-K+-ATPase activity, unaffected by propionate, replaces Nai with Ki, whereas the K+ leak rate, decreased by propionate, allows Ki to accumulate. As judged by {sup 86}Rb+ efflux, the reduction in K+ leak was not due to propionate-induced cell acidification or reduction in Cli concentration. Despite inducing cell swelling, propionate did not disrupt cell structural elements and F actin distribution along cell membranes.

  3. Critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biogas use in Germany's distribution grid is regulated by the federal integrated energy and climate program. The key measures that influence the biogas feed-in include core regulation; changes to the act grating feed-in preference for electricity generated from renewable energies; regulation for heat supply from renewable energies; and regulations regarding biofuels. A critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas was presented. Specific topics that were discussed included aims and measures; potential; usage pathways for biogas; efficiency criteria of usage pathways; and location analysis. The presentation also discussed the parameters of raw biogas and regular distribution grid; a process chain for biogas upgrading; and criteria for process evaluation. It was concluded that costs and environmental relevance of biogas-processing can be compared over the complete life cycle for various pathways and configurations. This represented an excellent and very flexible planning tool. Subsidies and related measures could be focussed on the most efficient pathways. tabs., figs.

  4. PROSES BRAZING Cu-Ag BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOGAS TERMURNIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kusrijadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan biogas sebagai salah satu alternatif bahan bakar  pada proses brazing merupakan langkah diversifikasi biogas, yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan tingkat efisiensi dan keramahan teknologi. Permasalahan yang bersifat teknis dan menjadi kendala dalam pemanfaatan biogas ini adalah rendahnya konsentrasi CH4 dikarenakan adanya pengotor utama berupa air, karbondioksida dan asam disulfida. Penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu  tahap  pressureized storage process meliputi pemisahan komponen pengotor yang terdapat dalam biogas melalui teknik absorbsi sehingga dihasilkan biogas yang berkualitas gas alam terbarukan dan proses injeksi ke dalam suatu tangki penyimpanan, dan tahap selanjutnya adalah menggunakan biogas tersebut pada proses brazing logam Cu (tembaga dengan bahan tambah Ag (silver. Analisis hasil brazing dilakukan melalui analisis struktur mikro (metalografi untuk melihat kualitas tampak dari hasil brazing, serta analisis kekerasan mikro dan analisis parameter fisik standar terhadap hasil proses brazing. Penelitian ini telah menghasilkan perangkat alat pemurnian biogas yang dapat memurnikan biogas menjadi metana mendekati 100% dan sistem pengemasan (storage system  biogas bertekanan hingga 2 bar. Dari hasil analisis struktur mikro dan uji kekerasan mikro diketahui bahwa hasil proses brazing dengan biogas menghasilkan kualitas yang sama dengan hasil proses brazing dengan gas acetylene sehingga disimpulkan bahwa biogas dapat menjadi bahan bakar alternatif untuk proses brazing, khususnya untuk logam Cu dengan bahan tambah Ag.  Kata kunci : Biogas, Pressureized Storage, Brazing

  5. Pathway of propionate formation in Desulfobulbus propionicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Kremer, D.R.; Nicolaij, K.; Weenk, G.; Hansen, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Whole cells of Desulfobulbus propionicus fermented [1-13C]ethanol to [2-13C] and [3-13C]propionate and [1-13C]-acetate, which indicates the involvement of a randomizing pathway in the formation of propionate. Cell-free extracts prepared from cells grown on lactate (without sulfate) contained high

  6. Autism in patients with propionic acidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, P.; Debbold, E.; Crivelly, K.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Corthouts, K.; Debbold, B.; Andersson, H.; Vannieuwenborg, L.; Geuens, S.; Baumgartner, M.; Kozicz, L.T.; Settles, L.; Morava, E.

    2016-01-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve

  7. Design and simulation of rate-based CO2 capture processes using carbonic anhydrase (CA) applied to biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gaspar, Jozsef; Jacobsen, Bjartur

    2017-01-01

    Today the mix of the energy sector is changing from reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fueled power industry into a general focus on renewable industry which is emitting less greenhouse gases. Renewable fuels like biomass for electricity production or biogas for bio-methane production have a p...

  8. Biogas handbook (pilot edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumdar, A [comp.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of biogas production; factors affecting digester design; details of several biogas plants of India and China including their construction, operation, and maintenance; designs of biogas utilization devices; and the use of digested sludge as fertilizer or animal feed are discussed. Included is a section listing the causes and known solutions of technical problems associated with the construction and operation of biogas plants and appliances. (CK)

  9. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  10. Process performance and comparative metagenomic analysis during co-digestion of manure and lignocellulosic biomass for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapekos, P.; Kougias, P.G.; Treu, L.; Campanaro, S.; Angelidaki, I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pig manure and ensiled meadow grass were examined in co-digestion process. • Mechanical pretreatment increased the methane yield by 6.4%. • Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was firmly bounded to the digested grass. • Clostridium thermocellum was enriched in the firmly attached grass samples. • The abundance of methanogens was higher in the liquid fraction of digestate. - Abstract: Mechanical pretreatment is considered to be a fast and easily applicable method to prepare the biomass for anaerobic digestion. In the present study, the effect of mechanical pretreatment on lignocellulosic silages biodegradability was elucidated in batch reactors. Moreover, co-digestion of the silages with pig manure in continuously fed biogas reactors was examined. Metagenomic analysis for determining the microbial communities in the pig manure digestion system was performed by analysing unassembled shotgun genomic sequences. A comparative analysis allowed to identify the microbial species firmly attached to the digested grass particles and to distinguish them from the planktonic microbes floating in the liquid medium. It was shown that the methane yield of ensiled grass was significantly increased by 12.3% due to mechanical pretreatment in batch experiments. Similarly, the increment of the methane yield in the co-digestion system reached 6.4%. Regarding the metagenomic study, species similar to Coprothermobacter proteolyticus and to Clostridium thermocellum, known for high proteolytic and cellulolytic activity respectively, were found firmly attached to the solid fraction of digested feedstock. Results from liquid samples revealed clear differences in microbial community composition, mainly dominated by Proteobacteria. The archaeal community was found in higher relative abundance in the liquid fraction of co-digestion experiment compared to the solid fraction. Finally, an unclassified Alkaliphilus sp. was found in high relative abundance in all samples.

  11. Pemanfaatan Biogas Sebagai Bahan Bakar Generator Set Motor Bensin

    OpenAIRE

    Kusairi S., Ach; Yangsen, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Biogas is a compound formed from the decomposition of organic substances in anaerobic condition, the main constituent of biogas is methane and carbon dioxide, biogas can be used as fuel or otto cycle engine with diesel. In this study, the use of biogas from the landfill Cahaya Kencana then to gasoline motor generator sets using this type with a capacity 1kVA four steps that have been previously modified in order to be able to use biogas, but no purification process before being used as fuel. ...

  12. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  13. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  14. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  15. Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yan, Jinying; Li, Hailong; Chekani, Shabnam; Liu, Loncheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identify thermal characteristics of amine-based biogas upgrading for waste heat recovery. • Identify thermal characteristics of AD biogas production as sink for heat recovery. • Evaluation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading to improve overall energy efficiency. • Cost analysis applied for the economic feasibility of the thermal integration. • Using the principles of target design and system integration for connected thermal processes. - Abstract: Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible

  16. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  17. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  18. Numerical investigation of biogas flameless combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Bagheri, Ghobad; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption decreases from 3.24 g/s in biogas conventional combustion to 1.07 g/s in flameless mode. • The differences between reactants and products temperature intensifies irreversibility in traditional combustion. • The temperature inside the chamber is uniform in biogas flameless mode and exergy loss decreases in this technique. • Low O 2 concentration in the flameless mode confirms a complete and quick combustion process in flameless regime. - Abstract: The purpose of this investigation is to analyze combustion characteristics of biogas flameless mode based on clean technology development strategies. A three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study has been performed to illustrate various priorities of biogas flameless combustion compared to the conventional mode. The effects of preheated temperature and wall temperature, reaction zone and pollutant formation are observed and the impacts of combustion and turbulence models on numerical results are discussed. Although preheated conventional combustion could be effective in terms of fuel consumption reduction, NO x formation increases. It has been found that biogas is not eligible to be applied in furnace heat up due to its low calorific value (LCV) and it is necessary to utilize a high calorific value fuel to preheat the furnace. The required enthalpy for biogas auto-ignition temperature is supplied by enthalpy of preheated oxidizer. In biogas flameless combustion, the mean temperature of the furnace is lower than traditional combustion throughout the chamber. Compared to the biogas flameless combustion with uniform temperature, very high and fluctuated temperatures are recorded in conventional combustion. Since high entropy generation intensifies irreversibility, exergy loss is higher in biogas conventional combustion compared to the biogas flameless regime. Entropy generation minimization in flameless mode is attributed to the uniform temperature inside the chamber

  19. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS IN PSYCHROPHILIC AND MESOPHILIC CHAMBER IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE AMOUNT OF BIOGAS SOURCED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents problems concerning the modelling of anaerobic sludge stabilization, with the additional substrate (waste transported, dairy butchery sewage in psychrophilic fermentation conditions in the range 10–20 °C and mesophilic at 35 °C. Simulation test was conducted in the two digesters. Results of the study allowed to evaluate the effectiveness of conducting these processes in separate chambers, i.e. the psychrophilic and mesophilic chamber. During the simulations, terms of obtaining volatile fatty acids and biogas in conjunction with the operating conditions of the chambers indicated.

  20. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais Salman, Chaudhary; Schwede, Sebastian; Thorin, Eva; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-11-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  1. Mathematical modelization of physical process of biogas migration in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes; Modelizacion matematica del proceso fisico de migracion del biogas en vertederos controlados de R.S.U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Maison, E.; Sastre Andres, H.; Martin Gonzalez, S.

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of the laws that govern the biogas movements inside the landfill is carried out. The mathematical equations needed to resolve the problem are studied. Then, a model is defined and used to calculate the biogas movements in several situations. The results obtained are contrasted with data from the bibliography and with tests carried out at the La Zoreda, Landfill (Asturias Spain). (Author) 11 refs.

  2. Replacing Natural Gas by Biogas — Determining the Bacterial Contamination of Biogas by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising way of using biogas is to upgrade it to natural gas, which is referred to as Substitute Natural Gas (SNG or biomethane. Biomethane, or biogas, is produced by biological processes of harnessing the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic material to methane. Some of the microorganisms are aerosolized from the digester into the biogas; afterwards a bio-film is formed that attaches to the surfaces of the distribution pipes, and can find it was to the place where the end use of biogas takes place. This paper deals with the detection of microbial species in biogas, their influenceon corrosion and the potential risk that diseases can be spread via biogas using molecular techniques. Using molecular methods, we found that raw biogas contains about 8 million microorganisms per m3, which is most likely the result of microbial transmission from the anaerobic digestion process. Some bacterial species may contribute to the corrosion of pipelines and equipment; others are opportunistic pathogens that can cause toxic reactions. However, most bacterial species, more than 40 % in biogas, are still unknown, as is their influence on the digestion process and on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand the behavior of microorganisms in anaerobic digestion and to preventmicrobial-influenced corrosion and microbial dissemination.

  3. Green Hydrogen Production from Raw Biogas: A Techno-Economic Investigation of Conventional Processes Using Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioele Di Marcoberardino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from biogas with conventional systems. The work is part of the European project BIONICO, whose purpose is to develop and test a membrane reactor (MR for hydrogen production from biogas. Within the BIONICO project, steam reforming (SR and autothermal reforming (ATR, have been identified as well-known technologies for hydrogen production from biogas. Two biogases were examined: one produced by landfill and the other one by anaerobic digester. The purification unit required in the conventional plants has been studied and modeled in detail, using Aspen Adsorption. A pressure swing adsorption system (PSA with two and four beds and a vacuum PSA (VPSA made of four beds are compared. VPSA operates at sub-atmospheric pressure, thus increasing the recovery: results of the simulations show that the performances strongly depend on the design choices and on the gas feeding the purification unit. The best purity and recovery values were obtained with the VPSA system, which achieves a recovery between 50% and 60% at a vacuum pressure of 0.1 bar and a hydrogen purity of 99.999%. The SR and ATR plants were designed in Aspen Plus, integrating the studied VPSA model, and analyzing the behavior of the systems at the variation of the pressure and the type of input biogas. The SR system achieves a maximum efficiency, calculated on the LHV, of 52% at 12 bar, while the ATR of 28% at 18 bar. The economic analysis determined a hydrogen production cost of around 5 €/kg of hydrogen for the SR case.

  4. Optimization of biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Boe, Kanokwan; Buendia, Inmaculada M.

    -scale studies showed that serial digestion with 77/23% volume distribution produced 1.9-6.1% more biogas compared to that obtained during one-step CSTR operation. However, temperature was found to have a strong influence on the methane production and process performance of the second reactor of a serial CSTR......The main objective of the project was to improve biogas production from manures. This objective was addressed by investigating 1) the effect of different reactor configurations, 2) operational procedures, aiming to selectively retain/return degradable material in the reactor and 3) different...... process at 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70% volume distribution could produce 11-17.8% more biogas compared to single CSTR process under similar operating conditions. The increased biogas production was mainly from the second reactor of the serial process, which accounted for 16-18% of the total...

  5. Biogas from algae, seaweed and seagrass?; Biogas aus Algen, Tang und Seegras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Algae, seaweed and sea grass are discussed again and again as alternative sources for raw materials for agricultural biogas plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the identification and optimization of the biogas potential of microalgae, macroalgae and flotsam (mixture of seaweed, seaweed, and so on). Algae, seaweed and sea grass can be fermented into biogas by means of an anaerobic process. The specific yield of biogas is small. The processing of these substrates requires a technical adjustment of the biogas plants. Thus, the effective use of these substrates will continue to fall. The achievable benefit highly depends on the location of the facilities and on the available substrates with the corresponding specific gas yields. The economic efficiency of these substrates in agricultural systems must be examined in each case.

  6. Enhanced biogas recovery by applying post-digestion in large-scale centralized biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Hejnfelt, Anette; Ellegaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    industry to generate biogas, which is used for electricity and thermal energy. A total of 20 such plants are currently active in Denmark, most of which were included in the investigation. From the plants, samples were obtained from various steps of the process. Samples were analysed and the residual biogas......The main objective of this study was to investigate the degradation efficiency of centralized biogas plants and provide guidance for the design of more efficient digester and post-digestion systems. These centralized biogas plants in Denmark digest manure together with organic waste from the food...... potential determined by batch post-digestion at various temperature levels. Results were correlated with plant characteristics and production statistics in order to judge the efficiency of various digestion concepts. A simplified model based on a two-step biogas production process was developed...

  7. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  8. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Hermawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increasing KOH composition decreases bubble generator diameter and mass flow.

  9. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Dadang; Hamidi, Nurkholis; Sasongko, Mega Nur

    2016-01-01

    The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increas...

  10. Anaerobic granule-based biofilms formation reduces propionate accumulation under high H2 partial pressure using conductive carbon felt particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-09-01

    Syngas based co-digestion is not only more economically attractive than separate syngas methanation but also able to upgrade biogas and increase overall CH4 amount simultaneously. However, high H2 concentration in the syngas could inhibit syntrophic degradation of propionate, resulting in propionate accumulation and even failure of the co-digestion system. In an attempt to reduce propionate accumulation via enhancing both H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathways, layered granule-based biofilms induced by conductive carbon felt particles (CCFP) was employed. The results showed that propionate accumulation was effectively reduced with influent COD load up to 7gL(-1)d(-1). Two types of granule-based biofilms, namely biofilm adhered to CCFP (B-CCFP) and granules formed by self-immobilization (B-SI) were formed in the reactor. Clostridium, Syntrophobacter, Methanospirillum were possibly involved in HIT and Clostridium, Geobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Methanosaeta in DIET, both of which might be responsible for the high-rate propionate degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  12. Demonstration of Software Application Biogas Optimizer at the Haendeloe Biogas Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristofer (Bioprocess Control Sweden AB, Lund (SE))

    2008-04-15

    There is a growing interest in the utilisation of process optimisation technologies within the biogas industry. This trend is being driven by new and growing market opportunities as well as an interest to improve the overall profitability of commercial biogas processes. Biogas Optimizer, developed by Bioprocess Control Sweden AB based in Lund, Sweden, represents one such process optimisation technology, utilising a supervisory and control approach to improve both biogas production efficiency and process stability. A demonstration project was conducted over a nine month period during 2007 at the Haendeloe biogas plant in Norrkoeping, Sweden, owned and operated by Svensk Biogas AB, to provide an indication of the potential of Biogas Optimizer to improve the competitiveness of biogas producers. The demonstration project attempted to satisfy 3 goals, namely; 1) to obtain baseline production information regarding the average Organic Loading Rate (OLR) and average Biogas Production Rate (BPR), 2) to demonstrate that the technology behind Biogas Optimizer works under full-scale production conditions, and 3) to verify that significant/notable production efficiency improvements can be achieved utilising Biogas Optimizer when compared to baseline production information, and that biogas production can be optimised for maximising the utilisation of reactor capacity while still leaving a comfortable safety margin so as to avoid reactor overloading. The collection of baseline production information during three months resulted in an average OLR of 4.0 Kg VS/m3/day and average BPR of 2.6 Nm3/m3/day being selected as baseline data from which to compare the performance of Biogas Optimizer. The full-scale demonstration of Biogas Optimizer was conducted over a 40 day period. During these 40 days, OLR recommendations from Biogas Optimizer, and the resulting manual adjustment of the OLR by the plant operator, resulted in an increase in the average OLR from 4.0 to 4.7 Kg/m3/day and

  13. Genome-scale model guided design of Propionibacterium for enhanced propionic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Navone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of propionic acid by fermentation of propionibacteria has gained increasing attention in the past few years. However, biomanufacturing of propionic acid cannot compete with the current oxo-petrochemical synthesis process due to its well-established infrastructure, low oil prices and the high downstream purification costs of microbial production. Strain improvement to increase propionic acid yield is the best alternative to reduce downstream purification costs. The recent generation of genome-scale models for a number of Propionibacterium species facilitates the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and provides a new opportunity to explore the metabolic potential of the Wood-Werkman cycle. Previous strategies for strain improvement have individually targeted acid tolerance, rate of propionate production or minimisation of by-products. Here we used the P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and the pan-Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs to simultaneously target these combined issues. This was achieved by focussing on strategies which yield higher energies and directly suppress acetate formation. Using P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, two strategies were assessed. The first tested the ability to manipulate the redox balance to favour propionate production by over-expressing the first two enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP, Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase and Pgl (6-phosphogluconolactonase. Results showed a 4-fold increase in propionate to acetate ratio during the exponential growth phase. Secondly, the ability to enhance the energy yield from propionate production by over-expressing an ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and sodium-pumping methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD was tested, which extended the exponential growth phase. Together, these strategies demonstrate that in silico design strategies are predictive and can be used to reduce by-product formation in

  14. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ...... and ex situ methods of biogas upgrading. The invention further relates to a bioreactor comprising hollow fibre membranes....

  15. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  16. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  17. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sednin; О. F. Kraetskaya; I. N. Prokoрenia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  18. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  19. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  20. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  1. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4 has been utilized as a fuel in a lab-scale furnace. A computational approach by standard k-ε combustion and turbulence model is applied. Hydrogen is added to the biogas components and the impacts of hydrogen enrichment on the temperature distribution, flame stability, and pollutant formation are studied. The results confirm that adding hydrogen to the POME biogas content could improve low calorific value (LCV of biogas and increases the stability of the POME biogas flame. Indeed, the biogas flame length rises and distribution of the temperature within the chamber is uniform when hydrogen is added to the POME biogas composition. Compared to the pure biogas combustion, thermal NOx formation increases in hydrogen-enriched POME biogas combustion due to the enhancement of the furnace temperature.

  2. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H 2 ) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of Biogas for Power Generation at Pesantren Saung Balong Al-Barokah, Majalengka, West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin, Maulana; Saepudin, Aep; Santoso, Arifin

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of biogas from cow manure as a fuel alternative for power plants is done through an anaerobic process. A pilot plant with biogas production of 7 m3/day has been installed at Pesantren Saung Balong. Biogas is used for everyday purposes such as cooking and lighting, and used as pure biogas with 2.500 Watt scale generator. Biogas produced with the rate of 0.080 m3/hr. Biogas produced during the measurement (450 minutes) is 0.604 m3. With these data it is predicted that within a day (...

  4. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications.

  5. Taxonomy and functional roles of biogas microbiota binned from multiple metagenomes of anaerobic digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano

    Anaerobic digestion, a biologically mediated process, is a worldwide spread technology for biogas production. This work represents the first comprehensive catalogue of microbial genomes populating mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors treating manure, agro-industrial organic residues. High ...

  6. Trenton Biogas LLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, William Brian [Trenton Biogas LLC, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    2017-06-13

    During the total period of funding, the project objectives changed. The initial objective of the project was to research the health and efficacy of two commercial derivative products of levulinic acid extracted from food waste and to optimize conversion methods for manufacturing. Unfortunately, and prior to any final conclusions, the scientist performing the studies passed away leaving much of the work incomplete. Analysis of the initial work product suggested that the process for commercializing levulinic acid from the food waste product was cost prohibitive mostly due to the market readiness for the levulinic acid product. The second phase of funding research period focused on utilizing the food waste (which had already been researched from phase 1) for other sources of energy. The focus and objectives of this phase were more focused on the technology transfer necessary to commercialize anaerobic digestion of food waste in a somewhat urban environment. During this transition, the project name changed from Trenton Fuel Works to Trenton Biogas.

  7. Electricity from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially open-quotes freeclose quotes fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as open-quotes controlled landfillingclose quotes. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills

  8. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  9. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

  10. Biogas in agriculture. Status and prospects. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the congress of the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) at 20th-21st September, 2011 in Goettingen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures and posters were presented: (1) Perspectives of using biogas as a part of the German power supply (Stefan Rauh); (2) Development of biogas in Europe (Marc Fleureck); (3) Biology of methanogenic archaea and its significance for the microbial process control in biogas plants (Helmut Koenig); (4) Efficiency and behaviour of enzymes in the biogas process (Monika Heiermann); (5) Trace elements in NaWaRo biogas plants for balancing substrate limited deficiency symptoms and stabilizing the fermentation process (Hans Oechsner); (6) EEG - Actual developments for biogas (Ulrich Keymer); (7) Utilization of thermal energy from cogeneration in the practice - Experiences from the view of an environmental expert (Michael Hub); (8) Innovations in the legal aspects of the production and utilization of biogas (Hartwig von Bredow); (9) Damages and deficiencies at biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (10) Learning from accidents, damages and their causes as well as their correctives in the operation of biogas plants - Reports from the practice (Wolfgang Horst Stachowitz); (11) Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion (Jan Kuever); (12) Anaerobic degradation of cellulosic substrates - Bionic implementation of the forestomach sysem of a ruminant (Dirk Weichgrebe); (13) Fermentation of renewable raw materials in the up flow procedure (Jan Mumme); (14) Two-phase pressure fermentation for feeding into natural gas grids (Andreas Lemmer); (15) Requirements and potential of sugar beets for fermentation (Christa Hoffmann); (16) Innovation in the area of power beets (Andreas von Felde); (17) Optimization of manuring with fermentation residues in order to reduce the nitrogen

  11. Disproportion of organic wastes into biogas by means of a tow-stage, thermophilic fermentation process. Final report. Disproportionierung organischer Abfaelle zu Biogas mit Hilfe eines zweistufigen, thermophilen Gaerverfahrens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troesch, W

    1985-04-01

    The work carried through in the period of report January 1 - December 31, 1985 comprised the following: Impacts of the composition of the synthetic substrate on the space-and-time-related yield of microbial methane production, and further experiments for the characterization of screened methanogenic bacteria. Screening for co-cultures decomposing propionic acid was taken up, in order to elucidate problems encountered in tracing the decomposition paths of propionic acid in mixed cultures. Comparative experiments were conducted with different reactor configurations for obtaining methane from cow and bullock liquid manures; these provided new results in comparison with data published, as far as gas yield and gas productivity as a function of space load are concerned. (orig.)

