WorldWideScience

Sample records for biofuel industry policy

  1. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  2. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  3. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  4. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  5. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension....

  6. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  7. Innovation subject to sustainability : the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Pacini; Alexandre Betinardi Strapasson

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biof...

  8. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  9. Making the market: How U.S. Policy influences near term agriculture and biofuel industry production and profitability under technology adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Seth D.; Binfield, Julian C.R.; Westhoff, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    The beneficiaries of technology adoption in agriculture and biofuels markets in the United States are heavily influenced by domestic biofuel policies and market context. Biofuel mandates, one of the key pillars of domestic biofuel policies, may significantly alter the elasticity of demand for biofuels as well as the derived demand for maize used to produce a significant share of ethanol in the United States. Using a stochastic agriculture and biofuels model, we assess how the introduction of ...

  10. Policies and regulations affecting biofuel development in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouk, Benard O.; Kirui, Shadrack; Theuri, Daniel; Wakhungu, Judi W.

    2008-12-15

    An assessment of government initiatives to encourage biofuel development finds the industry is hampered by a lack of policy frameworks. The policy brief looks at the status and possibilities for the various initiatives.

  11. Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

  12. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  13. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  14. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  15. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  16. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  17. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  18. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from ''seed to wheel'', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its ''Plan Climat'' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (author)

  19. U.S. Biofuels Industry. Mind the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This report was prepared is intended to provide an objective view of the evolving biofuels industry and many of its key participants. It is the second “Year in Review” report created for use by an intended audience of industry, investor, policy maker, and regulator stakeholders. This report covers the 2-year period of 2008-2009.

  20. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    also demanded by other sectors, particularly the energy sector to produce renewable electricity and heat, and the forest-based industries to produce wood products. Yet, policy support and initiatives can stimulate the synergies between the stationary energy sector and biofuels and the forest industry can include biofuels among the wide range of products already produced. One possible option is to stimulate supply side development by promoting dedicated biomass plantations to achieve learning and cost reduction in the production of short rotation woody plants and perennial herbaceous plants. This can for instance be done by linking credits for green electricity from co-firing applications with the requirement that a certain share of the biomass fuel is derived from production of such plants within EU. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Integration initiatives may involve cooperation between actors that earlier have not invested in biofuel production, such as municipalities having large district heating networks and power companies that see new opportunities for optimizing their production and improving resource use efficiency. In an increasingly globalized economy, decreasing negative impacts of biofuels on commodity markets and the environment require not only integration of various policy domains but also strategies that are internationally recognized. The early stimulation and learning in new biomass supply systems and the involvement of new types of actors cooperating in biofuel production can facilitate a positive development by reducing strains between sectors and offering opportunities for improving economic and resource use efficiency.

  1. Private governance in the biofuel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2010-01-01

    "The boom of biofuel is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with most crucial consequences in the agro-food sector. For instance, spurred by the increasing use of corn for ethanol, tortilla prices in Mexico suddenly tripled in early 2007. While the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food Jean Ziegler is demanding an international five-year ban on producing biofuels to combat soaring food prices, the biofuel industry is responding with first ini...

  2. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: → Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. → Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. → The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  3. Fuelling expectations: A policy-promise lock-in of UK biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controversy over EU-wide biofuel policy resonated within the UK, fuelling policy disagreements among UK public authorities. They disagreed over how to protect a space for future second-generation biofuels, which were expected to overcome harm from first-generation biofuels. The UK government defended rising targets for available biofuels as a necessary stimulus for industry to help fulfil the UK's EU obligations and eventually develop second-generation biofuels. By contrast, Parliamentary Select Committees opposed biofuel targets on grounds that these would instead lock-in first-generation biofuels, thus delaying or pre-empting second-generation biofuels. Those disagreements can be explained by different institutional responsibilities and reputational stakes towards ‘promise-requirement cycles’, whereby techno-optimistic promises generate future requirements for the actors involved. The UK government's stance illustrates a ‘policy-promise lock-in’, a dilemma whereby promised support is a requirement for credibility towards technology innovators and thus technoscientific development – but may delay the redirection of support from incumbent to preferable emerging technologies. Thus the sociology of expectations – previously applied to technological expectations from technology innovators – can be extended to analyse public authorities. - Highlights: • Controversy over EU-wide biofuel policy resonated within the UK. • At issue was how to stimulate future 2nd-generation biofuels. • The government defended targets for 1st-generation as necessary to stimulate industry. • Parliamentary Committees opposed biofuel targets as locking in 1st-generation. • The UK government′s stance illustrates a ‘policy-promise lock-in’

  4. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

  5. For a new industrial policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the french industrial policy, this report suggests some new avenues of research programs. In the domain of the energy, the author proposes: the fuel cell and the hydrogen, the nuclear of IV generation, the nuclear wastes management, the clean and low consumption vehicle, the biofuels, the solar photovoltaic, the CO2 picking and storage. (A.L.B.)

  6. Biofuel Policies and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify whether or not the green paradox is withheld when renewable fuel standards and blending mandate policies implemented by the U.S. and EU, respectively, are employed to promote the use of biofuels in the transport sector. The problem is addressed using a simplified model of the global transport market for energy, provided solely by fossil-based fuels made from oil and biofuels. A climate change model translates emissions from the use of the fossil-based fuels to ...

  7. The biofuel support policy. Public thematic report. Assessing a public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first part, this detailed report gives an overview of some key facts regarding biofuels: energy context, biofuels and energy, biofuels and agriculture, multiple and superimposed regulation levels, financial data, and international comparisons. The second part analyses the positions of the different actors (oil industry and dealers, car manufacturers, bio-diesel producers, ethanol producers, farmers producing raw materials, consumer associations, defenders of the environment, public bodies). The third part reports the assessment of the French public policy in terms of efficiency. Some recommendations are made

  8. Food Aid and Biofuels: The Effects of Biofuel Policies on Procurement and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, Ryan T.; Kerr, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The food-aid community almost unanimously condemns policies that encourage crop production for fuel. Both food-aid donors and recipients are concerned that biofuels will increase foodgrain prices and leave donors unable to meet commitments. The effects of biofuel-induced higher cereal prices on food-aid recipients are complicated functions of several factors, each of which must be considered in an analysis of the effects of biofuel policies. These factors include the level of biofuel-induced ...

  9. The role of sustainability and life cycle thinking in U.S. biofuels policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of the U.S. federal biofuel-related policies, from 1955 to 2012, was conducted to examine the progression of life cycle thinking within the policies. Over 1300 past and present federal and state biofuel laws and incentives were analyzed to identify the establishment of Life-cycle thinking (LCT) in the biofuel policies. The policies were searched for search terms representing the three themes: life cycle assessment, environmental impact and sustainability. LCT in policies was first seen in the Renewable Fuel Standard under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, where life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions reduction of biofuels was required. Existing U.S. biofuel policies were also characterized to define types of policy as tax incentive, grants, mandate, etc. The results suggested that climate change or energy incentives, air quality or emissions, etc. should be more emphasized in fuel legislation for a continuous improvement of biofuels industry. Only 13% of both the federal and state policies reviewed in this study employed some aspect of LCT. Policies that incorporate LCT often only focused on greenhouse gas emissions; policies should include other environmental impacts to avoid any environmental tradeoffs and unintended consequences from biofuel production. - Highlights: • Identified the establishment of sustainability and life-cycle thinking in biofuel policy. • Presented the spatial distribution of state U.S. biofuels policies and production via GIS. • Analyzed past and present federal and state environmental policies progression toward biofuels. • Life-cycle thinking was only present in 13% of federal and state policies current as of 2013

  10. Public policy and biofuels: The way forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biofuels has been given much attention by governments around the world, especially in increasingly energy-hungry OECD nations. Proponents have argued that they offer various advantages over hydrocarbon-based fuels, especially with respect to reducing dependence on OPEC-controlled oil, minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensuring financial and lifestyle continuity to farmers and agriculturally dependent communities. This paper adds to the continuing technical debate by addressing the issue from a holistic public policy perspective. In particular, it looks at the proposed benefits of biofuels, yet also addresses the implications of increased demand on the global and regional environment, in addition to the economic welfare of developing nations. Furthermore, it posits that short-term reliance on biofuels vis-a-vis other alternative energy sources may potentially inhibit the development and maturation of longer-term technologies that have greater potential to correct the harmful effects of fossil-fuel dependence. In light of this, the manifold policy instruments currently employed or proposed by governments in developed nations to promote biofuels emerge as questionable

  11. Biofuels. Handle with care. An analysis of EU biofuel policy with recommendations for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    For many policymakers biofuels must have seemed like a dream-come-true. The arguments put forward by supporters were plentiful and powerful. Carbon Dioxide emissions (CO2) could be cut because the biofuel crops absorb CO2 while they grow and energy security could be guaranteed because biofuels can be grown at home or imported from stable regions rather than oil states. The car industry also liked them because they took political focus away from vehicle fuel efficiency as a route to cutting CO2 emissions. Cars require only minor modifications to become green-looking 'flexfuel' models. Farmers liked them because it created another market for their products and even oil companies came to like them, because it enabled them to look more 'green'. The EU and other regions hurried to put in place volume targets and financial incentives to force the market to adopt biofuels. However, in the rush, the full impacts of their production were not well understood. And, by focusing on a single nascent technology, rather than on the goal - carbon emissions reductions - the dream soon turned to a nightmare. It has now become clear that there is no simple answer to the question of whether biofuels are truly a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. The evidence, much of it published in the last three years, suggests that in the vast majority of existing cases, they are not. A change to current policy is needed. This report follows the adoption, at the end of 2008, of the European Union's mandatory 10% renewable energy target for transport, to be reached by 2020. It attempts to assess the environmental implications of that policy. Its key findings are that if the target is, as is widely accepted, almost completely to be met through the use of biofuels, it is highly unlikely to be met sustainably. In short, there is a very substantial risk that current policy will cause more harm than good. One of the most important reasons for this is the failure to account

  12. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generatio...

  13. Industrial policy for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Farla, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    This study distinguishes between industrial policy that stimulates incumbent industry development, `pro-business policy', and industrial policy that promotes the development of free markets, `pro-market policy'. We find that there is a positive relation between the level of countries' implementation of these policies. However, we find opposite effects of pro-business and pro-market policies when estimating the policy effect on growth and income level. Pro-business policy has a positive effect...

  14. The seesaw of Germany's biofuel policy – Tracing the evolvement to its current state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, biofuels represent one of the most common options for larger scale substitution of conventional fuels. Due to the trans-sectoral nature of biofuels, a multitude of factors and actors determine the according policies of governments and the beliefs of societies. Especially since some impacts of biomass cultivation for bioenergy production are not yet fully understood. This article aims at showing the drivers that led to an introduction of biofuel policies in Germany and explains Germany's pioneering role in the promotion of bioenergy. Thereby the focus lies on the role of the main actors and their composition of so called discourse coalitions. The analysis indicates that the origin of the biofuel industry was a result of national and supranational market interventions, as well as it was intermittently an instrument of supporting renewable energies. Along the seesaw of Germany's biofuel policies seven discourse coalitions were identified who compete for discursive hegemony in order to gain political influence. -- Highlights: •Germany had a pioneering role when the political promotion of bioenergy and biofuels started at the end of the 1990s. •Both national and European constellations lay the ground for German biofuel sector. •Public perception of biofuels and discourse dynamics changed over time. •Seven discourse coalitions have been identified within the German biofuel sector. Four are rather proponents of biofuels and three opponents

  15. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ► Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ► The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ► Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ► Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  16. Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are the policies conducive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops.

  17. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  18. Considering Trade Policies for Liquid Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami; Mitchell, Donald; Ward, William

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses the issues associated with trade in liquid biofuels is a second Energy Sector Management Assistance Program report on biofuels, and part of a broader assessment of bioenergy undertaken by the World Bank. The report asks how liberalizing trade in liquid biofuels might affect biofuel production and consumption. Bioenergy is playing an increasingly important role as an a...

  19. Sustainability Opportunities and Challenges of the Biofuels Industry

    OpenAIRE

    França, Cesar L.; Maddigan, Kate; White, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Liquid biofuels are being produced to displace fossil fuels for transportation, with bioethanol and biodiesel being the primary biofuels produced for this purpose in the world today. While there is consensus on the need for a sustainable biofuels industry, there is little consensus on how to proceed to avoid environmental and social degradation with global biofuel production. A literature review of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) data, and the generic Strategic Life-Cycle Management (SLCM) and Temp...

  20. An overview of biofuel technologies, markets and policies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For fuels produced from biomass, various conversion routes are available that follow from the different types of biomass that can serve as a feedstock. These conversion technologies are discussed in both technological and economic terms. For each route, the fuel characteristics of the biofuel are described and compared to those of the fossil fuel it can replace, either petrol or diesel. Currently, the European biofuel market only consists of biodiesel (e.g. Rapeseed Methyl Ester, RME) and ethanol (and its derivative ETBE). The production and application of these biofuels is discussed for the most important biofuel countries in the European Union and the countries in which the use of biofuels is less developed. The report also describes national and European policies aimed at stimulating the production and application of biofuels. There is a special focus on two European Directive proposals on the promotion of the use of biofuels in transport and the process towards adoption of these Directives

  1. Assessing the Economic, Environmental and Social Sustainability of Biofuel Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels started to raise interest almost 40 years ago, when the Arab oil embargo pushed oil prices up and therefore spurred the research towards new forms of energy. Nevertheless, biofuel production has not really taken off until recently, when the combination of high oil prices, concern about greenhouse gas emissions, and the progressive reduction of oil reserves induced many countries across the world to implement policies encouraging biofuels production. At the beginning of the 2000s, ...

  2. Review of environmental, economic and policy aspects of biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David

    2007-01-01

    The world is witnessing a sudden growth in production of biofuels, especially those suited for replacing oil like ethanol and biodiesel. This paper synthesizes what the environmental, economic, and policy literature predicts about the possible effects of these types of biofuels. Another motivation is to identify gaps in understanding and recommend areas for future work. The analysis finds ...

  3. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generation biofuels is higher. Therefore the development of the third-generation biofuels is undergoing. The third-generation technologies use, mainly algae, as raw material to produce bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel and hydrogen, and use discarded fruits to produce dimethylfuran, etc. Different countries and regions are experiencing different stages of biofuel industry. In the future the raw materials for biofuel production will be focused on various by-products, wastes, and organisms that have not direct economic benefit for human. Production technologies should be improved or invented to reduce carbon emission and environmental pollution during biofuel production and to reduce production cost.

  4. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe

  5. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs

  6. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla;

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy. It...... assesses current initiatives, policies and arrangements and proposes an overview of stakeholders' positions at EU and national levels in order to feed into the debate on how to improve competitiveness and growth in Europe....

  7. On mitigating emissions leakage under biofuel policies

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, D

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. A reason for much pessimism about the environmental benefits of today's biofuels, essentially corn and sugarcane ethanol, is the so-called indirect land-use change (ILUC) emissions associated with expanding biofuel production. While there exist several simulation-based estimates of indirect emissions, the empirical basis underlying key input parameters to such simulations is not beyond doubt, while empirical verification of indirect emissions is hard. Regardless,...

  8. Consequences of EU Biofuel Policies on Agricultural Production and Land Use

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, M.A.H.; Meijl, van, H.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    This article assesses the implications of European Union (EU) biofuel policies based on a general equilibrium framework with endogenous land supply. The results show that, without policy intervention to stimulate the use of biofuel crops, the targets set by the EU Biofuels Directive will not be met. European biofuel policies boosting demand for biofuel crops have a strong impact on agriculture globally and within Europe, leading to an increase in land use. On the other hand, the long–term dec...

  9. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production.

  10. Micro-economic modelling of biofuel system in France to determine tax exemption policy under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid biofuel support program launched in 1993 in France is implemented through tax exemptions to biofuels produced by agro-industrial chains. Activity levels are fixed by decree and allocated by the government to the different chains. Based on earmarked budget increase voted in the parliament, total quantity of biofuels will be increased by 50% in the horizon 2002-2003. A micro-economic biofuel activity model containing a detailed agricultural sector component, that is represented by 700 farms, is used to estimate costs and surpluses generated by the activity at the national level as well as tax exemption levels. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to search for efficient tax exemptions policies in an uncertain environment, where biofuel profitability is significantly affected by petroleum price and soja cake prices. Results suggest that, for the most efficient units both at the industry level (large size biomass conversion units) and at the agricultural sector level (most productive farms), unitary tax exemptions could be decreased by 10-20% for both biofuels, ethyl ether and methyl ester, with no risk for the viability of any existing chain

  11. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  12. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity. PMID:25289698

  13. External governance and the EU policy for sustainable biofuels, the case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing demand for transport biofuels in the EU is driving an expansion of the industry in developing countries. Large-scale production of energy crops for biofuel, if mismanaged, could cause detrimental environmental and social impacts. The aim of this study is to examine whether the newly adopted EU Directive 2009/28/EC and its sustainability certification system can effectively ensure sustainable production of biofuels outside the EU. Mozambique, a least developed country with biofuels ambitions, is selected as empirical case. The effectiveness of the EU policy in analysed employing ideal models of external governance (hierarchical, market and network governance) as analytical framework. The findings show that the EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results. Stronger emphasis on a network oriented approach based on substantial involvement of foreign actors, and on international policy legitimacy is suggested as a way forward. (author)

  14. External governance and the EU policy for sustainable biofuels, the case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing demand for transport biofuels in the EU is driving an expansion of the industry in developing countries. Large-scale production of energy crops for biofuel, if mismanaged, could cause detrimental environmental and social impacts. The aim of this study is to examine whether the newly adopted EU Directive 2009/28/EC and its sustainability certification system can effectively ensure sustainable production of biofuels outside the EU. Mozambique, a least developed country with biofuels ambitions, is selected as empirical case. The effectiveness of the EU policy in analysed employing ideal models of external governance (hierarchical, market and network governance) as analytical framework. The findings show that the EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results. Stronger emphasis on a network oriented approach based on substantial involvement of foreign actors, and on international policy legitimacy is suggested as a way forward. - Research highlights: →The EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. →The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results.→In order to promote simultaneously stable and substantial impacts, the EU governance approach based on market access should be integrated with a network mode of governance based on policy legitimacy.

  15. Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model -- a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system -- that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial positive effect on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as supportive policies, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments.

  16. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  17. Iran Car Industry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Koohi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran government has taken a new policy called Import Replacement in the recent three decades. Although export extension is the future goal of this industry. We have got four periods during these years. The first period is an abortive support to this industry without any schedule. The second period during the time of the imposed war is a decade of effort to exist. But the outcome was to move awkwardly. The third period is at the same time as the economic modification policy and is a kind of lost opportunity with positive actions but in year 1974 this industry was born and came in to existence again, the outset of investments that can draw a clear vision into the future.

  18. The impact of biofuel policies on the Brazilian dairy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Carvalho R.; Richardson, James W.; Bryant, Henry L.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the fourth largest country in milk production and both production and consumption of dairy products are growing fast. However, it is unknown how the dairy sector reacts to exogenous shocks. A structural econometric model of the Brazilian dairy sector is used to analyze the consequences of biofuel policies on the production, consumption, and price of milk. The paper aims to evaluate how the Renewable Fuel Standard policy in the U.S. and the sugar cane policy in Brazil affect the dair...

  19. The Theory of Biofuel Policy and Food Grain Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Drabik, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    We develop an analytical framework to assess the market effects of alternative biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects on corn prices. We determine the ‘no policy’ ethanol price; analyze the implications for the ‘no policy’ corn price and resulting ‘water’ in the ethanol price premium due to policy; and generalize the unique interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn prod...

  20. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  1. Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry : Quantification of the Environmental Performance and Identification of Synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The production of biofuels has increased in recent years, to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change. However, current production practices are heavily criticized on their environmental sustainability. Life cycle assessments have therefore been used in policies and academic studies to assess the systems; with divergent results. In the coming years however, biofuel production practices must improve to meet strict environmental sustainability policies. The aims of the ...

  2. An overview of biofuel policies across the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade biofuel production has been driven by governmental policies. This article reviews the national strategy plans of the world's leading producers. Particular attention is dedicated to blending targets, support schemes and feedstock use. Individual country profiles are grouped by continent and include North America (Canada and the US), South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia), Europe (the European Union, France, and Germany), Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Australia.

  3. How Biofuels Policies Boosted Grain Staple Prices: A Counterfactual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenrieth, Eugenio; Wright, Brian; Zeng, Di

    2014-01-01

    We empirically address the implications of biofuel policy regarding major grains, to the subsequent evolution of the markets for calories from the three major grains, maize, wheat and rice. The implied market variables, namely, market price, consumption, and stocks, using a structurally estimated model combined with data on current and projected demand shifts, replicate the levels and dynamics of actual market behaviors, including the price rise before and during the 2007-2008 world food pric...

  4. RED vs. REDD: Biofuel Policy vs. Forest Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Peter; van Meijl, Hans; Rimmer, Maureen; Shutes, Lindsay; Tabeau, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the complex interplay between global Renewable Energy Directives (RED) and the United Nations programme to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). We examine the interaction of the two policies using a scenario approach with a recursive-dynamic global Computable General Equilibrium model. The consequences of a global biofuel directive on worldwide land use, agricultural production, international trade flows, food prices and food security out to 2...

  5. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses the...... conditions under which industrial policies are successfully implemented. It presents an analytical approach to understanding why some ruling elite-capitalist alliances lead to better economic outcomes than others. Sub-Saharan African countries present a particular puzzle given their low productive...

  6. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  7. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Lin, Yolanda; Bierwagen, Britta G.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Morefield, Philip E.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian W.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  8. Biomass and Biofuel Potential of Food Industry in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    İşçi, Ebru Deniz, Gülen Yeşilören, Necla Özdem

    2015-01-01

    Progressive decrease in fossil fuel resources as a natural consequence of rapid population growth anddeveloping technology has increased the need for renewable and sustainable energy resources. Inrecent years, interest in energy obtained from biomass (i.e. biofuel) has increased as an alternative toexisting energy sources due to its contribution to sustainable development. Food industry wastes arevaluable sources of biomass. In this study, the amount of food waste generated in fruit juice, ve...

  9. Alternative Energy Science and Policy: Biofuels as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammous, Saifedean H.

    This dissertation studies the science and policy-making of alternative energy using biofuels as a case study, primarily examining the instruments that can be used to alleviate the impacts of climate change and their relative efficacy. Three case studies of policy-making on biofuels in the European Union, United States of America and Brazil are presented and discussed. It is found that these policies have had large unintended negative consequences and that they relied on Lifecycle Analysis studies that had concluded that increased biofuels production can help meet economic, energy and environmental goals. A close examination of these Lifecycle Analysis studies reveals that their results are not conclusive. Instead of continuing to attempt to find answers from Lifecycle Analyses, this study suggests an alternative approach: formulating policy based on recognition of the ignorance of real fuel costs and pollution. Policies to combat climate change are classified into two distinct approaches: policies that place controls on the fuels responsible for emissions and policies that target the pollutants themselves. A mathematical model is constructed to compare these two approaches and address the central question of this study: In light of an ignorance of the cost and pollution impacts of different fuels, are policies targeting the pollutants themselves preferable to policies targeting the fuels? It is concluded that in situations where the cost and pollution functions of a fuel are unknown, subsidies, mandates and caps on the fuel might result in increased or decreased greenhouse gas emissions; on the other hand, a tax or cap on carbon dioxide results in the largest decrease possible of greenhouse gas emissions. Further, controls on greenhouse gases are shown to provide incentives for the development and advancement of cleaner alternative energy options, whereas controls on the fuels are shown to provide equal incentives to the development of cleaner and dirtier

  10. For a new industrial policy; Pour une nouvelle politique industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beffa, J.L

    2005-01-01

    After a presentation of the french industrial policy, this report suggests some new avenues of research programs. In the domain of the energy, the author proposes: the fuel cell and the hydrogen, the nuclear of IV generation, the nuclear wastes management, the clean and low consumption vehicle, the biofuels, the solar photovoltaic, the CO{sub 2} picking and storage. (A.L.B.)

  11. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  12. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Peterson, Steven O.

    2015-09-03

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  13. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Assessment of biofuels supporting policies using the BioTrans model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of advanced, 2nd generation biofuels is a difficult to forecast process. Policies may impact the timing of their introduction and the future biofuels mix. The least-cost optimization model BioTrans supports policy analyses on these issues. It includes costs for all parts of the supply chain, and endogenous learning for all biofuels technologies, including cost reductions through scale. BioTrans shows that there are significant lock-in effects favouring traditional biofuels, and that the optimal biofuels mix by 2030 is path dependent. The model captures important barriers for the introduction of emerging technologies, thereby providing valuable quantitative information that can be used in analyses of biofuels supporting policies. It is shown that biodiesel from oil crops will remain a cost effective way of producing biofuels in the medium term at moderate target levels. Aiming solely at least-cost biofuel production is in conflict with a longer term portfolio approach on biofuels, and the desire to come to biofuels with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions. Lowering the targets because of environmental constraints delays the development of 2nd generation biofuels, unless additional policy measures (such as specific sub targets for these fuels) are implemented.

  15. Assessment of biofuels supporting policies using the BioTrans model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of advanced, 2nd generation biofuels is a difficult process to forecast. Policies may impact the timing of their introduction and the future biofuels mix. The least-cost optimization model BioTrans supports policy analyses on these issues. It includes costs for all parts of the supply chain, and endogenous learning for all biofuels technologies, including cost reductions through scale. BioTrans shows that there are significant lock-in effects favouring traditional biofuels, and that the optimal biofuels mix by 2030 is path dependent. The model captures important barriers for the introduction of emerging technologies, thereby providing valuable quantitative information that can be used in analyses of biofuels supporting policies. It is shown that biodiesel from oil crops will remain a cost effective way of producing biofuels in the medium term at moderate target levels. Aiming solely at least-cost biofuel production is in conflict with a longer term portfolio approach on biofuels, and the desire to come to biofuels with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions. Lowering the targets because of environmental constraints delays the development of 2nd generation biofuels, unless additional policy measures (such as specific sub-targets for these fuels) are implemented.

  16. Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report updates the 2013 report of the same title. Some text originally published in that report is retained and indicated in gray. In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model--a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system--that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial growth impact on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as accompanying incentives, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments. Results from the 2013 report are compared to new results. This report does not advocate for or against investments, incentives, or policies, but analyzes simulations of

  17. Fuel for a better climate - market and policy for biofuels; Braensle foer ett baettre klimat - marknad och politik foer biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Ericsson, Karin; Johansson, Helena; Lundmark, Robert; Olsson, Anna; Pavlovskaia, Evgenia; Wilhelmsson, Fredrik

    2010-07-15

    This is a report on how policy instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions affect the production of biofuels and the impacts on other markets caused by an increased production of biofuels. The relevant markets are mainly the markets for food and forest products. Taxes, like the Swedish carbon dioxide tax, and transferable emission rights, like the European Emission Trading System, are examples of instruments that put a price on greenhouse gases. Development of new technology lowers the costs of reducing emissions in the future. A price on greenhouse gas emissions encourages research and development and diffusion of new technology. Instruments used to influence the production of biofuels have partly been justified by the argument that biofuels are carbon neutral. The main instruments used to increase the production of biofuels are tax rebates, blend mandates, trade barriers and subsidies. Nonetheless, biofuels are not only causing emissions of greenhouse gases when combusted. Land conversion, cultivation and harvesting, felling of forests and the industrial process to refine biomass to biofuels also cause emissions. The current policy on biofuels from agriculture to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases is expensive. Biofuels production is supported by subsidies and requirements that impose large costs on taxpayers and consumers. These costs are unnecessarily high; there are other options that give the same effect on emission reductions at a lower cost. Both trade in biofuels and trade in agricultural raw material are restricted by tariffs. This leads to additional costs as biofuels are not produced from the cheapest raw materials and by the most efficient producers. A side effect of the policy is that it becomes less interesting to use land as a carbon sink. If blend mandates, subsidies and tariffs on biofuels were to be removed, production would decrease in countries with high production costs and increase in countries with low production costs, lowering the

  18. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels and Bioproducts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility, a biochemical pilot plant and partnership facility containing equipment and lab space for pretreatement, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, compositional analysis, and downstream processing. For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been at the leading edge of research and technology advancements to develop renewable fuels and bioproducts. NREL works to develop cost-competitive alternatives to conventional transportation fuels and value-added biobased chemicals that can be used to manufacture clothing, plastics, lubricants, and other products. NREL is developing technologies and processes to produce a range of sustainable, energy-dense advanced biofuels that are compatible with our existing transportation fuel infrastructure. As part of that effort, NREL's National Bioenergy Center has entered into more than 90 collaborations in the past five years with companies ranging in size from start-ups to those that appear on Fortune magazine's Fortune 100 list. The new Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) showcases NREL's commitment to collaboration and to meeting the nation's biofuels and bioproducts development and deployment goals. Designed to speed the growth of the biofuels and bioproducts industries, the IBRF is a unique $33.5 million pilot facility capable of supporting a variety of projects. The IBRF is available to industry partners who work with NREL through cooperative research and development, technical, and analytical service agreements. With 27,000 ft2 of high bay space, the IBRF provides industry partners with the opportunity to operate, test, and develop their own biorefining technology and equipment.

  19. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  20. Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Martha J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Townsend, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Biofuels are a new priority in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; nevertheless, the rapid increase in production of biofuel feedstock may threaten biodiversity. There are general principles that should be used in developing guidelines for certifying biodiversity-friendly biofuels. First, biofuel feedstocks should be grown with environmentally safe and biodiversity-friendly agricultural practices. The sustainability of any biofuel feedstock depends on good growing practices and sound environmental practices throughout the fuel-production life cycle. Second, the ecological footprint of a biofuel, in terms of the land area needed to grow sufficient quantities of the feedstock, should be minimized. The best alternatives appear to be fuels of the future, especially fuels derived from microalgae. Third, biofuels that can sequester carbon or that have a negative or zero carbon balance when viewed over the entire production life cycle should be given high priority. Corn-based ethanol is the worst among the alternatives that are available at present, although this is the biofuel that is most advanced for commercial production in the United States. We urge aggressive pursuit of alternatives to corn as a biofuel feedstock. Conservation biologists can significantly broaden and deepen efforts to develop sustainable fuels by playing active roles in pursuing research on biodiversity-friendly biofuel production practices and by helping define biodiversity-friendly biofuel certification standards. PMID:18261147

  1. Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Jan Michael; Klepper, Gernot; Schmitz, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Last year the German Parliament exempted biofuels from the gasoline tax. The promotion of biofuels is being justified by allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. We analyze the basic conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels and show that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive. Using energy and greenhouse gas balances we de...

  2. Effects of US biofuel policies on US and world petroleum product markets with consequences for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US biofuel policy includes greenhouse gas reduction targets. Regulators do not address the potential that biofuel policy can have indirect impacts on greenhouse gases through its impacts on petroleum product markets, and scientific research only partially addresses this question. We use economic models of US biofuel and agricultural markets and US and world petroleum and petroleum product markets to show that discontinuing biofuel tax credits and ethanol tariff lower biofuel use could lead to increased US petroleum product use, and a reduction in petroleum product use in other parts of the world. The net effect is lower greenhouse gas emissions. Under certain assumptions, we show that biofuel use mandate elimination can have positive or negative impacts on greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude and the direction of effects depend on how US biofuel trade affects biofuel in other countries with different emissions, context that determines how important use mandates are in the first place, who pays mandate costs, and the price responsiveness of global petroleum supplies and uses. However, our results show that counter-intuitive effects are possible and discourage broad conclusions about the greenhouse gas impacts of removing these elements of US biofuel policy. - Highlights: → Biofuel policy has counter-intuitive greenhouse gas effects under certain conditions. → US biofuel policies affect global petroleum markets, with implications for GHGs. → US biofuel use mandate GHG effects depend on whether they are binding and who pays. → US biofuel GHGs are sensitive to policy, petroleum market responses, and biofuel trade.

  3. Meeting the global demand for biofuels in 2021 through sustainable land use change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2013 renewable energy policy mandates adopted in twenty-seven countries will increase the need for liquid biofuels. To achieve this, ethanol produced from corn and sugarcane will need to increase from 80 to approximately 200 billion l in 2021. This could be achieved by increasing the productivity of raw material per hectare, expansion of land into dedicated biofuels, or a combination of both. We show here that appropriate land expansion policies focused on conservationist programs and a scientific basis, are important for sustainable biofuel expansion whilst meeting the increasing demand for food and fiber. The Brazilian approach to biofuel and food security could be followed by other nations to provide a sustainable pathway to renewable energy and food production globally. One sentence summary: Conservationist policy programs with scientific basis are key to drive the expansion of biofuel production and use towards sustainability

  4. Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Steven E.; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

    2009-01-01

    The biofuel industry has received billions of dollars in support from governments around the world, as political leaders respond to new environmental and energy-security imperatives. However, a growing body of research highlights nontrivial costs associated with biofuel production, including environmental destruction and diminished food security, and questions the magnitude of perceived benefits. We discuss the ability of biofuels to accomplish climate change, rural development and energy-sec...

  5. Are new industry policies precautionary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; McDaniels, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that regulatory processes and outcomes in the context of a new industry could respond to mechanisms and factors that shape governmental agendas, illustrating how policy can behave reactively rather than in a precautionary manner. In the case of salmon aquaculture, an emerging...... industry characterized by risks, uncertainties, exponential growth, economic significance and environmental controversy, the outcomes of such reactive policies are generally reflected in siting criteria that yield implicit environmental and socio-economic disadvantages and trade-offs. This paper proposes a....... The paper finally argues that, although in practice, policy makers generally tend to make incremental choices that are reactive to diverse issues, new industries could adopt more precautionary policies based on processes of public negotiation, analytical decision making and regional planning based on...

  6. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production: : Quantifying Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Jorge FONSECA

    2011-01-01

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about many issues, including the energy output versus input and the competition with food, has been raised andthe sustainability of biofuels in recent years has been constantly debated. However, the current biofuel systems may be optimized to increase the energy efficiency and environmentalperformance. By using concepts from industrial symbiosis, the material and energy exchangesmay be optimized to result in these performa...

  7. Globalization, crises and industrial policy; Globalizacion, crisis y politica industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, X.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we review the fundamentals of industrial policy and its implementation in the European context. We also analyze the relationship between industrial policy and competition policy. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  9. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H.; Ferroukhi, R. [et al.] [IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  10. Agro-industrial waste to solid biofuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Daniele; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the use of grape marc for energy purposes was investigated. Grape marc is a residual lignocellulosic by-product from the winery industry, which is present in every world region where vine-making is addressed. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization was chosen as a promising alternative thermochemical process, suitable for the treatment of this high moisture substrate. Through a 50 mL experimental apparatus, hydrothermal carbonization tests were performed at several temperatures (namely: 180, 220 and 250 °C) and residence times (1, 3, 8 h). Analyses on both the solid and the gaseous phases obtained downstream of the process were performed. In particular, solid and gas yields versus the process operational conditions were studied and the obtained hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, elemental analysis, and thermal stability. Data testify that hydrochar form grape marc presents interesting values of HHV (in the range 19.8-24.1 MJ/kg) and physical-chemical characteristics which make hydrochar exploitable as a solid biofuel. In the meanwhile, the amount of gases produced is very small, if compared to other thermochemical processes. This represents an interesting result when considering environmental issues. Statistical analysis of data allows to affirm that, in the chosen range of operational conditions, the process is influenced more by temperature than residence time. These preliminary results support the option of upgrading grape marc toward its energetic valorisation through hydrothermal carbonization. PMID:26031328

  11. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  12. Analysis of the Romanian biofuels industry under the current economic conditions using PESTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Paul OLTEANU

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels worldwide recorded considerable growth rates over the last years, making them one of the most flourishing young industries. The biofuels industry within the EU27 focused on the production of biodiesel, which is the equivalent of the regular fossil diesel. Main drivers, which led to this development, were a favorable legislative framework promoted by the EU, which was translated by each EU member state through excise tax exemptions and obligatory fuel blending levels, and higher produ...

  13. Integrated Algae Cultivation for Biofuels Production in Industrial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Sarah; Andersson, Vikor; Hackl, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Declining fossil resources and the issue of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases make global action towards a more sustainable society inevitable. The EU decided in 2007 that 20 % of the union´s energy use should origin from renewable resources by the year 2020. One way of achieving this goal is to increase the utilisation of biofuels. Today 2nd generation biofuels are being developed. They are seen as a more sustainable solution than 1st generation biofuels si...

  14. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura

    2015-07-19

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  15. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries in the...... early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  16. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk.

  17. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk. (author)

  18. Biofuel support policies in Europe. Lessons learnt for the long way ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenthal, Tobias; Leduc, Guillaume; Christidis, Panayotis; Schade, Burkhard [European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Edificio Expo, C/Inca Garcilaso, s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Pelkmans, Luc; Govaerts, Leen [Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium); Georgopoulos, Panagiotis [CERTH/HIT Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, 6th Km Charilaou, Thermi Road, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Biofuel consumption in the EU is growing rapidly but major efforts will need to be undertaken if the EU's objectives for 2010 and beyond are to be achieved. This article analyses the strengths and weaknesses of different biofuel support policies based on the experiences gained in pioneering countries and explores scenarios for their possible impacts in the long-term. It comes to the conclusion that important pre-conditions such as fuel standards and compatibility with engines are in place or being introduced on an EU-wide basis. Current and future policy support therefore focuses on creating favourable economic or legal frameworks to accelerate the market penetration of biofuels. The ambitious targets endorsed in terms of biofuel market shares require the implementation of efficient policy instruments. At the same time, large consumption volumes and the advent of innovative production technologies make it possible for Member States to promote specific types of biofuels, depending on their main objectives and natural potentials. This will require complementary instruments such as subsidies for production facilities, user incentives or feedstock subsidies. (author)

  19. Biofuel support policies in Europe. Lessons learnt for the long way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel consumption in the EU is growing rapidly but major efforts will need to be undertaken if the EU's objectives for 2010 and beyond are to be achieved. This article analyses the strengths and weaknesses of different biofuel support policies based on the experiences gained in pioneering countries and explores scenarios for their possible impacts in the long-term. It comes to the conclusion that important pre-conditions such as fuel standards and compatibility with engines are in place or being introduced on an EU-wide basis. Current and future policy support therefore focuses on creating favourable economic or legal frameworks to accelerate the market penetration of biofuels. The ambitious targets endorsed in terms of biofuel market shares require the implementation of efficient policy instruments. At the same time, large consumption volumes and the advent of innovative production technologies make it possible for Member States to promote specific types of biofuels, depending on their main objectives and natural potentials. This will require complementary instruments such as subsidies for production facilities, user incentives or feedstock subsidies. (author)

  20. Setting the stage for biofuels:Policy texts, community of practice, and institutional ambiguity at the Fourth World Conservation Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclin Edward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the discussion on biofuels within the fourth World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. The focus on energy and biofuels at the WCC was a change from previous Congresses, highlighting a new negotiation of conservation and development trade-offs within the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. Resolutions and IUCN programmes from the 2000 WCC onwards built on one another to reframe energy policy in terms of sustainable use, clean energy technologies, and energy access. With this structure in place, an informal group of key actors at the 2008 WCC were able to dominate the biofuels discourse to advance international sustainability standards for biofuels production. Procedural ambiguities in the resolution contact group made this community of practice, largely formed around the Roundtable for Sustainable Biofuels, especially important. The negotiation of biofuels policies, and energy policy in general, serves as an example of a large-scale trade-off that will directly affect local conservation practice.

  1. Impact of US biofuel policy on US corn and gasoline price variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a large number of studies that examine the influence of biofuels and biofuel policy on commodity prices, the impact of biofuel policy on commodity price variability is poorly understood. A good understanding of biofuel policy’s impact on price variability is important for mitigating food insecurity and assisting policy formation. We examine how U.S. ethanol policies such as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates and the blend wall affect the price variability of corn and gasoline. We first present an analytical and graphical framework to identify the effect and then use stochastic partial equilibrium simulation to measure the magnitude of the impacts. We show that RFS mandates and the blend wall both reduce the price elasticity of demand for corn and gasoline and therefore increase the price variability when supply shocks occur to the markets. This has important implications for policy actions with respect to maintaining or changing the current RFS mandates and/or blend wall in the US. -- Highlights: ► The RFS is found to lead to less elastic demand for corn and gasoline. ► Thus the RFS is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices when supply shocks occur. ► The ethanol blend wall is found to lead to less elastic corn and gasoline demand. ► Thus the blend wall is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices.

  2. International industrial sector energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Over 40 percent of the energy consumed globally is used in the industrial sector. In China, this sector consumes an even larger proportion, reaching nearly 70 percent in 1997. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been instituted in both industrialized and developing countries in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of the industrial sector. There are very few comprehensive evaluations of these industrial sector energy efficiency policies; however a number of recent workshops and conferences have included a focus on these policies. Three important meetings were the International Energy Agency's Industrial Energy Efficiency: Policies and Programs Conference in 1994, Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure - A Workshop Organized by the International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector in 1998, and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 1999 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Man y articles from these meetings are included as attachments to this memo. This paper provides a brief description of each of seven categories of individual industrial energy efficiency policies and programs, discuss which industrial sectors or types of equipment they apply to, and provide references for articles and reports that discuss each policy or program in more detail. We begin with mandatory-type policies and move to more voluntary-type policies. We then provide a brief description of four integrated industrial energy efficiency policies and provide references for articles and reports that describe these policies in greater detail.

  3. Future Testing Opportunities to Ensure Sustainability of the Biofuels Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 increased the intensity of biofuel research and development throughout the U.S. For the Soil and Plant Analysis Community, this will undoubtedly create new opportunities to provide analytical services that will help ensure mandates such as the ...

  4. Does the biofuel industry, with the aid of certification programs, contribute to sustainable development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulff, James Michael

    Despite being a source of alternative energy and an avenue for broad economic development, a number of biofuel producers have demonstrated that the biofuel industry has significant potential for unleashing social, environmental and economic harm. To largely avoid such perils, the industry must demonstrate that it is operating in a sustainable manner, contributing to the sustainable development of all stakeholders who rely upon the industry's responsible operation. Recently minted, internationally developed certification programs have been developed to move the industry into sustainable compliance and to offer a means by which stakeholders can incentivize the industry toward greater levels of sustainability practice. Using OLS regression analysis, this dissertation estimates that the industry is currently operating within the bounds of sustainable development as measured through the World Bank's sustainability model. This conclusion, however, is made with some caution. Many biofuel industry certification programs, despite covering a number of sustainable issues, have created loopholes within their criteria that must be resolved to avert greater long term damage to sustainable development. This work will conclude with methods and additional criteria that can be used to help move the biofuel industry toward more stable and sustainable development activity.

  5. Ghana's biofuels policy: challenges and the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antwi, Edward [Kumasi Polytechnic, Mechanical Engineering Department, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana); Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius [Kumasi Polytechnic, Chemical Engineering Department, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana); Quansah, David Ato [The Energy Centre, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Arthur, Richard [Koforidua Polytechnic, PMB, Koforidua (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Liquid biofuels have come up strongly as possible substitute to conventional fossils fuels and woodfuels apparently because of its perceived environmental benefit, sustainability and recent hikes in petroleum fuel prices. These have led most countries to include biofuels in their energy mix to mitigate climate change effect caused by petroleum fuels and also to ensure energy security. Ghana as a developing country has also identified the potential of biofuels in her energy mix by setting some targets in its Strategic National Energy Policy (SNEP). This paper analyses the implications of the policy as presented in SNEP. It also looks at programmes put in place to achieve the set objectives and the possible challenges that are likely to be faced in their implementation. The paper concludes by calling for strong governmental involvement in achieving the set objectives.

  6. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance of agribusiness, and exclusion of family farmers that have occurred with bioethanol production through the ProÁlcool policy since 1975. This paper compares the life histories of the bioethanol and the biodiesel policies of Brazil by analyzing their substantive policy content; the power and politics of actors that struggle for the design and implementation of the policies; and the polity in terms the organization and institutionalization of the policies. The paper concludes that both policies have become submerged by and dependent on the polity and politics of primarily the energy and agricultural sectors that operate as the two semi-autonomous governance fields. This submerging has shaped the substantive contents of biofuels policies, and explains why the 2004 biodiesel policy PNPB, in spite of its objectives for social inclusion and rural development, faces similar problems in implementation as its predecessor, the 1975 bioethanol policy ProÁlcool. - Highlights: • We compare governance fields of bioethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil. • Biodiesel policy wants to learn from the mistakes made with bioethanol. • Governance fields stress dynamics between policy, polity, and politics. • Like ethanol, biodiesel became submerged by domains of energy and agriculture

  7. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of the most promising African countries. Favorable growing conditions and the availability of land, water and labor are mentioned as major drivers behind this potential. Moreover, the potential of biofuel production to generate socio-economic benefits is reflected in the government's policy objectives for the development of the sector, such as reducing fuel import dependency and creating rural employment. This article provides an overview of biofuel developments in Mozambique and explores to what extent reality matches the suggested potential in the country. We conclude that biofuel developments mainly take place in areas near good infrastructure, processing and storage facilities, where there is (skilled) labor available, and access to services and goods. Moreover, our analysis shows the need to timely harmonize current trends in biofuel developments with the government's policy objectives as the majority of existing and planned projects are not focusing on remote rural areas, and - in absence of domestic markets - principally target external markets. (author)

  8. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of the most promising African countries. Favorable growing conditions and the availability of land, water and labor are mentioned as major drivers behind this potential. Moreover, the potential of biofuel production to generate socio-economic benefits is reflected in the government's policy objectives for the development of the sector, such as reducing fuel import dependency and creating rural employment. This article provides an overview of biofuel developments in Mozambique and explores to what extent reality matches the suggested potential in the country. We conclude that biofuel developments mainly take place in areas near good infrastructure, processing and storage facilities, where there is (skilled) labor available, and access to services and goods. Moreover, our analysis shows the need to timely harmonize current trends in biofuel developments with the government's policy objectives as the majority of existing and planned projects are not focusing on remote rural areas, and - in absence of domestic markets - principally target external markets.

  9. Policy Challenges Related to Biofuel Development in Tanzania Politische Herausforderungen in Bezug auf Biokraftstoffe in Tansania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sosovele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, agricultural development and natural resource management. The growing demand for biofuels is being driven by high oil prices, energy security concerns and global climate change. In Tanzania there is growing interest on the part of foreign private investors in establishing biofuel projects, although globally there are concerns related to biofuel investments. Tanzania has approved a number of such projects, but the biofuel subsector faces several policy challenges that could clearly hamper its development. These include the lack of a holistic and comprehensive energy policy that addresses the broad spectrum of energy options and issues, and weak or absent institutional and legal frameworks. This article highlights some key policy issues critical to the development of biofuels and argues that if these challenges are not addressed at the national policy level, biofuel development may not result in the expected benefits to Tanzania and the majority of its local communities. Biokraftstoffe sind in jüngster Zeit in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Landwirtschaftsentwicklung und nationales Ressourcenmanagement zu einem wichtigen Thema geworden. Die wachsende Nachfrage nach Biokraftstoffen wird durch die hohen Ölpreise, Befürchtungen in Bezug auf Energiesicherheit und den globalen Klimawandel vorangetrieben. In Tansania ist wachsendes Interesse ausländischer Privatinvestoren an Biokraftstoffprojekten zu beobachten, obwohl es weltweit Bedenken gegenüber solchen Investitionen gibt. Die tansanische Regierung hat einer ganzen Reihe entsprechender Projekte zugestimmt, doch mit dem Biokraftstoffsektor sind politische Herausforderungen verbunden, die diese Entwicklung behindern könnten. Dazu gehören das Fehlen einer ganzheitlichen und umfassenden Energiepolitik, die das ganze Spektrum energiepolitischer Fragestellungen und Optionen einschließt, wie auch schwache oder fehlende institutionelle

  10. Stimulating the use of biofuels in the European Union: Implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels has been proposed in the European Union (EU) as part of a strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from road transport, increase security of energy supply and support development of rural communities. In this paper, we focus on one of these purported benefits, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The costs of subsidising the price difference between European bioethanol and petrol, and biodiesel and diesel, per tonne of CO2 emissions saved are estimated. Without including the benefits from increased security of energy supply and employment generation in rural areas, the current costs of implementing European domestic biofuel targets are high compared with other available CO2 mitigation strategies. The policy instrument of foregoing some or all of the excise duty and other taxes now applicable to transport fuels in EU15 on domestically produced biofuels, as well as the potential to import low-cost alternatives, for example, from Brazil, are addressed in this context

  11. U.S. Biofuel Policies and Domestic Shifts in Agricultural Land Use and Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Policies promoting domestic biofuels production could lead to significant changes in cropping patterns. Types of direct and indirect land use change include: switching among crops (displacement), expanding cropped area (extensification), and altering water/soil management practices (e.g. irrigation, tillage) (intensification). Most studies of biofuels water use impacts calculate the water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/total evapotranspired water per unit energy of biofuels. But estimates based on this approach are sensitive to assumptions (e.g. co-product allocation, system boundaries), and do not convey policy-relevant information, as highlighted by the issue of land use change. We address these shortcomings by adopting a scenario-based approach that combines economic modeling with crop-water modeling of major crops and biofuel feedstocks. This allows us to holistically compare differences in water balances across policy scenarios in an integrated economic/agricultural system. We compare high spatial resolution water balance estimates under three hypothetical policy scenarios: 1) a counterfactual no-policy scenario, 2) modified Renewable Fuels Standard mandates (M-RFS2), & 3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard plus a modified RFS2 scenario (LCFS+RFS2). Differences between scenarios in crop water balances (i.e. transpiration, evaporation, runoff, groundwater infiltration, & irrigation) are regional and are a function of changes in land use patterns (i.e. displacement, intensification, & extensification), plus variation in crop water-use characteristics. Cropped land area increases 6.2% and 1.6% under M-RFS2 and LCFS+RFS2 scenarios, respectively, by 2030. Both policy scenarios lead to reductions in net irrigation volumes nationally compared to the no-policy scenario, though more irrigation occurs in regions of the Midwest and West. The LCFS+RFS2 reduces net irrigation water use by 3.5 times more than M-RFS2. However, both policies drive

  12. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  13. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

  14. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  15. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  16. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  17. Is there a role for biofuels in promoting energy self sufficiency and security? A CGE analysis of biofuel policy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the rising price of crude oil, some developing countries including Thailand are looking towards developing their domestic renewable energy resources, in particular biofuels. However, there are concerns about the possible adverse effects such a policy strategy would have on key variables such as sectoral output, land allocation and the effects of prices, particularly food prices. This study develops a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Thailand economy that features enhancements of the energy sector and uses it to analyze the government’s recent renewable energy development plan. This plan aims to increase domestic energy use from renewable sources to replace fossil fuel imports. The study simulated specific policies contained in the plan. Among other things, we found that promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel and biofuel feedstock in the short-run, whereas these prices only increase slightly in the long-run due to more elastic supplies. The prices of food and other products marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined by the policy. On the basis of the findings, the study recommends a review of some of the targets because they were found to be rather high, and a phasing in of others. - Highlights: ► This study evaluates Thailand’s 10-year alternative energy development plan. ► Promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel. ► Food prices marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined. ► We recommend a review of some of the targets because they are too high

  18. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  19. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  20. Industrial Clustering Policy and Economic Restructuring in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Thanh Hong; Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the industrial agglomeration and evaluates the industrial clustering policy in Vietnam. Base on the Kuchiki flowchart on the building of industrial clustering policy for developing countries, the authors suggest a policy framework for Vietnam.