  12. Genome-scale model guided design of Propionibacterium for enhanced propionic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Laura; McCubbin, Tim; Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo A; Nielsen, Lars K; Marcellin, Esteban

    2018-06-01

    Production of propionic acid by fermentation of propionibacteria has gained increasing attention in the past few years. However, biomanufacturing of propionic acid cannot compete with the current oxo-petrochemical synthesis process due to its well-established infrastructure, low oil prices and the high downstream purification costs of microbial production. Strain improvement to increase propionic acid yield is the best alternative to reduce downstream purification costs. The recent generation of genome-scale models for a number of Propionibacterium species facilitates the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and provides a new opportunity to explore the metabolic potential of the Wood-Werkman cycle. Previous strategies for strain improvement have individually targeted acid tolerance, rate of propionate production or minimisation of by-products. Here we used the P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii and the pan- Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to simultaneously target these combined issues. This was achieved by focussing on strategies which yield higher energies and directly suppress acetate formation. Using P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii , two strategies were assessed. The first tested the ability to manipulate the redox balance to favour propionate production by over-expressing the first two enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP), Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase) and Pgl (6-phosphogluconolactonase). Results showed a 4-fold increase in propionate to acetate ratio during the exponential growth phase. Secondly, the ability to enhance the energy yield from propionate production by over-expressing an ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and sodium-pumping methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD) was tested, which extended the exponential growth phase. Together, these strategies demonstrate that in silico design strategies are predictive and can be used to reduce by-product formation in

  13. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  14. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  15. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil-Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Smitha; Kolb, Gunther; Hessel, Volker; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-29

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  16. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Nilsson, Ronny

    2009-11-01

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  17. Response surface methodological approach for optimizing production of geranyl propionate catalysed by carbon nanotubes nanobioconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, NurRoyhaila; Mahat, Naji Arafat; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul; Huyop, Fahrul; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Terpene esters of short-chain fatty acids are essential oils that have big importance in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as flavours and fragrances. Geraniol and citronellol are the most important substances. Considering the everincreasing demand for such products, their enzymatic production from natural raw materials by using environmentally friendly and economically attractive processes may prove advantageous. In this contribution, we would like to present an alternative option for the production of geranyl propionate using nanobioconjugates consisting of Candida rugosa lipase adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CRL-MWCNTs). We investigated the effects of incubation time, temperature, solvent log P and substrate molar ratio, and determined the optimum conditions. The yield of geranyl propionate catalysed by CRL-MWCNTs nanobioconjugates was significantly influenced by two factors, namely, temperature and time of the reaction. Under the optimum reaction conditions of 55 C, solvent n-heptane (log P D 4.0), geraniol to propionic acid molar ratio of 5:1 and reaction time of 6 h, the use of CRL-MWCNTs resulted in 51.3% production of geranyl propionate. Therefore, the investigation revealed that geranyl propionate was successfully synthesized under mild conditions with reasonably high yield within a short period of time. The CRL-MWCNTs nanobioconjugates demonstrated a potential as economical and environmentally smarter biocatalysts for the production of geranyl propionate. Keywords: nanobioconjugates

  18. Propionate oxidation by and methanol inhibition of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

    2005-02-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were converted by them. Methanol was the most potent inhibitor, leading to complete and irreversible loss of activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Of the organic acids acetate and propionate, propionate was consumed at a higher rate (0.8 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1)) by Percoll-purified anammox cells. Glucose, formate, and alanine had no effect on the anammox process. It was shown that propionate was oxidized mainly to CO(2), with nitrate and/or nitrite as the electron acceptor. The anammox bacteria carried out propionate oxidation simultaneously with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In an anammox enrichment culture fed with propionate for 150 days, the relative amounts of anammox cells and denitrifiers did not change significantly over time, indicating that anammox bacteria could compete successfully with heterotrophic denitrifiers for propionate. In conclusion, this study shows that anammox bacteria have a more versatile metabolism than previously assumed.

  19. Investigation of factors influencing biogas production in a large-scale thermophilic municipal biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Agnes; Jerome, Valerie; Freitag, Ruth [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair for Process Biotechnology; Burghardt, Diana; Likke, Likke; Peiffer, Stefan [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydrology; Hofstetter, Eugen M. [RVT Process Equipment GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany); Gabler, Ralf [BKW Biokraftwerke Fuerstenwalde GmbH, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A continuously operated, thermophilic, municipal biogas plant was observed over 26 months (sampling twice per month) in regard to a number of physicochemical parameters and the biogas production. Biogas yields were put in correlation to parameters such as the volatile fatty acid concentration, the pH and the ammonium concentration. When the residing microbiota was classified via analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, most bacterial sequences matched with unidentified or uncultured bacteria from similar habitats. Of the archaeal sequences, 78.4% were identified as belonging to the genus Methanoculleus, which has not previously been reported for biogas plants, but is known to efficiently use H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} produced by the degradation of fatty acids by syntrophic microorganisms. In order to further investigate the influence of varied amounts of ammonia (2-8 g/L) and volatile fatty acids on biogas production and composition (methane/CO{sub 2}), laboratory scale satellite experiments were performed in parallel to the technical plant. Finally, ammonia stripping of the process water of the technical plant was accomplished, a measure through which the ammonia entering the biogas reactor via the mash could be nearly halved, which increased the energy output of the biogas plant by almost 20%. (orig.)

  20. Kinetic analysis of nitric oxide reduction using biogas as reburning fuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biogas was suggested more suitable as reburning fuel to reduce NO emission and Miller-Bowan's mechanism was performed to analyze the effect of reaction environment in the process of biogas reburning. Results show that the NO reduction efficiency increased with the increase of hydrocarbon in biogas, reburning fuel ...

  1. Physical-chemical properties of the surface of B2O3-P2O5-MeOx/SiO2 catalysts and its effect on the parameters of the process of aldol condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yivasyiv, V.V.; Pyikh, Z.G.; Zhiznevs'kij, V.M.; Nebesnij, R.V.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of catalyst B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -MeO x /SiO 2 composition on its physical-chemical properties has been investigated. Relations between physical-chemical and catalytic properties of catalysts in the gas-phase reaction of propionic acid with formaldehyde to methacrylic acid have been found. Effect of the specific surface area and the specific surface acidity on the propionic acid conversion has been determined. Effect of the acidic active site's strength on the selectivity of reaction products has been determined. It has been pointed that methacrylic acid is formed on the moderate strength acidic active sites, whereas the by-product (diethyl ketone) - on the strong acidic active sites of the catalyst.

  2. Solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate was measured within a temperature range of 283.5–464.8 K and pressures up to 10.7 MPa. Experiments were carried out using the Cailletet apparatus, which uses a synthetic method for the experiments. The critical points of several isopleths

  3. Biogas Production and Engine Conversion From Diesel Engine to Biogas Engine for Lighting in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Seint Thandar

    2012-01-01

    The research of alternative fuels implemented in internal combustion engines are becoming the subjects of interest nowadays. This paper describes a production of biogas from cow dung, diesel engine conversion process with piston modification of ZH1115 diesel engine. To produce biogas, the usual practice is to mix water with some organic material, such as cow dung (a free source of the appropriate micro-organisms). The slurry is placed in a leak-proof container (called a digester) and leaves i...

  4. Increase of conversion efficiency and energy efficiency by coupling of the biomass conversion process and modulating operated biogas production with a decentralized energy supply; Steigerung der Wandlungs- und Energieeffizienz durch Kopplung von Biomassekonversionsverfahren und modulierend betriebene Biogasproduktion mit dezentraler Energiebereitstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Only certain parts of cultivated plants can be used in the production of biofuels. The production of biogas enables a full utilization of crops, but supplies only a limited storable energy source. A full utilization of crops can be achieved when the conversion paths for biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel can be coupled via their source streams, and if the process energy is provided by a straw power plant. A modulating production of biogas improves the energy supply meeting the demands. Using a simulation model for the presentation of conversion plants, decentralized power supply, industrial load periphery and soil resource it can be shown that the energy output of arable land may be increased significantly. The variances of the electrical loads for the public electricity grid can be reduced by a modulating operation of the biogas plant in conjunction with the local energy supply. Due to the application of the digestate and fate of straw fractions in arable fields, the material cycles of nitrogen and carbon are closed to a large extent.

  5. Biogas. Present situation and future potential; Biogas. Nulaege och framtida potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Ulf [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    owners need to be improved increase the understanding of the whole management chain, agricultural production, transport, treatment and handling of biofertilizer. The number of production sites for biogas from landfills is decreasing and the amount of biogas from these is diminishing. The number of biogas plants for agricultural crops is likely to increase. Combination processes will increasingly develop towards extracting several different energy products and towards maximising the energy extraction from substrates.

  6. Health risks associated with biogas. Assessment of health risks related to the injection of biogas into the natural gas network. Affset opinion. Collective expertise report. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAEG, Jean-Philippe; Bajeat, Philippe; Wenisch, Sandrine; Bellenfant, Gael; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Keck, Gerard; Lattes, Armand; Moletta-Denat, Marina; Naja, Ghinwa; Ramalho, Olivier; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; ALARY, Rene; RAMEL, Martine

    2008-10-01

    This publication reports a study which aimed at acquiring and analysing available bibliographical data regarding risks associated with the exposure to toxic compounds in relationship with the injection of biogas into the natural gas network, at characterising biogas composition and notably their content in potentially toxic compounds with respect to the currently distributed natural gas, at assessing health risks related to the exposure to toxic agents before and after combustion, also with respect to the currently distributed natural gas, and, based on this risk assessment, at determining biogas composition characteristics. Thus, after a presentation of the context, scope and modalities of this study, the report proposes an overview of various contextual aspects related to biogas (interest, production means, purification processes, valorisation, injection processes), the report discusses chemical risks related to biogas: bibliographical study, biogas chemical composition, chemical composition of biogas combustion residues. It also discusses microbiological risks. Several appendices are provided

  7. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  8. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the population social

  9. 15. Annual Meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Proceedings; 15. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The volume contains besides the general statements on environmental protection and energy savings in the future and biogas as great potential for the rural development the following contributions in four parts: 1. political enveloping conditions: biogas usage within the frame of the the new EEG; state of biogas usage in Baden-Wuerttemberg; practical experiences end perspectives for the biogas development; renewable raw materials from the view of environmenmental protection; 2. gas utilization: the bioenergy village Mauenheim - model for the rural area; compression ignition gas engines with biogenic ignition oils; realization and economic performance of gas engines with biogas; microgasturbines - engineering and chances, gas processing and feeding into the gas network; 3. substrate: influence of the energy plant agriculture on the regional structures; biogas plants: substrate control by TS sensing; fermentation of fusaria contaminated corn; substrate contracts in the view of revenue and contract legacy; energy plants agriculture in Baden-Wuerttemberg; 4. process biology: comparison of dry and wet fermentation; fundamentals, process stability analytical possibilities; start-up of a biogas plant; biogas process with external hydrolysis; problems in the fermenter - inhibitors and auxiliaries.

  10. Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Nordlander, Eva; Odlare, Monica; Dahlquist, Erik; Kastensson, Jan; Leksell, Niklas; Pettersson, Carl-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pre-treatment of ley crop can increase the biogas plant performance. ► Membrane filtration can increase the capacity of the biogas plant. ► Mechanical pre-treatment of the ley crop shows the highest energy efficiency. ► Using a distributor to spread the residues as fertilizer show promising results. -- Abstract: All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented. In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from pasture land. The areas for improvement of the plant addressed in this paper are treatment of the feed material to enhance the digestion rate, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms. Results from previous studies on pre-treatment and membrane filtration of recirculated process water are combined for an estimation of the total improvement potential. Further, the possibility of using neural networks to predict biogas production using historical data from the full-scale biogas plant was investigated. Results from an investigation using the process residues as fertilizer are also presented. The results indicate a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to over 30% with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. Neural networks have the potential to be used for prediction of biogas production. Further, it is shown that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N 2 O from the fertilized soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

  11. Biogas energy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T K

    1982-01-01

    A socio-economic study of India's biogas energy program, a response to the oil crisis of the 1970's, reviews the impact of promoting large-scale community biogas plants as a way to reach the lowest income groups. A case study draws on the experiences of the community plant in Gujarat village, and explores the program's secondary benefits and impacts on life styles. 15 references, 5 figures, 37 tables. (DCK)

  12. Biogas programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) of the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) was introduced in 1981-1982 to promote the use of biogas installations in households. Several systems have been introduced, all based on two basic designs: floating metal drum (Janata model) and fixed masonry dome (Deenbandhu model). An overview is given of the results, incentives of the Indian government and constraints so-far of the NPBD. 3 figs., 1 tab., 1 ills

  13. Janata biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, S; Singh, K K

    1980-03-01

    The Janata biogas plant is based on the use of local materials and locally available skills only. It is a proven technology at low cost and easy maintenance which should facilitate its extension at a much faster pace especially among the low income groups. This technology is important at this time because of the current crisis in the availability of firewood and mineral fuels. This handbook explains in non-technical language the basic features, design, and construction of this biogas plant. (DC)

  14. Influence of different practices on biogas sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulamanti, Aikaterini K.; Donida Maglio, Sara; Giuntoli, Jacopo; Agostini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production and use are generally regarded as a sustainable practice that can guarantee high greenhouse gas (GHG) savings. However, the actual carbon footprint of biogas is strongly influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to analyse the environmental performance of different biogas to electricity scenarios. Two criticalities are identified as important: the choice of feedstock and the operational practice concerning the digestate. Maize, manure and co-digestion of them are the different feedstocks chosen. Maize has higher yields, but its cultivation has to be accounted for, which consists of 28–42% of the GHG emissions of the whole process of producing electricity. Manure is considered a residue and as a result benefits from no production stage, but also from avoided emissions from the normal agricultural practice of storing it in the farm and spreading it as fertiliser, but has lower methane yields. Co-digestion combines the benefits and disadvantages of the two different feedstocks. Digestate storage in open or closed tanks and further use as fertiliser is analysed. The environmental impact analysis shows that a substantial reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved with closed digestate storage. The GHG emissions savings vary from about 3% in the maize pathways with open storage up to 330% in the manure pathway with closed storage. The biogas pathways, though, have worse environmental performances in all other environmental impacts considered but ozone depletion potential when compared to the European electricity average mix. -- Highlights: ► Biogas sustainability depends on the feedstock and the digestate management. ► Closed storage is strongly recommended. ► Taking into consideration credits is recommended. ► The biogas pathways GHG emissions can be lower than the ones of the reference system. ► Biogas pathways have higher impact in eutrophication, ecotoxicity and PM potentials

  15. Biogas utilization as flammable for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this work the energetic potential stored in form of generated biogas of organic industrial wastes treatment is analyzed. Biogas utilization as flammable at internal combustion engine coupled to electrical energy generating is studied in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bucaramanga city (Colombia). This Plant was designed for 160.000 habitants treatment capacity, 1300 m3/h wealth, 170 BDO/m3 residues concentration and 87% process efficiency. The plant generate 2.000 m3/d of biogas. In laboratory trials was worked with biogas originating from Treatment Plant, both without purifying and purified, and the obtained results were compared with both yields determined with 86-octanes gasoline and natural gas. The analysis of pollutant by-products generated in combustion process as leak gases, present corrosive compounds and not desirable. elements in biogas composition are included

  16. Biogas 2007. Energy source of the future; Biogas 2007. Energietraeger der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within this VDI meeting, held between 14th and 15th June, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Perspectives of the use of biogas in the background of the instruments according to the launch of renewable energies (B. Dreher); (b) Biogas in the energy mix and as export product - demand of action in EEG (C. da Costa Gomez); (c) Cultivation of regenerative raw materials for production of fermentation gas (A. Vetter); (d) Consequences of the cultivation of power plants on nature and landscape (W. Peters); (e) Agrarian residual substances and wastes of biofuel production as fermentation substrates (G. Langhans); (f) Biological waste management - comparison between composting and fermentation (Ch. Dornack, A. Schnapke); (g) Treatment and utilization of residues of fermentation (H. Doehler); (h) State of the art of the production and utilization of biogas using the NawaRo plant (P. Weiland, Ch. Rieger, J. Schroeder, R. Kissel, H. Bachmaier, V. Plogsties, J. Vogtherr); (i) Dry fermentation for continuous biogas processes - progress report (R. Schneider); (j) Status Quo and potential of development of mechanical-biological waste treatment under special consideration of fermentation and energetic utilization (K. Fricke, H. Santen, T. Bahr, A. Huettner); (k) Optimization of the plant operation by means of process monitoring and process modelling (M. Mueller, F. Scholwin, B. Fritsche); (l) Power supply and heat supply of the bio energy village Juehnde (E. Fangmeier); (m) Processing of regenerating raw materials for the optimization of the biogas yield: Which effects can be reached in the biogas process by means of pre-treatment of biomass such as corn and triticale? (B. Schumacher, H. Oechsner, Th. Senn, Th. Jungbluth); (n) Biogas production by means of dry fermentation: State of the art (A. Schattauer, P. Weiland); (o) Biogas as a fuel: AGROPTI - gas in Sweden (T. Ahrens, P. Weiland); (p) Bio energy as a system service

  17. Agglomerate behaviour of fluticasone propionate within dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, V N P; Robins, E; Flament, M P

    2012-04-01

    Due to their small size, the respirable drug particles tend to form agglomerates which prevent flowing and aerosolisation. A carrier is used to be mixed with drug in one hand to facilitate the powder flow during manufacturing, in other hand to help the fluidisation upon patient inhalation. Depending on drug concentration, drug agglomerates can be formed in the mixture. The aim of this work was to study the agglomeration behaviour of fluticasone propionate (FP) within interactive mixtures for inhalation. The agglomerate phenomenon of fluticasone propionate after mixing with different fractions of lactose without fine particles of lactose (smaller than 32 μm) was demonstrated by the optical microscopy observation. A technique measuring the FP size in the mixture was developed, based on laser diffraction method. The FP agglomerate sizes were found to be in a linear correlation with the pore size of the carrier powder bed (R(2)=0.9382). The latter depends on the particle size distribution of carrier. This founding can explain the role of carrier size in de-agglomeration of drug particles in the mixture. Furthermore, it gives more structural information of interactive mixture for inhalation that can be used in the investigation of aerosolisation mechanism of powder. According to the manufacturing history, different batches of FP show different agglomeration intensities which can be detected by Spraytec, a new laser diffraction method for measuring aerodynamic size. After mixing with a carrier, Lactohale LH200, the most cohesive batch of FP, generates a lower fine particle fraction. It can be explained by the fact that agglomerates of fluticasone propionate with very large size was detected in the mixtures. By using silica-gel beads as ball-milling agent during the mixing process, the FP agglomerate size decreases accordingly to the quantity of mixing aid. The homogeneity and the aerodynamic performance of the mixtures are improved. The mixing aid based on ball

  18. Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate

  19. Production of liquid biogas at the biowaste treatment plant Amtzell; Gewinnung von fluessigem Biogas an der Bioabfallbehandlungsanlage Amtzell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojahr, Armin [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttechnik Bojahr mbH und Co. KG, Berg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The fermentation plant in Amtzell will be extended to increase the throughput of bio waste. In this context an extension of the gas utilization plant is also required. The produced biogas will be partly transferred to the existing combined heat and power plant. The remaining part of biogas will be used in an proposed GPP-Plus {sup registered} --plant to produce liquid bio methane (LBG). In the LBG gaining process the raw biogas will have to be dried in several steps, de-sulphured, compressed and cooled. Following this process and due to different physical characteristics of the ingredients, the contaminants will be removed from the biogas and the main ingredients, carbon dioxide and methane, separated from each other. Carbon dioxide as well as the methane are then available in liquid form and can be put onto the market. This method of using biogas can utilize almost 100% of its energy potential. (orig.)

  20. Methodology for Analysing Energy Demand in Biogas Production Plants—A Comparative Study of Two Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lindkvist

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production through anaerobic digestion may play an important role in a circular economy because of the opportunity to produce a renewable fuel from organic waste. However, the production of biogas may require energy in the form of heat and electricity. Therefore, resource-effective biogas production must consider both biological and energy performance. For the individual biogas plant to improve its energy performance, a robust methodology to analyse and evaluate the energy demand on a detailed level is needed. Moreover, to compare the energy performance of different biogas plants, a methodology with a consistent terminology, system boundary and procedure is vital. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for analysing the energy demand in biogas plants on a detailed level. In the methodology, the energy carriers are allocated to: (1 sub-processes (e.g., pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, gas cleaning, (2 unit processes (e.g., heating, mixing, pumping, lighting and (3 a combination of these. For a thorough energy analysis, a combination of allocations is recommended. The methodology was validated by applying it to two different biogas plants. The results show that the methodology is applicable to biogas plants with different configurations of their production system.

  1. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    rural areas of Burkina Faso. The material was processed according to the content analyses of Mayring. The study identified altogether 38 factors which were grouped into different categories - socio-cultural, technology, economic, institutional, infrastructure, operational, substrate and competitive energies. The results are thought to provide a sound base for better management of future biogas projects in the rural area of Burkina Faso. (Author)

  2. THE ECONOMICS OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Karimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this paper life-cycle cost analysis of three biogas digesters is presented. Results show that the cost of biogas depends on the construction of digesters, sizes of methane tank and possibility of heating of the slurry. Biogas and natural gas costs calaculated are observed and found to be comparable. It is recommended that the biogas digesters can be constructed and installed, in principle, for every family and there is no need to built long gas pipe lines. ABSTRAK: Kertaskerja ini membentangkan analisis kos kitar hayat tiga pencerna biogas. Keputusan menunjukkan kos biogas bergantung kepada pembinaan pencerna, saiz tangki metana dan kemungkinan pemanasan buburan. Pengiraan kos biogas dan gas asli diambil kira dan ianya didapati setanding. Adalah disarankan pencerna biogas boleh dibina dan dipasang secara teorinya, bagi setiap keluarga tanpa memerlukan pembinaan paip gas yang panjang.

  3. International scientific conference biogas science 2009. Vol. 2. Lectures; Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009. Bd. 2. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Within the international conference of the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) at 2nd to 4th December, 2009, in Erding (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Design and application of a functional oligonucleotide microarray for the identification of cellulose genes and their expression in (different) biogas Fermenters (M. Engel et al.); (2) Evaluation of the potential of hygienisation of the biogas process with regard to phytogenic damage exciter (R. Friedrich et al.); (3) Prevalence and role of hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors (V.V. Zverlov et al.); (4) System analysis of biogas plants by means of microbiologic and molecular biologic methods: Comparison of hyperthermophilic (60 C) and thermophilic (55 C) (P. Scherer et al.); (5) Methanogenic archaea in agricultural biogas plants (E. Nettmann et al.); (6) Population dynamics of methanogens during acidification of biogas Fermenters fed with maize silage - a causal analysis (M. Lebuhn et al.); (7) Advanced interpretation of anaerobic batch tests - Conclusions for the practical operation (S. Meier et al.); (8) Development of a NIRS calibration for the determination of the biogas yield of maize (B. Darnhofer et al.); (9) Hydrogen and methane: Enhanced methane as well as hydrogen production and increased process stability by Sensorik control (N. Weran); (10) Stable carbon isotopes: A new laser method for the process analysis and identification of microbiologic reactions in the biogas process (S. Laukenmann et al.); (11) Biogas from grass silage - measurements and modelling (K. Koch et al.); (12) Mathematical modelling of the mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobe fermentation of maize silage (M. Luebken et al.); (13) The basket of benefit methodology as a tool for the comparison of electricity, heat, and fuel production from energy crops, exemplified by different utilization pathways for biogas (M. Bystricky et

  4. Practical application of the microbial activity analysis on the monitoring of the process biological stability of biogas plants; Praktische Anwendung der mikrobiellen Aktivitaetsanalyse zur Ueberwachung der prozessbiologischen Stabilitaet von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Lukas; Tietjen, Carsten [MT-Energie GmbH, Zeven (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung; Rilling, Norbert [MT-Energie GmbH und Co. KG, Rockstedt (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    As extension for the classical fluorescence microscopic analysis of the microbial population in a biogas fermenter the cell counts and frequency of the different methanogenic organisms was used to generate the plant specific stability indicator called MT-Factor. This factor describes the optimal composition of the microbial population for the current process conditions and could be used for the biological process consulting. A study of the MT-Energie laboratory showed that the combination of the microbial cell counts determination and the plant specific stability factor shifts during a process instability or failure of a biogas fermenter. This analysis of the methane-forming microorganisms as well as their cell count and importance for the entire anaerobic biology of the biogas plant can be used for clearly visualizing and tracking the vitality of the digestion process. The evaluation of the microbial activity of different liquid manure samples could show the influence of inhibitors like disinfectant or cleaning agents directly without time consuming cultivation tests. By determining the MT-Factor and analyzing the activity of the methane formers, an impending influence of inhibitors can be detected in liquid manure before the manure enters the digester. This way, a negative influence on the gas yield can be avoided. (orig.)

  5. A process combining hydrothermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis for sewage sludge dewatering and co-production of biogas and biochar: Pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Guangwei; Wang, Yin

    2018-04-01

    To fully dispose of/utilize sewage sludge, a process combing hydrothermal pretreatment (HTPT), anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis was developed and tested at the pilot scale. First, the improvement in sludge dewaterability by HTPT at 180 °C for 30 min was verified, and the water content decreased from 85 to 33 wt% after filter pressing. Then, the resulting filtrate underwent continuous mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) AD in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for producing biogas to compensate for the energy required for HTPT. Meanwhile, the filter cake was pyrolyzed in a rotary furnace (600 ± 50 °C) to generate biochar, and heavy metals were well immobilized in the biochar. Finally, the material/energy balance made according to the pilot data showed that the proposed process was effective for full resource reuse of sewage sludge. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Impact of Biogas Stations on CO2 Emission from Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of biogas stations on CO2 emissions produced within agricultural sector. In last years, owing to a positive policy of renewable energy resources a number of biogas stations in the CR has rapidly increased – actually over 350 agricultural biogas stations with the total installed power 365 MW are in operation. Concerning CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector, there is a presumption of decrease in produced emissions owing to decrease of influence of animal wastes which are processed just in the biogas stations. From the results it is obvious that CO2 emissions produced by agriculture in the CR decrease by 93.7 thousand tonnes annually. A presumption P1 that building of biogas stations will further support this trend is documented with results of a simple dynamic linear regression model. Further, elasticities of particular variables influencing the total emission from agriculture are investigated in the paper.