  1. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  2. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Nyboer, John; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-01-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions ...

  3. Biofuels, tax policies and oil prices in France: Insights from a dynamic CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2009 Renewable Energies Directive (RED) has set up ambitious targets concerning biofuel consumption in the European Union by 2020. Nevertheless, budgetary constraints and growing concerns about the environmental integrity of first-generation biofuels have imposed a phasing out of the fiscal instruments to promote them. Focusing on France, this paper combines an exogenous increase in oil prices and tax policies on fossil fuels. The objective is to determine the efficiency of an alternative incentive scheme for biodiesel consumption based on a higher price of the fossil fuel substitute. Policy simulations are implemented through a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated on 2009 French data. The results show that the 10% biodiesel mandate set by the RED would not be achieved even if the fixed taxes on diesel reach the same level as those on gasoline. Although integrating the rise in oil prices into the fiscal framework improves the biodiesel penetration rate, it remains below the target. Moreover, we find that the effects of biofuel consumption are limited to the biofuel chain sectors. In other agricultural sectors, the substitution effect of biodiesel with diesel is partially offset by the pricing effect induced by higher energy production costs. - Highlights: • We represent the French biodiesel production chain through a dynamic CGE model. • We examine the efficiency of alternative support schemes to biodiesel in France. • Ambitious targets require substantial additional taxes on diesel and rising oil prices. • Spillover effects are limited to the biodiesel chain sectors. • Energy-intensive sectors suffer from higher production costs

  4. Industrial-strength ecology: trade-offs and opportunities in algal biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Abbott, Rachel L; Deal, Michael S; Kwan, Garfield T; Litchman, Elena; McBride, Robert C; Mandal, Shovon; Smith, Val H

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae represent one of the most promising groups of candidate organisms for replacing fossil fuels with contemporary primary production as a renewable source of energy. Algae can produce many times more biomass per unit area than terrestrial crop plants, easing the competing demands for land with food crops and native ecosystems. However, several aspects of algal biology present unique challenges to the industrial-scale aquaculture of photosynthetic microorganisms. These include high susceptibility to invading aquatic consumers and weeds, as well as prodigious requirements for nutrients that may compete with the fertiliser demands of other crops. Most research on algal biofuel technologies approaches these problems from a cellular or genetic perspective, attempting either to engineer or select algal strains with particular traits. However, inherent functional trade-offs may limit the capacity of genetic selection or synthetic biology to simultaneously optimise multiple functional traits for biofuel productivity and resilience. We argue that a community engineering approach that manages microalgal diversity, species composition and environmental conditions may lead to more robust and productive biofuel ecosystems. We review evidence for trade-offs, challenges and opportunities in algal biofuel cultivation with a goal of guiding research towards intensifying bioenergy production using established principles of community and ecosystem ecology. PMID:24015819

  5. Analysis of the evolution of sustainable development in biofuels industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Loayza Rollano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of sustainable development in the biofuel production sector. The Energy Indicators Tool for Sustainable Development (EISD and the Sustainability Indicators Tool Global Association for Bioenergy (GBEP were applied. Performing a comparison of indicators in each performance (economic, social and environmental, it was found that the production of biofuels in Brazil is positive in most of them. Biofuels showed a favorable trend in economic indicators, not only in terms of cost, but also through the use of energy available to the consumer market. Environmental indicators showed an improvement in the efficient use of land, water and energy resources, while pesticide applications are relatively low in relation to the limits. In addition, it appears that the biofuels industries have contributed positively to rural economies, since the social indicators showed a relatively significant and positive increase in labor supply and salary level of the labor market in this sector. Also appears that existing tools are complementary and the results provide a basis for future discussions and the development of sustainability assessments in systems and bioenergy-related projects.

  6. Resetting global expectations from agricultural biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive renewable energy policies have helped the biofuels industry grow at a rate few could have predicted. However, while discourse on the energy balance and environmental impacts of agricultural biofuel feedstocks are common, the potential they hold for additional production has received considerably less attention. Here we present a new biofuel yield analysis based on the best available global agricultural census data. These new data give us the first opportunity to consider geographically-specific patterns of biofuel feedstock production in different regions, across global, continental, national and sub-national scales. Compared to earlier biofuel yield tables, our global results show overestimates of biofuel yields by ∼100% or more for many crops. To encourage the use of regionally-specific data for future biofuel studies, we calculated complete results for 20 feedstock crops for 238 countries, states, territories and protectorates.

  7. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets.

  8. A review of variability in indirect land use change assessment and modeling in biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ILUC contributes a significant fraction of biofuel life-cycle carbon intensity. ► ILUC modeling approaches are varied and produce different results. ► The amount of forest conversion predicted has a large impact on GHG estimates. ► Conservation of forests should be a primary focus to lessen the impacts of ILUC. -- Abstract: The inclusion of indirect land use change (ILUC) can dramatically affect the calculated greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels in comparison to conventional fuels. Due to the potential magnitude and impacts of ILUC, this concept is being included in many biofuel policies, such as the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). The approaches to modeling ILUC are complex and fraught with uncertainties, and results tend to lack agreement. In this work, we have investigated the modeling approaches and emission factor databases employed to determine their effects on ILUC variability in several key studies, with particular focus on U.S. policy. The amount and location of ILUC, which is predicted by agro-economic models, vary greatly from the studies investigated: Searchinger et al. (2008) predicted more than twice the amount of land conversion compared to more recent studies that have used updated models. Even more influential, yet more understated, is the estimation of the type of land converted, since conversion of forests results in significantly greater GHG emissions than conversion from other land types, and RFS2 and LCFS have estimated only a fraction of conversion of forest in comparison to Searchinger. Additionally, many studies investigated have relied on the Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) emission factor database to determine GHG emissions from ILUC, but each has applied data differently to arrive at different results. It is recognized that this database is coarse, so a more spatially explicit approach in the Winrock database, which has carbon stock data for over 750

  9. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. This is the second in a series of policy briefs providing an update on the project. The first brief was issued in March 2012. The project focus is on looking at developing second generation biofuels that hope to improve on issues seen with the first generation options. Second generation biofuels are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  10. Industrial policy and development in Ethiopia: Evolution and present experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreeyesus, Mulu

    2013-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in industrial policy. This paper examines the choices, implementation processes, and outcomes of the Ethiopian present industrial policy. The country represents an excellent case study of recent industrial policy experimentation in Africa as it is one of the few countries that has formulated and implemented a comprehensive industrial policy early on when the term industrial policy had been a taboo in the international policy forums. By providin...

  11. TAX POLICIES FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    DALE CHUA; Glenn Jenkins

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the government of Sri Lanka appointed a commission to undertake a comprehensive analysis of its tax system. The commission completed its work in 1990 and published its findings in the Report of The Taxation Commission, 1990, Sessional paper No. 1- June 1991. This report is a comprehensive examination of the present tax system and among its objectives was to consider the tax policy and administrative issues that have an impact on the incentives for the private sector to undertake produ...

  12. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  13. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  14. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater. PMID:26345887

  15. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system; Rapport sur l'optimisation du dispositif de soutien a la filiere biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H.; Hespel, V.; Dupre, J.Y.; Baratin, F.; Gagey, D

    2005-07-01

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  16. Liquid biofuels emergence, development and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Domingos Padula, Antonio; Benedetti Santos, Omar Inácio; Borenstein, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Discusses the debate on the emergence and diffusion of liquid biofuels as an energy source Presents the different elements that compose the debate on public policy, industry organization, competitiveness and sustainability of different systems for the production of liquid biofuels Covers the Brazilian experience of producing Ethanol and Biodiesel, as well as the experiences of other leading countries in the production of biofuels Bioenergy is coming to be seen as a priority on the international agenda, with the use of liquid biofuels a key strategy in the attempt to meet both the

  17. Policy capacity for the transition to a biofuels economy: a comparative study of the EU and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Adrian; Ackrill, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The scale of the ambition to decouple emissions growth from energy consumption in the economy runs counter to several decades of debates and literatures on the limits of government. Transport biofuels are an early and influential case of the policy capacity challenge in the transition to low-carbon economies. The case stands analytically for the policy-maker’s dilemma of maintaining longer term policy goals as credible commitments, even though considerable flexibility and adaptability in poli...

  18. The fuel market effects of biofuel policies and implications for regulations based on lifecycle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absence of a globally-consistent and binding commitment to reducing greenhouse emissions provides a rationale for partial policies, such as renewable energy mandates, product emission standards, etc to target lifecycle emissions of the regulated products or services. While appealing in principle, regulation of lifecycle emissions presents several practical challenges. Using biofuels as an illustrative example, we highlight some outstanding issues in the design and implementation of life cycle-based policies and discuss potential remedies. We review the literature on emissions due to price effects in fuel markets, which are akin to emissions due to indirect land use change, but are, unlike the latter, ignored under all current life cycle emissions-based regulations. We distinguish the current approaches to regulating indirect emissions into hard and soft approaches and discuss their implications. (letter)

  19. Implications of biofuel support policies in Europe - a quantitative analysis in an open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Fonseca, Maria; Shrestha, Shailesh; Adenäuer, Marcel; Becker, A

    2012-01-01

    EU biofuels support Biofuels modelling with CAPRI Scenario setting Main results Concluding remarks Biofuels production and use will remain mainly driven by public support Strong links of biofuels to agricultural markets Development of second generation technologies would ease food-fuel links

  20. Structural change and industrial policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyas, İzak; Atiyas, Izak; Bakış, Ozan; Bakis, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on structural change in Turkey and provides an overview of the evolution of industrial policy in the last three decades. We show that Turkey has experienced substantial growth in labor productivity in the last decade and that this has been associated with substantial change in the composition of value added and employment both in the overall economy and within the manufacturing industry. Using sectoral national accounts data we decompose aggregate productivity g...

  1. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed. PMID:21461850

  2. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  3. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  4. Ideas on Policy Framework of China's Bamboo Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiyong; WANG Dengju; FAN Baomin; XIAO Jianming; CHEN Yong; LIU Yan; BAO Yingshuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the current situation of China's bamboo industry,the major policy issues,future development trends and policy orientation.And then with industry policy theory as a guide,the paper propounds the basic framework and policy proposals in resources cultivation and management,industrial structure and pattern,markets and trade,industrial organization system,finance and taxes,industrial technologyand So forth.

  5. Sustainable bio kerosene: Process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Routes to aviation biofuels are examined, focusing on drop-in biofuels, capable of high blend levels with fossil kerosene. • Industrial demonstration activities are reported. • Used cooking oil is considered as alternative sustainable biomass feedstock for paraffinic fuel production. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are expected to play a major role in EU in the coming years due European Directives on the promotion of renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transports. However, while in road transports a variety of possible renewable fuels (mainly biofuels, but also electricity) can be considered, in aviation only high quality paraffinic biofuels can be adopted. This means that biomass must be converted through advanced processes into pure hydrocarbon fuels, fully compatible with the existing systems. The aviation sector is responsible for the 2% of the world anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the 10% of the fuel consumption: airlines’ costs for fuel reach 30% of operating costs. In addition, the aviation traffic is expected to double within 15 years from 2012, while fuel consumption and CO2 emissions should double in 25 years. Thus, more than 2 billion people and 40 Mt of good/cargo will have to be moved every year. In this context, the EU Flightpath set a target of 2 Mt per year for aviation alternative fuel by 2020 (i.e. 4% of annual fuel consumption). New processes towards bio-hydrocarbons are being developed, demonstrated and soon industrialized. The present work explores the possible routes from biomass feedstock to sustainable paraffinic fuels, either through bio or thermo-chemical processes, as well as discusses those more mature, focusing on industrial demonstration initiatives. In fact, while the number of possible options towards paraffinic biofuel production is very large, and covers both thermochemical and biochemical routes, as well as hybrid one, only two pathways are today ready for testing a significant large

  6. Current market of industrial bio-products and biofuels, and predictable evolutions by 2015/2030. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this study were to describe the current status of the energetic and industrial bio-product markets (biofuels, bio-lubricants, biomaterials, papers, cosmetics, and so on), to identify and analyze the evolution perspectives of these new markets on a long and medium term, to define scenarios of evolution for different sectors (agro-industry, energy, organic chemistry), to identify the most promising new markets, and to select the priority agro-industrial sectors

  7. The dilemma of indirect land-use changes in EU biofuel policy – An empirical study of policy-making in the context of scientific uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impact of policies promoting transport biofuels on the use of land due to the indirect effects of feedstock cultivation has generated a controversy in the EU. Policy-makers are urged to regulate the matter without conclusive scientific evidence concerning the scale and severity of indirect land-use change (iLUC). By looking at this situation as an instance of policy making in the context of scientific uncertainty, this study analyses ways to deal with iLUC of biofuels policies learning from policy fields where similar dilemmas were confronted in the past. The experience with technologies such as genetically modified organisms, carbon capture and storage, nuclear power and radioactive waste, and transport biofuels is instructive for this purpose. Policy approaches identified in the case studies are applied to the case of iLUC. The results show that a preventive approach, which appears as the most practical choice in terms of effectiveness and stakeholders’ acceptability, however, also involves a risk of treating scientific uncertainty as certainty (the uncertainty paradox). Policy-makers, scientists and stakeholders all have responsibility to avoid this paradox, in order to limit future controversy.

  8. Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreasing oil supplies and increasing energy demand provide incentives to find alternative fuels. First, the valorisation of edible crops for ethanol and bio-diesel production led to first generation biofuels. Nowadays, research is focused on lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable carbon (second generation biofuels). Whereas the cellulosic ethanol production is in progress, a new way consisting of the transformation of ex-lignocellulose sugars and polyols towards light hydrocarbons by heterogeneous catalysis in aqueous phase has been recently described. This process is performed under mild conditions (T < 300 deg. C and P < 50 bar). It requires on one hand hydrogen formation by catalytic reforming of carbohydrates in aqueous phase and on the other hand, the dehydration/hydrogenation of polyols leading to alkanes by selective C-O bond cleavages. The challenge here is to conceive multifunctional catalytic systems that are stable, active and selective under the reaction conditions. The aim of this article is to present the involved reactions, the catalytic systems described in literature for that kind of transformation and examples of industrial applications. (authors)

  9. Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union. Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H.

    2012-12-15

    It is feasible for EU member states to meet their commitments regarding transport fuels under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) without resorting to biofuels from food crops. The RED target (10% renewable transport energy in 2020) can be met by a mix of measures aimed at improving energy efficiency, combined with a strong focus on growth of renewable electricity use and biofuels and biomethane from waste and residues. These measures also contribute to the FQD target (6% reduction in carbon intensity of fuels by 2020), but will need to be complemented by other measures such as reduced flaring and venting during oil production. The report shows how EU transport energy policy could reduce its reliance on biofuels from food crops that are likely to cause land use change. This alternative vision for the transport sector in 2020 would cut CO2 emissions by 205 million tonnes.

  10. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the

  11. The REFUEL EU road map for biofuels in transport: Application of the project's tools to some short-term policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current hot debate on biofuels calls for a balanced and realistic long-term strategy for biofuels. The REFUEL project provides several ingredients for such a strategy. Analyses in this project indicate that domestically produced biofuels can cover a significant share of EU fuel demand in the coming decades, with the EU-12 new member states and Ukraine as most promising regions. This potential can be realised with residual streams and on existing agricultural land, without conversion of e.g. nature reserves. Second generation biofuels are essential for the long-term success of biofuels due to their superior performance in many ways. But generally, the key challenge for the near future would be how to enhance the development of biofuels in a responsible way, i.e. stimulating the production chains with the best performance, and preventing negative impacts e.g., by paying careful attention to possible system impacts of biofuel production such as indirect land use changes and rising food prices. Finally, 2nd generation biofuels require specific policy: the precursor role of 1st generation is overrated, both in technical terms as well as in their role as market precursors. When it comes to synergies, 2nd generation biofuels might benefit more from other developments in the energy sector, such as initiatives in co-firing of biomass for (heat and) power, than from 1st generation biofuels, also because of the public resistance that the latter induce. (author)

  12. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-01-01

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese gov...

  13. Policies to Facilitate Conversion of Millions of Acres to the Production of Biofuel Feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Epplin, Francis M.; Haque, Mohua

    2011-01-01

    First-generation grain ethanol biofuel has affected the historical excess capacity problem in U.S. agriculture. Second-generation cellulosic ethanol biofuel has had difficulty achieving cost-competitiveness. Third-generation drop-in biofuels are under development. If lignocellulosic biomass from perennial grasses becomes the feedstock of choice for second- and third-generation biorefineries, an integrated system could evolve in which a biorefinery directly manages feedstock production, harves...

  14. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Drabenstott, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Industrialization is rapidly becoming a topic of great attention. Driven by fundamental economic forces, industrialization seems likely to advance ore quickly in the coming decade to more industry segments. By changing the way agriculture does business, industrialization will also bring change to public policy and agricultural institutions. Commodity policy will increasingly be out of step with a product-oriented industry. And as industrialization blurs the lines between producers and process...

  15. Resurgence of Selective Industrial Policy: What Turkey Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Three decades of Turkish experience with nonselective industrial policies (consistent with neoliberal policy) clearly demonstrates that structural transformation in Turkish economy could not be achieved. In this paper, we have three motivations. Our first motivation is to discuss overall industrial policy developments in Turkey since 1980s. Secondly, we aim to recommend feasible selective industrial policies for Turkey to support structural transformation. Thirdly, we comment on new Industria...

  16. Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis  of EU Policies for First Generation Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Martinov, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    In this paper multi-actor multi-criteria decision aid methodology are developed to examine the impacts of EU policies related to first generation biofuels on identified key stakeholders. The thesis focuses on the integration of relevant qualitative and quantitative criteria defined by key stakeholders into one comprehensive evaluation process, to serve as a decision support tool for decision makers. Weight allocation of the defined criteria will be assessed by using the Analytic Hierarchy Pro...

  17. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  18. Cropland expansion outpaces agricultural and biofuel policies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Tyler J.; Salmon, J. Meghan; Gibbs, Holly K.

    2015-04-01

    Cultivation of corn and soybeans in the United States reached record high levels following the biofuels boom of the late 2000s. Debate exists about whether the expansion of these crops caused conversion of grasslands and other carbon-rich ecosystems to cropland or instead replaced other crops on existing agricultural land. We tracked crop-specific expansion pathways across the conterminous US and identified the types, amount, and locations of all land converted to and from cropland, 2008-2012. We found that crop expansion resulted in substantial transformation of the landscape, including conversion of long-term unimproved grasslands and land that had not been previously used for agriculture (cropland or pasture) dating back to at least the early 1970s. Corn was the most common crop planted directly on new land, as well as the largest indirect contributor to change through its displacement of other crops. Cropland expansion occurred most rapidly on land that is less suitable for cultivation, raising concerns about adverse environmental and economic costs of conversion. Our results reveal opportunities to increase the efficacy of current federal policy conservation measures by modifying coverage of the 2014 US Farm Bill Sodsaver provision and improving enforcement of the US Renewable Fuels Standard.

  19. Biofuel production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, le L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel production has continued to develop and is driven by government support around the world. A comprehensive analysis of biofuel production and the policy implementation is crucial for the biofuel sustainability development. The objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG em

  20. Energy Policy and Environmental Possibilities: Biofuels and Key Protagonists of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    While a growing body of research indicates the severe ecological and social costs of biofuel production worldwide, the U.S. government continues to promote the expansion of this fuel sector. Recent congressional testimony regarding the promotion of biofuels via the renewable fuel standard (RFS) offers a strategic research site for sociological…

  1. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  2. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  3. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success. (author)

  4. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  5. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  6. The Analysis of the Industrial Policy in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Kuznetsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the issues of the Japanese experience of industrial policy, which managed to overcome significant challenges in economic and social development of the country. Japanese experience of industrial policy is unique, due to the fact that the government provides the planned economic policy of integrated industrial development at the macro and micro levels, with emphasis on the competitive advantages of some regions of the country and on the active involvement of the private sector in various projects of public-private partnership. At the same time, the mechanism of Japanese industrial policy has demonstrated its viability in different historical periods of the economic development of the country.

  7. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar–Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera Lorenzo, Nuria; Fuente Alonso, Enrique; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Suárez Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz Bobes, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    [EN] A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are mor...

  8. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  9. Indirect land use changes of biofuel production - a review of modelling efforts and policy developments in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Serina; Di Lucia, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of indirect land use changes (ILUC) caused by the promotion of transport biofuels has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we reviewed the current literature on modelling work to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by ILUC of biofuels. We also reviewed the development of ILUC policies in the EU. Our review of past modelling work revealed that most studies employ economic equilibrium modelling and focus on ethanol fuels, especially with maize as feedstock. It also revealed major variation in the results from the models, especially for biodiesel fuels. However, there has been some convergence of results over time, particularly for ethanol from maize, wheat and sugar cane. Our review of EU policy developments showed that the introduction of fuel-specific ILUC factors has been officially suggested by policymakers to deal with the ILUC of biofuels. The values proposed as ILUC factors in the policymaking process in the case of ethanol fuels are generally in line with the results of the latest modelling exercises, in particular for first-generation ethanol fuels from maize and sugar cane, while those for biodiesel fuels are somewhat higher. If the proposed values were introduced into EU policy, no (first-generation) biodiesel fuel would be able to comply with the EU GHG saving requirements. We identified a conflict between the demand from EU policymakers for exact, highly specific values and the capacity of the current models to supply results with that level of precision. We concluded that alternative policy approaches to ILUC factors should be further explored. PMID:24602172

  10. Biofuels of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Oxburgh, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are good biofuels and bad biofuels. The good ones offer the prospect of transport fuels that have much lower environmental impact than fossil fuels and could before long be less expensive as well. Bad or irresponsibly produced biofuels may at best bring little environmental advantage; at worst they may also cause serious environmental damage, habitat destruction and food shortages. The biofuel industry of the future will make a significant contribution to the greening of the world’s veh...

  11. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  12. A New Industrial Policy for Europe: Reinforcing Europe's Industrial Base to Create Employment and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Calleja; Francisco Caballero

    2014-01-01

    ?The economic crisis has changed the order of priorities of economic policy in developed economies. Growth enhancing polices have become a top priority and industrial policy has taken center stage among them in countries where it was not explicitly considered in the past. Many industrialized countries are now seeking their own new models of industrial policy and the European Union as well. This is a “discovery” process and the recent publication of a Commission Communication on Industrial Pol...

  13. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research highlights: → Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. → This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. → Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal.

  14. Application of theory-based evaluation for the critical analysis of national biofuel policy: A case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F N; Baharuddin, Azizan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-10-01

    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report. PMID:25898073

  15. Mandates, Tax Credits, and Tariffs: Does the U.S. Biofuels Industry Need Them All?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock

    2010-01-01

    Expanded mandates under the Renewable Fuel Standard provide ethanol and biodiesel producers a guaranteed future market at volumes that exceed what they have produced in the past. Despite having these mandates in place, biofuel producers continue to support tax credits and ethanol import tariffs. An examination of how the new mandates will be implemented shows that biofuel producers will receive little or no additional benefit from tax credits. Ethanol import tariffs will continue to provide U...

  16. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  17. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  18. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  19. Industrial Policy Revisited: A New Structural Economics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Yifu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Although whether governments should play a facilitating role in economic development has long been a topic for economic discourse and research, as an important instrument industrial policy is often and actively used by governments to promote economic development, both in history and at the moment. Despite much controversy surrounding whether and how governments implement industrial policy, in this article failures and successes of implementing such policy are analyzed through a new structural...

  20. Fostering citizen deliberations on the social acceptability of renewable fuels policy: The case of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognized that a lack of social acceptance is likely to hinder the ability of governments to achieve policy targets concerning renewable energies. In this paper, we discuss the results of a pre- and post-test online survey that was conducted as part of the 2012 “Advanced Biofuels” deliberative democracy public engagement event in Montréal, Québec. The event sough to foster public learning and discussion in order to produce socially acceptable policy input for one type of renewable energy: advanced lignocellulosic biofuels. Survey results show that the majority of participants were strongly supportive of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel development in Canada after the deliberative event. By the end of the event, support also grew for current Canadian biofuel policies and many agreed that increasing biofuel production should be widely supported by the Canadian public. However, despite this support, about two thirds of participants revealed that they did not feel included in government decisions about biofuels. The gap between support after inclusive deliberation and expressed exclusion from Canadian government decisions points to the importance of fostering future citizen engagements in this area of renewable energy policy. - Highlights: • We analyze outputs from the 2012 “Advanced Biofuels” deliberative democracy event. • We focus on social acceptance levels of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels in Canada. • Participants became less supportive of using food crops after the deliberation. • The majority were also supportive of current federal policy after the event. • However, most did not feel included in government decisions about biofuels

  1. Improving policy making through government-industry policy learning: The case of a novel Swedish policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge for policy makers. This paper analyzes how industry sector policy expertise can contribute to improved policy making processes. Previous research has identified that policy making benefit by including non-governmental policy analysts in learning processes. Recent climate and energy policy developments, including amendments and the introduction of new initiatives, have rendered current policy regimes as novel to both governments and the industry. This increases business investment risk perceptions and may thus reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy framework. In order to explore how government-industry policy learning can improve policy making in this context, this article studied the Swedish case. A literature survey analyzed how policy learning had been previously addressed, identifying that the current situation regarding novel policies had been overlooked. Interviews provided how industrial actors view Swedish policy implementation processes and participatory aspects thereof. The authors conclude that an increased involvement of the industry sector in policy design and management processes can be an important measure to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of climate and energy policies. (author)

  2. Material property characterization of co-products from biofuel industries: Potential uses in value-added biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an insight of biofuel production and the status -into the co-products obtained from this industry. Furthermore this work explores the possibility of these co-products as raw materials for value-added uses in material applications. This is achieved by understanding composition, solid density, and moisture content of prominent co-products such as soy meal, DDGS (distillers’ dried grains with solubles) and jatropha meal. Moisture content and density measurements showed no trend. Soy meal has the highest protein content, followed by jatropha and DDGS. Thermal stability of these co-products was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which revealed that the thermal stabilities are ranked as soy meal>DDGS>jatropha meal. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to understand the functional groups in these meals and it showed that the amide group was prominent in all of these meals. In pursuit of finding value-added uses for these co-products of biofuel industries, biodegradable polymer, i.e. polycaprolactone (PCL), based biocomposites were prepared by melt processing technique using extrusion followed by injection molding. Tensile, flexural and impact properties were evaluated. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fractured sections of the biocomposites was examined. -- Highlights: ► This paper gives an insight of biofuel production and its co-products. ► We have characterized biofuel co-products such as soy meal, DDGS and jatropha meal. ► Thermal stability and functional groups of these co-products were determined. ► Polycaprolactone based biocomposites were prepared by melt processing technique. ► Tensile, flexural and impact properties of these biocomposites were evaluated.

  3. Policy learning and policy change in a context of industry crisis: the case of Chilean salmon farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Petrasic, Veronica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the policy response to the 2007-2010 sanitary crisis in the Chilean salmon industry, the second largest producer and exporter of salmon in the world. This industry is an emblematic case of the possible consequences of employing an intensive natural resource model for development. The research draws upon the two literatures on policy learning and policy change, and crisis and disaster management, and upon the system failure to explain the causes and consequences ...

  4. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Slingerland, M.A.; Locke, A.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of th

  5. Green electricity and biofuels in Germany and France. A comparison of policy-networks; Gruener Strom und Biokraftstoffe in Deutschland und Frankreich. Ein Vergleich der Policy-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand-Schock, Ruth

    2010-07-02

    In recent years, the renewable energy experienced a significant upturn in the field of power generation in Europe. The transport sector is one area in which the targets of improving security of supply and reducing greenhouse gas emissions can be accomplished very difficult. The energy supply of road transport almost is based entirely on oil. The contribution under consideration examines the evolution of the actors and policy areas of biofuel production and electricity production from renewable energy sources in Germany and France. The investigation period extends until the year 2006.

  6. DMF - A New Biofuel Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guohong; Daniel, Ritchie; Xu, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts...

  7. Industrial Policy and the East German Productivity Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Catching-up of East German productivity to West German levels has completely faded out since the mid l990s. The remaining productivity gap cannot be attributed to an inferior capital endowment. Instead, it appears to be the result of an inappropriate design of industrial policy which fostered the specialization of East German industry on capital intensive smoke-stack industries. These industries are absorbing a large share of factor inputs, whereas their contribution to aggregate output is ra...

  8. Competition for forest resources between the biofuels and the forest industry in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the consequences of the large-scale introduction of wood-based biofuels in the road transport sector. Therefore a model has been developed to project the de-mand for wood in Sweden in the period from 2007 to 2050.

  9. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; de la Rua, C.; Caldes, N.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R. [CIEMAT, Energy Department, Energy System Analysis Unit, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets. (author)

  10. An Analysis of Economic Policies Affecting the Philippine Coconut Industry

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Roumasset; Ramon L. Clarete

    1983-01-01

    What are the effects of government policies, such as export tax, production levy and marketing regulation, on the Philippine coconut industry? The answer to this question is made central to this research paper.

  11. Preconditions and tools for cross-sectoral regional industrial GHG and energy efficiency policy-A Finnish standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to develop an approach and tools for cross-sectoral regional industrial GHG and energy policies. These policies can be conducted at different levels of society. To achieve real results in energy efficiency improvements and in GHG reductions, the policies must be focused on the correct levels in society. In Finland, the province level seems to be a reasonable level for a policy targeted at industry. This paper proposes a category for the ways industry uses energy: building energy users, major users of electricity for process/production, major users of heat for process/production and direct combustion users. This approach gives opportunities for developing regional cooperation among different industries. The approach is also important between industries and society, so that there are integrated solutions which e.g. utilise district heating and biofuel potentials. The individual technologies like electric motors, pumps, fans, heat recovery equipment and boilers do not seem to have any significant potentials for improvements in energy efficiency by the EU target year 2020. However, there are opportunities but they are at system levels: how effectively the individual technologies are applied as a part of industrial systems. This fact supports the idea of energy use categorising.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Land Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization, as one of the main driving forces promoting sustainable economic growth, has increased the area of industrial land use significantly. Industrial land use manifests that the competition between it and other kinds of land use is growing. During the last decade in China, many targeted industrial land use policies have been enacted to stimulate appropriate industrial land use and to promote healthy economic development. However, it is difficult for scholars and governments of rapidly developing countries to judge and evaluate the performance of such policies. Based on statistical data gathered over almost 10 years and an idea called “industrial land equivalent” (ILE, this paper analyzes the contribution made by the implementation of industrial land use policy to economic development, using a Cobb-Douglas production function by which to quantify the influence of land institutions and land regulation systems. The result of the study shows that factors, such as industrial land, labor and capital, all play an important role in GDP growth. Additionally, it is found that industrial land institutions and regulation systems have a strongly positive influence on economic development. It was also found that the influence of policy in eastern China is greater than that in the west and that repeated, short-term land regulation has a negative effect on the economy. Therefore, it is profoundly important for the Chinese economy that a stable and durable industrial land use policy be maintained as the industrial center migrates to the Midwest. The research philosophy and method offered by this paper have great significance for the quantitative evaluation of policy performance.

  13. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  14. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  15. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-01

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. First generation biofuels -- which are mainly produced from food crops such as grains, sugarcane and vegetable oils -- have triggered one of the most highly contentious debates on the current international sustainability agenda, given their links to energy security, transport, trade, food security, land-use impacts and climate change concerns. Developing second generation biofuels has emerged as a more attractive option, as these are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  16. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  17. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU l...

  18. Industrial Policy for North Korea: Lessons from Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, Paul G

    2007-01-01

    Possible directions of industrial policy for North Korea are developed in this paper, drawing on the experience of the European transition economies and focusing on privatisation and restructuring, new business formation, and export promotion. North Korea at present is largely closed, and its agriculture is over-developed. Through export promotion and other measures of industrial policy the country will be able to raise living standards and greatly improve food security.

  19. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  20. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: → A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. → Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. → In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. → In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  1. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... concrete suggestions for network activities had been made, but overall the development is at an early stage....

  2. Influence of the Tobacco Industry on Wisconsin Tobacco Control Policies

    OpenAIRE

    University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report by the Monitoring and Evaluation Program of the University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center is to assist policy makers and tobacco control advocates in understanding the role of the tobacco industry in forming state and local policies on tobacco in Wisconsin. These activities in policy-making play an integral role in the level of tobacco use in the state. The late John Slade formulated a public health model of tobacco addiction where the agent (of the diseas...

  3. Employment impacts of EU biofuels policy. Combining bottom-up technology information and sectoral market simulations in an input-output framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the employment consequences of policies aimed to support biofuels in the European Union. The promotion of biofuel use has been advocated as a means to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from transport activities on the one hand, and to reduce dependence on imported oil and thereby increase security of the European energy supply on the other hand. The employment impacts of increasing biofuels shares are calculated by taking into account a set of elements comprising the demand for capital goods required to produce biofuels, the additional demand for agricultural feedstock, higher fuel prices or reduced household budget in the case of price subsidisation, price effects ensuing from a hypothetical world oil price reduction linked to substitution in the EU market, and price impacts on agro-food commodities. The calculations refer to scenarios for the year 2020 targets as set out by the recent Renewable Energy Roadmap. Employment effects are assessed in an input-output framework taking into account bottom-up technology information to specify biofuels activities and linked to partial equilibrium models for the agricultural and energy sectors. The simulations suggest that biofuels targets on the order of 10-15% could be achieved without adverse net employment effects. (author)

  4. The success of the industrial development policy in the pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nurul Amin; Tetsushi Sonobe

    2013-01-01

    While there are scores of excellent studies on failed industrial policies, studies of successful cases of industrial development are much fewer. This paper reports a case study of the successful development of the pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh and the critical roles played by the country’s National Drug Policy established in 1982 in boosting this development. This paper attempts to explain how badly the markets for drugs in developing countries in general fail in providing essential d...

  5. Economy-wide impacts of biofuels in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina is one of the world's largest biodiesel producers and the largest exporter, using soybeans as feedstock. Using a computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents the biofuel industry, this study carries out several simulations on two sets of issues: (i) international markets for biofuel and feedstock, such as an increase in prices of soybean, soybean oil, and biodiesel, and (ii) domestic policies related to biofuels, such as an introduction of biofuel mandates. Both sets of issues can have important consequences to the Argentinean economy. The simulations indicate that increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstocks would increase Argentina's gross domestic product and social welfare. Increases in international prices of ethanol and corn also can benefit Argentina, but to a lesser extent. The domestic mandates for biofuels, however, would cause small losses in economic output and social welfare because they divert part of biodiesel and feedstock from exports to lower-return domestic consumption. An increase in the export tax on either feedstock or biodiesel also would lead to a reduction in gross domestic product and social welfare, although government revenue would rise. - Highlights: ► Argentina is one of the largest biodiesel producer and exporter using soybeans. ► Economy-wide impacts are assessed using a CGE model for Argentina. ► Policies simulated are feedstock and biodiesel price change, and domestic mandates. ► Increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstock benefit the country. ► Domestic mandates for biofuels cause small losses in economic output

  6. Do Labor Rents Justify Strategic Trade and Industrial Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, William T.

    1995-01-01

    Several efficiency wage theories of wage determination have the property that identical workers are more productive in high wage industries and that the promotion of employment in high wage industries can increase GDP (and some measures of welfare). I argue that while policies to favor high wage industries may increase productivity, the effects in developed economies are likely to be very small. This is mainly because the workers who fill the high wage vacancies will come from fairly high wag...

  7. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Soimakallio, Sampo

    2012-01-01

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scen...

  8. The industry effects of monetary policy and their welfare implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo J.M. Arnold

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic theory provides at least two explanations for differential regional effects of a common monetary policy. The traditional money view focuses on regional differences in industry mix. Alternatively, the more recent credit view emphasizes differences in financial structure. This paper aims to make two contributions. First, building on the work by Carlino and DeFina (1998, I estimate impulse responses of sector earnings to monetary policy shocks for regions of the United States. An analysis of variance shows that the sector effect dominates the regional effect, providing further evidence for the importance of the industry mix. Second, the paper addresses the welfare implications of industry effects of monetary policy. One would expect industries suffering disproportionately from the impact of monetarypolicy to compensate their employees and shareholders. The US evidence on compensating wage and return differentials is, however, mixed.

  9. Institutions and Policies Shaping Industrial Development: An Introductory Note

    OpenAIRE

    Cimoli, Mario; Dosi, Giovanni; Nelson , Richard R.; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    In this work, meant as an introduction to the contributions of the task force on Industrial Policies and Development, Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University, New York, we discuss the role of institutions and policies in the process of development. We begin by arguing how misleading the "market failure" language can be in order to assess the necessity of public policies in that it evaluates it against a yardstick that is hardly met by any observed market set-up. Much nearer to the...

  10. Changes in the Vector of Industrial Policy and Possibilities for Innovative Development of the Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, reasons for the increased interest in industrial policy, both in developed and developing countries are explained. The systematization of the development results of the Russian industry from 1989 to 2014 showed a lack of systematic selection of its priorities, preventing the formation of a strategic vector of industrial policy. The desired industrial policy diversity is established at the different economic development stages of the country. In the context of economic sanctions against Russia, it is shown that the emergence of a new industrial policy vector is connected to the need for import substitution and concomitant changes in the development model of the domestic economy. The dynamics and characteristics of the industrial development area are shown by the example of a highly developed region like the Central Urals. The total level of innovation activity of organizations continues to be low and composes only 12 %, although in the manufacturing sector this index is higher than the regional economy index by four absolute percentage points. The industrial policy of the Middle Urals is analyzed, and innovation drivers of the industrial sector of the regional economy are established. The possibilities of the defense, civil engineering, mining, chemical and pharmaceutical, and forest complexes of Sverdlovsk Region to implement the import substitution policy are revealed. The most significant investment projects that will reduce the import dependence of the regional economy are presented. The possibilities of the research sector and created innovation infrastructure of the region in solving this problem are shown. The necessity of the regional laws on industrial policy elaboration, developing the basic regulations of the Federal Law "On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation" in proved

  11. Competitiveness and carbon leakages in industry under asymmetric climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at studying how to predict competitiveness loss for an industry submitted to an asymmetric carbon constraint, and carbon leakages, whether high losses and important leakages might be feared, and which policies can be used to mitigate these losses and escapes. The author analyses and comments the content of four articles dealing with: the impact on competitiveness, revenue distribution and economic efficiency of a change in the allocation rules for EU greenhouse gas allowances; the relationship between allocation of CO2 allowances and competitiveness in the case of the European iron and steel industry; CO2 abatement, competitiveness and leakage in the European cement industry under EU ETS; and leakage from climate policies and border tax adjustment (lessons from a geographic model of the cement industry). Then, the author combines several approaches to study the cement and steel industries

  12. Essays on the U.S. biofuel policies: Welfare impacts and the potential for reduction of GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossiso, Kassu Wamisho

    This dissertation study investigates the impact of the US biofuel policies related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulation, tax credit and renewable fuel standard (RFS2) mandate over production and consumption of ethanol as well as technical and environmental performance of corn ethanol plants. The study develops analytical models and provides quantitative estimation of the impact of various biofuel policies in each of the three chapters. Chapter 1 of this dissertation examines the tradeoff between achieving the environmental goal of minimizing life cycle GHG emissions and minimizing production costs in recently built dry-grind corn ethanol plants. The results indicate that the average ethanol plant is able to reduce GHG emissions by 36 % relative to the level under cost minimization, but production costs are 22 % higher. To move from least cost to least emissions allocations, ethanol plants would on average produce 25 % more of wet byproduct and 47% less of dry byproduct. Using a multi-output, multi-input partial equilibrium model, Chapter 2 explores the impact of the tax credit and RFS2 mandate policy on market price of ethanol, byproducts, corn, and other factor inputs employed in the production of corn ethanol. In the short-run, without tax credit ethanol plants will not have the incentive to produce the minimum level of ethanol required by RFS2. In the long-run, if ethanol plants to have the incentive to produce the minimum RFS2 mandate without tax credit policy, gasoline price will need to increase by order of 50% or more relative to the 2011 price. Chapter 3 develop meta-regression model to investigate the extent to which statistical heterogeneity among results of multiple studies on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates can be related to one or more characteristics of the studies in response to conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT). Regarding the difference in the rate of SOC sequestration between NT and CT, our results shows that the

  13. Biofuel application of biomass obtained from a meat industry wastewater plant through the flotation process. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sena, Rennio F.; Claudino, Andreia; Moretti, Karine; Bonfanti, Iris C.P.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J. [Laboratory of Energy and the Environment LEMA, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering EQA, Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC, Center of Tecnology CTC, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Physicochemical treatment of meat industry wastewater is used to increase the organic matter removal efficiency, and it generates great amounts of sludge. Treatment using commercial ferric sulfate as coagulant for this specific wastewater gave high organic matter removals, decreasing considerably the amount of waste material to be treated in biological systems, and also allowing the obtention of 0.83-0.87 kg of biomass fuel for each m{sup 3} of treated wastewater. Due to sanitary, environmental problems and operational costs related to the discharge, land disposal and re-use of wastes, the utilization of this Biofuel (dried sludge) for steam generation has shown to be a viable alternative. This type of fuel has a high heating value, and it is a renewable energy source. The combustion test with a Biofuel to sawdust ratio of 4:1 met the technical requirements for the characterization of this promising fuel; nevertheless, operating conditions must be well designed to achieve NO{sub X} and SO{sub 2} emissions below local and/or international limits. (author)

  14. Política industrial e desenvolvimento Industrial policy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Suzigan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the debate on industrial policy and economic development in Brazil. At first, theoretical approaches that support industrial policy-making are discussed, with emphasis on the neoschumpeterian/evolutionary approach, which focuses on innovation as prime mover of economic development and on the co-evolution of technologies, institutions, and industries and firms structures. Next, such an approach is applied to explain some successful experiences of industrial policy-making and economic development in Brazil up to the end of the 1970s, and the failures to implement such a policy from the 1980s onwards. Finally, the present government industrial policy is evaluated, arguing that although it has some positive aspects like the focus on innovation, clearly defined targets and a new institutional organization, it fails as an economic development policy because of weaknesses such as incompatibility with macroeconomic policy, inconsistencies of policy instruments, deficiencies in infrastructure and in the science, technology and innovation system, and lack of coordination and political drive.

  15. Industry concentration and strategic trade policy in successive oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a policy game between exporting and importing countries in vertically linked industries. In a successive international Cournot oligopoly, we analyze incentives for using tax instruments strategically to shift rents vertically, between exporting and importing countries, and horizontally, between exporting countries. We show that the equilibrium outcome depends crucially on the relative degree of competitiveness in the upstream and downstream parts of the industry. With respect to national welfare, a more competitive upstream industry may benefit an exporting (upstream) country and harm an importing (downstream) country. On the other hand, a more competitive downstream industry may harm exporting countries. (Author)

  16. Industry concentration and strategic trade policy in successive oligopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-12-15

    We study a policy game between exporting and importing countries in vertically linked industries. In a successive international Cournot oligopoly, we analyze incentives for using tax instruments strategically to shift rents vertically, between exporting and importing countries, and horizontally, between exporting countries. We show that the equilibrium outcome depends crucially on the relative degree of competitiveness in the upstream and downstream parts of the industry. With respect to national welfare, a more competitive upstream industry may benefit an exporting (upstream) country and harm an importing (downstream) country. On the other hand, a more competitive downstream industry may harm exporting countries. (Author)

  17. Industry concentration and strategic trade policy in successive oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a policy game between exporting and importing countries in vertically linked industries. In a successive international Cournot oligopoly, we let the governments in the importing and exporting countries use tax instruments strategically to shift rents up or down the vertical value-chain. We show that the equilibrium outcome depends crucially on the relative degree of competitiveness in the upstream and downstream parts of the industry. With respect to national welfare, a more competitive upstream industry may benefit an exporting (upstream) country while harming an importing (downstream) country. On the other hand, a more competitive downstream industry may harm exporting countries. (Author)

  18. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  19. Climate and industrial policy in an asymmetric world

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is a phenomenon leading to randomly distributed disasters around the globe. Due to massive economic and technical asymmetry between the advanced North and the developing South efficient climate and industrial policy is particular difficult. Globally efficient policy would need to equip the South with pollution reducing technologies. However, there is a tradeoff between capital accumulation for consumption growth and low-carbon development. The pollution stock affecting today's ...

  20. Determinants of Dividend Policy in Kosovo Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Livoreka; Arta Hoti; Erdin Maloku

    2015-01-01

    As salary to Managers and employees is dividend to Shareholders. There are several determinants influencing dividend policy on the banking Industry. A stable dividend policy gives positive signal to shareholders and can be seen as positive on the bank performance. In order to distribute dividend several factors are considered. With multivariable linear regression and the data from the “Financial Stability Report” of the Central Bank of Kosovo this paper tends to present the determinants which...

  1. Determinants of Dividend Policy in Kosovo Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Livoreka; Arta Hoti; Erdin Maloku

    2015-01-01

    As salary to Managers and employees is dividend to Shareholders. There are several determinants influencing dividend policy on the banking Industry. A stable dividend policy gives positive signal to shareholders and can be seen as positive on the bank performance. In order to distribute dividend several factors are considered. With multivariable linear regression and the data from the “Financial Stability Report” of the Central Bank of Kosovo this paper tends to present the det...

  2. The industry effects of monetary policy and their welfare implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo J.M. Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Economic theory provides at least two explanations for differential regional effects of a common monetary policy. The traditional money view focuses on regional differences in industry mix. Alternatively, the more recent credit view emphasizes differences in financial structure. This paper aims to make two contributions. First, building on the work by Carlino and DeFina (1998), I estimate impulse responses of sector earnings to monetary policy shocks for regions of the United States. An analy...

  3. Earning Management and Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistani Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aurangzeb; Tasfoura Dilawer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of earning management on dividend payout policy. This research is conducted by taking the data of textile industry from the year of 1966 to 2008. All the companies listed with Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) are used as sample. Measurement of dividend policy is done by calculating dividend payout ratio. The dividend payout (DPO) is taken as a dependent variable and the earning management (EM) is taken as an independent variable, discretionary acc...