  7. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Tu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  8. Utilization of waste as biogas substrateby dominan microbes identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlina, E.; Sambasri, S.; Hartati, E.; Safitri, R.; Hodijat, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia as the tropics have a source of biomass feedstock which is very large, so the waste biomass can be used optimally as an energy source in the form of biogas. This study was conducted to obtain alternative energy from domestic waste materials, given the limited availability of petroleum and natural gas sourced from fossil fuels. This methodology is an experimental method, the process conditions at room temperature 25-27 °C, pH adjusted to the growth of microbes to produce biogas, retention time 20-60 days, the bioreactor is operated with a batch system, the volume of waste in the bioreactor is made permanent, so that the production of biogas in large scale will increase the pressure inside the bioreactor. Biogas is formed accommodated then distributed to the stove. Factors that determine the formation of biogas is a microbial species capable methanogens convert acetate into biogas. From the results of microbial identification of the isolates in the bioreactor, has identified three types of bacteria methanogens namely Methanospirillum hungatei, Methanobacterium polustre and Methanolacinapoynteri. The results of this study, domestic waste can be utilized as a substrate in biogas production, with the highest methane composition reaches 50.79%. This result is expected to increase public knowledge to utilize the waste into biogas as a renewable energy to sufficient the energy needs of household, so it does not depend on the energy derived from fossil fuels.

  9. Biogas : fuel source for a renewable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijk, J. [GE Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The current status of Ge Energy's Jenbacher gas engines was presented in terms of its product line, electrical output, thermal output and exhaust gases. The unique feature of the engine is that it can operate on natural gas, biogas, landfill or other gaseous fuels. The most important applications for this high efficiency gas engine include on-site power generation, cogeneration, tri-generation, and carbon dioxide fertilization in greenhouses. A map illustrating Canada wide sales and service networks was presented along with a review of opportunities to use biogas for electric power generation. Biogas can be generated from organic matter such as municipal organic waste, manure, yard waste, wood waste, expired food, slaughterhouse waste and energy crops. A graph depicting biogas yields of different feedstocks was presented. It was noted that biogas conversion through anaerobic digestion generates more energy from organic matter than any other technology, while recycling the nutrients. A schematic of a typical biomass anaerobic digestion process was illustrated. In 2005, Germany was among the leaders in biogas production, with 775 biogas utilization plants in operation, producing 550 MW of power. This presentation listed other leaders and highlighted some project examples of biomass conversion plants in Austria, Germany, and Alberta. The opportunities for Ontario were emphasized. Ontario has 5.6 million hectares of agricultural land. Based on the German example, the integrated use for production of food, feed and energy crops could generate 3,700 cubic metres of methane per hectare per year, enough for nearly 9,000 MW of electrical capacity. Biogas power plants with gas storage can operate as peaking plants. It was noted that energy plans should be value driven rather than cost driven, with the objective of reducing overall energy consumption, improving energy efficiency and initiating replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources such as wind, water

  10. Agro-ecological aspects when applying the remaining products from agricultural biogas processes as fertilizer in crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo Dominguez, Gabriela

    2012-06-11

    With the increase of biogas production in recent years, the amount of digestates or the remaining residues increased accordingly. Every year in Germany more than 50 million tons of digestates are produced, which are used as fertilizer. Thus nutrients return into the circulation of agricultural ecosystems. However, the agro-ecological effects have not been deeply researched until now. For this reason, the following parameters were quantified: the influence of dry and liquid fermentation products on the yield of three selected crops in comparison to or in combination with mineral-N-fertilizers in on-farm experiments; the growth, development and yield of two selected crops in comparison to mineral-N-fertilizer, liquid manure and farmyard manure in a randomized complete block design; selected soil organisms as compared to mineral-N-fertilizer, liquid manure and farmyard manure in a randomized complete block design. In addition, the mineralization of dry and wet digestates in comparison with liquid manure and farmyard manure was investigated in order to evaluate the effects of different fertilizers on the humus formation under controlled conditions. The 2-year results of on-farm experiments showed that for a sandy soil, the combination of digestates in autumn and mineral-N-fertilizer in spring for winter crops (wheat, rye and rape) brought the highest yields. The wet digestate achieved the highest dry-matter yield as the only fertilizer for maize in spring. In a clayey soil, the use of 150 kg ha{sup -1} N mineral-N-fertilizer brought the highest grain yield. These results were similar to the ones obtained by the application of dry digestates, if they were applied in two doses. Maize showed no signif-icant differences between the dry-matter yields of the different treatments. The results in the field experiments from 2009 to 2011 showed that the effect of digestates on the yield of winter wheat and Sorghum sudanense was up to 15 % lower than the effect of the mineral

  11. Ultrasound-Enhanced Biogas Production from Different Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Timmers, Rudolphus Antonius; Ruiz, Begona

    2015-01-01

    Among the biofuel production processes using different substrates, the biogas generation process is one of the simplest. Compared with bioethanol or biodiesel production processes, anaerobic digestion is a process where all the organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) can be biologically...... production. The present chapter is dedicated to providing a review of ultrasound pretreatment applied to different substrates (lignocelullosic materials, manures, sludge and microalgae). The advantages and constraints, that ultrasound pretreatment exhibit towards biogas production, are discussed and compared...

  12. Biogas in the agriculture. State of the art. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting of the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th September, 2009, in Weimar the following lectures were held: (1) Results of the actual biogas measurement II (Peter Weiland); (2) Agitators in biogas plants - Technology with central significance (Kay Rostalski); (3) How much energy is needed by a biogas fermenter? (Ludwig Heinloth); (4) The fermentation concept of Rueckert NatUrgas GmbH (Claus Rueckert, Dominique Pfeufer); (5) Experiences from the construction for the practice of the company MT-Energie GmbH (Bodo Drescher); (6) Fermenter/technology concept of Schmack Biogas AG (Thomas Moeeslinger); (7) Transport of biomass - How much does the logistics of Guelle and Co. cost? (Thore Toews); (8) Which factors determine the efficiency of biogas plants? (Gerd Reinhold); (9) Microbial diversity in biogas reactors in the fermentation of renewable raw materials (Michael Klocke et al.); (10) What do additives and ingredients contribute to the optimisation of the production of biogas? (Udo Hoelker); (11) Process optimisation - An interaction between technology and microbiology (Andreas Gronauer et al.); (12) Emissions at the production of biogas - an analysis if the environmental relevance (Joachim Clemens et al.); (13) Support systems for energy plants - Consequences to soil and environment (Matthias Willms et al.); (14) How ecological is biogas? (Sven Gaertner); (15) Biogas plant - Analysis of construction and operation from licensing view (Hans-Walter Schneichel); (16) Biogas plants - Analysis of construction and operation from contractual legal view (Florian Valentin); (17) Biogasplants - Analysis of construction and operation from remuneration legal view (Helmut Loibl); (18) Process and costs of treatment of residues of fermentation (Sebastian Wulf, Helmut Doehler); (19) How do residues of

  13. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  14. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  15. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  16. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    production - Methabe yield and energy balance (R. Bolduan); (19) Evaluation of a pre-treatment process for improved methane production from grass silage (A. Orozco); (20) Anaerobic fungi and biogas production (J. Prochazka); (21) Preservation of sugar beets for biogas production (A. Wagner); (22) Fibre, biogas and compost from banana agro-residues (leaves, pseudostem and rachis) by anaerobic digestion in plug flow type digester (H. Chanakya); (23) Extraction of biogas from waste products of he sugarcane industry (J. Rietzler); (24) Practical experiences with the digestion of straw in 2-stage AD plants - Extension of the value chain (W. Danner); (25) Improving biogas production on wastewater treatment plants by co-digestion of grass (D. Klein); (26) Generation of algal biomass for biogas production: energetic and environmental from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) perspective (F. Romagnoli); (27) Risk reduction in spreading plant pathogens by anaerobic digestion? First results from laboratory experiments (M. Heiermann); (28) Demand-oriented biogas production for the generation of peak load (R. Wallmann); (29) Investigation of mesophilic and thermophilic bioleaching method in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process (M. Schoenberg): (30) Efficient hydrogen fermentation for 2-stage anaerobic digestion processes: Conversion of sucrose containing substrates (S. Noebauer); (31) Process development of two-phase pressure formation - Influence of gas solubilities (A.-M. Wonneberger); (32) Benefits and limitations when treating liquid pig manure in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (P. Messerl); (33) Experiences with continuous high-rate thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion of energy crops (L. De Baere); (34) The Sauter-biogas-system: spraying instead of stirring (S. Sauter); (35) Biogas production from raw palm oil mill effluent using a pilot-scale anaerobic hybrid reactor (C. Wangnai); (36) Eta max - the biogas power plant with high biological efficiency (M. Niederbacher); (37) Long time

  17. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    biogas production - Methabe yield and energy balance (R. Bolduan); (19) Evaluation of a pre-treatment process for improved methane production from grass silage (A. Orozco); (20) Anaerobic fungi and biogas production (J. Prochazka); (21) Preservation of sugar beets for biogas production (A. Wagner); (22) Fibre, biogas and compost from banana agro-residues (leaves, pseudostem and rachis) by anaerobic digestion in plug flow type digester (H. Chanakya); (23) Extraction of biogas from waste products of he sugarcane industry (J. Rietzler); (24) Practical experiences with the digestion of straw in 2-stage AD plants - Extension of the value chain (W. Danner); (25) Improving biogas production on wastewater treatment plants by co-digestion of grass (D. Klein); (26) Generation of algal biomass for biogas production: energetic and environmental from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) perspective (F. Romagnoli); (27) Risk reduction in spreading plant pathogens by anaerobic digestion? First results from laboratory experiments (M. Heiermann); (28) Demand-oriented biogas production for the generation of peak load (R. Wallmann); (29) Investigation of mesophilic and thermophilic bioleaching method in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process (M. Schoenberg): (30) Efficient hydrogen fermentation for 2-stage anaerobic digestion processes: Conversion of sucrose containing substrates (S. Noebauer); (31) Process development of two-phase pressure formation - Influence of gas solubilities (A.-M. Wonneberger); (32) Benefits and limitations when treating liquid pig manure in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (P. Messerl); (33) Experiences with continuous high-rate thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion of energy crops (L. De Baere); (34) The Sauter-biogas-system: spraying instead of stirring (S. Sauter); (35) Biogas production from raw palm oil mill effluent using a pilot-scale anaerobic hybrid reactor (C. Wangnai); (36) Eta max - the biogas power plant with high biological efficiency (M. Niederbacher); (37

  18. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  19. Biogas in Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGarry, B

    1981-01-01

    The experience gained in small-scale experiments with a 600-1 horizontal plug-flow digester, made from three 200-1 drums, was used to investigate the possibility of using biogas as a diesel-fuel substitute for powering pump engines at boreholes used for cattle in the arid areas of Botswana. A 10-m/sup 3/ Chinese-type digester was used in these tests. The terms of reference of the test and details of the operational plan are included. The use of biogas toilets as efficient low-cost sanitation devices are also being promoted.

  20. Biogas: quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perch-Nielsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland with respect to the use of biogas and the potential available for its increased use. The sharp increase of biogas production in Switzerland and its use for the production of heat, electrical power and methane for the gas mains is reviewed. The large potential for additional biomass is discussed. The political will to increase the use of renewable forms of energy in Switzerland, security of supply and regional added value are discussed. The article discusses the current situation as well as trends concerning substrates, systems and products

  1. The conversion of renewable biogas source into energy; A conversao da fonte renovavel biogas em energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]|[Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.sup.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant.This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  2. Sewage biogas conversion into electricity; Conversao do biogas de tratamento de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, omartins@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention no: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant. This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  3. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  4. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  5. Experiences with biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders

    This report is primarily based on the work of the Danish biogas task force, which was established as a result of the Energy Agreement of 22 March 2012. The purpose of the task force is to examine and support concrete biogas projects in order to facilitate the projected biogas development up to 2020....... The focus of the task force was on the practical integration of the new biogas production in energy system, including the utilization of gas, the necessary infrastructure and contractual relationships. The aim was to ensure effective and appropriate integration of biogas in the Danish energy supply, which...... was consistent with the policy objectives, both in regards to current challenges for specific biogas plants and the role of biogas flexible renewable energy form on longer term. The task force's final report was published in 2014....

  6. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  7. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 o C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 ± 36 ml CH 4 /d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 ± 94 ml CH 4 /d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate (μ max ) and the saturation constant (K S ) of glycerol were 0.149 ± 0.015 h -1 and 0.276 ± 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  8. A review on optimization production and upgrading biogas through CO2 removal using various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Dian; Wresta, Arini; Atmaja, Tinton Dwi; Saepudin, Aep

    2014-02-01

    Biogas from anaerobic digestion of organic materials is a renewable energy resource that consists mainly of CH4 and CO2. Trace components that are often present in biogas are water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, siloxanes, hydrocarbons, ammonia, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Considering the biogas is a clean and renewable form of energy that could well substitute the conventional source of energy (fossil fuels), the optimization of this type of energy becomes substantial. Various optimization techniques in biogas production process had been developed, including pretreatment, biotechnological approaches, co-digestion as well as the use of serial digester. For some application, the certain purity degree of biogas is needed. The presence of CO2 and other trace components in biogas could affect engine performance adversely. Reducing CO2 content will significantly upgrade the quality of biogas and enhancing the calorific value. Upgrading is generally performed in order to meet the standards for use as vehicle fuel or for injection in the natural gas grid. Different methods for biogas upgrading are used. They differ in functioning, the necessary quality conditions of the incoming gas, and the efficiency. Biogas can be purified from CO2 using pressure swing adsorption, membrane separation, physical or chemical CO2 absorption. This paper reviews the various techniques, which could be used to optimize the biogas production as well as to upgrade the biogas quality.

  9. Recent updates on biogas production - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Sárvári Horváth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing the societies now and in the future is the reduction of green house gas emissions and thus preventing the climate change. It is therefore important to replace fossil fuels with renewable sources, such as biogas. Biogas can be produced from various organic waste streams or as a byproduct from industrial processes. Beside energy production, the degradation of organic waste through anaerobic digestion offers other advantages, such as the prevention of odor release and the decrease of pathogens. Moreover, the nutrient rich digested residues can be utilized as fertilizer for recycling the nutrients back to the fields. However, the amount of organic materials currently available for biogas production is limited and new substrates as well as new effective technologies are therefore needed to facilitate the growth of the biogas industry all over the world. Hence, major developments have been made during the last decades regarding the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass, the development of high rate systems, and the application of membrane technologies within the anaerobic digestion process in order to overcome the shortcomings encountered. The degradation of organic material requires a synchronized action of different groups of microorganisms with different metabolic capacities. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have provided the research community with a valuable tool for improved understanding of this complex microbiological system, which in turn could help optimize and control the process in an effective way in the future.

  10. generation of biogas from segregates of municipal solid wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Microbial succession during the fermentation process of biogas production was determined. ... gas containing methane (CH4), carbondioxide (CO2) and some traces of ... industries and agricultural practices (Oke at al., 2007). Governments ...

  11. Bioenergy for farms - turnip rape oil, biodiesel and biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Miia

    2006-01-01

    One research and one development project concerning production and processing technique of organic turnip rape is going on in Finland in 2006-2008. The development project concerns also biogas production from biomass.

  12. Development, Operation, and Future Prospects for Implementing Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    technology are emphasized: its capacity as a renewable energy and GHG-avoiding technology, and as a waste processing and environmental technology. It is argued that biogas can provide a future platform for the use of household waste and other types of organic materials (gas boosters) to enhance gas yield......, as is the case of biomass from nature conservation, straw, deep litter, etc. Further, the chapter discusses whether or not biogas technology can create new job opportunities in rural areas that lack development. Economic results from operating centralized biogas plants in Denmark now also stress the importance...

  13. State Equation Determination of Cow Dung Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Wicaksono, L. B.

    2017-08-01

    A state function is a thermodynamic function which relates various macroscopically measurable properties of a system (state variable) describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. A good understanding of a biogas state function plays a very important role in an effort to maximize biogas processes and to help predicting combation performance. This paper presents a step by step process of an experimental study aimed at determining the equation of state of cow dung biogas. The equation was derived from the data obtained from the experimental results of compressibility (κ) and expansivity (β) following the general form of gas state equation dV = βdT + κdP. In this equation, dV is gas volume variation, dT is temperature variation, and dP is pressure variation. From these results, we formulated a unique state equation from which the biogas critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure were then determined (Tc = 266.7 K, Pc = 5096647.5 Pa).

  14. Energetic utilization of biogas arising of sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, R.

    1995-01-01

    The biogas is the gaseous product that is obtained from the fermentation of biodegradable organic matter; this process is known as anaerobic digestion. In this exposition, the formation process of biogas is described in its three continuos phases: 1. Hydrolysis phase, 2. Phase of acid generation and the acetic acid generation and 3. Phase of methane generation. Also, the biogas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and traces) is present. Different types of anaerobic digestion as discontinuous digestion, continuo digestion, digestion with suspended biomass, digestion with adhered biomass, and digestion of two phases are shown. Finally, the process that occur in a landfill and its different phases of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, are describe from its initial stage until the biogas generation

  15. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  16. Biogas from poultry waste-production and energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Karoline Carvalho; Schneider, Roselene Maria; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m -2 were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days. The efficiency of the biodigestion process was evaluated by biogas production in relation to total solids (TS) added, as well as the potential for power generation. Quantified volumes ranged from 8.9 to 41.1 L of biogas for aviary 1, and 6.7 to 33.9 L of biogas for aviary 2, with the sixth bed reused from both aviaries registering the largest biogas potential. Average potential biogas in m 3  kg -1 of TS added were 0.022 to 0.034 for aviary 1 and 0.015 to 0.022 for aviary 2. Energy values ​​of biogas produced were calculated based on calorific value and ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kWh for chicken litter without fermentation and from 0.05 to 0.27 kWh for chicken litter with fermentation. It was concluded that the re-use of poultry litter resulted in an increase in biogas production, and the use of fermentation in the microbiological treatment of poultry litter seems to have negatively influenced production of biogas.

  17. Biogas production from pineapple core - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, O. S.; Sanusi, S. N. A.; Sukor, M. Z.; Noraini, M.; Buddin, M. M. H. S.; Hamid, K. H. K.

    2017-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pineapple waste was investigated by using pineapple core as the sole substrate. Pineapple core was chosen due to its high total sugar content thus, indicating high amount of fermentable sugar. As digestion process requires the involvement of microorganisms, wastewater from the same industry was added in the current study at ratio of 1:1 by weight. Two different sources of wastewater (Point 1 and Point 2) were used in this study to distinguish the performance of microorganism consortia in both samples. The experiment was conducted by using a lab scale batch anaerobic digester made up from 5L container with separate gas collecting system. The biogas produced was collected by using water displacement method. The experiment was conducted for 30 days and the biogas produced was collected and its volume was recorded at 3 days interval. Based on the data available, wastewater from the first point recorded higher volume of biogas with the total accumulated biogas volume is 216.1 mL. Meanwhile, wastewater sample from Point 2 produced a total of 140.5 mL of biogas, by volume. The data shows that the origin and type of microorganism undeniably play significant role in biogas production. In fact, other factors; pH of wastewater and temperature were also known to affect biogas production. The anaerobic digestion is seen as the promising and sustainable alternatives to current disposal method.

  18. The influence of sodium propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations in calves of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radojičić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gluconeogenesis in ruminants is under the direct influence of insulin and glucocorticoid hormones. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of added Na-propionate on the neuroendocrine regulation of blood glucose in calves at three specific physiological periods: on exclusive milk nutrition; on mixed milk and forage nutrition; and with established ruminant digestion. The influence of Na-propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations was examined in the same 20 female Holstein calves at different stages of forestomach development (15 days, 2 months, and 4 months of age of calves. Group 1 of calves (n = 10 received Na-propionate intravenously; group 2 (n = 10 received Na-propionate mixed in milk. Blood sampling was performed 1 and 3 h after Na-propionate administration. After i.v. administration of Na-propionate, a significant increase (P < 0.05 in blood glucose concentration was observed 1 h after administration only in calves aged 2 and 4 months; blood insulin concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01 1 and 3 h after i.v. administration in 2-month-old calves; and cortisol concentration increased (P < 0.01 1 h after administration in each selected calf in all testing periods. Orally administered Na-propionate led to a significant increase (P < 0.01 of insulin concentration 1 and 3 h after administration in 15-day-old calves, and 3 h after administration in 2-month-old calves. Based on these results it could be assumed that i.v. and p.o. administration of Na-propionate affects the neuroendocrine regulation of glycaemia in calves of different age.

  19. Energy-efficient routes for the production of gasoline from biogas and pyrolysis oil—process design and life-cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundaram, S.; Kolb, G.A.; Hessel, V.; Wang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and

  20. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  1. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  2. Analysis of the Value Chain for Biogas in Tanzania Northern Zone (Tanga, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Manyara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagabona, N.T.

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Tanzania. The research included assessment of processes and activities carried out by the players, the influencers and business supporters of the biogas value chain. The methodology used is holistic, combining literature review with focus group discussions and interviews with actors and observations of processes across the value chain in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions, where biogas has the longest history in Tanzania.

  3. Use of biogas in PEM fuel cells; Einsatz von Biogas in PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Volkhard; Schmersahl, Ralf; Ellner, Janine (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    This research project was dedicated to two problems: 1. What demands must biogas meet in order to conform to the specifications of PEM fuel cell systems and permit safe operation? 2. How must a fuel cell system be designed and operated in order to be well-adapted to the special features of biogas as opposed to natural gas? For this purpose biogas samples were taken from laboratory-scale and commercial plants and analysed by gas chromatography using various substrates and methods. By combining this with the use of a mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS system) it was possible to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulphurious trace gases in the biogas which might cause damage to the fuel cell system. Investigations were performed on an experimental reformer using either modelled or native biogas of different compositions, the intent being to obtain information for the design of the individual process stages. The two operating parameters steam-methane ratio (or S/C ratio) and reforming temperature were varied to optimise parameter settings in terms of energy efficiency. By linking the reformer to a 500 W fuel cell it was possible confirm the suitability of the reformed biogas for use in fuel cells. [German] In diesm Forschungsvorhaben werden zwei Fragestellungen bearbeitet: 1. Welche Anforderungen ergeben sich an das Biogas, um den Spezifikationen von PEM-Brennstoffzellensystemen zu genuegen und eine sicheren Betrieb zu ermoeglichen? 2. Wie muss das Brennstoffzellensystem ausgelegt und gefuehrt werden, um den Besonderheiten von Biogas im Vergleich zu Erdgas Rechnung zu tragen? Dazu wurden Biogasproben aus Labor- und Praxisanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Substrate und Verfahren gaschromatisch analysiert. Die Kopplung mit einem massenspektroskopischen Detektor (GC-MS System) ermoeglicht dabei die Qualifizierung und Quantifizierung der vorhandenen schwefelhaltigen Spurengase, die eine Schaedigung von Brennstoffzellenanlagen verursachen. Die

  4. Determination of propionate in bread using capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M.T.; Ackermans-Loonen, J.C.J.M; Beckers, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the determination of propionate in bread is described. The propionate was extracted from the bread with a repeated extraction procedure and measured using capillary zone electrophoresis in the indirect UV mode applying a background electrolyte of 0.005 M Tris adjusted at pH 4.6 by

  5. The biogas sector. Looking for renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Petitot, Pauline; Kim, Caroline; Marie, Olivier; Sredojevic, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    As the political will to develop biogas production in France is confirmed by the ambitious objectives defined in the French Investment Multi-year Programming, a set of articles on the biogas sector proposes an overview of what is going on in this sector. After some brief presentations of recent installations of biogas purification and of methanation, a first article outlines the problems and uncertainties raised by the new support system in terms of delays and visibility. A second article presents a methanation unit shared by pork breeders in Brittany to process and valorise effluents which cannot be scattered in fields any longer. The third article comments the bio-methane sector which is now living, and for the couple of years to come, its industrialisation phase, each project having its peculiarities, with emerging business models. The next article presents Methavos I, a methanation unit which injects its bio-methane into the gas network on both sides of the frontier between France and Germany. The sixth article presents the activities of Arkolia Energies which is developing a breakthrough technology with a continuous and thick methanation with optimal energy efficiency within a reduced volume. The seventh article comments the challenges, issues and solutions for longer lasting lubricants used in biogas generation engines. The last article addresses the issue of insurance for methanation installations which, like any other installation, are facing some exploitation risks and hazards

  6. MODIFIKASI KARBON AKTIF SEBAGAI ADSORBEN UNTUK PEMURNIAN BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Susanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biogas as an environmentally friendly fuel is limited by the presence of CO2 and water vapor asimpurities. Therefore, biogas purification for CO2 and water vapor removal is very important step during biogasapplication. This paper presents a process for biogas purification by means of adsorption using either modifiedor unmodified activated carbon as an adsorbent. The modification was performed by passing a pure ammoniagas into activated carbon in a quartz reactor. The results showed that the adsorption process using modifiedactivated carbon decreases CO2 content in biogas up to 67.5% whereas for unmodified activated carbon was of43%. Further, the modification increased CO2 adsorption capacity from ~28 to ~38 mg CO2/g adsorbent. Theincrease in feed temperature decreases CO2 adsorption capacity.