  4. Policy evaluation in terms of relative industrial performance and competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigson, P.; Dotzauer, E. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); Yan, J. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a tool that can improve energy and climate policymaking processes through a stronger inclusion of industry expertise while safeguarding industrial competitiveness. The authors suggested that in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes, policymakers should recognize the role that industry plays as emission abatement investors. The tool is designed to promote policy design and management processes, facilitating transparency of methodology and subjectivity, consensus of results, rapid simulations of policy processes, and high inter-usability by key decision makers. The authors analyzed how climate and energy policy framework design and management processes can be improved through evaluation processes that focus on carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, and utilization of renewable energy resources. The tool was used in a Swedish case study where industries are known to be relatively energy efficient with low emissions. The study showed that a more diversified and individual policy approach could be favorable, but this would result in increased administrative work for the government and public entities that administer the policy regime. Although this is a negative effect, the authors argued that the challenge of combating climate change will incur additional costs and labor in one way or the other. The authors emphasized that early-action can mitigate the costs. 40 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  6. Regional industrial policy as a tool for efficient use of the industrial potential of the region

    OpenAIRE

    Kudrina, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution theory elements on the understanding and interpretation of the term „regional industrial policy”, both domestic and foreign scholars. Pointed out that in science there are certain requirements for the definition of terms (objectivity, clarity of definition, completeness explanation). Concluded that regional policy should mean, above all, a policy that in the definition should be refined features that distinguish it from other types of policies. The output...

  7. The legitimacy of biofuel certification

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The biofuel boom is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with the most crucial consequences in the agri-food sector. The biofuel industry is responding by initiating private governance and certification. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Cramer Commission, among others, have formulated criteria on ?sustainable? biofuel production and processing. This article explores the legitimacy of private governance and certification by the biofuel...

  8. Analysis of government policies to support sustainable domestic defense industries

    OpenAIRE

    Marzah, Roni; SETIAWAN, BUDI

    2015-01-01

    Armed forces all over the world need military equipment to support their security missions. Having a domestic defense industry is one approach that countries use to supply their armed forces’ requirements. The successful development of a domestic defense industry depends on many factors, but perhaps the most significant variable is the government. Because governments are both buyers and suppliers of national security, government policies are often designed by governments to defend and regulat...

  9. Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Former...

  10. Cross-specialization: A New Perspective on Industry Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Matthijs J. Janssen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how an economies’ established stronghold industries can form a basis for sustaining competiveness. As changing market circumstances demand strongholds to stay adaptive, their knowledge bases need to be enriched with knowledge that is uncommon to the industry itself. Inspired by insights from evolutionary economic geography, we argue why rather than (only) supporting related variety, policy makers should ‘cross-specialize’ by creating linkages between strong but unrela...

  11. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints

  12. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints.

  13. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO2-tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  14. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

  15. IMPACTS OF EUROPEAN BIOFUEL POLICIES ON AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND ENVIRONMENT UNDER CONSIDERATION OF 2ND GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, A.; ADENÄUER Marcel; Blanco Fonseca, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Even though recent discussions on food prices and indirect land use change point at potential conflicts associated with the production of biofuels the appraisal of biofuels as an effective instrument to slow down climate change and reduce energy dependency still prevails. The EU Renewable Energy Directive (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2009) underlines this trend by setting a target of 10% share of energy from renewable sources in the transport sector by 2020. As economic competitiveness of biofuel pr...

  16. Research of Talent Development Policy of Online Game Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Che Yang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of information technology and the development of Internet, the digital content industry has become one of the most promising industries in the 21st century. The rapid growth of the online gaming industry at the turn of the century does not only catch the eyes of the whole world, but also reshape the entire information-related industry. The purpose of this study is to explore issue of the talent development policy of the domestic online game industry. The method of in-depth interview is used in this study, and the research target is chosen to be qualified of speaking for the government, the education institutes, and the private sectors in the industry. The findings of this research suggest that Taiwan's government should take up a more vigorous responsibility. Following the government's leadership, both education institutes and industry private sectors must actively participate in the collaboration and feed back the up-dated information, such as the market trend and most wanted human resources, to the policy makers.[Article content in Chinese

  17. HARMONIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL POLICY AND TRADE POLICY ON THE EXAMPLE OF AGROINDUSTRIAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of harmonization of industrial and trade policies at the micro- and macro-systems due primarily to the fact that it is connecting links between the individual elements of the technological pyramid and from their adequacy the level of economic development of the region and the country as a whole depends. Due to the large variety and inhomogeneity of natural and socio-economic conditions between individual parts and the subjects of the Russian Federation, balanced production, economic and trade relations, firstly, provide economic integrity of the country and, secondly, to promote the formation of a positive effect from intersubjective division of labor. Increasing changes in the environment, the appearance of new buyer inquiries, intensified competition, openings in science and technology, presenting new opportunities for business, requires organizations of an effective system of enterprise management, which allows responding flexibly to all market changes. This problem is solved by the implementation of industrial and trade policies of enterprise and by harmonizing production and sales activities. This article discusses the nature and content of the concepts of "industrial policy" and "trade policy", harmonization methods of industrial and trade policy of enterprises and agriculture in general. The article analyzes main indicators characterizing the contemporary economic condition of the agriculture industry. Based on the findings, it suggest ways to solve the problem

  18. Impact of EU biofuel policies on world agricultural production and land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union aims to increase the share of renewable energy in its total energy consumption to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and make the economy more CO2 neutral. This policy is further motivated by a desire to reduce dependency on fossil fuel imports and to stimulate rural development and the agricultural sector.

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  20. Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloojee, Y; Dagli, E

    2000-01-01

    The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263

  1. Influence of By-Products Obtained from Biofuels Industry on Productive Performances of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed on 100 lambs, of common race, divided into 4 homogeneous groups of 25 lambs each, which were fed, differentiated for 3 weeks. Lots 1.2 and 3 received a supplement consisting of by-products obtained from the manufacture of biofuels in the area: Feed rations had similar nutritive values for all lambs in the experimental plots. The amount of crude protein in concentrates ratio was 17.40% for group 1, 18.44% for group 2, 17.60% for group 3, and 17.00% for group 4. Bulky feed were given ad libitum for all groups. After the first week of the experiment there was a spectacular evolution of body weight gain. All experimental lots were situated beyond the control group. Body mass growth rate is 3.5 times higher in the group fed with supplement of sunflower meal, 4.16 times higher in that fed with soybean meal supplements and 5.2 times higher in the group fed with additional rape meal. After the second week, the differences are decreasing, as the absolute value of body weight gain.

  2. RUSSIA ON THE PATH TOWARDS A NEW TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIAL POLICY: EXCITING PROSPECTS AND FATAL TRAPS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri, Simachev; Mikhail, Kuzyk; Boris, Kuznetsov; Evgeniy, Pogrebnyak

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss the practical problems and inconsistencies of industrial policy in Russia since 2000, to analyze positive and negative experiences, and to draw up some lessons which are essential for a new technology-industrial policy. The evolution of approaches to industrial policy in Russia is considered, which results particularly in convergence between innovation and industrial policies. Basic state interest groups are revealed, whose interaction determines the industrial pol...

  3. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... on the regional features of industrial emissions is critical to better decision makings. While to date, related studies have been rather few. This paper applies a spatial analysis on regional features of China's industrial emissions (SO2, NOx and PM2.5 and CO2 emission) in 31 provinces. Spatial autocorrelation...

  4. World experience of formation and development trends of market biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchuk, O.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the current trends of the world market for biofuels. Substantiated the main factors underlying the formation of the biofuels market and the possible prospects of its development. Perspective directions of development of the biofuel industry in the world

  5. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Goh, Chun; Teong Lee, Keat [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success. (author)

  6. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Chun Sheng [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Lee, Keat Teong, E-mail: chktlee@eng.usm.m [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  7. Main Directions and Mechanisms of Industrial Policy of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Podmolodina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Under difficult economic conditions for Russian business, characterized by difficulties of Russian companies’ access to foreign modern technologies and long-term financial resources, there is a need for elaborated industrial policy which facilitates the development of national industry and provision of economic security of the country. With current sanctions, the Russian enterprises faced the problems of impossibility of getting foreign equipment under the previously signed contracts, re-orientation of orders for the similar domestic production, and attraction of financial resources from internal sources. Solution to these problems lies in the plane of development of “new” industrial policy. The purpose of the article is to determine main directions and mechanisms for realization of measures of industrial policy which facilitates the development of domestic industrial production, implementation of achievements of scientific and technological progress into industrial processes, and import substitution of science intensive products. Realization of industrial policy of Russia supposes the formation of special conditions. These are favorable economic and socio-infrastructural conditions, attractive entrepreneurial regime, high level of training of personnel for various industries, and informational support of government structures. Activation of innovational activity requires mechanisms that ensure the improvement of conditions for fair competition and increase of motivation of companies for innovations; regulation of product markets (service markets and sectorial regulation for distribution of leading technologies; development of the system of technical regulation, which includes harmonization of legislative basis of Russia and the EU countries in this sphere; simplification of a procedure of entry of new products into the market; simplification and quickening of the procedures of certification, including as to the international quality

  8. State and Industrial Policy: Comparative Political Economic Analysis of Automotive Industrial Policies in Malaysia and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Wan-Ping; Ku, Samuel C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous differences exist between the neoclassical and national development schools of economics on how an economy should develop. For example, should the state interfere in the market using state resources, and cultivate certain industries to achieve specific developmental goals? Although the automotive industries in both Thailand and Malaysia developed in the 1970s with considerable government involvement, they have evolved along very different lines. Can these differences be traced to dif...

  9. Impact of Monetary Policy on Industrial Growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Owolabi A. Usman; Adegbite Tajudeen Adejare

    2014-01-01

    The study empirically examines the impact of monetary policy on industrial growth in Nigerian economy, in line with the objectives of this study, secondary data were obtained from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin covering the period of 1970 to 2010. In concluding the analysis, multiple regressions were employed to analyze data on such variables, manufacturing output, Treasury Bills, Deposit & leading and Rediscount Rate for Nigeria over the period 1970 to 2010 were all found have ...

  10. Training policy and organisational performance in the Spanish hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Úbeda García, Mercedes; Marco Lajara, Bartolomé; Sabater Sempere, Vicente; García Lillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a general agreement about the importance of training as a tool to help companies in the development of sustainable competitive advantages based on their human resources. Staff qualification is not an option in the tourism industry; human capital training actually becomes a determining factor to be able to achieve a differential positioning within the sector. In Spain, where the tourism sector is a strategic element, it becomes essential to analyse the training policy applie...

  11. Determinants of Dividend Policy in Kosovo Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Livoreka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As salary to Managers and employees is dividend to Shareholders. There are several determinants influencing dividend policy on the banking Industry. A stable dividend policy gives positive signal to shareholders and can be seen as positive on the bank performance. In order to distribute dividend several factors are considered. With multivariable linear regression and the data from the “Financial Stability Report” of the Central Bank of Kosovo this paper tends to present the determinants which indicate the decision on following a certain policy. Results received from this paper is tended to inform the reader on understanding the role of determinants on dividend distribution as well as new researchers on having an additional opinion related to their future research.

  12. Earning Management and Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistani Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of earning management on dividend payout policy. This research is conducted by taking the data of textile industry from the year of 1966 to 2008. All the companies listed with Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE are used as sample. Measurement of dividend policy is done by calculating dividend payout ratio. The dividend payout (DPO is taken as a dependent variable and the earning management (EM is taken as an independent variable, discretionary accruals are taken as proxy of earning management and three variables are treated as control variables; return on equity (ROE, size of the firm (SF and self finance ratio (SFR. Results explored earning management and all control variables have negative relation with dividend payout policy.

  13. The effects of alternative carbon mitigation policies on Japanese industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the climate change issue, developed nations have considered introducing carbon pricing mechanisms in the form of a carbon tax or an emissions trading scheme (ETS). Despite the small number of programmes actually in operation, these mechanisms remain under active discussion in a number of countries, including Japan. Using an input–output model of the Japanese economy, this article analyses the effects of carbon pricing on Japan′s industrial sector. We also examine the impact of a rebate programme of the type proposed for energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries in U.S. legislation, the Waxman–Markey Bill (H.R. 2454), and in the European Union′s ETS. We find that a carbon pricing scheme would impose a disproportionate burden on a limited number of sectors – namely, pig iron, crude steel (converters), cement and other EITE industries. Out of 401 industries, 23 would be eligible for rebates according to the Waxman–Markey-type programme, whereas 122 industries would be eligible for rebates according to the E.U.-type programme, if adopted in Japan. Overall, despite the differences in coverage, we find that the Waxman–Markey and E.U. rebate programmes have roughly similar impacts in reducing the average burden on EITE industries. - Highlights: • Energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries suffer the most due to carbon pricing policies. • Twenty-three industries will be eligible under a Waxman–Markey (WM)-type rebate programme. • The E.U. emissions trading scheme (ETS)-type programme identifies 122 industries. • Both WM- and E.U.-type programmes will lower the cost of production to similar levels. • Industries eligible for rebates must be determined carefully

  14. The importance of energy supply in industrial policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern energy policy as outlined by the Federation of German Industries (BDI) in its Energy Study should - ensure continuity of energy supply by means of a broad energy mix, - employ all energy resources and energy technologies without any bias, - develop renewable energies and make increasing use of them, - exploit possibilities of economical, efficient energy use, - substitute whenever superior energy resources have been developed and made available, also with respect to environmental compatibility. The overarching objectives of industry and of economic policy in Germany must be taken into account: More value must be added in Germany. Reliable energy supplies and capable infrastructures are a basis for sound conditions for production and investment. - Towards this end, European energy markets must be deregulated consistently within the appropriate legal framework. - Surcharges levied on electricity prices to promote renewables must be limited in general. - The burdens arising from climate protection must be shared by all major emitter countries. - Energy policy tailored to the needs of specific locations must be consistent and comprehensive. - Opting out of the use of nuclear power is a grave mistake from the point of view both of environmental and energy and economic policies. This step must be revised. The extension of the operation licences would be the first step. There is need for action also in waste management. (orig.)

  15. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  16. Energy valorization of agro-industrial wastes and sweet sorghum for the production of gaseous biofuels through anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Δαρειώτη, Μαργαρίτα

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that renewable resources have received great interest from the international community during the last decades and play a crucial role in the current CO2-mitigation policy. In this regard, energy from biomass and waste is seen as one of the most dominant future renewable energy sources. Thus, organic waste i.e. animal wastes, wastewaters, energy crops, agricultural and agro-industrial residues are of specific importance since these sources do not compete with food crops in agricul...

  17. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  18. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  19. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... ] Industrial Security Program policy matters. Dated: February 23, 2012. Mary Ann Hadyka, Committee Management... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  20. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  1. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  2. Washington biofuel feedstock crop supply under output price and quantity uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsidized development of an in-state biofuels industry has received some political support in the state of Washington, USA. Utilizing in-state feedstock supplies could be an efficient way to stimulate biofuel industries and the local economy. In this paper we estimate supply under output price and quantity uncertainty for major biofuel feedstock crops in Washington. Farmers are expected to be risk averse and maximize the utility of profit and uncertainty. We estimate very large Washington price elasticities for corn and sugar beets but a small price elasticity for a third potential feedstock, canola. Even with the large price elasticities for two potential feedstocks, their current and historical production levels in the state are so low that unrealistically large incentives would likely be needed to obtain sufficient feedstock supply for a Washington biofuel industry. Based on our examination of state and regional data, we find low likelihood that a Washington biofuels industry will develop in the near future primarily using within-state biofuel feedstock crops. - Highlights: ► Within-state feedstock crop supplies insufficient for Washington biofuel industry. ► Potential Washington corn and sugar beet supplies very responsive to price changes. ► Feedstock supplies more responsive to higher expected profit than lower risk. ► R and D for conversion of waste cellulosic feedstocks is potentially important policy.

  3. China's Coke Industrial and Trade Policy Over 2000–2013: Its Evolution and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shuyun Wang; Zesheng Sun

    2014-01-01

    This paper systematically discusses the evolution of China's industrial and trade policy regarding coke and the effects of this policy over the past decade, particularly from 2004 to 2013. We found that: (1) due to the impact of China's strict industrial policies, the country's coal and coke industry is still competitive. These policies have also helped the Chinese government achieve its goal of maintaining security and energy conservation. (2) China's coke trade policies did not reduce the v...

  4. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  5. US nuclear policy and business trend of Japan's nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As several countries in the east-Asia and middle-east area have been taking an increasing interest in the deployment of nuclear power generation, Japan's nuclear industries have promoted international business activities including the success in the bid of second nuclear power plants in Vietnam. While there are plans for more than thirty of new reactors in the US, the lifetime extension of existing aged reactors, development of non-existing natural gas and trend of greenhouse gases reduction measures have dampened these plans and probably most of new units will not start construction by 2030. This article reviewed the details of US's new nuclear power introduction, trend of recent government's policies, future perspective of nuclear power construction and business trend of Japan's nuclear industries. Japan's industries should be flexible regarding nuclear power as one option to realize low-carbon society. (T. Tanaka)

  6. The Political Economy of Industrial Policy: A Comparative Study of the Textiles Industry in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew McCartney

    2014-01-01

    The textiles industry in Pakistan has failed to fulfill its “historical mission,” whether judged in terms of promoting rapid and sustained economic growth, reducing poverty, or providing employment to young women and so promoting wider social transformation. This paper makes a case for a particular and targeted form of industrial policy that would help the textiles sector learn and upgrade. It argues that those factors commonly seen as constraints to industrial policy—the “China effect,” the ...

  7. Policies on energy, mining industry and status of uranium mining industry in China and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policies on energy, mining industry and status of uranium mining industry in China and USA are introduced in this paper. China is a large developing country of forming market economy. Eager development of nuclear power needs to explore more economic and large deposits. A top priority task to uranium mining industry is to provide security guarantee for the nuclear power by solving the real problem of low degree in geological exploration we are confronted with, and single-channeled and insufficient investments, no competition in uranium exploration. The method is to make full use of the existing ability, combine with the national conditions, and follow closely the international exploration tides. (authors)

  8. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July...

  9. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  10. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2009-04-01

    estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb) shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the thin margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg), but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72). Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere, probably due to the use of tannin-rich oak fuel. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  11. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2009-04-01

    be a source of interference in some areas when using these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the thin margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg, but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72. Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere, probably due to the use of tannin-rich oak fuel. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  12. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2010-01-01

    these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb) shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the very small profit margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg), but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72). Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  13. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the very small profit margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg, but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72. Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  14. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  15. Demands for energy policy by industry and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Use of Nuclear Power for Peaceful Purposes' is a key topic in energy policy which produces a split of opinions in Germany, and which the policy of the Grand Coalition seeks to bypass. The Federation of German Industries (BDI) wants to achieve a sensible way of handling this source of energy because, after all, we are facing the challenge of having to secure economic development and prosperity and, at the same time, reduce global CO2 emissions. If this is to be achieved, industry and politics together must build a bridge into a future with less CO2. That bridge would be supported on 4 pillars: - a global strategy of CO2 reduction, - energy efficiency, - a broad energy mix, - energy research and development. In these efforts, industry and the BDI consider nuclear power an indispensable part of a viable climate and energy policy. Next to lignite, nuclear power offers electricity generation at the lowest cost, and promotes climate protection through CO2-free generation. As far as energy efficiency and a broad energy mix are concerned, the potentials for technical development play an important role. This is an area in which German industry can develop future markets for itself by being a leader in technology. Energy research should advance the development of existing technologies and open up new options. In this way, energy research contributes to high technologies in Germany. For nuclear power, it must be ensured that German scientists are able to participate in promising developments of new reactors in the same way in which this is the case in the development and construction of ITER, the international fusion reactor, in France. (orig.)

  16. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Irving Olsen, S.

    2011-05-15

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal wastewater. Algae capture CO{sub 2} from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating environmental benefits and impacts can be a tool for policy decisions and for technology development. (Author)

  17. Impacts of Land use and biofuels policy on climate: IGSM-TEM Land use in CAM3.1-CLM3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, W.; Schlosser, C. A.; Monier, E.

    2011-12-01

    Two land-use frameworks derived from a model of the global economy were used to explore the climate impacts of an energy policy which involves the large scale plantation of cellulosic biofuels to meet 10% of the global energy demand. These frameworks were (i) Pure Cost Conversion Response (PCCR), or 'extensification' scenario, where the price of land constrains agricultural conversion, including growing biofuels, and; (ii) Observed Land Supply Response (OLSR), or 'intensification', where legal, environmental and other constraints encourage more intense use of existing agricultural land (i.e. less forest clearing). The land cover of the Community Atmospheric Model Version 3.0 (CAM3.0) was manipulated to reflect four different land use and energy scenarios (i.e. PCCR and OLSR with and without biofuels). CAM3.0 was run to equilibrium under 1990 and 2050 climate conditions, in order to assess the impact these land cover changes have on the atmospheric state. For the 2050 climate conditions, CAM was prescribed with concentrations of radiatively active trace gases (a.k.a. greenhouse gases), derived from an Integrated Global System Model using the same economic model, that result from a moderate stabilization target by the end of the 21st century. When the biofuel policy is implemented, both economic frameworks increase the land-surface reflectivity over much of the land surface in the extratropics, indicating that biofuel cropland is replacing darker land-vegetation types, and decreasing absorption of solar radiation. This leads to a cooling effect which is strongest in the northern hemisphere and occurs to a greater extent in the PCCR scenario, and is also present to a lesser extent in the PCCR-without-biofuels scenario. Although these temperature changes are for the most part overwhelmed by the trace-gas forcing (i.e. anthropogenic warming), the PCCR scenario land cover changes act to notably lessen the warming. However, in much of the Amazonian and African tropics

  18. 77 FR 23673 - Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable-DON/USDA/DOE/DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Drop-In Biofuels Initiative AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of public meeting... government insight, nor answer direct questions and receive comments on the DPA Title III Advanced...

  19. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: An international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry

  20. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: an international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which is turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry. (author)

  1. Practical implementation of liquid biofuels: The transferability of the Brazilian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic analysis of the particularities and trends pertaining to the development of biofuels in Brazil—a country which has demonstrated its leadership in this field during the last 40 years. The Brazilian experiences with biofuels are often used as references for decision making by other developed and developing countries. The transferability of Brazil's biofuels practices would be appreciated by many researchers and energy policy markers across the world. This work uses an adapted 5W2H (what, when, where, why, who, how, and how much) analysis technique to answer a variety of questions about the subject. The data, facts, and figures herein are offered as resources for other researchers and policy makers seeking benchmarking. Also, this work discusses the main certainties and uncertainties of the sugarcane agro-industry, and also goes into detail about the ethanol supply chain structure, its management, and particularities. Finally, this research analyzes the central aspects of biofuels implementation in Brazil, lists the most important aspects to consider during a selection of possible standard biofuels, and presents the main aspects of the National Program of Biodiesel Production and its sustainability. - Highlights: • A systemic cause–effect analysis was carried out on biofuel program success. • Main questions concerning implementation of liquid biofuels in Brazil were studied. • Main weakness aspects of biofuel logistic were treated. • During selection of benchmarking strategy. What needs to take into account?

  2. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  3. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Wolfe, Alexis [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); English, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ruddick, Colleen [BCS, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States); Lambert, Devinn [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is committed to advancing the vision of a viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that produces renewable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower; enhances U.S. energy security; reduces our dependence on fossil fuels; provides environmental benefits; and creates economic opportunities across the nation. BETO’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). To accomplish its goals, BETO has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, in partnership with national laboratories, academia, and industry.

  4. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was

  5. Design of a Nutrient Reclamation System for the Cultivation of Microalgae for Biofuel Production and Other Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Heather Nicole

    Microalgal biomass has been identified as a promising feedstock for a number of industrial applications, including the synthesis of new pharmaceutical and biofuel products. However, there are several economic limitations associated with the scale up of existing algal production processes. Critical economic studies of algae-based industrial processes highlight the high cost of supplying essential nutrients to microalgae cultures. With microalgae cells having relatively high nitrogen contents (4 to 8%), the N fertilizer cost in industrial-scale production is significant. In addition, the disposal of the large volumes of cell residuals that are generated during product extraction stages can pose other economic challenges. While waste streams can provide a concentrated source of nutrients, concerns about the presence of biological contaminants and the expense of heat treatment pose challenges to processes that use wastewater as a nutrient source in microalgae cultures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential application of ultrafiltration technology to aid in the utilization of agricultural wastewater in the cultivation of a high-value microalgae strain. An ultrafiltration system was used to remove inorganic solids and biological contaminants from wastewater taken from a swine farm in Savoy, Arkansas. The permeate from the system was then used as the nutrient source for the cultivation of the marine microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. During the ultrafiltration system operation, little membrane fouling was observed, and permeate fluxes remained relatively constant during both short-term and long-term tests. The complete rejection of E. coli and coliforms from the wastewater was also observed, in addition to a 75% reduction in total solids, including inorganic materials. The processed permeate was shown to have very high concentrations of total nitrogen (695.6 mg L-1) and total phosphorus (69.1 mg L-1 ). In addition, the growth of P. cruentum was analyzed in

  6. Extremophiles in biofuel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Desire; Casanueva, Ana; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The current global energy situation has demonstrated an urgent need for the development of alternative fuel sources to the continually diminishing fossil fuel reserves. Much research to address this issue focuses on the development of financially viable technologies for the production of biofuels. The current market for biofuels, defined as fuel products obtained from organic substrates, is dominated by bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol and biogas, relying on the use of substrates such as sugars, starch and oil crops, agricultural and animal wastes, and lignocellulosic biomass. This conversion from biomass to biofuel through microbial catalysis has gained much momentum as biotechnology has evolved to its current status. Extremophiles are a robust group of organisms producing stable enzymes, which are often capable of tolerating changes in environmental conditions such as pH and temperature. The potential application of such organisms and their enzymes in biotechnology is enormous, and a particular application is in biofuel production. In this review an overview of the different biofuels is given, covering those already produced commercially as well as those under development. The past and present trends in biofuel production are discussed, and future prospects for the industry are highlighted. The focus is on the current and future application of extremophilic organisms and enzymes in technologies to develop and improve the biotechnological production of biofuels. PMID:20662378

  7. Estimating maximum land use change potential from a regional biofuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum amount of land for growing switchgrass for ethanol is estimated for a region in the southeastern U.S. Breakeven capacities are calculated for land in row crops, hay, pasture and marginal land. Characteristics of land categories inform potential land use change impacts as well as switchgrass profitability. Variable yields within and across land categories are translated into distributions of switchgrass net revenue. Breakeven curves are generated for a range of switchgrass prices. These curves provide upper bounds for further analysis of actual switchgrass adoption in context of broader economic forces and possible policy mechanisms to minimize environmental impacts. A farm-gate price of $55 Mg−1 is estimated for half of marginal and pasturelands to break even with switchgrass. At this price, only 20% of land in hay and a small fraction of row crop hectares break even. Half of hay and row crops hectares break even at approximately $90 Mg−1 and $100 Mg−1, respectively. At $60 Mg−1, sufficient land area can profitably produce switchgrass for ethanol to displace approximately 10% of gasoline consumed in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; however, this price only indicates breakeven capacity implying that higher prices may be necessary to realize 10% displacement. - Highlights: • The potential for switchgrass is assessed for a region of the southeastern U.S. • Profitability for switchgrass is variable within and between land types. • Switchgrass breaks even on half of marginal and pastureland at $55 Mg−1. • Row crops and hay require more than $90 Mg−1 to break even on half the land area. • Breakeven capacity suggests the extent for land use change impacts

  8. Biofuels, a bad thing?; Boeser Biokraftstoff?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.; Bensmann, M.

    2008-05-15

    The discussions over biofuels are still going on. Critics claim that biofuels ruin engine components, destroy rainforests and cause high food prices and global hunger. According to this contribution, the Federal government's biofuels policy was wrong and was doomed to fail. (orig.)

  9. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. PMID:25281367

  10. Biofuel Subsidies and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bhaumik, Sumon; Wall, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores optimal biofuel subsidization in the context of a general equilibrium trade model. The focus is on biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, which diverts corn from use as food to use as an intermediate input in energy production. In the small-country case, when a Pigouvian tax on conventional fuels such as crude is in place, the optimal biofuel subsidy is zero. When the tax on crude is not available as a policy option, however, a second-best biofuel subsidy (or tax) is opti...

  11. Status of Chinese NPP Industry and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China still extended their experiences to both domestic and overseas so far. Chinese State Council approved its 'Medium and Long-term Nuclear Power Development Plan' in November 2007, indicating further definition for nuclear energy as indispensable energy option and future self-reliance development of nuclear industry. China intends to become self-sufficient not only in NPPs capacity, but also in the fuel production for all those plants. There are currently 17 NPPs in operation, and 28 NPPs under construction. However, domestic uranium mining supplying is currently less than a quarter of nuclear fuel demands. This paper investigated and summarized the updated status of NPP industry in China and Nuclear Fuel Cycle(NFC) policy. There still remain a number of technical innovation and comprehensive challenges for this nuclear developing country in the long-term, but its large ambitions and dramatic improvements toward future should not be ignored. As shown in this paper, the most suitable approach for China to achieve both environmentally-friendly power supplying and increasing energy demands meeting simultaneously must be considered. Nuclear energy now was recognized as the most potential and optimal way of energy supply system. In addition, to accommodate such a high-speed NPP construction in China, it should also focus on when and how spent nuclear fuel should be reprocessed. Finally, the nuclear back-end fuel cycle policy should be established, taking into accounts of all costs, uranium resource security, spent fuel management, proliferation resistance and environmental impact

  12. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    from the molecular level and envisions positive synergies in the use of biomass. The other is a holistic bioscarcity perspective originating in life-cycle analysis and ecology. This perspective works downwards from global resource scope conditions, and envisions negative consequences from an increased...... of biofuels enrol scientific authority to support their positions? The sociological theory of functional differentiation combined with the concept of advocacy coalition can help in exploring this relationship between scientific claims-making and the policy stance of different actors in public debates...... about biofuels. In Denmark two distinct scientific perspectives about biofuels map onto the policy debates through articulation by two competing advocacy coalitions. One is a reductionist biorefinery perspective originating in biochemistry and neighbouring disciplines. This perspective works upwards...

  13. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  14. Clean energy: Revisiting the challenges of industrial policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large public investments in clean energy technology arguably constitute an industrial policy. One rationale points to market failures that have not been corrected by other policies, most notably greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil. Another inspiration for clean energy policy reflects economic arguments of the 1980s. It suggests strategic government investments would increase U.S. firms' market share of a growing industry and thus help American firms and workers. This paper examines the reasoning for clean energy policy and concludes that: •While a case can be made that subsidizing clean energy might help address market failures, the case may be narrower than some assert, and turning theory into sound practice is no simple feat. •An appropriate price on greenhouse gases is an essential precondition to ensuring efficient incentives to develop and deploy cost-effective emissions-abating technologies. However, efficient prices alone are unlikely to generate efficient levels of basic research and development by private firms. •Government investments in clean energy are unlikely to produce net increases in employment in the long run, in part because pushing home-grown technologies at taxpayers' expense offers no guarantee that the eventual products ultimately would not be manufactured somewhere else. •Spending on clean energy technologies is not well suited to fiscal stimulus. The authors recommend that: •Federal energy spending should invest in technologies with the lowest expected cost of abatement and highest probability of market penetration. •Funding decisions ought to be insulated – as much as possible – from rent-seeking by interest groups, purely political distortions, and the parochial preferences of legislators. - Highlights: ► Clean energy technology policy may be less justifiable than many assert, and doing it well is hard. ► The government should appropriately price greenhouse gas emissions and fund technology R and D.

  15. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding What industries are being de-nationalized What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R D affect non-defense S T funding How will reductions in military R D affect the long-term outlook for research How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R D community. How might improved international contacts affect S T What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible

  16. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry? How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled? What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms? What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels? What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding? What industries are being de-nationalized? What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research? To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R&D affect non-defense S&T funding? How will reductions in military R&D affect the long-term outlook for research? How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R&D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R&D community. How might improved international contacts affect S&T? What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible?

  17. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 Euro /L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 Euro /L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels.

  18. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  19. Flux and concentration processes of radioactive elements in the forest industry; dosimetry, biofueled heating plants, the alkaline and the acidic pulp mill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of the radionuclides released to the forest ecosystem will be incorporated into different parts of the trees and the wood. A common factor for both biofueled power plants and pulp mills is that they concentrate the radionuclides initially present in the in the biofuel or wood in ashes or other products. The enrichment of radioactive elements is due to the combustion process or in a pulp mill, the combustion of bark and liquors, and also the processes in the pulp mill recycling system. The radiological impacts to man from forest industry arises form radiation emitted from the radionuclides present in ash and pulp mill liquors and liquor sludge. The quantification and calculation of past, present and future activity concentrations in biofuels, ash and pulp mill waste products are all important when assessments of the radiation dose is done. In order to assess the resulting dose to staff working close to radionuclide containing recycling systems and waste dumps, it is necessary to know the dynamics (inflow rate and residence time) of the radionuclides in that system

  20. Industrial energy policy: a case study of demand in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose behind building the industrial energy demand model was to enable assessment of the impact of potential policy options and to forecast future energy demand under various assumptions, including the impact of the possible removal of energy subsidies in accordance with the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. The results of the model, based on three scenarios, underline several important issues: With nominal energy prices staying the same (the status quo) and with inflation and economic growth continuing to expand (i.e. baseline scenario), it is expected that industrial demand will grow. In this sector, energy consumption is projected to grow at an annual growth rate of about 3.5 per cent throughout the forecast period. In the moderate scenario, however, this drops to 1.9 per cent and when all energy subsidies are removed as in the case of the extreme scenario, the energy consumption is projected to grow by only 1.5 per cent annually throughout the same period. Moreover, with regards to inter-fuel substitution, the model forecast indicates that electricity and natural gas consumption will decline, while the consumption of oil products will increase in all scenarios. The results of the model also indicate that the changing price structure of energy resources should be done in a comprehensive manner. In other words, electricity prices should be adjusted upwards instantly with the adjustment of oil products' prices and natural gas otherwise, a massive inter-fuel substitution will occur within the various consuming industries. (author)

  1. Creative industries in the capital cities of the Baltic States: Are there innovations in urban policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafel-Viia Külliki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of urban policy, resulting from ‘creative industries’ policy developments, is explored in this article, with respect to the Baltic capitals. Policy initiatives in the creative industries in Central and Eastern European cities have predominantly developed through policy transfers from Western Europe, with its long-term market economy experience. How adaptable are such policies for post-socialist cities? Using the concept of social innovation, this article describes mechanisms that facilitate policy acceptance and examines whether and how the development of creative industries has resulted in urban policy renewal in the Baltic capitals.

  2. Biofuel implementation agendas. A review of Task 39 Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since the 1970's, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels include renewable fuel mandates, tax incentives, and direct funding for capital projects or fleet upgrades. This paper provides a review of the policies behind the successful establishment of the biofuel industry in countries around the world. The impact of direct funding programs and excise tax exemptions are examined using the United States as a case study. It is found that the success of five major bioethanol producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota) is closely related to the presence of funding designed to support the industry in its start-up phase. The study concludes that successful policy interventions can take many forms, but that success is equally dependent upon external factors which include biomass availability, an active industry, and competitive energy prices

  3. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy... regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security...

  4. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  5. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  6. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  7. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  8. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Gokce Adas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with Lehman turmoil by passed Turkish economy in the first years due to the solid, strong and healthy banking sector due to the measurements taken after 2001 banking crisis of Turkey. Therefore, international lenders did not hesitate directing their funds to Turkish banks. As a result, Turkish companies did not suffer in financing their investments through bank loans. Moreover, the growth policy of Turkey based on current account deficit supported Turkish economy and in turn the firms due to the abundance of liquidity after the peak of the crisis. In this work we examined 164 industrial firms that are traded on Borsa Istanbul to see if there happened to be a shift in their financing preferences during the recent global crisis. We found that the importance of borrowing had not decreased and that contradicts the expectations. As of equity issues, before and after 2009 no radical change has been observed. In 2009 where the crisis hit worst Turkish economy leading a 4.7% GDP decrease, the equity issues were doubled.

  9. A policy analysis of voluntary agreements for energy efficiency in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Anders; Krarup, Signe; Kraemer, Trine Pipi [AKF, Inst. of Local Government Studies, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    To a growing degree voluntary agreements are used as an energy policy instrument in industrial energy policy in Europe. This paper investigates voluntary agreements of Great Britain, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The paper analyses the design and effects of these agreements and on this background discusses general implications of using voluntary agreements as a policy instrument in industrial energy policy. (au) EFP-95. 23 refs.

  10. Competitiveness Policy and Economic Organisation: The Case of the British Film Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Deakin; Stephen Pratten

    1999-01-01

    The British film industry has long been characterised as highly volatile, chronically unstable and liable to recurrent crises. The traditional policy response up until the 1980s involved support through a mixture of quotas, fiscal support and industry levies. During the 1980s this policy stance was reversed as deregulation and the exposure of the industry to market forces were seen as key to enhancing its economic performance. More recently, a new policy preoccupation with, and orientation to...

  11. Industrial Policy and the Environment: The Case of the Manufacturing Sector in Metro Cebu

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.

    1997-01-01

    While industrialization brings with it the promise of development, it also carries the threat of serious environmental problems, which unfortunately has not been well addressed by policy makers. Using Metro Cebu data, the paper investigates the impacts of industrial policies on the manufacturing sector and the interaction of that sector with environmental policy regarding industrial pollution. The paper gathers and analyzes information useful for the identification of problems and the develop...

  12. Comparative Advantage, Industrial Policy and the World Bank: Back to First Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides a critical analysis of the World Bank’s new thinking on industrial policy. After outlining the changing perspectives on industrial policy put forward by the World Bank over the last three decades, we argue that the bank’s economists have taken one step forward (the approval for the enhanced role of the state) but also one if not two steps backward (by strong encouragement to countries to seek their current comparative advantage in pursuing industrial policy)....

  13. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A., E-mail: jmathews@luiss.it [Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Tan Hao, E-mail: H.Tan@uws.edu.au [School of Management and CInIS Research Group, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW 2150 (Australia); Moore, Michael J.B., E-mail: MichaelMoore@ShelstonIP.com [Level 21, 60 Margaret Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia); Bell, Geoff, E-mail: Geoff.Bell@microbiogen.com [Microbiogen Pty Ltd. Unit E2, Lane Cove Business Park, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: > A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. > Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. > In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. > In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  14. Will Europe’s industry survive the crisis? Competitiveness, employment and the need for an industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Cirillo; Dario Guarascio; Mario Pianta

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of Europe’s industry and competitiveness in the current crisis and provides the rationale for a new industrial policy at the European level. Section 1 documents the decline of EU industry and the losses in outpud resulting from the crisis started in 2008. Section 2 investigates the issue of competitiveness, an issue at the top of the EU Commission policy agenda. Competitiveness is seen at the heart of economic growth and in the current crisis much of the policy a...

  15. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  16. Development Trend of Foreign Trade Policy for China’s Forest Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzed the current status of foreign trade of forest industry in China and the national and international market changes. Based on the analysis, the orientation and transformation of foreign trade policy for China's forest industry were discussed.

  17. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  18. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study m...

  19. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, T. J; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cárdenas; Molina, L. T.; G. Engling; Hsu, S.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case ...

  20. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  1. Biofuels - the UFIP position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  2. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  3. The trade-off between Innovation and Defence Industrial Policy - A Simulation Model Analysis of the Norwegian Defence Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Castellacci, Fulvio; Blom, Martin; Fevolden, Arne Martin

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the trade-off between innovation and defence industrial policy. It presents an agent-based simulation model calibrated for the Norwegian defence industry that compares different policy scenarios and examines the effects of a pending EU market liberalization process. The paper points to two main results. (1) It finds that a pure scenario where national authorities focus on, and provide support exclusively for, either a) international competitiveness or b) national defenc...

  4. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2013 from 10:00 a.m... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  5. The electronics industry: inward investment versus indigenous development -- the policy debate

    OpenAIRE

    Brunskill, I.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the public policy implications of an active government strategy aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the electronics industry in Britain are examined. The author argues that as a general principle industrial policy should be both designed and applied at as low a level as possible. To achieve this a comprehensive but decentralised institutional economic development network will need to be created.

  6. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2013 from 10:00...

  7. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2012 from 10:00...

  8. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 17, 2013 from 10:00...

  9. The impact of policy on firms' performance: the case of CNC machine tool industry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study is about understanding how the government policy actually works at firm level in the context of developing countries' industrialization. In the literature, the discussions on impact of government policy on corporate performance primarily stress on macroeconomic aspects of industrial behav

  10. The price for biofuels sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, low-carbon energy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introduced sustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were then confronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were that sustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review of recent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whether sustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market for sustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differently between 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence between biofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certification in the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in terms of finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements. - Highlights: • EU biofuel sustainability rules were once thought to reward compliant producers with price-premiums. • Premiums for certified biofuels, however, have been small for biodiesel and almost non-existent for ethanol. • As sustainable biofuels became the new norm, premiums disappeared almost completely in 2012. • Early stages of supply chains concentrate the highest compliance costs, affecting specially developing country producers. • Producers are now in a market where sustainable biofuels have become the new norm

  11. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  12. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  13. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  14. TO THE QUESTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MEASURES IN THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL POLICY AT THE LEVEL OF A SPECIFIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamov R. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of formation of regional industrial policy. Great attention is paid to learning of the state regulatory impact on the industrial business in the region. We have also considered and classified objectives of industrial policy, identified weaknesses undertaken by the state industrial policy in terms of achieving maximum effect

  15. International trade in biofuels: Good for development? And good for Environment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufey, Annie

    2007-01-15

    Biofuels are heating up debates and energising activities on many policy fronts. On the surface, they offer significant opportunities to pursue environment and development goals both globally and domestically. There are both synergies and trade-offs between these goals and levels. Trade will drive biofuels growth, yet current trade regimes are not fit for maximising benefits nor minimising risks from the sector. The novelty of biofuels, the vast array of issues involved and the lack of knowledge to tackle many of them, together with diverging political and business interests, mean that consensus is elusive. It is therefore increasingly urgent to map a path for the global biofuels industry that supports sustainable development. Based on a new analysis of the sector, this briefing lays out some of the options for achieving this.

  16. "Supply Push" or "Demand Pull?": Strategic Recommendations for the Responsible Development of Biofuel in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu;

    2015-01-01

    impeding the growth of the biofuel industry of China. The study concludes by proposing strategic recommendations for how the industry can be made both leaner, more efficient and effective, and greener, more socially and environmentally sustainable. Some of these options focuses on improving technical......This study investigates China's biofuel industry—the third largest in the world—by combining a strength, weakness, opportunity and threats (SWOT) analysis with a method known as fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP). More specifically, the study employs SWOT analysis to identify the influential...... factors affecting the development of the biofuel industry in China. It then prioritizes their importance using the FAHP method. The study finds that high production costs, competition with other renewable energy resources, inconsistent policy and legislation support, and poor technical standards are...

  17. Induced market disturbances related to biofuels. Report D2.2 of ELOBIO subtask 2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current market introduction of biofuels coincides with significant price increases on other commodity markets. However it is not clear to what extend biofuels really cause an increased demand for raw materials and thus an important price impact for all alternative applications of these raw materials. While the introduction of biofuels will have a positive impact on some of the related markets and negative on others, the magnitude of this impact needs to be analysed in more detail. Although at this stage, the European biofuel industry does not seem to be a threat to global food production, real concerns exist to what might happen in the future if the current biofuels expansion rates persist. Future growth rates must take due account of the feedback loops that exist between the profitability of biofuel production and feedstock cost, as well as a number of uncertainty factors that will affect the availability and price of raw material for everyone. Such factors include physical aspects of production (land availability, yields, crushing capacities), market factors (e.g. concentration, price elasticity of demand, availability of substitutes), governmental interference (subsidy levels) and international trade agreements. It is important to avoid policy-induced market disturbances as these can become a major barrier for industry and public support for biofuels. The ELOBIO project aims at the development of low-disturbing policy options, enhancing biofuels while minimising the impacts on e.g. markets for food, feed, and biomass for power and heat. This report shows the result of task 2.3 of the ELOBIO project. In this task the status of knowledge of induced market disturbances towards feed, food and other markets will be described. Possible market interferences of various biofuels and feedstocks for biofuels will be described in general and some cases will be treated in more depth, documented with market figures. In a next stage of the ELOBIO project - that is outside

  18. Biofuels for transportation. From R and D to market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilo, C. [comp.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the Workshop was to bring together stakeholders in industry, government and science to identify technical, economic and institutional opportunities and/or barriers to the market penetration of biofuels and to tackle these issues jointly in an international environment. The Workshop was to cover the role of biofuels in replacing fossil fuels and achieving sustainable transportation. It was to be more oriented towards policy issues than towards analyses of scientific and technical details. The Workshop was focused on the conditions in Northern Europe and North America. Three main themes were chosen: THEME 1. Biomass Feedstocks. How do we produce them cost-effectively and for what purpose? THEME 2. Biofuels for Transportation. What will make them technically and economically competitive? THEME 3. Market Penetration of Biofuels. How do we remove barriers? The following biofuels were considered during the Workshop: Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol. Ethers, such as MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether) and ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). Vegetable oils and esters, such as VME (vegetable-oil-methylester), RME (rape-oil-methyl-ester) and REE (rape-oil-ethyl-ester)

  19. Industrial policy and European integration: lessons from experience in Western Europe over the last 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw together the work undertaken for the EU (Fourth Framework Programme) TSER project on Science, Technology and Broad Industrial Policy with the experience of the countries of East and Central Europe (CEECs) as it has been catalogued through the papers written for this ESRC Programme on the Emerging Industrial Architecture of the Wider Europe. The former project sought to explore developments in science, technology and industrial/innovation policy in six Western European...

  20. Open Source Policy and Promotion of IT Industries in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Tetsuo; Yi, Sangmook; Wang, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    The development style of open source has a possibility to create new business markets for Regional IT industries. Some local governments are trying to promote their regional IT industries by adopting an open source in their electronic government systems. In this paper, we analyze the data of open source application policy of the Japanese government and case studies of promotion policy of local industries by local governments; for example, Nagasaki Prefecture and Matsue City. And it aims to ex...

  1. Open Source Introducing Policy and Promotion of Regional Industries in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Tetsuo; Tansho, Terutaka

    2010-01-01

    The development style of open source has a possibility to create new business markets for Regional IT industries. Some local governments are trying to promote their regional IT industries by adopting an open source in their electronic government systems. In this paper, we analyze the data of open source application policy of the Japanese government and case studies of promotion policy of local industries by local governments; for example, Nagasaki Prefecture and Matsue City. And it aims to ex...

  2. From pilot plant to World-scale production of second generation biofuels at CHOREN Industries; BTL-Herstellung bei CHOREN Industries. Von der Pilotanlage zur Grossproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiener, C. [Choren Industries GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    In the next decade, there will be a steeply rising demand for carbon neutral fuels. Besides the biofuels existing already, 2{sup nd} generation biofuels will be in focus as they are not made from food nor grown on agricultural land originally used for food. CHOREN's Carbo-V {sup registered} gasification process delivers a pure and tar free synthesis gas made from lignocellulose. It can be used for hydrocarbon synthesis (BTL) as well as in conventional synthesis gas applications in chemistry (methanol, ammonia, hydrogen, re-methanization, etc.) as well as for coupled heat and power generation. Start-up of the world's first plant to transform solid biomass into liquid BTL fuel is scheduled for 2008. A world-scale plant for BTL production of 200,000 tons per year is being developed. (orig.)

  3. Knowledge and Innovation Management in the Policy Debate on Biofuel Sustainability in Mozambique : What Roles for Researchers?

    OpenAIRE

    Schut, Marc; Leeuwis, Cees; Van Paassen, Annemarie; Lerner, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between knowledge management (KM) and innovation management (IM) in policy processes. By describing and analysing the roles of researchers as knowledge and innovation managers in policy processes we also contribute to the debate on how researchers can enhance their effective contribution to policy processes. Empirical data for the paper were gathered between December 2008 and November 2010. During that period, two of this paper's authors conducted particip...

  4. Industries and the bank lending effects of bank credit demand and monetary policy in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raabe, K.; Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the industry effects of bank lending in Germany and asks whether bank lending to single industries depends on industry-specific bank credit demand or on monetary policy as determinant of bank credit supply. To this end, we estimate individual bank lending functions fo

  5. EUROPEAN ORIENTATION OF THE INVESTMENT POLICY OF FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Замлинський, В. А.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the main aspects of the investment policy of targeting businesses in the food industry in Ukraine, analyzes the state of the industry and its development trends, the estimation of the main economic indicators of the food industry and given the task of solving which will help improve the economic situation of the country as a whole.

  6. The Use of Contact Lenses in Industrial Environments: An Assessment of Current Research and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to dispel rumors concerning contact lenses and tries to supply prudent-use practices for allowing contact lenses in industry and laboratories. Discusses federal regulations that impact the use of contact lenses in industry, policy statements from medical organizations on use of contact lenses in industrial environments, and the…

  7. Knowledge and innovation management in the policy debate on biofuel sustainability in Mozambique: what roles for researchers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Leeuwis, C.; Paassen, van A.; Lerner, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between knowledge management (KM) and innovation management (IM) in policy processes. By describing and analysing the roles of researchers as knowledge and innovation managers in policy processes we also contribute to the debate on how researchers can enhance the

  8. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.