  7. Biogas: fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, E J

    1980-01-01

    As the energy crisis worsens, bioconversion of organic residue has become increasingly attractive in recent years. There are thousands of biogas plants in developing countries (not including China) and more programs are being launched. Because biogas is conveniently renewable, the author argues that it has a vital role to play, especially as a future source of energy for both developed and developing countries. The operation of a typical biogas plant is described.

  8. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  9. Prospects for expanded utilization of biogas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for expanded utilization of biogas systems in German was analysed, by identifying the operational and policy factors affecting the complete chain of processes from implementation process for biogas plants, through to biogas production and utilization. It was found that the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and energy tax reliefs provide bases for the support of expanded utilization. Upgrading of biogas to natural gas quality for utilization in the transportation sector was arguably the most promising technology that could support rapid utilization expansion. Sustainable deployment of biogas systems in light of the unstable feedstock prices and availability, and the need for subsidy-free operation in the long term requires; enhancement of feedstock flexibility and quality characteristics to maximise gas yield, and optimisation of the anaerobic digestion process management. Assessment of energy balance and potential environmental impacts of the integrated process chain provides a holistic assessment of sustainability. The results also support the development and foster of policies and framework for development of biogas as environmentally friendly energy resource, among a mix of renewable energy sources, hence, compete favourably with fossil fuels to enhance the prospects for expanded utilization. (author)

  10. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  11. Profile and Perceptions of Biogas as Automobile Fuel : A Study of Svensk Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anneli

    2008-01-01

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a...

  12. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  13. Rainier Biogas Manure Management and Renewable Energy Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, John [King County, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The Rainier Biogas project is a community manure processing and renewable energy generation facility. Construction was completed and operation initiated in 2012. It is owned and operated by Rainier Biogas, LLC in collaboration with local dairy farmers, Washington State University, and the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. The project receives manure from three to four partner dairy farms mostly by underground pipe. The project is located at 43218 208th Ave SE; Enumclaw, WA 98022.

  14. Operational experinece with large scale biogas production at the promest manure processing plant in Helmond, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomaker, A.H.H.M.

    1992-01-01

    In The Netherlands a surplus of 15 million tons of liquid pig manure is produced yearly on intensive pig breeding farms. The dutch government has set a three-way policy to reduce this excess of manure: 1. conversion of animal fodder into a product with less and better ingestible nutrients; 2. distribution of the surplus to regions with a shortage of animal manure; 3. processing of the remainder of the surplus in large scale processing plants. The first large scale plant for the processing of liquid pig manure was put in operation in 1988 as a demonstration plant at Promest in Helmond. The design capacity of this plant is 100,000 tons of pig manure per year. The plant was initiated by the Manure Steering Committee of the province Noord-Brabant in order to prove at short notice whether large scale manure processing might contribute to the solution of the problem of the manure surplus in The Netherlands. This steering committee is a corporation of the national and provincial government and the agricultural industrial life. (au)

  15. Responses of the biogas process to pulses of oleate in reactors treating mixtures of cattle and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    The effect of oleate on the anaerobic digestion process was investigated. Two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were fed with mixtures of cattle and pig manure with different total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) content. The reactors were subjected to increasing pulses...

  16. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  17. Biogas of sanitary fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Camacho, Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a methodology for the preliminary estimation of the energetic potential and environmental improvement derivates of the implementation of these technologies that allows to make the first estimative of biogas generation of sanitary fillers with base in the results of the simulation of three predictive model: One Mexican, other denominated Scholl-Canyon of North American origin and the designed by the EPA. The three models use different versions and constants for a differential equation of degradation of first degree

  18. Assessment of energy performance in the life-cycle of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Pal

    2006-01-01

    Energy balances are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for biogas systems based on 8 different raw materials. The analysis is based on published data and relates to Swedish conditions. The results show that the energy input into biogas systems (i.e. large-scale biogas plants) overall corresponds to 20-40% (on average approximately 30%) of the energy content in the biogas produced. The net energy output turns negative when transport distances exceed approximately 200 km (manure), or up to 700 km (slaughterhouse waste). Large variations exist in energy efficiency among the biogas systems studied. These variations depend both on the properties of the raw materials studied and on the system design and allocation methods chosen. The net energy output from biogas systems based on raw materials that have high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) is relatively low. When energy-demanding handling of the raw materials is required, the energy input increases significantly. For instance, in a ley crop-based biogas system, the ley cropping alone corresponds to approximately 40% of the energy input. Overall, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy-demanding process, corresponding to 40-80% of the energy input into the systems. Thus, the results are substantially affected by the assumptions made about the allocation of a plant's entire energy demand among raw materials, e.g. regarding biogas yield or need of additional water for dilution

  19. Suitability of banana peels for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseguer, C.M.; Silesky, F.; Chacon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Banana (Musa cavendishii) peel in the ripe state (yellow with sufficient spots) has the potential to produce by anaerobic fermentation 0.22 plus or minus 0.03 cubic m biogas/kg dry material. Inhibition of the process can be prevented if the peel is pretreated by oxidation or if the process is carried out at approximately 35 degrees. The inoculate used must be acclimated to the medium.

  20. 18{sup th} bioenergy symposium. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; 18. Symposium Bioenergie. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 18th symposium of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 19th to 20th November, 2009, in the Banz Monastery in Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Brief statement from the viewpoint of the politics (U. Holzhammer); (2) Brief statement from the viewpoint of the Federal Association BioEnergie e.V., Bonn (H. Lamp); (3) Brief statement from the viewpoint of the professional association biogas, Freising (C. da Costa Gomez); (4) Brief statement from the view of the Association of the German Biofuel Industry e.V., Berlin (E. Baumann); (5) Considerations about the condensing technology at biomass furnaces (S. Beer); (6) Dust extraction processes at small-scale heating plants (T. Birnbaum); (7) Particulate matter emissions at small-scale heating plants - Current results of research and practical experiences (H. Hartmann); (8) Energy wood from te acre - Production and utilisation of short-rotation wood in Steiermark (E. Dorner); (9) Landscape conservation materials - to pity to be left lying. (C. Letalik); (10) Requirement of the EU on sustainable biomass - The national implementation (U. Holzhammer); (11) Perspectives of the biofuel supply - Classification of the fuel options according to the technical, economic and ecologic criteria (M. Scheftelowitz); (12) Chances and limits of a sustainability classification of bio energy (E. Schmidt); (13) Balancing of the bio ethanol production with respect to the sustainability regulation (T. Senn); (14) Sweet sorghum - an alternative for the ethanol production in Germany? (J. Witzelsperger); (15) Synergies at the utilization in composting and fermentation (F. Hoegl); (16) Newest developments and potentials of alternative energy crops (A. von Felde); (17) Construction of biogas plants - It is the digestion that matters (T. Lehmann); (18) Emissions of formaldehyde from biogas engine plants (G. Ebertsch); (19

  1. PEMETAAN POTENSI BIOGAS DI KOTA METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswanto Riswanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metro City is a developing city that attracts many new citizens to come and live in the city of Metro. It affects the density and population growth in the city of Metro so it boils down to the increasing need for energy for fuel such as gas and electricity needs. UU No. 33 of 2007 the government seeks to optimize the role of PEMDA and communities and academics to be able to take advantage of the various potential that may be developed in their respective city in meeting energy needs. The survey results show the picture that the city of Metro has potential in the utilization of biogas energy. The availability of this organic material is quite common in Metro city. But the availability of the material has not been classified in number and variety. For that, we need to do research in mapping biogas potential in every area in Metro city. The research method used is the method of documentation, observation, and interview. As for data analysis techniques, conducted qualitatively and quantitatively through the findings of observations in the form of descriptions, calculation analysis, and tabulation. The results obtained show that the North Metro sub-district has the highest potential for biogas development. The most common materials are animal waste derived from cow dung as much as 84% and biogas from plants that are from rice straw (54% and Tahu/tempe processing waste (38%. Other organic ingredients found are chicken, goat, buffalo, and banana peels. This result shows that the biogas potency of Metro City is best developed that is through the use of cow dung

  2. A regional biogas infrastructure, prospects for the biogas grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    A model to describe biogas transport costs in a regional grid is presented. In the model biogas is collected to a central location by transport through dedicated pipelines. Costs have been calculated for two different lay-outs of the grid i.e. star and fishbone lay-out. The costs depend on the

  3. Modelling of Consequences of Biogas Leakage from Gasholder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trávníček

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modelling of consequences of biogas leakage from a gasholder on agricultural biogas station. Four scenarios were selected for the purpose of this work. A rupture of gasholders membrane and instantaneous explosion of gas cloud, blast of gas with delay, emptying of whole volume of gas (without initiation and initiation of gas with Jet-Fire. Leakage of gas is modelled by special software and consequences are determined on the basis of results. The first scenario was modelled with help of equations because used software does not include an appropriate model. A farm with high building density was chosen as a model case. Biogas is replaced by methane because used software does not support modelling of dispersion of mixtures. From this viewpoint, a conservative approach is applied because biogas contains “only” approximately 60% of methane (in dependence on technology and processed material.

  4. Pengembangan Produksi Biogas Dari Limbah Pembuatan Biodiesel Jarak Pagar (Jatropha Curcas Seed Cake)

    OpenAIRE

    Yufidani, Y; Jos, Bakti; Sumardiono, Siswo

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is a fermentation process using anaerobic bacteria to convert organic compounds into gas with high composition of methane. Use of jatropha curcas as a biodiesel's resources remains a problems, seed cake of jatropha curcas contains phorbol esters that is toxic. This research focused on getting an optimum yield of biogas production from jatropha curcas seed cake using additive material to reach optimum C/N ratio. Optimum C/N ratio on biogas production was range 20-30, but jatropha curcas...

  5. Biogas - the calculable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  6. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inflammable gax mixtures in biogas facilities; Entzuendbare Gasgemische in Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Volkmar; Pahl, Robert [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich 2.1 ' Gase, Gasanlagen'

    2013-09-15

    The number of the biogas facilities in Germany has strongly increased with the extension of regenerative energy. In the facilities by decomposition of organic matter inflammable biogas is obtained, which strongly fluctuates in its composition. The main components of biogas are methane and carbon dioxide, but also depending on the process-level water vapor, nitrogen,oxygen, and impurities, which may partly be toxic. In addition it is begun to work up biogas in larger facilities in order to feed it directly in the natural-gas network. In the development are currently also coupled biogas and electrolysis facilities. By means of the electrolysis of water also surpluses of electrical energy from wind and solar facilities can be processed to hydrogen (power-to-gas technology). In order to make reliable data for the explosion protection in the handling with the gas mixtures present in the facilities available, the BAM has in the last years measured explosion ranges of mixtures of methane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, air, and oxygen in accordance with the standard EN 1839 and made available as key data. By means of these data the explosion ability of the gas mixtures in biogas facilities can be reliably estimated. On this base corresponding explosion-protection actions can be taken.

  8. Utilization of Delignified Sawdust as Raw Material of Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumalla Asfarina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one alternative to replace the irreplaceable energy source that has begun to diminish its existence. The raw materials for biogas manufacture are renewable biomass, usually using plantation waste, agriculture, and livestock. Using biogas can also reduce environmental pollution. One of the agricultural waste that has great potential to become the raw material of biogas is teak sawdust. Wood processing industry in Indonesia quite a lot, but wood has a high lignosesluosa content, so it needs the right method to process it. With the delignification of lignin levels on teak sawdust will decrease. Wood sawdust is soaked using NaOH for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days with 4% w / v concentration. The lowest lignin and hemicellulose content was 25.79% and 87.9% in pretreatment for 4 days, while the highest cellulose level was 57, 34%. The accumulated volume of biogas at 1 day pretreatment, ie 709 ml / g TS. Gcms shows the enlarged peak area of methanamine, N-methyl from before pretreatment. The fastest biogas formation (λ in 4 days pretreatment, 1.60403 days and the largest constant A and U variables at 1 day were 914.5903 ml / g TS and 34.59765 ml / g TS.

  9. Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fräs Annika T; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2004-07-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in biogas originating from a biogas production plant and from a municipal sewage water treatment plant were identified. Samples were taken at various stages of the biogas-producing process, including upgrading the gas to vehicle-fuel quality. Solid-phase microextraction was used for preconcentration of the VSCs, which were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Other volatile organic compounds present also were identified. The most commonly occurring VSCs in the biogas were hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide was not always the most abundant sulfur (S) compound. Besides VSCs, oxygenated organic compounds were commonly present (e.g., ketones, alcohols, and esters). The effect of adding iron chloride to the biogas reactor on the occurrence of VSCs also was investigated. It was found that additions of 500-g/m3 substrate gave an optimal removal of VSCs. Also, the use of a prefermentation step could reduce the amount of VSCs formed in the biogas process. Moreover, in the carbon dioxide scrubber used for upgrading the gas, VSCs were removed efficiently, leaving traces (ppbv levels). The scrubber also removed other organic compounds.

  10. Guide biogas. From production to utilization. 5. compl. rev. ed.; Leitfaden Biogas. Von der Gewinnung zur Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book under consideration is a guide for biogas and consists of the following contributions: (a) Targets of the guide (M. Kaltschmitt); (b) Fundamentals of anaerobic fermentation (J. Friehe); (c) Systems engineering for supplying biogas (J. Postel); (d) Description of selected substrates (J. Friehe); (e) Operation of biogas plants (J. Liebetrau); (f) Gas processing and possibilities of utilization (M. Wetthaeuser); (g) Legal and administrative framework conditions (H. von Bredow); (g) Economy (S. Hartmann); (h) Company organisation (G. Reinhold); (i) Quality and utilization of fermentation residues (H. Doehler); (j) Implementation of a project (E. Fischer); (k) Position and significance of biogas as a renewable energy resource in Germany (M. Kaltschmitt); (l) Project examples (J. Friehe).

  11. Biogas in Austria and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    Several well-functioning biogas plants in Austria and in Switzerland are briefly described. The profitability of the combination of dairy farming and pig breeding is emphasized. The whey produced by the cheese-dairies is fed to the pigs and the pigs dung is fermented to biogas.

  12. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  13. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor using propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, M; Saunders, A M; Guisasola, A; Baeza, J A; Casas, C; Blackall, L L

    2004-01-05

    An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using propionate as the sole carbon source. The microbial community was followed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques and Candidatus 'Accumulibacter phosphatis' were quantified from the start up of the reactor until steady state. A series of SBR cycle studies was performed when 55% of the SBR biomass was Accumulibacter, a confirmed polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO) and when Candidatus 'Competibacter phosphatis', a confirmed glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO), was essentially undetectable. These experiments evaluated two different carbon sources (propionate and acetate), and in every case, two different P-release rates were detected. The highest rate took place while there was volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the mixed liquor, and after the VFA was depleted a second P-release rate was observed. This second rate was very similar to the one detected in experiments performed without added VFA.A kinetic and stoichiometric model developed as a modification of Activated Sludge Model 2 (ASM2) including glycogen economy, was fitted to the experimental profiles. The validation and calibration of this model was carried out with the cycle study experiments performed using both VFAs. The effect of pH from 6.5 to 8.0 on anaerobic P-release and VFA-uptake and aerobic P-uptake was also studied using propionate. The optimal overall working pH was around 7.5. This is the first study of the microbial community involved in EBPR developed with propionate as a sole carbon source along with detailed process performance investigations of the propionate-utilizing PAOs. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. SOFC Operation with Real Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Winiwarter, Anna; Langnickel, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is a valuable energy source and will be available in future in systems relying on renewables. It is an attractive fuel for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are able to utilize the carbon contained in the biogas and which produce electricity with high efficiency. In the current paper......, state‐of‐the‐art SOFCs were studied regarding performance and durability in relation to biogas as fuel and considering important contaminants, specifically sulfur. First, the catalytic behavior in relevant synthetic biogas mixtures was studied and the potential of dry reforming was demonstrated....... Successful long term operation of an SOFC under both, conditions of steam and dry reforming, i.e., addition of steam or CO2 to avoid carbon formation was shown. For the steam reforming case a remarkable period of 3,500 h, hereof 3,000 h in the presence of H2S was achieved. Finally, a real biogas from...

  16. The potential of biogas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acaroglu, M.; Hepbasli, A.; Kocar, G.

    2005-01-01

    Biogas technology has been known about for a long time, but in recent years the interest in it has significantly increased, especially due to the higher costs and the rapid depletion of fossil fuels as well as their environmental considerations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of biogas energy in the 15 European Union (EU) countries and in Turkey, which is seeking admission to the EU and is trying to meet EU environmental standards. Biogas energy potential of the 15 EU countries is estimated to be about 800 PJ. Besides this, Turkey's annual animal waste potential is obtained to be about 11.81 million tons with a biogas energy equivalent of 53.6 PJ. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies towards the optimum utilization of biogas energy. (author)

  17. Small Scale Regenerative Desulfurization of Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, M.J.G.; Stille, L.C.; Miedema, M.C.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2016-01-01

    The application of small scale biogas digesters to supply biogas to households in developing countries is well established. The biogas is used for different applications, amongst other cooking. Generally, no further treatment of the biogas is applied. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is present in varying

  18. Valorisation of organic wastes: little biogas plant will grow big

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; Courtel, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This set of articles first proposes a description of the operation principle of biogas production from the recovery of organic wastes from various origins to their processing to produce biogas and use this bio gas for fuel production or energy co-generation. It addresses the present situation in France where the publication of a new electricity purchase support mechanism is expected and will help reaching ambitious objectives defined in the French multi-year energy planning. The number of projects and the level of supports are indeed increasing. A third article presents an example of biogas production in a farm in Normandy, and outlines that this production is profitable. The next article evokes an Ademe's study which is to be published, which addresses returns on experience from small biogas production units (less than 75 kW), identifies that the liquid process gives a lower kWe cost than the dry process, and outlines the positive influence of new electricity purchase tariffs. An article outlines the role of cooperatives in the emergence of farm biogas production. Issues to be addressed and assessed before launching a project are evoked in an interview. An article then gives an historical overview of the development of waste-based biogas production in France since the 1970's: it was first considered only as a waste processing way, and became a mean for energy production. The types of installations and their share in heat production are indicated. The evolutions (in terms of number and of production) of farm-based installations, of centralised installation, of installations of processing domestic wastes, of industrial installations, of urban water treatment plants are indicated and commented. Finally, the Sinoe database is presented: it contains information about all biogas production installations in France

  19. Special file: biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Zebboudj, Idir; Mounissamy, Alice; Sandrin-Deforge, Armelle; Petitot, Pauline; De Santis, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    With some graphs indicating the number and types of existing and projected biogas production units, a first article outlines that the development rate is presently too low to be able to reach objectives defined for 2020. A second article comments the results of a benchmark study performed by the ADEME on the biogas sector status in European countries (a map indicates the levels of production and electricity purchase tariffs, the evolution of development conditions, and the types of financial support). In an interview, a GrDF manager in charge of strategy discusses the GrDF strategy on biomethane, the future management of gas networks, the operation of existing biomethane injection sites, future projects, the management of consumption variations, and the issue of biomethane injection tariff. An article then presents an experiment made by farmers in western France who gathered about a methanization site with a unit of injection of biomethane into the natural gas network. The assessment of another experiment (a Methanea methanization unit operated by two farmers in the Ain district) is then presented. The next article gives an overview of the various possibilities proposed by the legal framework for the contract between input providers and the methanization unit operator. Different assessment tools are then presented: Flash BMP (a fast and affordable method of measurement of the biochemical methane potential or BMP to perform feasibility studies), and a software for the precise assessment of the profitability of a methanization unit. In an interview, a member of Weltec Biopower proposes a brief overview of services and products proposed by this company which installs biogas and bio-methanization every where in the world. A last article addresses the recent evolutions and progress of certification of French digestates

  20. Realtime control of biogas reactors. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Allan K.

    2010-12-15

    In this project several online methods were connected to a biogas pilot plant designed and built by Xergi A/S (Foulum, Denmark). The pilot plant was composed of two stainless steel tanks used as substrate storage and as digester, respectively. The total volume of the reactor tank was 300 L, the working volume 200 L and the headspace volume 100 L. The process temperature in the biogas reactor was maintained at 52 {+-} 0.5 deg. C during normal operating conditions. The biogas production was measured with a flow meter and a controller was used for automatic control of temperature, effluent removal, feeding and for data logging. A NIRS (near infrared spectrometer) was connected to a recurrent loop measuring on the slurry while a {mu}-GC (micro gas chromatograph) and a MIMS (membrane inlet mass spectrometer) enabled online measurements of the gas phase composition. During the project period three monitoring campaigns were accomplished. The loading rate of the biogas reactor was increased stepwise during the periods while the process was monitored. In the first two campaigns the load was increased by increasing the mass of organic material added to the reactor each day. However, this increasing amount changed the retention time in the reactor and in order to keep the retention time constant an increasing amount of inhibitor of the microbial process was instead added in the third campaign and as such maintaining a constant organic load mass added to the reactor. The effect is similar to an increase in process load, while keeping the load of organic material and hence retention time constant. Methods have been developed for the following online technologies and each technology has been evaluated with regard to future use as a tool for biogas process monitoring: 1) {mu}-GC was able to quantitative monitor important gas phase parameters in a reliable, fast and low-maintenance way. 2) MIMS was able to quantitative monitor gas phase composition in a reliable and fast manner

  1. A case study for biogas generation from covered anaerobic ponds treating abattoir wastewater: Investigation of pond performance and potential biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Bernadette K.; Hamawand, Ihsan; Harris, Peter; Baillie, Craig; Yusaf, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report on the performance of a novel covered anaerobic pond system. • Potential biogas production was estimated using BioWin modelling software. • Ponds maintained stable operation; however, accumulation of crust was an issue. • Modelling indicated that biogas yield can be influenced by decomposition efficiency. • Configuration and operation of ponds can also impact potential biogas production. - Abstract: Covered anaerobic ponds offer significant advantages to the red meat processing industry by capturing methane rich gas as a fuel source for bioenergy while reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This paper presents the results of a novel-designed anaerobic pond system at an Australian abattoir in relation to pond performance and potential biogas production. Key findings in assessing the effectiveness of the system revealed that the covered ponds are capable of efficient wastewater decomposition and biogas production. The primary issue with the covered ponds at the abattoir was the build-up of fat/crust that prevented the accurate measurement of biogas and effective use of the cover. In the absence of field biogas data the novel application of the computer modelling software BioWin® was carried out to simulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates and subsequent biogas yield. The unique parameter used to fit field data was the fraction of the inlet COD due to a superficial crust which did not follow anaerobic digestion. Field data effluent COD removal rates were matched to simulated rates predicted by BioWin when measured influent COD was reduced to 30%. Biogas modelling results suggest significant variation in the economic benefit of biogas energy, with the quantity of biogas potentially varying tenfold (from 328 m 3 /d to 3284 m 3 /d) depending on site factors such as pond efficiency, pond configuration and operational practices

  2. Sulfate addition as an effective method to improve methane fermentation performance and propionate degradation in thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge with AnMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfate on propionate degradation and higher organic loading rate (OLR) achievement in a thermophilic AnMBR for 373days using coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the co-substrate. Without the addition of sulfate, the anaerobic system failed at an OLR of 14.6g-COD/L/d, with propionate accumulating to above 2.23g-COD/L, and recovery by an alkalinity supplement was not successful. After sulfate was added into substrates at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 200:1 to 350:1, biogas production increased proportionally with OLR increasing from 4.06 to 15.2g-COD/L/d. Propionic acid was maintained at less than 100mg-COD/L due to the effective conversion of propionic acid to methane after the sulfate supplement was added. The long-term stable performance of the AnMBR indicated that adding sulfate was beneficial for the degradation of propionate and achieving a higher OLR under the thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogas. The oldest form of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2004-01-01

    Biomass is the oldest form of renewable energy known and human kind have been making good use of it since fire was discovered. Using biomass as economically viable source of energy presents rather difficult challenge, but one that is increasingly seen as having real potential as an alternative to fossil fuels. Typical biomass sources are wood, agricultural residues, cultivated energy crops, industry and municipal organic waste and animal manure. Converting biomass to energy can be done in several ways: direct combustion, gasification, anaerobic digestion, steam reforming etc. Biogas is a product of anaerobic digestion and it consists mostly of methane (60%). For this process, the most commonly used source is animal manure, which is digested under special conditions in anaerobic digesters. Biogas can be used for electricity production, hot water needs, spatial heating, cooking, etc. (Original)

  4. Biogas production potential of sericulture waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, P

    1986-12-01

    A feasibility study was carried out in the laboratory to investigate the potentiality of silkworm larval litter alone or in combination with cattle manure as a feedstock material for biogas production. The maximum total gas output of 9556 ml over a six week batch digestion was observed in the silkworm larval litter alone treatment. However, maximum gas output of 2450 ml/g of total solids (TS) destroyed was obtained in the Cowdung biodigested along with silkworm larval litter. The percentage destruction (57.76 TS) and volatile solids (VS 79.5) were observed maximum in the silkworm larval litter alone treatment. The distribution of various physiological groups of organisms involved in this process were discussed. Experimental evidence suggests the possible utilization of silkworm larval litter for biogas production along with cattle manure. 16 references, 2 tables.

  5. Biogas - energetical and environmental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skele, A.; Upitis, A.; Kristapsons, M.; Goizevskis, O.; Ziemelis, I.