    2012-08-15

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scenario analysis through top-down and bottom-up modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) were used as methods. The uncertainties were propagated in a statistical way through parameter variation, scenario analysis and stochastic modelling. This study showed that, in determining GHG emissions at product or process level, there are significant uncertainties due to parameters such as nitrous oxide emissions from soil, soil carbon changes and emissions from electricity production; and due to methodological choices related to the spatial and temporal system boundary setting and selection of allocation methods. Furthermore, the uncertainties due to modelling may be of central importance. For example, when accounting for biomass-based carbon emissions to and sequestration from the atmosphere, consideration of the temporal dimension is critical. The outcomes in differentiation of GHG emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups are critically influenced by the quality of data and criteria applied. In both LCA and effort sharing, the major issues are equitable attribution of emissions and emission allowances on the one hand and capturing consequences of measures and policies on the other. As LCA and system level top-down and bottom-up modelling results are increasingly used to justify various decisions by different stakeholders such as policy-makers and consumers, harmonization of practices, transparency and the handling of uncertainties related to

  9. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.

    2012-11-01

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scenario analysis through top-down and bottom-up modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) were used as methods. The uncertainties were propagated in a statistical way through parameter variation, scenario analysis and stochastic modelling. This study showed that, in determining GHG emissions at product or process level, there are significant uncertainties due to parameters such as nitrous oxide emissions from soil, soil carbon changes and emissions from electricity production; and due to methodological choices related to the spatial and temporal system boundary setting and selection of allocation methods. Furthermore, the uncertainties due to modelling may be of central importance. For example, when accounting for biomass-based carbon emissions to and sequestration from the atmosphere, consideration of the temporal dimension is critical. The outcomes in differentiation of GHG emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups are critically influenced by the quality of data and criteria applied. In both LCA and effort sharing, the major issues are equitable attribution of emissions and emission allowances on the one hand and capturing consequences of measures and policies on the other. As LCA and system level top-down and bottom-up modelling results are increasingly used to justify various decisions by different stakeholders such as policy-makers and consumers, harmonization of practices, transparency and the handling of uncertainties related to

  10. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  11. Furniture Industry Assessment: Trade Policy and Market Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    1999-01-01

    The report analyzes the international competitiveness of furniture industry based on calculations of effective rates of protection and trade indicators. Furniture manufacturing remains one of the most highly protected industries in Egypt. Although the nominal rate of protection (NRP) for that industry was lowered from 50 percent in 1997 to 40 percent, its rate remains the fourth highest of all manufacturing categories. The effective rate of protection (ERP) for the wood furniture industry is ...

  12. Policy Considerations for the New Zealand Natural Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stanford Levin; Duncan, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Professor Stanford Levin and Alfred Duncan undertake a study of the natural gas industry in New Zealand at a time when the two industry regulators are undertaking regulatory initiatives.The Commerce Commission is in the midst of setting their default price-quality regulatory framework that will take effect in July 2012. The Gas Industry Company the industry co-regulator has just recently issued a proposal to undertake a project to determine the current need for gas transmission investment and...

  13. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y H Silitonga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO and refined palm oil (RPO, each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to improve the competitiveness of the industry. Therefore the first step was to map the main activities in this industry using value chain analysis. After that a conceptual model was built, where the output of the model is competitiveness of the industry based on market share. The third step was model formulation. The model is then utilized to simulate the policy mix given by government in improving the competitiveness of Palm Oil Industry. Research limitations/implications: The model was developed using only some policies which give direct impact to the competitiveness of the industry. For macro environment input, only price is considered in this model. Practical implications: The model can simulate the output of the industry for various government policies mix given to the industry. Originality/value: This research develops a model that can represent the structure and relationship between industry, government and macro environment, using value chain analysis and hierarchical multilevel system approach.

  14. The Announcement Effects of Regional Tourism Industrial Policy:The Case of the Hainan International Tourism Island Policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Sun; Su Zhang; Nobuyoshi Yamori

    2014-01-01

    China's Hainan Island has a rich diversity of attractions and opportunities for nature-based tourism, outdoor recreation, and sporting activities. Moreover, Hainan Island has a natural and socioeconomic base and environment, hosting the implementation of a tourism industrial policy. On December 31, 2009, China's State Council announced to the world the national policy of the establishment of Hainan International Tourism Island. Hence, China's Hainan Island is well suited for investigating the...

  15. Screening of Industrial Development Policies, Plans and Programs of Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Industrial Sector of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional strengthening of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA in the industrial sector as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial sustainable development in Iran. The leading aim of this paper has been to systematize the environmental considerations in industrial development strategies, policies, plans and programs in the highest strategic decision making processes and to ensure environmental considerations and alternatives together with other economic and social considerations in the procedures, before the research processes. In order to analysis of Iran,s industrial development strategies, a matrix method was used as one of the most practical techniques of strategic programing as; SWOT (strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Eventually the result of SWOT analysis in the form of a cell 29*12 matrix, has been an indicative of the degree of need toward performing SEA in conection with the kinds of the country,s industrial strategies in a categorizing priorities system. As among all the industrial strategic policies, have been screened and evaluated 8 strategies in the first priority and 4 strategies in the second priority.The industrial strategies with the first priority require; the emphasis on new industries, supporting and encouraging of the exports, privatization, competative industrial growth, commercial discharging, attracting the foreign direct investments, developing energy oriented industries and priorities of industrial fields strategies.Industrial strategies also require SEA in the second priority including: supporting the small and medium industries,considering the indexes of industrial potentiality measurement,following demands for establishing industrial workshops from spatial development system and developing legal, institutional and physical structures strategies.The basis of the results of this study is achieving

  16. Policy based network management : state of the industry and desired functionality for the enterprise network: security policy / testing technology evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Christine A.; Ernest, Martha J.; Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Klaus, Edward J.; MacAlpine, Timothy L.; Rios, Michael A.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    Policy-based network management (PBNM) uses policy-driven automation to manage complex enterprise and service provider networks. Such management is strongly supported by industry standards, state of the art technologies and vendor product offerings. We present a case for the use of PBNM and related technologies for end-to-end service delivery. We provide a definition of PBNM terms, a discussion of how such management should function and the current state of the industry. We include recommendations for continued work that would allow for PBNM to be put in place over the next five years in the unclassified environment.

  17. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Industrial policy of the ministry of industry, energy and tourism. re-industrialization, competitiveness and job creation; La polititica industrial del Ministerio de Industria, energia y turismo. Reindustrializacion, competitividad y creacion de empleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero Artola, L.

    2013-06-01

    Today, the period of financial crisis and economic recession has led to a general rethinking of economic policy and, in particular, of industrial policy. In addition, there is a full consensus about the importance of a competitive industrial sector for the economy as a whole. Consequently, the European Union has identified the industrial policy as a strategic priority, which has to be based on these four pillars: innovation, internal market, access to credit and human capital. Spain, in line with the EU, has also reviewed its industrial policy, identifying the recovery of the industry share of the GDP as a fundamental objective. This goal will be achieved by an active industrial policy, including structural reforms and the promotion of a competitive industry with high added value and ability to compete in foreign markets and to generate qualified employment.

  19. Precautionary climate policy and the somewhat flawed protocol. Linking sinks to biofuel and the CDM to the convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaws in the Kyoto Protocol are obscured by claims of unfairness, with Annex 1 Parties committed to taking the lead - and precautionary measures required - by the Rio Convention, ratified by the US Senate, nem con. Such measures should be cost-effective, invalidating use of KP supplementarity to enforce a narrow concept of domestic action that neglects low cost preparedness to respond quickly to bad scientific news, e.g. regarding thresholds for runaway climate change processes. Carbon capture and sequestration, along with bio-energy, enable a low, possibly negative, emissions carbon fuel system, avoiding the costly premature obsolescence of existing infrastructure. Linking low-cost sinks, particularly energy plantations, to biofuel utilisation can drive uptake of renewable liquid fuel technology, cutting net emissions fast, reducing dependence on mid-East oil, stimulating development in many land rich but otherwise impoverished economies, and hopefully providing a basis, through broadening of the CDM, for convergence after 2012 between Kyoto Parties and non-Kyoto Annex 1 Parties

  20. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  1. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  2. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... new policy options to promote the environmental sustainability of biofuels feedstock production... American biofuels and reducing our dependence on fossil fuels by providing, within 30 days, under the... biorefineries to replace the use of fossil fuels in plant operations by installing new biomass energy systems...

  3. Industrial policy from a systems-of-innovation perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Edquist, Charles; Chaminade , Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the systems-of-innovation (SI) approach and its policy implications. It introduces the topic by briefly reviewing the emergence, development, and diffusion of this approach and, then, spells out the constituents, activities, and boundaries of the SI approach. On this basis, the paper discusses the reasons for public policy intervention in the innovation process and the division of labour between private and public actors in carrying out SI activities. In this context, th...

  4. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overv...

  5. Impact of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Policy on Industrial Water Pollution and Groundwater Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cristina C.; Arlene B. Inocencio; Gundaya, Debbie M.

    2000-01-01

    Environmentalists and economists alike have assumed that greater economic openness will lead to increased industrial pollution in developing countries. This paper argues that trade liberalization does not necessarily result in more pollution intensive industrial development using the case of two economic centers in the Philippines. The study links changes in trade and exchange rate policy to the environment by identifying the environmental damage likely to be aggravated by the policy change t...

  6. Policy-driven university – industry linkages and regional innovation networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Won Sohn; Hyungjoo Kim; Jeong Hyop Lee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of the Korean government in creating university – industry linkages and in promoting the role of universities as knowledge providers in regional innovation systems. We investigate the different types of universities’ roles in the capital region of Seoul and in the noncapital regions. We argue that government policy is the main determinant that drives Korean universities to play the role of knowledge provider for industrial innovation. This policy has also bro...

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution and Policies for Restructuring the Steel and Iron Industry in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Novy, M.

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of a three year Industrial Metabolism Project entitled "Regional Material Balance Approaches to Long-Term Environmental Policy Planning" at IIASA which focuses on heavy metal pollution in the Black Triangle-Upper Silesia region of Poland. This report examines the economic importance of the iron and steel industry in the Katowice region, and its impact on heavy metal pollution. Environmental policies in Poland for limiting the emission of heavy metals and maintaining air qua...

  8. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond...

  9. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  10. Occupation and Industry Sex Segregation, Gender, and Workplace Support: The Use of Flexible Scheduling Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Cook, Alison; Minnotte, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how industry and occupation sex segregation are related to the use of flexible scheduling policies and perceptions of the career repercussions of using such policies. The analysis is performed on data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 2,810). Findings suggest that the percentage of women per industry…

  11. Review of policies and measures for energy efficiency in industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency in industry plays key roles in improving energy security, environmental sustainability and economic performance. It is particularly important in strategies to mitigate climate change. The evidence of great potential for cost-effective efficiency-derived reductions in industrial energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have prompted governments to implement numerous policies and measures aimed at improving their manufacturing industries' energy efficiency. What can be learned from these many and varied initiatives? This paper provides foundation for policy analysis for enhancing energy efficiency and conservation in industry, by surveying more than 300 policies, encompassing about 570 measures, implemented by governments in IEA countries, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. It outlines the measures' main features, their incidence of use, and their connections with specific technical actions and key stakeholders (i.e., how and where measures affect the energy efficiency of industry). It also examines the key features underlying the measures' success: (1) potential to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions cost-efficiently; (2) ease of policy development, execution and assessment and (3) ancillary societal effects. - Highlights: → Provides foundation for policy analysis for energy efficiency in industry. → Surveys more than 300 policies and their trends, of mainly IEA countries. → Outlines measures' features, incidence of use, technical actions and stakeholders. → Examines the key features underlying the measures' success.

  12. Fragmentation, Centralisation and Policy Learning: An Example from China’s Wind Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Korsnes; Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    2014-01-01

    "This paper seeks to understand what government mechanisms have allowed China's wind industry to grow as fast as it has over the past ten years. Instead of formal rules and regulations, this paper focuses on specific sets of institutional conditions that have been crucial in the process of high-speed implementation of wind energy in China. Specifically, fragmentation and centralisation, together with policy experimentation and policy learning, have been fundamental for policy flexibility and ...

  13. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    OpenAIRE

    Alastair Iles; Robin Marsh

    2012-01-01

    If diversified farming systems (DFS) are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These ...

  14. Indonesian And Australian Tax Policy Implementation In Food And Agriculture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanggoro Pamungkas; Maya Safira Dewi; Yunita Anwar; Martin Surya Mulyadi

    2014-01-01

    Tax policy is one of the most important policy in consideration of investment development in certain industry. Research by Newlon (1987), Swenson (1994) and Hines (1996) concluded that tax rate is one of the most important thing considered by investors in a foreign direct investment. One of tax policy could be used to attract foreign direct investment is income tax incentives. The attractiveness of income tax incentives to a foreign direct investment is as much as the attractiveness to a dome...

  15. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply

  16. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories. PMID:25708094

  17. Aspects Regarding the Gross Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids Content of Some By-Products Obtained from the Biofuel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of by-products, obtained from the production of biofuels were collected. These products were introduced in different proportions in feed rations of fattening lambs. Gross chemical composition of feed was analyzed and compared with mean reference values. Ash and cellulose content does not influence the results. The percentage of raw protein, specific for each feed, is correlated with the body weight gain. Fat quantity of rape meal is the closest to that of granulated feed and also the highest compared with the other groups, so that it can justify the higher productive performance achieved by group 1, who received rape meal in ratio. The concentration of fatty acids was determined from analyzed feed after oils extraction, their saponification and their reading with a HPLC. The data showed that the fatty acid level is relatively close to that specified in the literature. Euricic acid, that is responsible for the toxic potential of the rape, has been found in rape meal.

  18. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  19. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  20. The Structural Configurations of Alcohol in Denmark: Policy, Culture, and Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes recent developments in Danish alcohol policy, culture, and industry. It reveals cross-sector dynamics and complexities often downplayed in existing literature. It traces how a stable “structural configuration” emerged in the 1960s-1980s between the three domains based on...... liberalization. However, in the 1990s, a particular adolescent alcohol culture of intoxication had emerged, raising public awareness and call for policy intervention. Contrary to what may have been expected, this rupture did not mean a break with the liberal alcohol configuration in policy, culture, and industry...

  1. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author)

  2. Transition of policy tools. For the chemical and petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many measures were taken to improve the environmental performance of industry and businesses. Some of the more persistent environmental problems need to be tackled by flexible tools, e.g. emission trade. A workshop was held for representatives of the petrochemical industry to discuss the consequences of the introduction of such flexible tools and how to react to the present period of transition where conventional tools have lost, or are loosing, their power and the new, more flexible tools are not yet implemented

  3. Rent-Seeking and Trade Policy: An Industry Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. Baldwin

    1984-01-01

    The model of rent-seeking presented in this paper is consistent with the observation that labor and management in an industry almost always adopt the same position concerning the desirability of import protection versus trade liberalization. The paper also discusses the size of the returns to rent-seeking relative to the costs of lobbying, factors influencing the type of government assistance sought by an industry, and ways in which the benefits and costs of protection can be made more widely...

  4. Policy Orientation for Power Industry in the 11th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaoping; Fang Yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power industry is one of the largest energy consuming and the heaviest pollutant discharging departments.To meet the targets of energy saving, consumption reduction and environment protection set forth by the state, policy supports are imperative to ensure healthy and sustained development of power industry.

  5. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  6. New Tax Rebate Policy Favorable to Aluminum Processing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>China has made the decision to increase export tax rebate rate for part of the non-ferrous products from April 1, 2009, among which the export tax rebate for aluminum alloy hollow profiles and other aluminum alloy profiles goes up to 13%. The new policy is a piece of good news for aluminum processing

  7. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  8. Radiation Safety Regulatory Policy and Rule for NORM Industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background information and the basic status concerning NORM industries in China is briefly introduced in the paper, including current natural radiation levels and the main results of a general survey related to NORM industries implemented by the Ministry of Environmental Protection. An introduction to the radiation safety regulatory policy and rule for NORM industries in China is also briefly presented. Finally, some considerations concerning NORM regulatory issues are discussed. (author)

  9. Perfection of currency reserve policy to increase innovative activity in industrial sector of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiram Begentaev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan has accumulated essential foreign currency stocks from resource-based export earnings since gaining independency. These reserves can serve as base for creation of competitive industries. To realize the task the paper recommends policies of rational use of these funds to finance innovative investment projects in priority industries. The paper argues that rational channeling of foreign currency reserves in Kazakhstan can contribute to increase of innovative activity in industrial sector of economy.

  10. Roles for evolving markets, policies, and technology improvements in U.S. corn ethanol industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews changes in markets, technologies, and policies that affect corn ethanol profit-ability and industry expansion. Historically, the corn ethanol industry was stimulated by high petro-fuel prices, successful corn and processing technology improvements, and government incentives, such as a blenders' tax credit and mandated markets defined by the leaded fuel ban and reformulated fuel. Presently, the corn ethanol industry has expanded slightly beyond the point of a normal capita...

  11. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of indonesian palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Roland Y. H.; Siswanto, Yoko; Simatupang, Tota; Bahagia, Senator Nur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO) and refined palm oil (RPO), each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to impr...

  12. Industrial waste management within manufacturing: a comparative study of tools, policies, visions and concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbazi, Sasha; Kurdve, Martin; Bjelkemyr, Marcus; Jönsson, Christina; Wiktorsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is a key factor when assessing the sustainability of a manufacturing process or company. A multitude of visions, concepts, tools, and policies are used both academically and industrially to improve the environmental effect of manufacturing; a majority of these approaches have a direct bearing on industrial waste. The identified approaches have in this paper been categorised according to application area, goals, organisational entity, life cycle phase, and waste hierarchy stag...

  13. The near-term impacts of carbon mitigation policies on manufacturing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Who pays for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries are combined with input-output information on inter-industry purchases to paint a detailed picture of carbon use, including effects on final demand. Regional information on electricity supply and use by region is also incorporated. A relatively simple model is developed which yields estimates of the relative burdens within the manufacturing sector of alternative carbon policies. Overall, the principal conclusion is that within the manufacturing sector (which by definition excludes coal production and electricity generation), only a small number of industries would bear a disproportionate short-term burden of a carbon tax or similar policy. Not surprisingly, an electricity-only policy affects very different manufacturing industries than an economy-wide carbon tax

  14. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  15. Policy, economic, and industry repercussions of current e-business diffusion rate In European food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Ilias

    2005-01-01

    European policy is focussed on promoting the business techniques and new ways of working which will provide the economic and social foundation of the information society in Europe. To help policy makers define their programmes, and to monitor the effectiveness of these policies, it is essential to examine progress as well as identify areas requiring active support. This study examined the repercussions of e-business progress in the food sector based on the findings of a large quantitative sur...

  16. Heavy duty gas turbines in Iran, India and China: Do national energy policies drive the industries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper for the first time systematically examines the heavy duty gas turbine (HDGT) industry in the context of developing countries. It provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. It contrasts their national strategies, the historical development of their technological capabilities, the similarities and differences in approach, the varying evolutionary paths and policy drivers and the reasons for their differing outcomes. This paper argues that a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature of HDGT industries in developing countries. It also argues that the development and evolution of the HDGT industries in these countries is closely interrelated with the countries’ national energy policies. It clarifies why such an advanced and sophisticated industry is a strategic choice in one country, while it is seen as an inferior choice in another. - Highlights: ► This paper for the first time systematically examines the HDGT industry in developing countries. ► This paper provides a comparative analysis of the HDGT industries in Iran, India and China. ► The companies are state-owned and a high level of state involvement is a prominent feature. ► Due to national energy policies, HDGT is a strategic choice in Iran but an inferior choice in India and China. ► The policy drivers such as natural reserves and security of supply largely vary in these countries.

  17. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  18. Environmental policy and industrial competitiveness: The pollution haven hypothesis reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Bommer, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    The Pollution-Haven Hypothesis suggests that tight environmental standards reduce domestic producers' competitiveness and give rise to their relocating to countries with more lenient standards. This paper questions that relocation is always caused by reduced competitiveness at home. By using a signaling approach, I show that relocation can be undertaken for purely strategic reasons. Relocation is the producer's tool to convince the policy maker to refrain from a further tightening of environm...

  19. Corporate youth policy: the approach of Russian industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kozina, Irina; Cheglakova, Liudmila

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which social support is provided to the young employees of companies in Russia. Through analysing the data of comparative monographic research, the purposes, priorities, tools and effects of corporate policy toward young people can be revealed. The authors arrived at the conclusion that the increased interest of the Russian business leadership toward their younger staff can be explained not only within the general context of modernization. It also is a respon...

  20. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk Gokce Adas; Yesim Kartalli

    2016-01-01

    Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with...

  1. EXAMINATION OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY OUTPUTS IN NIGERIA (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated relationships between agricultural policy output (proxy by the agricultural productivity index, agricultural GDP/total GDP and crop productivity index and output of industrial sector (proxy by the industrial capacity utilization rate from 1970 to 2012 period in Nigeria. The study employed time series variables obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, National Bureau of Statistics and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified time series, and the result showed that all non-growth rate series were integrated of order one, while growth rate series were stationary at level. The two-step Engle Granger method was employed to test for the presence of cointegration among specified variables. The result revealed that variables were not co-integrated. To avoid spurious regression, the specified models for non-growth rate series were estimated at first difference of the log variables. The empirical result revealed that, the industrial activities Granger cause crop activities in Nigeria. Also, the industrial activity has insignificant relationship with agricultural productivity indices in Nigeria. The same result was also obtained for industrial activities and agricultural GDP/total GDP. However, the result further revealed that, the industrial activity has significant negative correlation with the crop productivity index in Nigeria. These imply that, agricultural production had not played significant role in industrial development in Nigeria. This result suggests that, there is no significant impact of the backward integration policy of the agricultural sector on industrial sector in Nigeria. In addition, the result revealed that, agricultural policies during liberalization era (1986 - 2012 shifted the coefficient of the industrial activities positively. Therefore, it is recommended that the agricultural production in Nigeria should be boosted so as to

  2. Review on application and feasibility of biodiesel in Hong Kong and how government policies can support industry efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Chee-yun, Joyce.; 談知恩.

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong is vulnerable to energy and economic security due to the heavy dependence on imported fossil fuels. Waste has also been a major environmental management problem due to the amount of rubbish produced every year but lacking the technology and capital to manage different types properly. The objective of the dissertation is to study the feasibility of the use of biofuel in Hong Kong by recycling local waste. Current government policies in Hong Kong and overseas are being investigated o...

  3. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary...... products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented....

  4. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NOx, smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  5. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications

    OpenAIRE

    József Popp; Mónika Harangi-Rákos; Zoltán Gabnai; Péter Balogh; Gabriella Antal; Attila Bai

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of h...

  6. Protection of industry competitiveness, climate policy, and WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyses the possibilities left by the WTO to its members to compensate an additional cost which would result from a policy of struggle against climate change. In a first part, the author identifies the existing possibilities within WTO rules themselves: rules based of production processes, border tax adjustments, subsidies. In a second part, he questions the exception regime established by the GATT's article X X which allows under some circumstances some measures to be implemented which are not compliant with WTO rules

  7. Industry Compensation and the Costs of Alternative Environmental Policy Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lans Bovenberg; Lawrence H. Goulder; Mark R. Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key pollution-related industries be compensated for potential losses of profit from the pollution regulation. Using analytically and numerically solved equilibrium models, we compare the incidence and economy-wide costs of emissions taxes, fuel (intermediate input) taxes, performance standards and mandated technologies in the absence and presence of t...

  8. Formulas for Industrial Tariff Reduction and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Moonsung Kang

    2005-01-01

    A key element of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations under the WTO is the liberalization of trade in industrial products, so-called non-agricultural market access (NAMA). The mandate on the NAMA negotiations is contained in Paragraph 16 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration which aim(s), by modalities to be agreed, to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers,...