    2003-01-01

    Energy sector has been one of the most important priorities since reestablishment of independence of Latvia. The deficiency of energy resources in Latvia has created a need to assess all the possibilities to utilise all possibilities to utilise all the energy resources, including the biological ones, to motivate the trends in the development of energetic in Latvia. A huge non-utilised reserve in Latvia is methane fermentation of organic agricultural and municipal residue and sewage from food industry. The organic mass of solid and liquid waste of different origin and its energetic potential for rural region have been investigated. The work deals with an integrated system of the utilisation of agricultural waste with the anaerobic (biogas) and the thermal processes. Presently the anaerobic waste utilisation, in combination with the production of biogas and organic fertiliser, is considered as one of the energetically most efficient and environment-friendly ways of organic fertiliser utilisation (authors)

  6. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  7. Internalizing the external costs of biogas supply chains in the Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizio, P.; Leduc, S.; Chinese, D.; Kraxner, F.

    2017-01-01

    In Italy biogas support schemes are being revised to include subsidies for the production of biomethane. Energy policies should foster environmentally optimal solutions, especially because social acceptance issues often arise in the case of biogas. In this paper we use the external cost methodology to quantify the environmental impact of airborne emissions associated with biogas-based energy vectors and their corresponding fossil substitutes These are evaluated at supply chain level and incorporated in a spatially explicit optimization model. The method is applied to northern Italy to compare the potential impact of alternative policy options. It is found that, while the external costs of biogas-based pathways are always lower than corresponding fossil fuel based pathways, the differences are generally so small that policies based on internalization of external costs alone would not lead to further development of biogas-based technologies. For all utilization pathways, consideration of local externalities leads to a less favourable evaluation of biogas-based technologies, which results in external costs even higher than the substituted fossil fuel if biogas is allocated to local heating. - Highlights: • A MILP model has been developed to optimize the economic and environmental performance of the biogas supply chain. • The external costs methodology has been included in the optimization process. • The emissions of the most relevant pollutants generated along the supply chain have been included in the assessment. • Different biogas utilization pathways have been considered.

  8. Developing biogas as the hub of rural economical and energy construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renwu Zhang; Xiuwei Cheng; Zhiqiang He; Weirong Dong; Guizhen Sun

    2000-07-01

    In 1980's, in order to improve the agricultural environment and to increase rural economical, ecological and social benefits, Machangjian Village has undertaken various efforts on introduction and utilization of biogas, solar energy, ecosystems etc. and achieved good results. Until 1989, 616 family-scale biogas plants have been installed in this village. Not only is biogas used as daily fuel for farmers, but also digested effluent and residues which are beneficial to pigs, fish and plants. In addition, developing biogas has significantly improved rural sanitary conditions. On top of an underground biogas plant, a biogas and solar greenhouse was installed, in which solar energy was used to increase the temperature. A biogas lamp was used for lighting, and the carbon dioxide released was used as fertilizer for the plants in the greenhouse. In addition, since the greenhouse covered the biogas plant which maintained the plant temperature, the biogas plant could operate throughout the year. Until the end of 1989, there have been constructed 100 solar water heaters and 2 wind energy pumps in this village. Here water conserving types of agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, orchards and agricultural production processes were comprehensively developed. This promoted local agriculture and husbandry production quality and quantity and accumulated a wealth of experience for suburban type of agricultural development. (orig.)

  9. Enhancement of Esterification of Propionic Acid with Isopropyl Alcohol by Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing cost of raw materials and energy, there is an increasing inclination of chemical process industries toward new processes that result in lesser waste generation, greater efficiency, and substantial yield of the desired products. Esterification is a chemical reaction in which two reactants carboxylic acid and alcohol react to form an ester and water. This reaction is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium conversion can be altered by varying the process parameters. Pervaporation reactor can enhance the conversion by shifting the equilibrium of reversible esterification reactions. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyether sulfone composite hydrophilic membrane was used for pervaporation-assisted esterification of propionic acid with isopropyl alcohol. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst at 50°C to 80°C with various reactants ratios. The esterification was carried out for catalyst loadings of 0.089 kmol/m3 to 0.447 kmol/m3. The molar ratios of isopropyl to propionic acid used for the experiment were 1 to 1.5. Maximum conversion was obtained for the ratio of 1.4. Also effect of other parameters such as process temperature and catalyst concentration was discussed. It was found that the use of pervaporation reactor increased the conversion of the propionic acid considerably.

  10. Upgrading biogas by a low-temperature CO2 removal techni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.I. Yousef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, a renewable energy source, is primarily composed of methane and carbon dioxide and other gaseous species. Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as vehicle fuel or injected into the natural gas grid. Therefore, the present work aimed to propose a low-temperature CO2 removal process as an alternative to the conventional biogas upgrading technologies (water scrubbing, chemical and physical scrubbing, membranes and Pressure swing adsorption. A typical model biogas mixture of 60 mol.% CH4 and 40 mol.% CO2 is considered. The present process showed that a product purity of 94.5 mol.% CH4 is obtained from compressed biogas by combining distillation, flash separation, auxiliary refrigeration and internal heat recovery with a potential specific energy consumption of 0.26 kW h/Nm3 raw biogas. The process has been simulated in Aspen HYSYS with avoiding the occurrence of CO2 freeze-out. The process delivers the captured CO2 in liquid form with a purity of 99.7 mol.% as a by-product for transport at 110 bar. It is concluded that the proposed upgrading process can serve as a new environmentally friendly approach to CO2 removal with an interesting energy-efficient alternative to the conventional upgrading techniques.

  11. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  12. Biogas recovery from waste organic materials: a comparative experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschkov, V.; Angelov, I.; Petrova, P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Biogas production from organic waste is already traditional method for treatment of agricultural waste with simultaneous energy recovery in the form of biogas. However, biogas can also be produced efficiently treating organic waste from beverage industries and biodiesel production. In the latter case, huge amounts of crude glycerol are released posing severe problems with their treatment. The main obstacle to the efficient waste treatment by anaerobic digestion is the sensitivity of the methanogenic bacteria toward pH variations. When the digester is overloaded, high concentrations of organic acids are produced damping the activity of methanogenes. This problem can be overcome by separating the digester into different compartments, enabling the development of the consecutive processes of hydrolysis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis in different spaces.; In the present study results of biogas production from poultry litter, stillage from ethanol production, and crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing are presented. The experiments were carried out in a continuous baffled anaerobic reactor. It was established that the process with glycerol utilization was too sensitive toward the loading because of intensive acid formation as intermediates. The process with stillage as substrate was stable and well steered for months with very high biogas yield (350 I/kg COD) at high production rate, i.e. up to 4 wd ' . The microbial profiles, the pH values and the intermediate concentrations along the reactor were determined and correlated with the biogas yield. Different microbial strains and profiles for the different substrates were observed. In the case of glycerol digestion, almost one bacterial genus, i.e. Klebsiella sp., was detected besides the methanogenes, which enables to make speculations about the pathway of competitive intermediate, biogas, and final products formation

  13. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  14. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  15. Fundamental Insights into Propionate Oxidation in Microbial Electrolysis Cells Using a Combination of Electrochemical, Molecular biology and Electron Balance Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater and energy is pushing towards the development of alternative technologies that are sustainable. One of the realistic solutions to address this is utilization of the renewable resources like wastewater. Conventional wastewater treatment processes can be highly energy demanding and can fails to recover the full potential of useful resources such as energy in the wastewater. As a consequence, there is an urgent necessity for sustainable wastewater treatment technologies that could harness such resources present in wastewaters. Advanced treatment process based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) have a great potential for the resources recovery through a sustainable wastewater treatment process. METs rely on the abilities of microorganisms that are capable of transferring electrons extracellularly by oxidizing the organic matter in the wastewater and producing electrical current for electricity generation (MFC) or H2 and CH4 production (MEC). Propionate is an important volatile fatty acid (VFA) (24-70%) in some wastewaters and accumulation of this VFA can cause a process failure in a conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) system. To address this issue, MECs were explored as a novel, alternative wastewater treatment technology, with a focus on a better understanding of propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs. Having such knowledge could help in the development of more robust and efficient wastewater treatment systems to recover energy and produce high quality effluents. Several studies were conducted to: 1) determine the paths of electron flow in the anode of propionate fed MECs low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations; 2) examine the effect of different set anode potentials on the electrochemical performance, propionate degradation, electron fluxes, and microbial community structure in MECs fed propionate; and 3) examine the temporal

  16. Biogas production and biogas as vehicle fuel - Swedish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, A E [VBB Viak AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    In Sweden there are totally about 220 biogas plants in operation. The major part of these plants (134) are represented by sewage sludge treatment facilities at waste water treatment plants. At 60 sites the biogas is generated from landfills or cell digesters at landfills. In 1996, the amount produced had a total energy content of about 1,35 TWh (or 4 900 PJ). (EG)

  17. Anaerobic Digestion of Saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass for Biogas Production and Pretreatment of Particleboard Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop an integrated process to produce biogas and high-quality particleboard using saline creeping wild ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides through anaerobic digestion (AD). Besides producing biogas, AD also serves as a pretreatment method to remove the wax la...

  18. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing...

  19. A New and Sound Technology for Biogas from Solid Waste and Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.; Grossmann, J.; Sieber, M.; Burkhardt, M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic waste, as a main constituent of municipal solid waste, has as well as solid biomass a high potential for biogas generation. Despite the importance of biogas generation from these materials, the availability of large-scale biogas processes lacks behind the demand. A newly developed double-stage solid-liquid biogas process, consisting of an open hydrolysis stage and a fixed-bed methane reactor, allows the biogas production from almost all biodegradable solid waste and renewable resources like maize, grass, sugar cane, etc. Furthermore, residues from industrial processes, like the glycerine waste water from biodiesel production, can also be converted into biogas successfully. Due to the strong separation of hydrolysis and methanation, the process is extremely stable. No malfunction has been detected so far. The open hydrolysis releases CO 2 and allows oxidation of sulfur. Consequently, the biogas has a high methane (>72%) and low H 2 S concentration (<100 ppm). Stirrers or other agitation equipment are not necessary; only liquids are pumped. The biogas generation becomes controllable for the first time; thus, the actual generation can be easily adapted to the consumption

  20. Dutch gas distribution grid goes green: decision support tool for local biogas utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidenaar, Teade; Hoekstra, Sipke; Wolters, Mannes

    2011-01-01

    A Decision Support Tool (DST) has been developed that will aid Distribution Service Operators (DSOs) in their decision making process on which investments to make in the gas distribution grid in order to facilitate the use of biogas. The DST considers both the conversion of biogas to electricity as

  1. Effects of varying composition of biogas on performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Saket; Das, L.M.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different compositions of biogas have been studied in dual fuel mode using exergy analysis. • Diesel substitution by biogas decreases with higher CO_2 fractions in biogas. • Exergy efficiency decreases with higher CO_2 fractions in biogas. • With low CO_2 fractions in biogas equitable performance can be obtained in dual fuel mode. • Engine modifications are needed to utilize high CO_2 containing biogas. - Abstract: Growing energy demands and environmental degradation with uncontrolled exploitation of fossil fuels have compelled the world to look for the alternatives. In this context, biogas is a promising candidate, which can easily be utilized in IC engines for vehicular as well as decentralized power generation applications. Primary constituents of raw biogas are methane (CH_4) that defines its heating value, and carbon dioxide (CO_2) that acts like a diluent. This dilution effect reduces the flame speed and heating value of biogas, eventually deteriorating the engine performances. Present article focuses on experimental evaluation and quantification of these variations of the engine performance. Three compositions of biogas: BG93, BG84 and BG75 (containing 93%, 84% and 75% of CH_4 by volume respectively) were studied on a small CI engine in dual fuel mode. Moreover, to evaluate individual process inefficiencies, exergy analysis based on second-law of thermodynamics is implemented. Exergy balances for different compositions of biogas are presented. Biogas dual fuel operation showed 80–90% diesel substitution at lower engine loads. At higher loads, total irreversibility of the engine was increased from 59.56% for diesel operation to 61.44%, 64.18% and 64.64% for BG93, BG84 and BG75 biogas compositions respectively. Furthermore, combustion irreversibility was found to be decreasing with higher CO_2 concentrations in biogas. BG93 showed comparable results to that of diesel operation with 26.9% and 27.4% second-law efficiencies respectively.

  2. Enhancement and Optimization Mechanisms of Biogas Production for Rural Household Energy in Developing Countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is common but vital process used for biogas and fertilizer production as well as one method for waste treatment. The process is currently used in developing countries primarily for biogas production in the household level of rural people. The aim of this review is to indicate possible ways of including rural households who own less than four heads of cattle for the biogas programs in developing countries. The review provides different research out puts on using biogas substrates other than cow dung or its mix through different enhancement and optimization mechanisms. Many biodegradable materials have been studied for alternative methane production. Therefore, these substrates could be used for production by addressing the optimum conditions for each factor and each processes for enhanced and optimized biogas production.

  3. Application of a qualitative image analysis on the evaluation of microbial process parameters of biogas plants; Einsatz einer quantitativen Bildanalyse zur Beurteilung mikrobieller Prozessparameter von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Scherer, Paul [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Hamburg-Bergedorf (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate efficiency and microbial activity of biogas or anaerobic waste water treatment plants, the number of microorganisms per gram or per milliliter is supposed to be a crucial factor. Since some years ago our research group at HAW-Hamburg has struggled to develop a simple and rapid technique for quantification and classification of environmental microbes with a semi-automatic digital image analysis. For detection of methanogens, the methanogenic fluorescence coenzyme F420 was used, which represents the vitality of methanogens. Furthermore this technique has been supplemented with morphological classification resulting in a Quantitative Microscopic Fingerprinting (QMF). The technique facilitates to find out microbial reasons for some problems of reactor performances. In addition QMF allows differentiating between H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} and acetate consuming methanogens according to their morphology. At the moment, this study focusses on some relationships between QMF and plant operation parameters. As an example, a thermophilic biogas plant fed by 65% liquid cow manure, maize silage, grass silage and solid cow manure was analyzed for more than 22 weeks. Here some basic background and methodical procedures were presented as well as validation of this technique. (orig.)

  4. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO 2 .

  5. Reactor performances and microbial communities of biogas reactors: effects of inoculum sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng; Liu, Yafeng; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process that is mediated by various microorganisms, and the understanding of the microbial community assembly and its corresponding function is critical in order to better control the anaerobic process. The present study investigated the effect of different inocula on the microbial community assembly in biogas reactors treating cellulose with various inocula, and three parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were also operated in order to reveal the reproducibility of both microbial communities and functions of the biogas reactors. The results showed that the biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and pH were different for the biogas reactors with different inocula, and different steady-state microbial community patterns were also obtained in different biogas reactors as reflected by Bray-Curtis similarity matrices and taxonomic classification. It indicated that inoculum played an important role in shaping the microbial communities of biogas reactor in the present study, and the microbial community assembly in biogas reactor did not follow the niche-based ecology theory. Furthermore, it was found that the microbial communities and reactor performances of parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were different, which could be explained by the neutral-based ecology theory and stochastic factors should played important roles in the microbial community assembly in the biogas reactors. The Bray-Curtis similarity matrices analysis suggested that inoculum affected more on the microbial community assembly compared to stochastic factors, since the samples with different inocula had lower similarity (10-20 %) compared to the samples from the parallel biogas reactors (30 %).

  6. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  7. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    -substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare......Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  8. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  9. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  10. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  11. Proposal for an multi-sectoral biogas strategy. Final report; Foerslag till en sektorsoevergripande biogasstrategi. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    benefit when used in heavy traffic in urban areas. It is particularly suitable for bus fleets in inner city traffic, which has an even and high demand for fuel and where the alternative is diesel and where health effects of particulate matter reduction is greatest. - The volumes of biogas in the near future are too small to justify large-scale investments in gas pipelines and distribution systems. - The collection of household waste should be developed to strengthen biogas development. In municipalities where food waste collected for composting there are reasons to switch to anaerobic digestion. - The goal of 35% biological treatment of waste has been important for that municipalities should prioritize digestion to incineration. - It is important that knowledge about different digestion processes, optimization of digestate processes and nutrient value of digestates are developed and brought out to biogas producers, farmers and others

  12. Research of Biogas Purification Using Microalgae Monoraphidium Griffithii Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Bingelytė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using biogas instead of fossil fuels decreases pollutants such as solid particles, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides concentrations in the environment. Green energy and development of relevant infrastructure improves air quality considerably. Chemical, physical, biological methods are used for biogas purification. The main difficulties using biological methods are selection of suitable microorganisms’ suspensions and making optimal conditions in photobioreactor. Different origin and structure microalgae suspensions are used applying biological treatment methods. Monoraphidium griffithi, which is widespread in fresh water, has relatively high potential. Microalgae’ cultures absorb the main components of biogas – carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen sulphide (H2S. Absorbtion processes are based on photosynthesis. Microalgae absorb specific components of biogas when there are suitable light source and nutrient solvent. The main purposes of the research are to asses emission of biogas using different substrates (chicken manure and wastewater sludge. Also, it was measured main physical and chemical characteristics of both substrates: acidicy, temperature, redox potential, conductivity, biohemical oxygen demand. According results of the research, emission from wastewater sludge is greater than from chicken manure so sludge was chosen in teh next stage of the research. The next stage – asssessment of purification efficienty using Monoraphidium grifftihii suspension. Raw biogas was supplied to photobioreacor (with microalgae suspension. Alterations of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen sulphide concentrations were measured precisely. According to results concentration of methane in the beginning of the researc was 62%, after 35 days – 69%. Meanwhile carbon dioxide – 37% and 31% by analogy. Experimental research alows to assess Monoraphidium griffithi absorption capacity of ballast components. Results were compared to different scientists

  13. Experimental and economical evaluation of a novel biogas digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Aslanzadeh, Solmaz; Johansson, Fredrik; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Textile biogas digester was tested with synthetic nutrients and MSW. • Economical evaluation was made with replacement of LPG and kerosene. • The investment is positive until the price of fuel goes down. • Sensitivity analysis was performed to check the stability of the digester. - Abstract: Many developing countries face an energy demand to satisfy the daily needs of the people. Household biogas digesters are among the interesting solutions to meet the energy demands for cooking and lighting, and at the same time taking care of the kitchen wastes. In this study, a novel textile-based biogas digester was developed. The digester was evaluated for biogas production from a synthetic nutrient and an organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) as substrates for more than a year. The obtained biogas productivity in both experiments was 570 L/kgVS/day, which indicates that the digester is as efficient in handling of OFMSW as the synthetic nutrients. Based on the obtained biogas production data, the techno-economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis for the process were performed, replacing LPG and kerosene consumption with biogas in households. A 2-m 3 digester can supply the fuel needed for cooking for a family of 4–6 people. The sum of investment and 15-years operational costs of this digester was 656 USD, which can be compared with 1455 USD for subsidized-LPG and 975 USD for kerosene, respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis show that it was a positive investment, unless the price of kerosene goes down to less than 0.18 USD/L

  14. Biogas production from cattle manure by anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuen, S.C.; Tinia Idaty Mohd Ghazi; Rozita Omar; Azni Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In order to deal with the energy shortage problem, we are searching for more alternative energy resources especially renewable or sustainable. Biogas is one of the solutions in dealing with the energy shortage problem. Biogas is a type of energy resources derives from organic matter during the process called anaerobic digestion. The biogas produced is mainly consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. In this research, diluted cattle manure (1:1 ration with water) was inoculated with palm oil mill (POME) activated sludge at the ratio of 1:5 and placed in a 10 liter bioreactor. The temperature and pH in the bioreactor was regulated at 6.95 and 53 degree Celsius, respectively to enhance the anaerobic digestion process. Parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total solid, volatile solid, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), methane (CH 4 ) and the volume of biogas generated was monitored for effectiveness of the treatment of cattle manure via anaerobic digestion. The total volume of biogas produced in this study is 80.25 liter in 29 days while being able to treat the COD content up to 52 %. (author)

  15. Assessment of application of selected waste for production of biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlita-Posmyk, Monika; Wzorek, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the idea of biogas production has become a popular topic in Poland. Biogas is a valuable source of renewable energy with a potential application in electricity and heat production. Numerous types of technological solutions of biogas production are closely linked to the availability of substrates in the area, as well as their quantity and their properties. The paper presents the assessment of application in biogas production selected wastes such as communal and household sewage sludge and waste from a paper production in Opole region (Poland). The annual productions of methane, biogas and electricity were estimated. Chosen physico-chemical properties important in fermentation process were taken into consideration in the assessment. The highest value of potential energy was obtained using waste from the paper industry but the most appropriate parameters for this process has sewage sludge from the municipal sewage treatment plant. The use of sewage sludge from domestic and municipal sewage and waste from the paper industry creates the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste materials.

  16. Impact of temperature and substrate concentration on degradation rates of acetate, propionate and hydrogen and their links to microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Westerholm, Maria; Qiao, Wei; Yin, Dongmin; Bi, Shaojie; Jiang, Mengmeng; Dong, Renjie

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the conversion of acetate, propionate and hydrogen consumption linked to the microbial community structure and related to temperature and substrate concentration. Biogas reactors were continuously fed with coffee powder (20 g-COD/L) or acetate (20, 40, and 60 g-COD/L) and operated for 193 days at 37 °C or 55 °C conditions. Starting HRT was 23 days which was then reduced to 7 days. The kinetics of acetate and propionate degradation and hydrogen consumption rates were measured in batch assays. At HRT 7 days, the degradation rate of propionate was higher in thermophilic batches, while acetate degradation rate was higher at mesophilic conditions. The gaseous hydrogen consumption in acetate reactors increased proportionally with temperature and substrate concentration, while the dissolved hydrogen was not affected. The relative high abundance of hydrogentrophic methanogens indicated that the methanogenesis was directed towards the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway at high acetate concentration and high temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The flame characteristics of the biogas has produced through the digester method with various starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut, Caturwati Ni; Agung, Sudrajat; Mekro, Permana; Heri, Haryanto; Bachtiar

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the volume of waste, especially in urban areas is a source of problems in realizing the comfort and health of the environment. It needs to do a good handling of garbage so as to provide benefits for the whole community. Organic waste processing through bio-digester method to produce a biogas as an energy source is an effort. This research was conducted to test the characteristics of biogas flame generated from organic waste processing through digester with various of the starter such as: cow dung, goat manure, and leachate that obtained from the landfill at Bagendung-Cilegon. The flame height and maximum temperature of the flame are measured for the same pressure of biogas. The measurements showed the flame produced by bio-digester with leachate starter has the lowest flame height compared to the other types of biogas, and the highest flame height is given by biogas from digester with cow dung as a starter. The maximum flame temperature of biogas produced by leachate as a starter reaches 1027 °C. This value is 7% lower than the maximum flame temperature of biogas produced by cow dung as a starter. Cow dung was observed to be the best starter compared to goat manure and leachate, but the use of leachate as a starter in producing biogas with biodigester method is not the best but it worked.

  18. Awakening sleeping beauty: production of propionic acid in Escherichia coli through the sbm operon requires the activity of a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo Axayacatl; McCubbin, Tim; Wille, Annalena; Plan, Manuel; Nielsen, Lars Keld; Marcellin, Esteban

    2017-07-17

    Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging. It has been suggested that activation of the sleeping beauty operon in Escherichia coli is sufficient to achieve propionic acid production. Optimising E. coli production should be much easier than engineering propionibacteria if tolerance issues can be addressed. Propionic acid is produced in E. coli via the sleeping beauty mutase operon under anaerobic conditions in rich medium via amino acid degradation. We observed that the sbm operon enhances amino acids degradation to propionic acid and allows E. coli to degrade isoleucine. However, we show here that the operon lacks an epimerase reaction that enables propionic acid production in minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source. Production from glucose can be restored by engineering the system with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase from Propionibacterium acidipropionici (0.23 ± 0.02 mM). 1-Propanol production was also detected from the promiscuous activity of the native alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). We also show that aerobic conditions are favourable for propionic acid production. Finally, we increase titre 65 times using a combination of promoter engineering and process optimisation. The native sbm operon encodes an incomplete pathway. Production of propionic acid from glucose as sole carbon source is possible when the pathway is complemented with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Although propionic acid via the restored succinate dissimilation pathway is considered a fermentative process, the engineered pathway

  19. CO2 separation from biogas with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassauer, Burkhardt; Richter, Hannes; Schwarz, Bjoern; Reger-Wagner, Norman; Kaemnitz, Susanne; Lubenau, Udo; Mothes, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Biogas contains after the production of up to 55% CO 2 . In order to use biogas as a fuel or to feed it into the natural gas network, it must be purified before. Adsorption and scrubbing processes are primarily used technically. Membrane processes offer the advantage of continuous operation and a simple modular and flexible system design, which imply relatively low investment costs and low energy needs. Moreover, membrane systems can be started up and shut down quickly without any problems. Ceramic membranes are characterised by high stability (thermal, chemical, mechanical) and very high flows in comparison to polymeric membranes. [de

  20. Logistics around the biogas plant; Logistik rund um die Biogasanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Michaela; Brunotte, Joachim; Demmel, Markus [and others

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, plants for biogas plants were grown on an area of 800,000 hectares in Germany. In addition to the classic single-phase harvesting method, several process variants have been developed. This is also true for the output of fermentation residues from biogas plants. The book under consideration provides background information on the process evaluation: from the legal framework conditions through the vehicle technology, route structure, soil conservation, social acceptance, quality assurance, labor economics and economics, climate impact up to the information technology.

  1. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  2. Precipitation of fluticasone propionate microparticles using supercritical antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vatanara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The ability of supercritical fluids (SCFs, such as carbon dioxide, to dissolve and expand or extract organic solvents and as result lower their solvation power, makes it possible the use of SCFs for the precipitation of solids from organic solutions. The process could be the injection of a solution of the substrate in an organic solvent into a vessel which is swept by a supercritical fluid. The aim of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of supercritical processing to prepare different particulate forms of fluticasone propionate (FP, and to evaluate the influence of different liquid solvents and precipitation temperatures on the morphology, size and crystal habit of particles. Method: The solution of FP in organic solvents, was precipitated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 at two pressure and temperature levels. Effects of process parameters on the physicochemical characteristics of harvested microparticles were evaluated. Results: Particle formation was observed only at the lower selected pressure, whilst at the higher pressure, no precipitation of particles was occurred due to dissolution of FP in supercritical antisolvent. The micrographs of the produced particles showed different morphologies for FP obtained from different conditions. The results of thermal analysis of the resulted particles showed that changes in the processing conditions didn't influence thermal behavior of the precipitated particles. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the size distribution of particles showed that increase in the temperature from 40 oC to 50 oC, resulted in reduction of the mean particle size from about 30 µm to about 12 μm. ‍Conclusion: From the results of this study it may be concluded that, processing of FP by supercritical antisolvent could be an approach for production of diverse forms of the drug and drastic changes in the physical characteristics of microparticles could be achieved by changing the

  3. Hybrid biogas upgrading in a two-stage thermophilic reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Viola; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a hybrid biogas upgrading configuration composed of two-stage thermophilic reactors. Hydrogen is directly injected in the first stage reactor. The output gas from the first reactor (in-situ biogas upgrade) is subsequently transferred to a second upflow reactor...... (ex-situ upgrade), in which enriched hydrogenotrophic culture is responsible for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methane. The overall objective of the work was to perform an initial methane enrichment in the in-situ reactor, avoiding deterioration of the process due to elevated pH levels......, and subsequently, to complete the biogas upgrading process in the ex-situ chamber. The methane content in the first stage reactor reached on average 87% and the corresponding value in the second stage was 91%, with a maximum of 95%. A remarkable accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed in the first...

  4. PURIFICATION AND ENRICHMENT OF BIOGAS IN ASH-WATER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brudniak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, produced in an aerobic digestion process, is a mixture of gases, and that is why its inexpensive and effective valorisation is essential. Research on this process is necessary in order to use biogas as a renewable energy source. The aim of this thesis is to present methods of biogas purification and enrichment in the fly ash - water mixture, that is generated on the base of fly ash produced during burning coal in power industry. Experience presented that the fly ash absorbs CO2 and H2S, even in conventional conditions. The absorption efficiency depends not only on the chemical composition of the ash but also on its physical properties. There was also a strong neutralization of alkaline waste combustion.

  5. Fundamental Insights into Propionate Oxidation in Microbial Electrolysis Cells Using a Combination of Electrochemical, Molecular biology and Electron Balance Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-01-01

    for electricity generation (MFC) or H2 and CH4 production (MEC). Propionate is an important volatile fatty acid (VFA) (24-70%) in some wastewaters and accumulation of this VFA can cause a process failure in a conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) system

  6. An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L with an average recovery rate of 0.18 g-N/L(CSTR...... performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. In continuous reactor operation, 112% extra biogas production was achieved due to ammonia recovery. High-throughput molecular sequencing analysis showed an impact...... of ammonia recovery on the microbial community composition in the integrated system. Results clearly indicate the great potential of the SMRC-CSTR-coupled system for efficient and cost-effective ammonia recovery, energy production and treatment of ammonia-rich residues....

  7. Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies was evaluated. The input data were derived from assessment of existing biogas systems, present knowledge on anaerobic digestion process management and technologies for biogas system operating conditions in Germany. The energy balance was evaluated as Primary Energy Input to Output (PEIO) ratio, to assess the process energy efficiency, hence, the potential sustainability. Results indicate that the PEIO correspond to 10.5-64.0% and 34.1-55.0% for single feedstock digestion and feedstock co-digestion, respectively. Energy balance was assessed to be negative for feedstock transportation distances in excess of 22 km and 425 km for cattle manure and for Municipal Solid Waste, respectively, which defines the operational limits for respective feedstock transportation. Energy input was highly influenced by the characteristics of feedstock used. For example, agricultural waste, in most part, did not require pre-treatment. Energy crop feedstock required the respect cultivation energy inputs, and processing of industrial waste streams included energy-demanding pre-treatment processes to meet stipulated hygiene standards. Energy balance depended on biogas yield, the utilization efficiency, and energy value of intended fossil fuel substitution. For example, obtained results suggests that, whereas the upgrading of biogas to biomethane for injection into natural gas network potentially increased the primary energy input for biogas utilization by up to 100%; the energy efficiency of the biogas system improved by up to 65% when natural gas was substituted instead of electricity. It was also found that, system energy efficiency could be further enhanced by 5.1-6.1% through recovery of residual biogas from enclosed digestate storage units. Overall, this study provides bases for more detailed assessment

  8. Biogas production from Eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant; Producao de biogas a partir da planta aquatica Eichhornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Silva, Jose Goncalves da; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Virtually all plants and waste plants and animals may in some way be used as an energy source. The anaerobic digestion of these materials is an option, resulting in the biogas. Besides the gas obtained in the process, is produced, inside the biodigester, an excellent fertilizer. The aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes is found in large quantities in various water bodies, such as reservoirs, lakes and ponds, becoming mostly often a big problem and it is necessary its systematic removal of water. The bench biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced, and a reservoir to monitor the production of biogas. The reactor is located within a receptacle containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the purpose of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor made in a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity, show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. The process of biodigestion of aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes shows potential to obtain biogas, with considerable levels of methane in order to make its exploitation. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humid, total organic matter, mineral and organic carbon residue.

  9. Biodigestion of the aquatics plants mixtures and biogas production; Biodigestao de misturas de plantas aquaticas e producao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Abreu, Fernando Luiz Barbuda de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Several systems of generating electricity using water storage reservoirs. One problem that occurs constantly in these reservoirs is the accumulation of aquatic plants, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia that may cause serious problems for the system. Periodically, the biomass must be removed and disposed of appropriate form, so that does not cause contamination of soil, groundwater or allowing the proliferation of vectors. One possible destination is the use of biomass in a process of biodigestion, resulting in biogas. The bench of biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced and a reservoir for the monitoring the production of biogas. The reactor is located inside a container containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the aim of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor was obtained using a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity. These results show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humidity, total organic matter, waste mineral and organic carbon. The process of biodigestion of the mixture of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea and Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia shows potential for obtaining biogas, with considerable levels of methane, in order to facilitate its recovery.

  10. Biogas plants in the Swiss agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A

    1985-01-01

    Description of the systems of Swiss biogas plants, gas production rates and the use of the gas for heating the biogas digesters and apartments, for agriculture, cheese factories, and for the production of electricity.

  11. Biogas Koczala. Biogas project in Koczala. Feasibility study. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The present production of district heating in Koczala is based on coal. The district heating system is worn out technically and economically and according to the 2001 Energy Plan of Koczala the district heating plant shall be converted to a combination of a biogas fired CHP and a wood chip boiler. The overall objective of this project is to access the feasibility and viability construction an operation of a biogas plant owned by the co-operative agricultural company, Poldanor S.A. The feasibility study includes: 1) Availability of organic waste in the Koczala area, 2) Possibilities of using energy crops in the biogas plant, 3) Possibilities of receiving grants from the Polish National Fund for Environmental Protection, the new EU regional funds and through the joint implementation market (CO 2 quotas), 4) Alternative locations of the biogas plant and the CHP unit, 5) Alternative strategies for selling electricity and heat, 6) Organisational issues (ownership). This report concludes that implementing the biogas project is environmentally and financially feasible and viable. If organic waste and/or maize silage can be provided and gasified without problems, the plant can supply as well the Koczala farm as the fodder mill with steam and heat, and also supply Koczala district heating system with approx. 75% of yearly heat consumption. Furthermore, electricity is supplied to the fodder mill and the public grid. (BA)

  12. Barriers to the development of the biogas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, N.

    2009-01-01

    Barriers to the development of Canada's biogas industry were explored with the aim of resolving conflicting regulatory issues related to biogas. Four biogas farm systems are currently operating in Ontario, and funding for a further 20 systems is available. However, most projects have been blocked before construction, and other projects continue to be delayed by grid connection and power purchase issues. Planning permission, zoning, environmental regulations, and property taxation issues are also currently challenging the development of the industry. The use of off-farm waste for the plants has also caused planning problems and delays. Land used to transform or manufacture electricity will soon be included in the industrial tax class. The installation of generation capacity may also alter property values. The use of fats, oils, and greases also requires complicated monitoring and processing procedures. Obtaining certificates for waste handling is difficult and time-consuming. Biogas plants also face significant transmission constraints. Prospective generators are required to determine if their local sub-stations have spare capacity. Generators are also required to pay for all the costs associated with their connection to the grid. Connection to Hydro One is more expensive than connections to other distribution companies in Canada, and there are no existing connection standards. Biogas system operators also face difficulties with rural connections. The cost of anti-islanding protection is high. It was concluded that grid access is the key to renewable energy development in Ontario. tabs., figs

  13. Electricity production from biogas in Serbia: Assessment of emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Slobodan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas represents a promising source for the production of clean energy. The objective of this paper was to quantify the potential for the reduction of emissions to the environment during the production of electricity from biogas in comparison with environmental effects of the production of the same amount of electricity from fossil resources (coal from Kolubara basin and natural gas. Basis for comparison of environmental impacts in this work was the annual production of electricity in biogas plants of the total capacity of 80 MW. This study has shown that the annual production of electricity from biogas power plants of 80 MW results in: substitution of up to 840 kt of coal from Kolubara basin and 123.2 million m3 of natural gas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range of 491.16 kt - 604.97 kt CO2-eq, depending on the energy efficiency of the process of electricity production from biogas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases up to 92.37 kt CO2-eq compared to the use of natural gas for electricity generation.

  14. A new highly productive Propionibacterium acidipropionici FL-48 strain with increased resistance to propionic acid and the scaling up of its production for industrial bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartashov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid bacteria, including Propionibacterium acidipropionici, are widely used in the chemical industry to produce propionic acid and also for food and feed preservation. However, the efficiency of the industrial production of these bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to high concentrations of propionic acid excreted into the cultivation medium. Therefore, the development of new biotechnological processes and strains able to overcome this limitation and to improve the profitability of the microbiological production remains  a relevant problem. A new P. acidipropionici FL-48 strain characterized by an increased resistance to 10 g/L of propionic acid (the number of viable cells after 24-h cultivation reached 1.05 × 106 was developed by a two-step induced mutagenesis using UV and diethyl sulphate from the P. acidipropionici VKPM B-5723 strain. The mutant strain exceeded the parental strain in the biomass accumulation rate and the amount of produced propionic and acetic acids by 35%, 20%, and 16%, respectively. The stability of such important characteristics as the biomass accumulation rate and the viability on media containing heightened concentrations of propionic acid was confirmed by three sequential monoclonal subculturings on a medium supplemented with 10 g/L of propionic acid. The optimization of the cultivation technology made it possible to determine the optimum seed inoculum dose (10% of the fermentation medium volume and the best pH level for the active growth stage (6.1 ± 0.1. The scaling up of the fermentation to a 100-L bioreactor under observance of optimum cultivation conditions demonstrated a high biomass growth rate with a sufficient reproducability; after 20 h of fermentation, the number of viable cells in the culture broth exceeded 1 × 1010 CFU/mL. The new strain could be interesting as the component of silage and haylage biopreservatives and also could be used as an efficient producer of propionic acid.

  15. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Lucie; Eismann, Frank; Wißmann, Daniel; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Zielonka, Simon; Müller, Roland A; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbagbo, J.K.N.

    1997-04-01

    This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a biogas plant is, and how it functions. Chapter 2, describes the entire process. Chapter 3, discusses the necessary conditions for fermentation. Chapter 4, the measuring parameters for monitoring the system. Chapter 5, describes the various types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Chapter 6, describes a planning guide for Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 7, discusses digester sizing and finally, Chapter 8, describes a concise biogas plant construction suitable for the rural areas of Ghana and other tropical countries. (au)

  17. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  18. Study of Biogas for Power Generation at Pesantren Saung Balong Al-Barokah, Majalengka, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Arifin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biogas from cow manure as a fuel alternative for power plants is done through an anaerobic process. A pilot plant with biogas production of 7 m3/day has been installed at Pesantren Saung Balong. Biogas is used for everyday purposes such as cooking and lighting, and used as pure biogas with 2.500 Watt scale generator. Biogas produced with the rate of 0.080 m3/hr. Biogas produced during the measurement (450 minutes is 0.604 m3. With these data it is predicted that within a day (24 hours biogas which can be generated is equal to 1.92 m3. Meanwhile, consumption of biogas to the generator with 1.047 W load is 0.019 m3/minutes, the generator will operate for approximately 101.05 minutes or 1.68 hours. Thus electricity that can be saved is 1.759 kWh per day or 52.77 kWh per month and electricity cost that can be saved that is equal to Rp.40.896/month. 

  19. Biogas utilization: Experimental investigation on biogas flameless combustion in lab-scale furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High costs of biogas purification and low calorific value of biogas are the main obstacles of biogas utilization. • The energy of biogas can be extracted by flameless combustion without any modification in burner or combustion system. • The efficiency of biogas flameless combustion and conventional combustion were 53% and 32% respectively. • The temperature inside the biogas flameless chamber is uniform. • In biogas flameless combustion, NO x and CO 2 formation decrease drastically in comparison with traditional combustion. - Abstract: Biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic wastes by micro-organisms can be applied for heating, transportation and power generation as a renewable energy source. However, low calorific value (LCV) of biogas is one the most important bottlenecks of biogas conversion into electrical or thermal energy. Indeed, the presence of corrosive gases such as H 2 S and water vapor in biogas components makes some dilemmas in biogas purification and utilization. In order to obtain the efficient biogas utilization method, different biogas resources, physical and chemical properties of biogas and biogas combustion characteristics should be considered. In this paper biogas was utilized in lab-scale flameless combustion furnace and the performance of flameless combustion chamber fueled by biogas has been presented. Results demonstrated that flameless combustion is one of the best feasible strategies for biogas utilization. Uniformity of temperature in the flameless furnace increases the durability of refractory and related equipment. Simplicity of the flameless burner, pollutant formation reduction and fuel consumption decreases are the main causes of biogas flameless combustion supremacy

  20. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    with after placebo (7% to 35%, P =.002) and a significantly higher proportion of exacerbation-free patients (61% to 76%, P =.02). Children with less frequent symptoms, no family history of asthma, or both showed no significant treatment effect. There seemed to be no association between response...... to fluticasone propionate and history of rhinitis or eczema or the number of previous exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: Children with frequent symptoms, a family history of asthma, or both showed the greatest response to fluticasone propionate treatment. These findings may help to predict treatment outcome and guide...

  1. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  2. Biogas recirculation for simultaneous calcium removal and biogas purification within an expanded granular sludge bed system treating leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghuan; Lu, Xueqin; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Biogas, generated from an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate, was recirculated for calcium removal from the leachate via a carbonation process with simultaneous biogas purification. Batch trials were performed to optimize the solution pH and imported biogas (CO2) for CaCO3 precipitation. With applicable pH of 10-11 obtained, continuous trials achieved final calcium concentrations of 181-375 mg/L (removal efficiencies≈92.8-96.5%) in the leachate and methane contents of 87.1-91.4% (purification efficiencies≈65.4-82.2%) in the biogas. Calcium-balance study indicates that 23-986 mg Ca/d was released from the bio-system under the carbonized condition where CaCO3 precipitating was moved outside the bioreactor, whereas 7918-9517 mg Ca/d was trapped into the system for the controlled one. These findings demonstrate that carbonation removal of calcium by biogas recirculation could be a promising alternative to pretreat calcium-rich MSW leachate and synergistically to improve methane content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trend chart: biogas. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  4. Trend chart: biogas. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Second quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  5. Trend chart: biogas. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  6. Trend chart: biogas. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  7. Panorama 2018 - Biogas in Europe: future prospects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Grandjean, Julien; Bouter, Anne; Collet, Pierre; Gauthier, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    Biogas, produced from all kinds of organic matter, is used to produce electricity and heat. Biomethane, which is biogas stripped of its CO 2 component, can be injected into the natural gas network or upgraded to biofuel for use in the transport sector. In Europe, biogas represented 8% of renewable fuel production in 2015, equivalent to 4% of European natural gas consumption. (authors)

  8. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  9. Biokinetics and bacterial communities of propionate oxidizing bacteria in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-03-15

    Phased anaerobic digestion is a promising technology and may be a potential source of bio-energy production. Anaerobic digesters are widely used for sewage sludge stabilization and thus a better understanding of the microbial process and kinetics may allow increased volatile solids reduction and methane production through robust process operation. In this study, we analyzed the impact of phase separation and operational conditions on the bio-kinetic characteristics and communities of bacteria associated with four phased anaerobic digestion systems. In addition to significant differences between bacterial communities associated with different digester operating temperatures, our results also revealed that bacterial communities in the phased anaerobic digestion systems differed between the 1st and 2nd phase digesters and we identified strong community composition correlations with several measured physicochemical parameters. The maximum specific growth rates of propionate oxidizing bacteria (POB) in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11 and 23.7 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively, while those of the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters were 6.7 and 18.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively. Hence, the biokinetic characteristics of the POB population were dependent on the digester loading. In addition, we observed that the temperature dependency factor (θ) values were higher for the less heavily loaded digesters as compared to the values obtained for the 1st-phase digesters. Our results suggested the appropriate application of two sets of POB bio-kinetic that reflect the differing growth responses as a function of propionate concentration (and/or organic loading rates). Also, modeling acetogenesis in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems will be improved considering a population shift in separate phases. On the basis of the bio-kinetic values estimated in various digesters, high levels of propionate in the thermophilic digesters may be

  10. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetic and economic considerations of biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, B K; Satter, M A [Bangladesh Agricultural Univ., Mymensingh (BD). Dept. of Farm Power and Machinery

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the kinetics and economics of substrate degradation and biogas production are discussed. Mass balance on substrate, with either the Contois or Adams-Eckenfelder models, is used to design the mathematical models of volatile solids reduction and biogas fermentation. The predictions of both the models are found to be in close agreement with the observed values reported. A computer model based on a system dynamics approach is used to model the economics of biogas production by anaerobic digestion from cattle slurry available from typical rural families in Bangladesh. This model incorporates the Adams-Eckenfelder model to determine the amount of gas production and the technique described by Audsley and Wheeler to take into account the effects of price, interest, and inflation. The effects of changes of these parameters on the net profit or loss from the process are also considered. (author).

  12. Biogas cleaning and upgrading with natural zeolites from tuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Valerio; Petracchini, Francesco; Guerriero, Ettore; Bencini, Alessandro; Drigo, Serena

    2016-01-01

    CO2 adsorption on synthetic zeolites has become a consolidated approach for biogas upgrading to biomethane. As an alternative to synthetic zeolites, tuff waste from building industry was investigated in this study: indeed, this material is available at a low price and contains a high fraction of natural zeolites. A selective adsorption of CO2 and H2S towards CH4 was confirmed, allowing to obtain a high-purity biomethane (CO2 biogas samples were used, and no significant effects due to biogas impurities (e.g. humidity, dust, moisture, etc.) were observed. Thermal and vacuum regenerations were also optimized and confirmed to be possible, without significant variations in efficiency. Hence, natural zeolites from tuffs may successfully be used in a pressure/vacuum swing adsorption process.

  13. Market research on biogas valorizations and methanization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This market research aims at giving an overview of the existing methanization installations and of their dynamics in France, at assessing biogas production and use, at analyzing the methanization market, and at defining development perspectives for this sector by 2020. Based on a survey of methanization installations, on interviews with many actors of this sector, and on a seminar organized on this topic, this report presents and comments market data for biogas valorization and methanization in different sectors: household, agricultural, and industrial and waste water processing plants. It comments evolution trends by 2020 for these sectors, and the role that the emerging sector of centralized methanization could have in the years to come

  14. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Monitoring Produksi Biogas pada Biodigester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Alfanz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one of the flammable natural gas. The most observed content of biogas in this study is methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2. Therefore, biogas can be developed and used as an alternative energy. Nowadays, the used of plant biodigester, as the biogas producer, is still in very simple design. So, the system design should be developed to assist the monitoring process of biogas production. In this study, a system is design which can do the data acquisition using MQ4 sensor of methane, MQ8 sensor of hydrogen and MG811 sensor of carbon dioxide also the parameter which influencing to the process of biogas production such as temperature, humidity and pressure. Based on the measurement of methane, it is spotted that the highest point of methane production occured at 10:00 a.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 67% RH, and pressure 100,6 kPa which can produce 95.672 ppm of methane. In the measurement of hydrogen, it is figured out that the highet point of hydrogen production occured at 02:00 p.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 74% RH, and a pressure of 100,4 kPa to produce 4,738 ppm of hydrogen. Then, the highest point of the measurement of carbon dioxide production occurred at 11:00 a.m. The details were temperature 33 °C, humidity 68% RH, and a pressure of 100,5 kPa to 16,89 ppm of carbon dioxide.

  15. Computer Aided Analysis and Prototype Testing of an Improved Biogas Reactor For Biomass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy (Zheng Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel resources substituting for conventional fuels are required due to less availability of fuel resources than demand in the market. A large amount of crude oil and petroleum products are required to be imported in many countries over the world. Also the environmental pollution is another serious problem when use petroleum products. Biogas, with the composition of 54.5% CH4, 39.5% CO2, and 6% other elements (i.e., H2, N2, H2S, and O2, is a clear green fuel that can substitute the regular petroleum fuels to reduce the pollutant elements. Biogas can be produced by performing enriching, scrubbing, and bottling processes. The purification process can be further applied to take away the pollutants in biogas. The pure biogas process analyzed in this research is compressed to 2950 psi while being filled into gas cylinder. The daily produced biogas capacity is around 5480 ft3 and the processing efficacy is affected by surrounding environment and other factors. The design and development of this biogas system is assisted through mathematical analysis, 3D modeling, computational simulation, and prototype testing. Both computer aided analysis and prototype testing show close results which validate the feasibility of this biogas system in biomass applications.

  16. Treatment of food waste recycling wastewater using anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for biogas production in mainstream treatment process of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W; Park, Chanhyuk

    2017-10-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet ceramic membranes was operated at mesophilic conditions (30-35 °C) treating domestic wastewater (DWW) supplemented with food wasterecycling wastewater (FRW) to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) for better biogas production. Coupling ceramic membrane filtration with AnMBR treatment provides an alternative strategy for high organic wastewater treatment at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the potential benefits of membrane fouling because they have a high hydrophilicity and more robust at extreme conditions. The anaerobic ceramic MBR (AnCMBR) treating mixture of actual FRW with DWW (with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,115 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the treatment performance in terms of organic matter removal and methane production. COD removal during actual FRW with DWW operation averaged 98.3 ± 1.0% corresponding to an average methane production of 0.21 ± 0.1 L CH 4 /g COD removed . Biogas sparging, relaxation and permeate back-flushing were concurrently employed to manage membrane fouling. A flux greater than 9.2 L m -2  h -1 (LMH) was maintained at 13 h HRT for approximately 200 days without chemical cleaning at an OLR of 2.95 kg COD m -3  d -1 . On day 100, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads were added into the AnCMBR to alleviate the membrane fouling, suggesting that their mechanical scouring effect contributed positively in reducing the fouling index (FI). Although these bio-carriers might accelerate the breaking up of bio-flocs, which released a higher amount of soluble microbial products (SMP), a 95.4% SMP rejection was achieved. Although the retention efficiency of dissolved organic carbons (DOC) was 91.4% across the ceramic membrane, a meaningful interpretation of organic carbon detection (OCD) fingerprints was conducted to better understand the ceramic membrane performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Role of formate and hydrogen in the syntrophic degradation of propionate and butyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiuzhu Dong,

    1994-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, complex organic matter is mineralized by fermentative, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria. Propionate and butyrate are two important intermediates; they account for 35% and 8% of the total methane formation, respectively. Propionate and butyrate are

  18. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    , being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas......Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co...

  19. Integrated rural industrialization through biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Role of biogas in rural industrialization in India is explained. The Khadi and Village Industries Commission has installed over 2 lakhs (0.2 million) biogas plants during the last 30 years. A 15 cu.m. capacity plant costs Rs. 35,000/-. It produces 65 tons bio-manure worth Rs. 13,000/- in a year and fuel gas equivalent to 3,285 litres of kerosene worth Rs. 9855/-. It provides employment to 300 man days. In addition to serving as a source of energy and manure, it reduces deforestation, solves rural sanitation problem and maintain environmental equilibrium. Industrial activities suitable for rural areas and which can use biogas as a source of power are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. A combination anaerobic digestion scheme for biogas production from dairy effluent-CSTR and ABR, and biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiaze Augustine; Born, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of low-strength dairy waste water was used for the production of biogas which is aimed at serving as a concentrated carbon dioxide (CO2) source for further methanation. Using hydrogen (which can be produced via electrolysis using renewably sourced electricity), the CO2 fraction...... of the produced biogas can be used as a mechanism to store surplus electricity by the Sabatier process, which converts the CO2 fractions to methane (CH4), i. e. synthetic natural gas. This study investigates the use a combined reactor scheme for the anaerobic digestion of dairy waste water, and the further...

  1. Informing international UNFCCC technology mechanisms from the ground up: Using biogas technology in South Africa as a case study to evaluate the usefulness of potential elements of an international technology agreement in the UNFCCC negotiations process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of low carbon technologies to developing countries is 1 approach for tackling rising global emissions. An international technology transfer mechanism has been proposed under the UNFCCC; however, it remains unclear how this international mechanism would translate into local level technology implementation. This study uses biogas technology in South Africa to obtain empirical data inductively related to technology transfer. Observations and activities specific to the biogas sector in South Africa are put forward based on site visits and stakeholder discussions in South Africa, the UK, Germany and Sweden. This paper presents empirical findings on technology transfer in the biogas sector in South Africa and analyses the role of an international technology mechanism in supporting the uptake of biogas. Many of the barriers to biogas technology in South Africa are national level constraints such as lack of supportive policy environment, financial incentives and information sharing. This case study supports the argument that it will be unrealistic for international technology mechanisms to capture the necessary specificities of individual technologies at a country level. Therefore, as demonstrated through the example of biogas technology in South Africa, there is a need for both effective national and international engagement to support technology implementation. - Highlights: ► The UNFCCC technology mechanism aims to increase low carbon technology deployment. ► The interface of global technology frameworks and national implementation is unclear. ► Biogas is a widely used technology yet its uptake in South Africa (SA) is minimal. ► Empirical data is gathered from biogas sites in SA, UK, Germany and Sweden. ► Findings show biogas uptake in SA requires national and international support

  2. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  3. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With sufficient research and clinical trials in future, this could prove to be successful in treatment or management of autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder recently related to PA neurotoxicity. Keywords: Propionic acid, creatine, SH-SY5Y, comet assay, DNA fragmentation assay, apoptosis, neuroprotection. African Journal ...

  4. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod; Alabbad, Mohammed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored

  5. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in culture. Afaf El-Ansary*, Ghada Abu-Shmais and Abeer Al-Dbass. Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Zip code 11495, Riyadh, ...

  6. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I. H.; Jonker, M.R.; Vries, de Maaike; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Telenga, E.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Postma, D. S.; van den Berge, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. Methods:

  7. Interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic propionate degrading consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Propionate is a key intermediate in the conversion of complex organic matter under methanogenic conditions. Oxidation of this compound requires obligate syntrophic consortia of acetogenic proton- and bicarbonate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Although H-2 acts as an electron-carrier in

  8. Biogas production supported by excess heat – A systems analysis within the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Lindkvist, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A systems analysis when moving from external to internal production and use of biogas at an industry. • The aim is to study the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and economics from this switch. • The study compares the choice of using biogas or industrial excess heat to heat the digester. • Internal biogas production supported by excess heat has environmental and economic benefits. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets

  9. Perry's bio-gas experience 1995 ASME/EPRI radwaste workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Perry Power Plant has been in commercial operation for about ten years. Although we didn't know it at the time, we now believe our bio-gas problem may have started about seven years ago. Barnwell discovered we had a bio-gas problem about a year and a half ago. We found out we had a bio-gas problem a few hours later. The history associated with this process at Perry is outlined, and past as well as present efforts to monitor this process are also discussed

  10. Principal methods for biogas desulphurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, Lianys; Fernández Santana, Elina; Muñoz, Susana Rodríguez; Bárcenas Pérez, Liuver

    2015-01-01

    At present the world is facing an energy crisis, where one of the factors contributing to it is the indiscriminate use of conventional fuels, therefore, alternatives for obtaining biofuels such as biogas are being sought. Biogas contains hydrogen sulphide, which has a high toxicity and corrosive properties, which limits their use. Methods for efluent gas desulphurization can be classified according to their physico-chemical principles as follows: absorption using inorganic and organic chemicals, physical adsorption, biotecnologichal methods and membrane filtration. In this paper an analysis of the methods used worldwide is presented as well as the results achieved from the Cuban experience. (author)

  11. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details a dynamic evaluation of a procedure for extracting both, ester and biogas from seeds and waste of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) using simple and inexpensive technique. Results showed that A. mexicana seed contains 30% oil. Through the process of transestrification, oil extracted from seed, ...

  12. Biogas technology research in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Biogas production from large quantities of agricultural residues, animal wastes, ... poses a constant barrier to economic development in .... the Small Industries Development Organisation intro- ... cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a .... enzymes (Parawira et al., 2005a) and production of.

  13. Algae from waste for combined biodiesel and biogas production - ALDIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: mona.arnold@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The project's goal was to design and validate integrated concepts of utilising waste streams for algal biomass production. The developed sustainable processes should involve efficient utilisation of all side streams generated in addition to biodiesel and biogas. This included also material valorisation of residual algal biomass.

  14. Chinese biogas manual: popularising technology in the countryside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Buren, A [ed.

    1979-01-01

    The production of biogas from agricultural, human, and animal wastes in rural areas of China is described. This manual is one of the Science in the Countryside Editions, which are specially designed to popularise technology. It pre-supposes as little technical education as possible, relying instead on the appendix to provide basic principles; it contains minute and graphic textual explanations of how to go about drawing a plan, laying foundations, or applying mortar in paper-thin coats. As far as possible, the book is intended to short-cut the trial and errors that people in Sichuan had to go through while experimenting. it also tries to give the reader an idea of what is going on out of sight in the working digester, so that the technology becomes intelligible and so that it can be used to its full potential. Biogas tanks are financed and built by the brigade, the team, or individual families, depending on size. The details of how this is done depends on local circumstances. The allocation of responsibility of maintenance, repair and operation is essential to the success of a biogas programme. Every pit has a pressure gauge and each family has been carefully instructed when to let out gas. Feeding material into the pit is a continuous process with guidelines for the proportion of liquids to solids. The key to their success lies in the core of experts in the Biogas Group, whose job it is to go from team to team helping with repair and reminding people to maintain the safety standards. Perhaps the most interesting and startling lessons-which are relevant not only to biogas but also to other areas of technical innovation in rural areas-can be learnt from the success recorded here that local communities have had in assimilating and adapting the technology to their own needs and conditions. This manual is the single, standard textbook used by the Chinese when embarking on biogas projects.

  15. Chinese biogas manual: popularising technology in the countryside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buren, A [ed.

    1979-01-01

    The production of biogas from agricultural, human, and animal wastes in rural areas of China is described. This manual is one of the Science in the Countryside Editions, which are specially designed to popularise technology. It pre-supposes as little technical education as possible, relying instead on the appendix to provide basic principles; it contains minute and graphic textual explantations of how to go about drawing a plan, laying foundations, or applying mortar in paper-thin coats. As far as possible, the book is intended to short-cut the trial and errors that people in Sichuan had to go through while experimenting. It also tries to give the reader an idea of what is going on out of sight in the working digester, so that the technology becomes intelligible and so that it can be used to its full potential. Biogas tanks are financed and built by the brigade, the team, or individual families, depending on size. The details of how this is done depends on local circumstances. The allocation of responsibility of maintenance, repair and operation is essential to the success of a biogas programme. Every pit has a pressure gauge and each family has been carefully instructed when to let out gas. Feeding material into the pit is a continuous process with guidelines for the proportion of liquids to solids. The key to their success lies in the core of experts in the Biogas Group, whose job it is to go from team to team helping with repair and reminding people to maintain the safety standards. Perhaps the most interesting and startling lessons-which are relevant not only to biogas but also to other areas of technical innovation in rural areas-can be learned from the success recorded here that local communities have had in assimilating and adapting the technology to their own needs and conditions. This manual is the single, standard textbook used by the Chinese when embarking on biogas projects.

  16. A Modeling Tool for Household Biogas Burner Flame Port Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Thomas J.

    Anaerobic digestion is a well-known and potentially beneficial process for rural communities in emerging markets, providing the opportunity to generate usable gaseous fuel from agricultural waste. With recent developments in low-cost digestion technology, communities across the world are gaining affordable access to the benefits of anaerobic digestion derived biogas. For example, biogas can displace conventional cooking fuels such as biomass (wood, charcoal, dung) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), effectively reducing harmful emissions and fuel cost respectively. To support the ongoing scaling effort of biogas in rural communities, this study has developed and tested a design tool aimed at optimizing flame port geometry for household biogas-fired burners. The tool consists of a multi-component simulation that incorporates three-dimensional CAD designs with simulated chemical kinetics and computational fluid dynamics. An array of circular and rectangular port designs was developed for a widely available biogas stove (called the Lotus) as part of this study. These port designs were created through guidance from previous studies found in the literature. The three highest performing designs identified by the tool were manufactured and tested experimentally to validate tool output and to compare against the original port geometry. The experimental results aligned with the tool's prediction for the three chosen designs. Each design demonstrated improved thermal efficiency relative to the original, with one configuration of circular ports exhibiting superior performance. The results of the study indicated that designing for a targeted range of port hydraulic diameter, velocity and mixture density in the tool is a relevant way to improve the thermal efficiency of a biogas burner. Conversely, the emissions predictions made by the tool were found to be unreliable and incongruent with laboratory experiments.

  17. A Review of Biogas Applications across Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; kofi Ackom, Emmanuel; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem

    This paper analyses the biogas development within Ghana, Thailand and Denmark to shed light on the different development patterns and future trends that is seen within the biogas sector. Literature review in the form of journal articles and reports is assessed, interviews with agricultural...... and biogas experts - as well as policy makers within the field of renewable energy - is being conducted. The biogas technology was analysed according to ‘historical development’, ‘feedstock utilization’ and ‘future development’. As far as the future prospects for the biogas technology the paper concludes...... are required to move forward. Thailand and Denmark has set up support programs and emphasized on using industrial organic feedstock for biogas production, and Denmark has formulated political targets for utilizing organic household waste as biogas feedstock. For all three countries apply, despite...

  18. Pemurnian Biogas untuk meningkatkan Nilai Kalor melalui Adsorpsi Dua Tahap Susunan Seri dengan Media Karbon Aktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANTI SUPRIANTI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pemerintah menargetkan peningkatan peran energi terbarukanhingga mencapai 24% pada tahun 2050. Biogas sebagai salah satu dari sumber energi terbarukan harus memiliki nilai kalor yang memadaiagar dapat bersaing dengan sumber energi fosil. Zat yang memiliki kontribusi terbesar dalam menentukan nilai kalor biogas adalah Metana (CH4. Namun, biogas juga memiliki kandungan Karbon dioksida (CO2 yang bersifat tidak terbakar. Upaya untuk meningkatkan nilai kalor biogas dapat ditempuh dengan menurunkan kandungan CO2, salah satunya melalui proses adsorpsi. Penelitian ini menggunakan kolom adsorpsi seri berukuran 2,43 L untuk meningkatkan waktu kontak antara adsorben karbon aktif dengan gas-gas kontaminan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan CO2 dapat ditekan hingga di bawah 14% pada waktu adsorpsi 10 menit,dan diperoleh kandungan CH4 hingga minimal 78,73%. Hasil optimum kinerja kolom adsorpsi seri yaitu pada laju alir 2,4 L/menit dan waktu adsorpsi 10 menit, mampu memurnikan biogas hingga mengandung CH4 91,60%. Pada kondisi optimum tersebut, efektifitas kolom adsorpsi adalah sebesar 98,31%. Kata kunci: biogas, pemurnian, karbon aktif, waktu adsorpsi, efektifitas kolom adsorpsi. ABSTRACT Indonesian government had targettedthe role of renewable energy, up to 24% in 2050. Biogas, as one of renewable energy, should have sufficient calorific valuein order to be efficiently used and competitive compared to fossil fuels. Methane (CH4 in biogas is the most important substance that determine biogas calorific value. On the other hand, another component of biogas, Carbon dioxide (CO2, the one that inhibit combustion process must be reduced. One of the methods to reduce CO2 content can be conducted through adsorption process. This research utilized serial adsorption column to increase contact between activated carbon as adsorbent and contaminant gases. The result showed that CO2 content can be suppressed below 14% in 10 minutes adsorption time, so

  19. Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy NREL's waste-to-energy research and development required for upgrading biogas to fuels and high-value co-products. Featured (2014) Biogas Potential in the United States, NREL Fact Sheet (2013) View all NREL biogas upgrading and

  20. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration as a post-treatment of biogas plant digestates for producing concentrated fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud; Norddahl, Birgir; Wei, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas plant digestate liquid fractions can be concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Two types of microfiltration membranes (polysulphone (PS) and surface-modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) were used to process digestate liquid fractions, and to assess their applicability in ...

  1. 17. Annual meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Lectures; 17. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 17th annual meeting at 9th to 10th December, 2008, at the energy centre Wolpertshausen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Energy - But how? Biogas and bioenergy in the agriculture (Winfried Binder); (2) Models for ecologically useful concepts at agricultural biogas plants (Dr. Manfred Dederer); (3) Innovative and deserving promotion concepts of utilization of heat at fermentation plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Konrad Raab); (4) Utilization of heat and strengthening of the regional value-added chain from the view of a franconian plant operator (Christian Endress); (5) Perspectives of an energetic utilization of materials for landscape conservation (Christof Thoss); (6) Meadow grass steps on the accelerator (Peter Stiegler); (7) Biogas from grass: Experiences from northern Germany (Jens Geveke); (8) Experience report of an agricultural biogas plant - Fermentation of grass and effective utilization (Thomas Rott); (9) State of the art of the fermentation of bio waste in a batch process (Jakovos Theodoridis); (10) Integration of a continuous dry fermentation plant into an existing compost heap - an experience report (Michael Buchheit): (11) Coldness from heat: Providing coldness with ammonia / water refrigerating absorbers (Sebastian Zuerich); (12) Current state the Renewable Energy Resources Act 2009 (Otto K. Koerner); (13) The eco-auditor in the Renewable Energy Resources Act 2009 (Peter Vassen); (14) Greenhouse-gas emissions from biogas plants (Carsten Cuhls); (15) Management of crashes and crisis at biogas plants (Anton-Rupert Baumann); (16) SINNRGIE brilliantly simple (Sauter); (17) Fermentation of grass-clover ley in ecological agriculture (Hans Holland).

  2. Minimization of diauxic growth lag-phase for high-efficiency biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sang Hun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a minimization method of a diauxic growth lag-phase for the biogas production from agricultural by-products (ABPs). Specifically, the effects of proximate composition on the biogas production and degradation rates of the ABPs were investigated, and a new method based on proximate composition combinations was developed to minimize the diauxic growth lag-phase. Experiments were performed using biogas potential tests at a substrate loading of 2.5 g VS/L and feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) of 0.5 under the mesophilic condition. The ABPs were classified based on proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, and fat etc.). The biogas production patterns, lag phase, and times taken for 90% biogas production (T90) were used for the evaluation of the biogas production with biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The high- or medium-carbohydrate and low-fat ABPs (cheese whey, cabbage, and skim milk) showed a single step digestion process and low-carbohydrate and high-fat ABPs (bean curd and perilla seed) showed a two-step digestion process. The mixture of high-fat ABPs and high-carbohydrate ABPs reduced the lag-phase and increased the biogas yield more than that from single ABP by 35-46%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of the methanation process by the implementation of a physical-chemical co-process: application to the biogas resource made by waste water sewage sludges; Optimisation du procede de methanisation par mise en place d'un co-traitement physico-chimique: application au gisement de biogaz represente par les boues d'epuration des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougrier, C

    2005-10-15

    This work deals with the coupling of physico-chemical processes with the anaerobic digestion. This coupling aims at reducing the generation of sewage sludges and, at the same time, at improving biogas generation. In a first step, 3 cellular lysis techniques have been applied with the aim of improving the anaerobic digestion efficiency: sonication, ozonization and thermal lysis. For each technique used, the effects of pre-processing have been analyzed in terms of matter solubilization and biogas generation in discontinuous reactors. This has permitted to determine the optimum conditions of operation of each technique. In a second step, these different pre-treatments have been compared on a same sludge in order to determine the most efficient treatment. While thermal treatments lead to the highest solubilization levels, the improvements of biodegradability are of the same order of importance for the 3 techniques. The thermal treatment, with its sanitizing aptitude and the possibility to use biogas for its energy supply, seems to be the most promising. The effects of thermal lysis on the solubilization of the different sludge compounds (glucides, proteins, lipids), on the physical-chemical properties of sludges and on their anaerobic biodegradability in discontinuous and semi-continuous reactors have been studied. All sludges seem to have a similar behaviour with respect to solubilization, decantation and filtration properties with a threshold temperature of 150 deg. C. On the other hand, the impact on biodegradability is more dependent on the nature of the sludge. The most important parameter for the evaluation of the relevance of a thermal pre-processing seems to be the initial sludges biodegradability. (J.S.)

  4. Optimization of the methanation process by the implementation of a physical-chemical co-process: application to the biogas resource made by waste water sewage sludges; Optimisation du procede de methanisation par mise en place d'un co-traitement physico-chimique: application au gisement de biogaz represente par les boues d'epuration des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougrier, C.

    2005-10-15

    This work deals with the coupling of physico-chemical processes with the anaerobic digestion. This coupling aims at reducing the generation of sewage sludges and, at the same time, at improving biogas generation. In a first step, 3 cellular lysis techniques have been applied with the aim of improving the anaerobic digestion efficiency: sonication, ozonization and thermal lysis. For each technique used, the effects of pre-processing have been analyzed in terms of matter solubilization and biogas generation in discontinuous reactors. This has permitted to determine the optimum conditions of operation of each technique. In a second step, these different pre-treatments have been compared on a same sludge in order to determine the most efficient treatment. While thermal treatments lead to the highest solubilization levels, the improvements of biodegradability are of the same order of importance for the 3 techniques. The thermal treatment, with its sanitizing aptitude and the possibility to use biogas for its energy supply, seems to be the most promising. The effects of thermal lysis on the solubilization of the different sludge compounds (glucides, proteins, lipids), on the physical-chemical properties of sludges and on their anaerobic biodegradability in discontinuous and semi-continuous reactors have been studied. All sludges seem to have a similar behaviour with respect to solubilization, decantation and filtration properties with a threshold temperature of 150 deg. C. On the other hand, the impact on biodegradability is more dependent on the nature of the sludge. The most important parameter for the evaluation of the relevance of a thermal pre-processing seems to be the initial sludges biodegradability. (J.S.)

  5. An experimental evaluation of energy economics of biogas production at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeonu, F. C.

    1997-01-01

    Process economy, with regard to and energy content predicts the potentialities of biogas production options. Experimental study reveal from the kinetic data of daily biogas production that biomethanation reaction is faster in thermophilic digestion, with a higher yield of gas per reactor volume per day. Energy calculations show that it will take 3.55*10 5 kWh to produce 1 m 3 of methane from our feedstock with biogas energy equivalent of 1.25 kWh. The cost implication of this is enormous amounting to US $2,641.95 for the production of 1 m 3 of methane using brewers spent grins

  6. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...... of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case. © IWA Publishing 2014....

  7. Preliminary design and economical study of a biogas production-plant using cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents considerations and results from designing a large- scale biogas production-plant using cow manure. The so designed plant capacity allowed processing the dung from 1,300 cows, producing 500 kW of electrical energy from operating a generator which works on a mixture of diesel and biogas fuel. The design included sizing the cowsheds, the manure-collecting systems, transporting the dung, the digester, the effluent tank and the biogas treatment system. An economic study was also done, concluding that project was viable and the importance of the cost of diesel evolving for determining return on investment time.

  8. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach. PMID:27341657

  9. Quality Assessment of solid waste used for obtaining biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo Cuellar, Ernesto Antonio; Menendez Perez, Manuel German

    2011-01-01

    The solid residuals are in our days an important factor in the processes of recycling of materials, composting and obtaining of biogas, however, sometimes doesn't keep in mind the quality of these for their productive acting. Therefore the present work has as objective, in the peculiar case of the biogas production, to propose a method to evaluate the quality of the solid residuals used in the biogas process starting from the biodegradable organic fraction contained in these. For the investigative development of the work theoretical methods were used as the hypothetical-deductive method, the systemic one, the structural-functional one and empiric methods as the scientific observation and the mensuration. The results of their application, although discreet still, have been evidenced in the evaluation of the quality of the solid residuals in the plant of recycling -composting of the City of Holguin in the compost production. The main conclusion to which you can arrive with the carried out investigation is that the evaluation of the quality of the solid residuals is important to make studies of feasibility in the design and implementation of new projects of recycling units, composting and biogas. (author)

  10. Optimised biogas production from the co-digestion of sugar beet with pig slurry: Integrating energy, GHG and economic accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Baral, Khagendra Raj; Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos

    2016-01-01

    , utilising SB negatively affects the profitability of biogas production, because of the increased costs involved in feedstock supply. The scale of the processing plant is neutral in terms of profitability when SB is added. The results indicate that medium-to large-sized biogas plants, using low shares of SB...

  11. Biogas in China 1981 - a travel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostell, B; Norrman, J

    1982-03-01

    Biogas is formed by anaerobic fermentation of organic material. In China there are about seven million biogas units of family size distributed all over the country. Biogas is produced from manure,feces, domestic wastes and straw. The gas is used above all for cooking and lighting in the homes. Other advantages with biogas are that wood-firing has declined drastically, the forest is saved, the state of health in the villages has improved (the drinking water is boiled) and the out-put from the biogasplants is an excellent medium for plant nourishment and soil benefaction. The main reasons for the fast advancement of biogas technology in China compared with other countries are:- The benefits of the biogas technology have been viewed from a broad perspective. - Great resources have been allocated to the development of the biogas technology. - An effective organisation for dissemination of biogas technology has been formed. - Simple and inexpensive units have been developed. A conclusion from the visit is that Sweden has much to learn from the Chinese biogas programme. Not so much concerning technology development, but rather about the dissemination of the biogas technology.

  12. The role of energy policy in agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.

  13. Reduction of H{sub 2}S from biogas by using environmental air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.N.

    1997-04-01

    First a general description is given about environmental aspects of producing biogas from manures, the anaerobic digestion process, and inhibition by ammonia. Two experiment were carried out to determine the effect of air on reducing H{sub 2}S from biogas. In both the experiments the same amount of degassed manure (1.5 lit) collected from Boddam Biogas Plant is initially used. Everyday feed the digester (3 lit of total volume) was fed by 500 ml of pig liquid manure, when the rate or Volatile Fatty Acid production in the experimental tanks goes down. First experiment was for trial and the biogas produced were measured only qualitatively. In this experiment 5% of air was used in the experimental tank. It was found that the biogas production was increased, though negligibly, in the experimental tank. In this experiment the amount of gas production was more in experimental tank, as well as, less H{sub 2}S concentration. The following biochemical parameters was measured of the manure used for biogas production. TS (Total Solid), VFA (Volatile Fatty Acid), Analysis of biogas. (LN) 30 refs.

  14. Production, purification and utilization of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Noel M.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2018-03-01

    This study attempts to modify a 4-cylinder gasoline engine to run with a purified compressed biogas as substitute for fossil fuels. Water scrubbing method was used as the easiest purification technique to remove CO2 and iron filing for H2S. The pressurized raw biogas was fed in a low cost made portable floating type gas holder with volume capacity of 0.74 m3. The purified biogas was compressed using a reciprocating compressor through a two stage series of enrichment and moisture removal process using activated alumina into the steel cylinder to improve the quality of the methane content. The enriched biogas was filled in the LPG tank for 20 minutes at 10 bars at an average of 73.67% CH4 with no traces of H2S as storage for engine utilization. The modification involved the installation and mounting of LPG conversion kit. A comparative analysis of the performance and combustion characteristics of the engine was evaluated separately with gasoline and purified compressed biogas using electro-dynamometer as variable loads. The findings show that power output deterioration in compressed biogas was mainly due to high percentage of CO2 and other gases impurities. It also shows that because of the calorific value of biogas, the thermal efficiency is lesser than that of gasoline. It implies that the overall engine performance can be improved by removing undesirable gases in the mixture.

  15. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.moeller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Eismann, Frank, E-mail: info@antoc.de [Eismann & Stöbe GbR, GeoPark, Geb. A12, Bautzner Strasse 67, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Wißmann, Daniel, E-mail: d.s.wissmann@gmx.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Nägele, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: hajo.naegele@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Zielonka, Simon, E-mail: simon.zielonka@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Roland A., E-mail: roland.mueller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Zehnsdorf, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.zehnsdorf@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Foaming in biogas plants depends on the interactions between substrate and digestate. • Foaming tests enable the evaluation of substrate foaming tendency in biogas plants. • Leipzig foam tester enables foaming tests of substrates prior to use. - Abstract: Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  16. Quantification of the potential for biogas and biogas manure from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... This wasted energy material is equivalent to 9000 L of diesel fuel that currently would cost 9389 ... Key words: Biogas potential, fruit waste, quantification, prediction, biogas manure. ... For example, consumption of fruits and.

  17. CO{sub 2} separation from biogas with ceramic membranes; CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung aus Biogas mit keramischen Membranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassauer, Burkhardt; Richter, Hannes; Schwarz, Bjoern; Reger-Wagner, Norman; Kaemnitz, Susanne [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Dresden (Germany); Lubenau, Udo; Mothes, Raimund [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Biogas contains after the production of up to 55% CO{sub 2}. In order to use biogas as a fuel or to feed it into the natural gas network, it must be purified before. Adsorption and scrubbing processes are primarily used technically. Membrane processes offer the advantage of continuous operation and a simple modular and flexible system design, which imply relatively low investment costs and low energy needs. Moreover, membrane systems can be started up and shut down quickly without any problems. Ceramic membranes are characterised by high stability (thermal, chemical, mechanical) and very high flows in comparison to polymeric membranes. [German] Biogas enthaelt nach der Erzeugung bis zu 55 % CO{sub 2}. Um Biogas als Kraftstoff zu nutzen oder in das Erdgasnetz einspeisen zu koennen, muss es zuvor gereinigt werden. Technisch genutzt werden vor allem Adsorptions- und Waschverfahren. Membranverfahren bieten den Vorteil eines kontinuierlichen Betriebes sowie einer einfachen, modularen und flexiblen Anlagenkonzeption, die vergleichsweise niedrige Investitionskosten und einen geringen Energiebedarf bedeuten. Darueber hinaus koennen Membrananlagen schnell an- und abgefahren werden und voellig ohne Probleme abgeschaltet werden. Keramische Membranen zeichnen sich gegenueber Polymermembranen durch hohe Stabilitaet (thermisch, chemisch, mechanisch) und sehr hohe Fluesse aus.

  18. Precision control of biogas plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.; Nielsen, Anders M.; Ward, A.J.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the project has been to improve design and process stability in biogas plants. The results can be divided within the following main categories: 1) Pre-treatment, serial coupling of digesters and post digestion 2) Process inhibition 3) Process control Ad 1) This work has shown that extreme thermophilic pre-treatment of cattle manure and pig manure mixed with silage has a considerable effect on methane yield in a subsequent methanogenic reactor. Ad 2) The effect of ammonia inhibition was studied in a series of continuously stirred tank reactors co-digesting pig manure (40%) with the addition of solid fractions (60%) and increasing concentrations of ammonia caused by addition of NH{sub 4}Cl pulses. Ad 3) Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict liquid phase volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in three experiments treating three different materials: pig slurry with maize silage, chicken manure and cattle slurry.

  19. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Krido Wahono, Satriyo; Anggo Rizal, Wahyu

    2014-01-01

    UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as ...

  20. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) propionate and butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of yttrium(III) propionate monohydrate (Y(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) and yttrium(III) butyrate dihydrate (Y(C3H7CO2)3·2H2O) were studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. These two...

  1. Biogas in Alsace: potential, economic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the potential of biogas production in Alsace. Every fields that could provide organic matter for anaerobic fermentation are first identified, and the energy corresponding to the theoretical production of biogas is then quantified. By knowing these rates, the effective development of biogas production is then discussed and oriented to the agricultural field. The technical and economical aspects of the production of biogas in a farm are then described. The biogas issue, approached thanks to some visits of existing sites and the creation of a simulation software, leads to a specific analysis among the whole Alsatian estates. The study presents finally the real opportunities of development for two pilot projects in Alsace, knowing the specific context for farm biogas production in France. (author) [fr

  2. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  3. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  4. Biogas upgrading - Review of commercial technologies; Biogasuppgradering - Granskning av kommersiella tekniker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Fredric; Hulteberg, Christian; Persson, Tobias; Tamm, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Biogas production is growing and there is an increasing demand for upgraded biogas, to be used as vehicle fuel or injected to the natural gas grid. To enable the efficient use of biogas in these applications the gas must be upgraded, i.e. the carbon dioxide, which constitutes a large part of the raw biogas from the digester, must be separated from the methane. This report aims to evaluate the biogas upgrading technologies that are commercially available and in operation today: amine scrubbers, water scrubbers, PSA units, organic scrubbers and membrane units. The technologies are described in detail by presenting the theory behind the separation mechanism, the upgrading process as a complete system, operational issues and how these are solved, and finally the most important financial data. Furthermore, the best developed cryogenic technologies, which today are being used to purify landfill gas and biogas from some specific components and to liquefy biogas, are presented. Cryogenic upgrading is an interesting possibility, but as this report shows, the technology still has some important operational issues to resolve. Technologies which are especially focused on small-scale applications are finally presented, however not in as much detail as the other, more common technologies. The report shows that for mid-scale applications, the most common options are all viable. The scrubbing technologies all perform well and have similar costs of investment and operation. The simplicity and reliability of the water scrubber has made this the preferred choice in many applications, but the high purity and very low methane slip from amine scrubbers are important characteristics. Regarding PSA and membrane units, the investment cost for these are about the same as for scrubbers. Furthermore, recent developments of the membrane units have also made it possible to reach low methane slips with this technology. Biogas production is increasing, in Sweden and globally, and the interest for

  5. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  6. Analytical investigation of the thermal optimization of biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, Thomas; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The economic efficiency of biogas plants is more difficult to display with recent legal regulations than with bonus tariff systems of previous EEG amendments. To enhance efficiency there are different options, often linked with further investments. Direct technical innovations with fast economic yields need exact evaluation of limiting conditions. Within this article the heat sector of agricultural biogas plants is studied. So far scarcely considered, especially the improvement of on-site thermal energy consumption promises a high optimisation. Data basis are feeding protocols and temperature measurements of input substrates, biogas, environment etc., also documentations of on-site thermal consumption over 10 years. Analyzing first results of measurements and primary equilibrations shows, that maintenance of biogas process temperature consumes most thermal energy and therefore has the greatest potential of improvement. Passive and active insulation of feed systems and heat recovery from secondary fermenter liquids are identified as first optimization measures. Depending on amount and temperature raise of input substrates, saving potentials of more than hundred megawatt hours per year were calculated.

  7. Limits to biogas technology: prospective for the R and D. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffiere, P.; Bayard, R.; Germain, P.

    2009-12-01

    Perspectives of Research and Development on biogas have been identified based on an analysis of the scientific and technological limits. This study is based on two pillars: bibliography analysis and enquiry among experts and actors of the biogas world. The most urgent research orientations that have been identified can be distributed in three categories: - Research topics well covered by the R and D: organic matter characterization, fundamentals of anaerobic digestion mechanisms. - Research topics that could receive more attention by a better coordination between the research centers: process instrumentation, solid waste pretreatments. - Research topics that are poorly studied: energy from biogas (analytical problems, biogas purification, fuel cells), mechanical problems, mixing and rheology (especially for waste digestion), hydraulic and mass transfer (especially for landfilling and dry digestion). Other requirements have been identified: social aspects and process safety. The need for full size experimental investigations is also clearly expressed. (authors)

  8. System for obtaining biogas. System zur Gewinnung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-01-17

    The invention refers to a system for obtaining biogas from organic substances in at least one drum reactor, which is situated in a container accepting a liquid and which is driven so that it rotates preferably around its horizontal drum axis. It is distinguished by the fact that for at least one drum reactor acting as the main reactor there is at least one further reactor ahead of it for the pre-treatment or pre-fermentation of the substances.

  9. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; A.A. Broekhuis; Drs. E.J. Hengeveld; Ir. J. Bekkering

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a

  10. Quantification of the potential for biogas and biogas manure from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the overall potential of biogas and biogas manure from the selected fruit wastes in the city of Addis Ababa was estimated (quantified). The prediction is based on the characterization and biogas yield results in a related study, using structured questionnaire and checklists during field survey. This study has ...

  11. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, E. J.; Bekkering, J.; van Gemert, W. J. T.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a CHP,

  13. Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional scale, line-pack storage in biogas grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional scale, line-pack storage in biogas grids. The number of local and regional initiatives encouraging the production and use of regional produced energy grows. In these new developments biogas can play a role, as a producer of energy, but also in

  14. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan; Bekkering, Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a CHP,

  15. Biocapture of CO2 by Different Microalgal-Based Technologies for Biogas Upgrading and Simultaneous Biogas Slurry Purification under Various Light Intensities and Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuejin; Zhao, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO2 in biogas. The microalgae–fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. The order of both the biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading is ranked the same, that is Chlorella vulgaris–Ganoderma lucidum > Chlorella vulgaris–activated sludge > Chlorella vulgaris under different light intensities. For all cultivation methods, the moderate light intensity of 450 μmol m−2 s−1 is regarded as the best choice. This research revealed that the control of photoperiod and light intensity can promote the biological treatment process of biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading using microalgal-based technology. PMID:29543784

  16. Biocapture of CO2 by Different Microalgal-Based Technologies for Biogas Upgrading and Simultaneous Biogas Slurry Purification under Various Light Intensities and Photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO2 in biogas. The microalgae–fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. The order of both the biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading is ranked the same, that is Chlorella vulgaris–Ganoderma lucidum > Chlorella vulgaris–activated sludge > Chlorella vulgaris under different light intensities. For all cultivation methods, the moderate light intensity of 450 μmol m−2 s−1 is regarded as the best choice. This research revealed that the control of photoperiod and light intensity can promote the biological treatment process of biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading using microalgal-based technology.

  17. Ecological and economic evaluation of biogas from intercrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemetz, Nora; Kettl, Karl-Heinz [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. for Process and Particle Engineering

    2012-12-01

    Biogas made from main crops (e.g., corn) is commonly used for producing electricity and heat. Nevertheless, the production of energy from monocultures is highly unsustainable and not truly renewable. Since neither monocultures nor food competition are desirable, intercrops can be used to increase the yield per hectare instead of leaving agricultural fields unplanted for soil regeneration. The extra biomass can be used for biogas production. In a case study, the economic as well as the ecological feasibility of biogas production using intercrops, cattle manure, grass and corn silage as feedstocks for fermenters was analyzed. The set-up for the case study included different feedstock combinations as well as spatial distributions of substrate supply and heat demand for modeling and optimization. Using the process network synthesis, an optimum structure was generated representing the most economical technology constellation which included transport of substrates, heat and biogas (when applicable). The ecological evaluation was carried out by using the sustainable process index method. The application of both methodologies to different scenarios allowed a constellation to be found which is economically feasible while entailing low ecological pressure. It is demonstrated that the production of intercrops for producing biogas has so far not been regarded as a viable option by the farmers due to a variety of barriers. Sensitization is needed to emphasize that planting intercrops holds many advantages like positive effects on soil regeneration and raised nitrogen fixation, as well as increased biomass output per hectare and, last but not least, it allows the production of energy without conflicts between food and energy production. (orig.)

  18. National scenario of biogas generation: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudha; Katiyar, M.K.; Khan, M.A.; Singh, Amarik

    1995-01-01

    Many developing countries are encouraging the installation of biogas plant in rural sector and industrial sector to meet the demand of energy. India is one of the pioneer countries in the world who initiated adaptation of biogas technology in rural sector about 35 years ago. In India Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Energy and Planning Commission are promoting the research and popularization programme, related to biogas technology. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  20. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  1. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  2. Programmed iron oxide nanoparticles disintegration in anaerobic digesters boosts biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Eudald; Barrena, Raquel; García, Ana; González, Edgar; Delgado, Lucía; Busquets-Fité, Martí; Font, Xavier; Arbiol, Jordi; Glatzel, Pieter; Kvashnina, Kristina; Sánchez, Antoni; Puntes, Víctor

    2014-07-23

    A novel concept of dosing iron ions using Fe3O4 engineered nanoparticles is used to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes. Since small nanoparticles are unstable, they can be designed to provide ions in a controlled manner, and the highest ever reported improvement of biogas production is obtained. The nanoparticles evolution during operation is followed by an array of spectroscopic techniques. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Exploring the adoption of renewable energy: the case of biogas plants in Greek agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousis, M.

    1992-01-01

    With a focus on renewable energy, an evaluation of the current literature on the adoption of new technologies is given and a review of biogas options in Greece presented. A preliminary test of the significance of some factors that influence the acceptance of biogas technology by Greek hog farmers is constructed. Although the evidence appears to support a model which emphasises individual characteristics in the adoption process, the overall data qualify the position which stresses the institutional role to that end. (author)

  4. Biogas biological desulphurisation under extremely acidic conditions for energetic valorisation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    de Arespacochaga, N.; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Mesa, C.; Bouchy, Lynne; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    The most harmful biogas contaminant for energy conversion equipment such as fuel cells is hydrogen sulphide (H2S); thus efficient and cost-effective treatment systems for this compound should be designed and developed. A pilot-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) working in acidic media (pH = 1.5-2) was operated for raw sewage biogas desulphurisation. Its operational performance as a function of two key important process parameters (temperature and retention time) was evaluated through short-term ...

  5. Biogas slurry utilization in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asser, C. [Ministry of Mines and Energy, Accra (Ghana)

    1999-07-01

    The biogas Technology Programme developed for villages remote from the national grid relies solely on cow-dung and human waste as raw materials for electricity generation. The technology helps control deforestation and desertification and reduces the long hours spent looking for fuelwood for cooking and the health risk that smoke from fuelwood poses. Rural electricity generation also supplies pipe-borne water, community toilets and organic fertilizer for farmers. The slurry, which is the by-product of the biogas, is an odourless, pathogen free organic fertilizer that is high in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. It is useful for crop production, fish farming and mushroom cultivation. Farmers now realize that energy can be extracted from cowdung, human waste, agricultural residue and other biomass resources and the biomass can still maintain its function as good organic manure. (author)

  6. Effects of Co and Ni nanoparticles on biogas and methane production from anaerobic digestion of slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelsalam, E.; Samer, M.; Attia, Y.A.; Abdel-Hadi, M.A.; Hassan, H.E.; Badr, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of trace metals in form of nanoparticles reduced the lag phase. • Nanoparticles reduced time to achieve the highest biogas and methane production. • Biogas and methane production were proportional to nanoparticles concentration. • Nanoparticles biostimulate the methanogenic bacteria and increase their activity. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) were hypothesized to enhance the anaerobic process and to accelerate the slurry digestion, which increases the biogas and methane production. The effects of NPs on biogas and methane production were investigated using a specially designed batch anaerobic system. For this purpose, a series of 2 L biodigesters were manufactured and implemented to study the effects of Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni) nanoparticles with different concentrations on biogas and methane production. The best results of NPs additives were determined based on the statistical analysis (Least Significant Difference using M-Stat) of biogas and methane production, which were 1 mg/L Co NPs and 2 mg/L Ni NPs (p < 0.05). These NPs additives delivered the highest biogas and methane yields in comparison with their other concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L), their salts (CoCl_2, and NiCl_2) and the control. Furthermore, the addition of 1 mg/L Co NPs and 2 mg/L Ni NPs significantly increased the biogas volume (p < 0.05) by 1.64 and 1.74 times the biogas volume produced by the control, respectively. Moreover, the aforementioned additives significantly increased the methane volume (p < 0.05) by 1.86 and 2.01 times the methane volume produced by the control, respectively. The highest specific biogas and methane production were attained with 2 mg/L Ni NPs (p < 0.05), and were 614.5 ml Biogas g"−"1 VS and 361.6 ml CH_4 g"−"1 VS, respectively compared with the control which yielded only 352.6 ml Biogas g"−"1 VS and 179.6 ml CH_4 g"−"1 VS.

  7. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of food waste and relevant air quality implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeff; Dow, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Biopower can diversify energy supply and improve energy resiliency. Increases in biopower production from sustainable biomass can provide many economic and environmental benefits. For example, increasing biogas production through anaerobic digestion of food waste would increase the use of renewable fuels throughout California and add to its renewables portfolio. Although a biopower project will produce renewable energy, the process of producing bioenergy should harmonize with the goal of protecting public health. Meeting air emission requirements is paramount to the successful implementation of any biopower project. A case study was conducted by collecting field data from a wastewater treatment plant that employs anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease (FOG), food waste, and wastewater sludge, and also uses an internal combustion (IC) engine to generate biopower using the biogas. This research project generated scientific information on (a) quality and quantity of biogas from anaerobic codigestion of food waste and municipal wastewater sludge, (b) levels of contaminants in raw biogas that may affect beneficial uses of the biogas, (c) removal of the contaminants by the biogas conditioning systems, (d) emissions of NO x , SO 2 , CO, CO 2 , and methane, and (e) types and levels of air toxics present in the exhausts of the IC engine fueled by the biogas. The information is valuable to those who consider similar operations (i.e., co-digestion of food waste with municipal wastewater sludge and power generation using the produced biogas) and to support rulemaking decisions with regards to air quality issues for such applications. Full-scale operation of anaerobic codigestion of food waste with municipal sludge is viable, but it is still new. There is a lack of readily available scientific information on the quality of raw biogas, as well as on potential emissions from power generation using this biogas. This research developed scientific information with regard to

  8. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  9. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  10. Actual developments and latest trends in the field of biogas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavoliuniene, D.; Krieg, A.; Mitterleitner, H.; Schulz, H.

    1994-01-01

    At present the agricultural biogas technology is experiencing an enormous upswing. The reasons for this are above all the new law about the electric current supply from regenerative sources and its reimbursement, the progress in the construction and system technology, economic and ecological aspects and the fermentation of recyclings at the food processing industry. In this paper the actually interesting technical and constructional solutions as well as the new developments for biogas plants are discussed. The most important results of the measurements and practical tests were explained. Furthermore the appropriate possibilities of the gas utilisation and the economic aspects are discussed. Finally a forecasting is given for future tasks and developments, for the biogas generation from grass and other plants, the utilisation of organic waste and for foil biogas plants. (orig.) [de

  11. Proposal of the system for the biogas purification using vitreous and natural zeolite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, Lianys; Fernández SantanI, Elina; Alfonso Martínez, Félix Enrique; Aguiar RoqueI, Yania; Rodríguez Muñoz, Susana

    2017-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of climate change is to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy such as biogas, but the amount of hydrogen sulphide in it represents an impediment to its use, because of its negative impacts on human health, materials of construction and the environment, being essential its reduction or elimination. For this reason, it was defined as aim to propose an effective method for the purification of biogas using membranes constructed from vitreous waste materials and natural cuban zeolite. This treatment requires four membranes with their supports and eight valves and could be used by small farmers for the purification of 1.4 m 3 of biogas per day, an amount necessary for the cooking of three meals of a family of five people, being the cost of the biogas purification process equal to 0.06%/m 3 . (author)

  12. Biogas - a contribution to solving the energy supply problem of cheese factories. Biogas - ein Beitrag zur Loesung des Energieversorgungsproblems der gewerblichen Kaesereien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, R

    1984-01-01

    During a 2-years-monitoring period different types of biogas-plants installed in the cheese factories 'Giessen', 'Steinenbrugg', 'Niederstetten' and 'Bodmen' have been investigated. Piggeries with 400 to 700 finishing places were attached to these cheese factories. These four milk processing plants are representative of an average Swiss cheese factory processing 800,000 to 1,500,000 liters of milk a year. The investigations showed that the energy-demand of the cheese-factories is ideal for the use of biogas. The capacities of gas- and hot-water-storage can be planned with a minimum reserve because in most cases cheese fabrication takes place daily. Apart from the fabrication process, the residence of the cheese maker, the cheese cellar, the feed-preparation, the finishing building and the hot-water supply need heat. There are no longtime peak-demands. The swine manure, well qualified for biogas production, is digested during a retention time of 2 to 10 weeks. The plants are heated with biogas excepted the one installed in 'Bodmen'. The gas yield of the mesophilic working flow-plants reaches 0.4 (Nm/sup 3//kgOS), which means the double value of the psychrophilic working storage plant 'Bodmen'. The plants in 'Giessen' and 'Steinenbrugg' need 20 to 40 (%) of the gas-production for their reactor-heating. Therefore the net gas-production of all four plants remained nearly identic. In all cheese-factories the biogas is burned for the heat-supply. The biogas covered of the total energy demand in the average 40 (%) in 'Steinenbrugg', 60 (%) in 'Niederstetten' and 33 (%) in 'Bodmen'. In 'Giessen' the rate was lower due to biogas-tests. An imaginary cheese-factory in the size of 'Giessen' equipped with a total energy-modul (gas-motor, generator, heat-pump) was tested by ENSIM. The result proofed that an energy autarcy is possible due to an enormeous technical installation.

  13. Establishment of a biogas grid and interaction between a biogas grid and a natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2011-01-15

    The project has aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of a large biogas net in Ringkoebing Skjern municipality in Denmark, which wants to become self-sufficient in renewable energy by 2020. It is estimated that the biogas potential in the municipality is about. 60 mill. m3 methane gas a year. Half of the methane will be generated by digesting 80 % of the area's slurry, while the other half will be produced from energy crops. It will require an area equivalent to 5 % of the municipality's farmland. The idea is to establish decentralized 60-80 and 1-3 large centralized biogas plants, and that the produced biogas is distributed to natural gas-fired decentralized power plants. Based on this framework, a number of issues for the establishment of a biogas net have been investigated. These are: - the relation between biogas production and demand; - biogas compared to the overall energy system, - purification and measurement of biogas; - conversion of natural gas-fired power plants to biogas; - the value of biogas for cogeneration plants; - design of a biogas distribution net; - ownership and accountability; - potential business models. (LN)

  14. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...... degradable fraction of manure in the biogas process. 2. Separation of the residual recalcitrant digested fiber fraction project. 3. Ultrasound and/or enzymatic treatment of the digested fiber fraction. 4. Recirculation of the treated fiber fraction into the reactor.......In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily...

  15. Growth of Highly Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ Films from a Simple Propionate-Based Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Torres, Pol; Tang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Intensive investigations have been conducted to develop epitaxial oxide thin films with superior electromagnetic performance by low-cost chemical solution deposition routes. In this paper, a novel propionate-based precursor solution without involving any other additive was proposed and employed...... to grow superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single crystals. The precursor solutions are stable with a long shelf life of up to several months. Since the primary compositions are propionates after evaporating the solvent, the toxic reagents and evolved gases during solution synthesis...... and heat treatment can be eliminated completely. In this process, rapid pyrolysis and high conversation rate can also be achieved during growth of YBCO films in comparison with the conventional trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition routes. Remarkably, a 210 nm YBCO film exhibits high superconducting...

  16. Assessment of the degradation efficiency of full-scale biogas plants: A comparative study of degradation indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Nges, Ivo Achu; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Haoyu

    2017-11-01

    Increasing popularity and applications of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process has necessitated the development and identification of tools for obtaining reliable indicators of organic matter degradation rate and hence evaluate the process efficiency especially in full-scale, commercial biogas plants. In this study, four biogas plants (A1, A2, B and C) based on different feedstock, process configuration, scale and operational performance were selected and investigated. Results showed that the biochemical methane potential (BMP) based degradation rate could be use in incisively gauging process efficiency in lieu of the traditional degradation rate indicators. The BMP degradation rates ranged from 70 to 90% wherein plants A2 and C showed the highest throughput. This study, therefore, corroborates the feasibility of using the BMP degradation rate as a practical tool for evaluating process performance in full-scale biogas processes and spots light on the microbial diversity in full-scale biogas processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria using FTIR Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Nalepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria have been identified at the genus level with the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Bacterial strains of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were analyzed since they deliver health benefits and are routinely used in the food processing industry. The correctness of bacterial identification by ANNs and FTIR was evaluated at two stages. At first stage, ANNs were tested based on the spectra of 66 reference bacterial strains. At second stage, the evaluation involved 286 spectra of bacterial strains isolated from food products, deposited in our laboratory collection, and identified by genus-specific PCR. ANNs were developed based on the spectra and their first derivatives. The most satisfactory results were reported for the probabilistic neural network, which was built using a combination of W5W4W3 spectral ranges. This network correctly identified the genus of 95 % of the lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria strains analyzed.

  18. Proposal and assessment of a novel integrated CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Bosheng; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy is raised. •Chemical and physical energy of biogas is efficiently used in a cascaded way. •The energy quality of concentrating solar heat is promoted in the system. •A parametric analysis is adopted to optimize the thermodynamic performance. •A typical-day study is conducted to explore the general operation features. -- Abstract: The conventional way to utilize biogas either is energy-intensive due to biogas upgrading or causes huge waste of energy grade and environmental pollution by direct burning. This paper proposes a biogas and solar energy-assisted combined cooling, heating and power (BSCCHP) system that upgrades the caloric value of biogas before combustion by introducing a thermochemical conversion process that is driven by solar heat. Adopting commercially established technologies including steam reforming and parabolic dish concentrators, the system exhibits an enhanced system exergy efficiency, and the technology considerably reduces the direct CO 2 footprint and saves depletable fossil fuel. With a solar thermal share of 22.2%, the proposed system not only has a high net solar-to-product thermal and exergy efficiency of 46.80% and 26.49%, respectively, but also results in a commensurate 18.27% reduction of the direct CO 2 footprint compared with the reference individual systems. The effect of critical parameters in the biogas steam reforming process on the system performance was studied. A proper selection of the steam/carbon ratio leads to the optimal direct CO 2 footprint and system exergy efficiency. Pursuing a very high conversion of biogas by improving the reforming temperature is not a wise choice from a system perspective. Finally, a typical-day dynamic simulation was conducted to preliminarily explore the general operation features. This study may provide a new way to efficiently use the renewable energy in the distributed energy system.

  19. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  20. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.