  9. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  10. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  11. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  12. Biofuels and certification. A workshop at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Charan; Lee, Henry

    2009-06-01

    Liquid biofuels can provide a substitute for fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Many countries have mandated the use of biofuels, by creating targets for their use. If not implemented with care, however, actions that increase biofuel production can put upward pressure on food prices, increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and exacerbate degradation of land, forest, and water sources. A strong global biofuels industry will not emerge unless these environmental and social concerns are addressed. Interested parties around the world are actively debating the design and implementation of policies to meet the biofuel goals, particularly those established in the United States and Europe. In general, policy options for managing the potential risks and benefits of biofuel development should specify not only clear standards governing biofuel content and production processes, but also certification processes for verifying whether particular biofuels meet those standards, and specific metrics or indicators on which to base the certification. Historically, many standards in the energy and environment fields have ultimately been set or supported by governments. Many of the certification processes have been voluntary, carried out by independent third parties. The biofuels case is a young one, however, with questions of goals, standards, certification, and metrics still in interdependent flux. The workshop focused its discussions on certification issues, but found the discussions naturally reaching into ongoing debates regarding possible goals, standards, and metrics. Many countries are proposing that for a biofuel to qualify as contributing to government-mandated targets or goals, it must be certified to meet certain standards. These standards could be limited to the amount of GHG emitted in the production process or could include a number of other environmental sustainability concerns ranging from deforestation and biodiversity to water resources. While the threat to

  13. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  14. Influence of firm related factors and industrial policy regime on technology based capacity utilization in sugar industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Akpan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the technology based capacity utilization rate in sugar industry in Nigeria in the period 1970 to 2010. Data used in the study were obtained from the sugar firms, publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. Augmented Dicker Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified data to ascertain their stationarity and order of integration. The result reveals that some variables were stationary at level while some were stationary at first difference. The diagnostic statistics from the multiple log linear regression on the specified variables confirmed the reliability of the model. The empirical result reveals that sugar cane price and sugar industry’s real energy consumption have significant negative relationship with the technology based capacity utilization in the sugar industry in Nigeria. On the other hand, the wage rate of skill workers, industry’s, real research expenditure, human capital and period of import substitution have significant positive influenced on the technology based capacity utilization rate in the industry. Our findings suggest that policy measures aim at expanding the hectares of industrial sugarcane and increase production of refined petroleum fuel in the country will promote capacity utilization in the industry. Also policies targeted on the intensification of research and improved worker’s remuneration in the sub-sector is strongly advocated.

  15. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  16. Economic policy impact on competitiveness and efficiency of textile industry in central java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eko Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the competitiveness and efficiency as well as assessing the impact of economic policies on the performance of the textile industry in Central Java. The competitiveness methods use a RCA, TSI, and IIT Indexes. The policy impacts use Policy Analysis Matrix and sensitivity analysis. The results show that the textile industry in Central Java had only a comparative advantage, but not competitive one. The lower protection level made the textile industry was vulnerable to both internal and external shocks. In general economic efficiency was still lower, so it had lower effect on the productivity and competitiveness level.

  17. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First generation biofuels as an environmental solution are showing their own negative environmental, social and economic side effects. These need to be dealt with, because it is apparent that those same biofuels can be produced in a sustainable manner, thereby contributing to a healthier planet. Since both Argentina and the Netherlands would benefit from sustainable biofuels trade, policy measures need to be taken to guide the proper way. In what manner could bilateral cooperation concerning biofuels, optimize trade and policy output in both countries? By answering this question, one can hand solutions to upcoming problems - barriers to a sustainable energy structure - while at the same time facilitating trade between Argentina and the Netherlands. Besides providing information about the European, Dutch and Argentine market, this report presents an overview of biofuel policies. Special attention is given to the issue of sustainable biofuel production, in order to spread the necessary awareness, create wide support for corresponding politics, and offer opportunities for cooperation to prevent future entrapment. An entrapment, which could easily occur when actors in politics and business ignore international requirements for sustainable biofuel production. The research aims to produce the following output: Policy recommendations regarding the promotion of environmentally sound biofuels in both countries; A set arena to support a policy dialogue between both countries; An overview of current Dutch and Argentinean biofuel policies; Up to date information on current volumes of production, consumption and trade; Data with contact information of partners in both countries. Argentina shows an extremely professional agricultural sector, producing large quantities of vegetable oils, specifically of soybean. This sector has started to turn its attention towards biofuels - particularly to biodiesel. Projected production (for 2007-2008) is astonishingly high. The sector mainly

  18. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  19. Environmental policy and profitability. Evidence from Swedish industry

    OpenAIRE

    Brännlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of a “Porter effect” using firm level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. By utilizing a factor demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function which has a technology component dependent upon firm specific effective tax on CO2, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a reversed “Porter effect” in...

  20. Desenvolvimento, complexo industrial da saúde e política industrial Development, health-industrial complex and industrial policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo situa a questão da saúde no contexto do desenvolvimento nacional e da política industrial. Tomou-se a idéia de corte estruturalista, marxista e schumpeteriano, onde a indústria e as inovações constituem os elementos determinantes do dinamismo das economias capitalistas e de sua posição relativa na economia mundial. Todos os países que se desenvolveram e passaram a competir em melhores condições com os países avançados associaram uma indústria forte com uma base endógena de conhecimento, de aprendizado e de inovação. Todavia, na área da saúde essa visão é problemática, uma vez que os interesses empresariais se movem pela lógica econômica do lucro e não para o atendimento das necessidades da saúde. A noção de complexo industrial da saúde constitui uma tentativa e fornecer um referencial teórico que permita articular duas lógicas distintas: a sanitária e a do desenvolvimento econômico. O trabalho procurou mostrar, com base em dados de comércio exterior, como a desconsideração da lógica do desenvolvimento nas políticas de saúde levou a uma situação de vulnerabilidade econômica do setor que pode limitar os objetivos de universalidade, eqüidade e integralidade. Nesse contexto, propõe-se uma ruptura cognitiva e política com as visões antagônicas que colocam, de um lado, as necessidades da saúde e, de outro, da indústria. Um país que pretende chegar a uma condição de desenvolvimento e de independência requer, ao mesmo tempo, indústrias fortes e inovadoras, e um sistema de saúde inclusivo e universal.This paper puts health questions within the context of national development and industrial policy. It follows the idea of structuralist, Marxist and Schumpeterian approaches, in which industry and innovations form determining factors for the dynamism in capitalist economies and relative positions within the world economy. All countries that have developed and started to compete under better

  1. Environmental pollution and policies in China's Township and Village Industrial Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Taketoshi, Kazuki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze economic and policy factors affecting pollution by Township and Village Industrial Enterprises (TVIEs) in China and to discuss problems and directions in environmental policies for them. With the rapid growth of TVIEs since the early 1980s, pollution has been spreading into the rural areas. The large number and small size of TVIEs makes it difficult for TVIEs themselves and the government to implement environmental measures. The econometric ...

  2. The seed and agricultural biotechnology industries in India: An analysis of industry structure, competition, and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Spielman, David J.; Kolady, Deepthi; Cavalieri, Anthony; N.Chandrasekhara Rao

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, technological advances and policy reforms have opened up new opportunities for growth in India's seed and agricultural biotechnology industries. The impacts of such changes have been significant in India's cotton sector, but less so for the country's main cereal crops, where both yield and output growth rates have been relatively stagnant. Some public policymakers and corporate decisionmakers are confident that the private sector will help reverse these trends, arguing t...

  3. The regional effects of a biomass fuel industry on US agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study looks at the potential competitiveness of the emerging biomass-based biofuel industry in the current economic environment. A simulation model suggests that a mature biomassbased biofuel industry is potentially competitive with gasoline, and capable of filling a significant fraction of motor fuel supplies. However, the existing land policy has a narrow definition of agricultural land for a biomass-based fuel industry. A broader definition of agricultural land suitable for biomass inputs would reduce biofuel processing costs, relieve the food versus fuel conflict, and increase the net gain to fuel consumers, food consumers, and producers of food and fuel. - Highlights: • We look at the potential competitiveness of a mature biomass fuel (BF) industry in the US. • We model a land policy that allows BF-cattle competition for forage, crop residues, and pasture. • We estimate the cost reductions and welfare gains associated with modifying the land use policy

  4. Confronting industry-distributional concerns in U.S. climate-change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most cost-effective policies for achieving CO2 abatement (e.g., standard carbon taxes) are considered politically unacceptable because of distributional consequences. This paper employs a simple analytically tractable model along with a more complex dynamic numerical general equilibrium model to assess the impacts of CO2 policies on key energy industries. We explore how CO2 policies can be designed to avoid adverse profit impacts in these industries, and assess the costs of meeting these potential distributional objectives. We find that without substantial added cost to the overall economy, the government can implement carbon abatement policies that protect equity values in fossil-fuel industries. The reason is that CO2 abatement policies have the potential to generate rents that are quite large in relation to the potential loss of profit. By enabling firms to retain only a small fraction of these potential rents - e.g., by grand-fathering a small percentage of CO2 permits, or by exempting a small fraction of emissions from the base of a carbon tax - the government can protect firms' profits and equity values. Government revenue has an efficiency value because it can be used to finance cuts in pre-existing distortionary taxes. Since the revenue-sacrifice involved in protecting firms' profits is small, the efficiency cost is small as well. We also find that expanding the compensation effort to include industries that significantly use carbon-based fuels does not substantially add to the overall economic cost. (authors)

  5. Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the VIEWLS-project is to achieve clear views on information and future perspectives of biofuels for transportation. The project aims at assisting policy makers, NGO's and industrial decision makers in the selection of optimal pathways for the development and market introduction of biofuels in Europe. This report concerns the results of Work Package 4, Chain Definition and Analysis. The main objectives are to define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Western European Countries (WEC); to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from CEEC; and to analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC

  6. The impact of the EU GMO policy on the competitiveness of the livestock industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kruppa, Bertalan

    2010-01-01

    The stringent GMO policy of the EU adversely affects the competitiveness of the member states’ livestock industries, in particular the poultry and pig sectors. This arises from the fact that the EU animal industry is highly dependent on the import of feedstuffs sourced from pro-GMO countries. The import is expected to face increasing difficulties especially due to two elements of the EU GMO policy: the prolonged approval process of new GM varieties and the zero tolerance threshold towards G...

  7. Forested wetland area and distribution: A forest and paper industry policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy statement from the 1988 National Wetlands Policy Forum included the amorphous and ambiguous phase no overall net loss of the nation's remaining wetlands base. To industry and thousands of non-industrial landowners, timber production represents a major function of wetlands. The authors cover historical aspects of wetlands protection, the controversial and politicized issue of wetlands delineation, proposed revisions to the wetlands criteria, regulatory issues related to the US Corp of Engineers and EPA, and compensatory mitigation. A package of economic incentives, education, and favorable tax treatment to encourage landowners to maintain their forested wetlands is suggested. 5 refs

  8. THE U.S. CANE AND BEET SUGAR INDUSTRY UNDER ALTERNATIVE TRADE LIBERALIZATION POLICY OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze major issues the U.S. sugar industry is facing or will face in the near future and the impacts of alternative trade liberalization policies in the United States and the European Union (EU) on the U.S. sugar industry. Special attention is given to regional competitiveness in sugar production in the United States. A global sugar policy simulation model was used for this study. This study indicates that most sugar producing regions may be able to survive...

  9. Danish and Norwegian wind industry: The relationship between policy instruments, innovation and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article compares the role of policy instruments in stimulating long-term technological change in Danish and Norwegian wind industry. It concludes that although predictability has periodically been low, Denmark's broad portfolio of policies and measures has been well adapted to the different stages in the development of its wind industry. This has contributed to a high degree of innovation, successful establishment in niche markets, high degree of diffusion and establishment of domestic and international mass markets, and-in recent years-an increasingly successful replacement of senescent technology with new. The motivation of Norway's wind energy policies and measures-at least up until the late 1990s-has been to increase power supply rather than to stimulate industrial development and technological change. Policies and measures have been weaker than in Denmark; have been less stable over time; and stimulated the demand side much less. They have not sufficiently covered the wind industry's perceived needs on different stages in the development of new technology, and have not sufficiently stimulated continuous improvement, learning and new product development (dynamic efficiency) in industry. This has been part of the reason why there has been only a limited extent of innovation and diffusion of wind technology in Norway

  10. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luís A. B Cortez; Francisco E. B. Nigro; Nogueira, Luiz A. H.; André M. Nassar; Heitor Cantarella; Márcia A. F. D. Moraes; Leal, Rodrigo L. V.; Franco, Telma T.; Schuchardt, Ulf F.; Ricardo Baldassin Junior

    2015-01-01

    The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is i...

  11. Biofuels from algae: technology options, energy balance and GHG emissions: Insights from a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCA STEFANIA; AGOSTINI ALESSANDRO; GIUNTOLI JACOPO; MARELLI Luisa

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade(s), algal biomass received increasing interest as a potential source of advanced biofuels production resulting in a considerable attention from research, industry and policy makers. In fact, algae are expected to offer several advantages compared to land-based biomass crops, including: better photosynthetic efficiency; higher oil yield; growth on non-fertile land; tolerance to a variety of water sources (i.e. fresh, brackish, saline) and CO2 re-using potential. The alga...

  12. Global assessment of research and development for algae biofuel production and its potential role for sustainable development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of economically deriving fuel from cultivating algae biomass is an attractive addition to the range of measures to relieve the current reliance on fossil fuels. Algae biofuels avoid some of the previous drawbacks associated with crop-based biofuels as the algae do not compete with food crops. The favourable growing conditions found in many developing countries has led to a great deal of speculation about their potentials for reducing oil imports, stimulating rural economies, and even tackling hunger and poverty. By reviewing the status of this technology we suggest that the large uncertainties make it currently unsuitable as a priority for many developing countries. Using bibliometric and patent data analysis, we indicate that many developing countries lack the human capital to develop their own algae industry or adequately prepare policies to support imported technology. Also, we discuss the potential of modern biotechnology, especially genetic modification (GM) to produce new algal strains that are easier to harvest and yield more oil. Controversy surrounding the use of GM and weak biosafety regulatory system represents a significant challenge to adoption of GM technology in developing countries. A range of policy measures are also suggested to ensure that future progress in algae biofuels can contribute to sustainable development. - Highlights: • Algae biofuels can make positive contribution to sustainable development in developing countries. • Bibliometric and patent data indicate that many lack the human capital to develop their own algae industry. • Large uncertainties make algae biofuels currently unsuitable as a priority for many developing countries

  13. Mining and sustainable development: environmental policies and programmes of mining industry associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining industry policies and practices have evolved rapidly in the environmental area, and more recently in the social area as well. Mining industry associations are using a variety of methods to stimulate and assist their member companies as they improve their environmental, social and economic performance. These associations provide opportunities for companies to use collaborative approaches in developing and applying improved technology, systems and practices (author)

  14. CAPITAL INDUSTRY PRACTICE AND AGGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE WORKING CAPITAL POLICIES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiu Oyesola Salawu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates fifteen diverse industrial groups over an extended period to establish the relationship between aggressive and conservative working capital practices. Data were sourced from the annual reports of the companies and the publications of Nigerian Stock Exchange. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the data collected. Results strongly show that firms in differing industries have significantly different current asset management policies. Additionally, the relative...

  15. Industrial policy of the European Community: strategic deficits and regional dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    SADLER, D

    1992-01-01

    Industrial policy of the European Community (EC) shifted in emphasis towards a neoliberal approach in the late 1 980s as one part of moves towards completion of the single internal market by 1992. Intervention by national governments was also to be curtailed (in theory at least) on the grounds that it would be contrary to fair competition and free trade. There is mounting evidence, however, that European industry is increasingly falling behind its main rivals based in the USA and Japan. This ...

  16. How industry - labor relations and government policies affect Senegal's economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Katherine; Svejnar, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Senegal is in a long-term economic crisis. Senegalese industry suffers from a highly adversarial system of industrial and labor relations, excessive government regulations in some areas and inadequate government support in others, and many misperceptions about the ethnically diverse labor force and enterprise ownership. Since the late 1970s, the Senegalese government has recognized the need to embark on a sustained and long-term adjustment program and has searched for appropriate policies to ...

  17. Research on the Policy Orientation of Government in Agricultural Industrialization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Governmental functions in agricultural industrialization management are analyzed, mainly including supplying public products, providing property right security, managing and protecting resources and environment as well as stabilizing the agro-product market. The policy orientation promoted by the government in agricultural industrialization management is pointed out: formulating a series of macro-management planning to guide and regulate agricultural industrialization operation; fully playing the comprehensive coordinating role of "economic manager"; making and carrying out relevant laws and regulations to normalize the implementation of agricultural industrialization management. To implement the industrial management of agriculture and promote the construction of new countryside, governments at all levels should eliminate the institutional barriers, transform governmental functions gradually and prioritize planning, regulation, service and supervision, changing from merely management to playing the role of market mechanism. Meanwhile, economic, legal and administrative means should be properly adopted to advance the industrial management and the healthy improvement of modern agriculture.

  18. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO2-limiting policy is enacted.

  19. Energy conservation potential in China’s petroleum refining industry: Evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A long-term equilibrium relationship of energy demand in China’s petroleum refining industry is established. • The sectoral energy conservation potential is evaluated by using scenarios analysis. • Energy prices, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure affect electricity intensity. • Future policy for energy conservation in China’s petroleum refining industry is suggested. - Abstract: China is currently the second largest petroleum refining country in the world due to rapid growth in recent years. Because the petroleum refining industry is energy-intensive, the rapid growth in petroleum refining and development caused massive energy consumption. China’s urbanization process will guarantee sustained growth of the industry for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the energy conservation potential of the petroleum industry. This paper estimates the energy conservation potential of the industry by applying a cointegration model to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and some factors such as energy price, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure. The results show that R and D investment has the greatest reduction impact on energy intensity, and the growth of market participants (i.e. the decline of the share of state-owned companies) can improve energy efficiency of this industry. Under the advanced energy-saving scenario, the accumulated energy conservation potential will reach 230.18 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Finally, we provide some targeted policy recommendations for industrial energy conservation

  20. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript on lifecycle analysis (LCA) of biofuels for transportation has three major parts: * I. An analysis of greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuels, estimated using the Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM). * II. A review of recent LCAs of biofuels. * III. A comprehensive conceptual framework for doing LCAs of biofuels.

  1. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  2. Quick scan with regard to biofuels, focusing on the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a quick scan insight is given in the short-term and long-term chances for biofuels in the Dutch agricultural sector, taking into account all the links in the biofuel chain. An overview is given of the policy with regard to biofuels in the Netherlands, Europe and the rest of the world. Also attention is paid to so-called first-generation biofuels (bio-ethanol, biodiesel and vegetable oils) and second-generation biofuels (from lignocellulose)

  3. Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation in India: Implications for Food Security and Rural Livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Kavi Kumar; R.S. Soundar Rajan; R. Manivasagan

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are acquiring importance due to their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The two most important biofuels – viz., bioethanol and bio-diesel, are largely considered supplementary to the transport fuels. India has extensive programs and aims to blend 20 percent of transport fuels with biofuels by 2017. This paper focuses on three aspects in the context of biofuel production and policy in India. First, the paper looks at feasibility of meeting the biofuel blending targets en...

  4. Stabilizing the agricultural frontier: Leveraging REDD with biofuels for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the potential of a proposed policy model that would explicitly link the cultivation of biofuels with forest conservation (Biofuel + FC) as part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The model postulates that a ratio of 4:1 forest conservation to biofuel cultivation be linked to proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD + Biofuel), while a ratio of 9:1 biofuel cultivation to reforestation on degraded landscape (RDL + Biofuel) be linked to the afforestation/reforestation component of the Clean Development Mechanism. Both biofuel production options would be limited to the cultivation of woody perennial biofuel species on low biomass landscapes in order to maximize the carbon benefits of the proposed policy model. The potential to conserve forest, avoid GHG emissions, improve carbon sequestration, and produce renewable energy are evaluated by an illustrative model for five case studies (Pará – Brazil, East Kalimantan – Indonesia, Madagascar, Colombia and Liberia). The Biofuel + FC policy model is then compared with three counterfactual scenarios: REDD Alone with no biofuel cultivation; Biofuel Alone with expanded biofuel cultivation in the absence of REDD and a Most Likely scenario where REDD and biofuel cultivation are implemented without explicit regulatory linkages. The proposed policy model would leverage forest carbon with biofuel markets, which would reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve biodiversity, as well as improve human welfare in developing countries, a win–win–win strategy for sustainable development. -- Highlights: ► We propose to link biofuel cultivation with forest conservation (REDD + Biofuels). ► A similar proposal to support reforestation on degraded landscapes (RDL + Biofuels). ► Woody perennial biofuel species on low biomass landscapes maximize carbon benefits. ► REDD+ revenues can subsidize and foster sustainable biofuels. ► Production of

  5. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  6. Towards cooperative policy approaches in China. Drivers for voluntary agreements on industrial energy efficiency in Nanjing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency is a national priority for China as rapid energy consumption growth aggravates its greenhouse gas emissions, local air pollution and energy scarcity. In the 1990s, a large number of voluntary agreements emerged in industrialised countries in order to improve industrial energy efficiency. These experiences are now taken into account in China. This article analyses the drivers for voluntary agreements on industrial energy efficiency in China, based on a case study of three enterprises in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Furthermore, the article reviews the institutional set-up of energy policy and investigates the pertaining policy culture. From the findings, conclusions are drawn on the role of voluntary agreements within China's larger policy context. We conclude that opposed to avoiding stricter regulation, voluntary agreements in Nanjing are reinterpreted in view of more stringent national provisions on energy efficiency in the 11th Five Year Plan. Hence, agreements have evolved into an implementation tool of national policy at the local level. For industry, another major driver for participation was identified as improving its relations with local authorities. Voluntary agreements showed to have the potential to overcome traditional constraints of implementing top-down policies at the local level in China. (author)

  7. Domestic policy consequences of new implementation models. Consequences for industrial niches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates to the consequences of domestic policy with the focus on new implementation models used for cost reduction of offshore development projects in Norway. The paper puts the attention to the consequences from implementation models on industrial niches (subcontractors)

  8. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry, The Need for Changes in Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    have established rules and control systems for organic agriculture (the last decade). A break-through of organic food production is now taking place in some EU member states. This third change is indicated by more positive attitudes to organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing...... need for a more appropriate respons in the food policy....

  9. Potential Challenges Faced by the U.S. Chemicals Industry under a Carbon Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemicals have become the backbone of manufacturing within industrialized economies. Being energy-intensive materials to produce, this sector is threatened by policies aimed at combating and adapting to climate change. This study examines the worst-case scenario for the U.S. chemicals industry when a medium CO2 price policy is employed. After examining possible industry responses, the study goes on to identify and provide a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. If climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies to mitigate the impacts of rising energy costs, the examination shows that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competiveness of the U.S. chemicals industry over the next two decades. In the long run, there exist technologies that are available to enable the chemicals sector to achieve sufficient efficiency gains to offset and manage the additional energy costs arising from a climate policy.

  10. Alfred Marshall in Spain: from his omission until his refund by territorial industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ybarra, Josep-Antoni

    2011-01-01

    In Spanish literature on regional economic analysis, is quoted with some profusion the work of Alfred Marshall. In this paper analyzes the reasons that his work was known with some delay in Spain and why are the issues related to territorial policy —especially topics related to industrial districts and regional clusters— those with a greater focus has been extended.

  11. Human Resources Motivation Policy and Tools (Following the Example of Large Industrial Companies)

    OpenAIRE

    Josif Iliev

    2012-01-01

    The high motivation to work is a key prerequisite for competitive advantage of human resources. Our investigations in large industrial companies in Bulgaria have not confirmed any considerable results in motivating human resources. Major issues in two interrelated spheres: corporate motivation policy and tools for implementation thereof are presented with sufficient arguments.

  12. Liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief conference paper on the use of biofuels in vehicles, especially in Sweden. Vegetable oils replace only diesel. In Sweden, the vegetable oil most often used is rape-seed oil. These oils are not very efficient in ''raw'' form and are used as basis in esters, such as rape-seed methyl ester (RME). Although RME is renewable, biobased and reduces the atmospheric CO2 emission, it increases the emission of nitrogen oxides, it may cause startup problems in cold weather and is not stable when stored for long. Most RME available in Sweden is imported and the potential for increased Swedish production is very limited. By using methanol and ethanol both petrol and diesel can be replaced. While mixtures of petrol and alcohols are being used increasingly, mixtures of diesel and alcohols are unstable and their use requires technological development

  13. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. PMID:26874262

  14. The structural configurations of alcohol in Denmark: Policy, culture, and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Magelund Krarup, Troels

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes recent developments in Danish alcohol policy, culture, and industry. It reveals cross-sector dynamics and complexities that are often downplayed in existing literature. It traces how a stable “structural configuration” emerged in the 1960s-1980s between the three domains......, based on liberalization. A particular adolescent alcohol culture of intoxication, however, emerged in the 1990s, raising public awareness and calls for policy intervention. Contrary to what may have been expected, this did not represent a break with the liberal alcohol configuration in policy, culture......, and industry, but an increased segregation of adolescent consumption from adult consumption, exposing the former to severe legal and moral regulation. This analysis of historic-structural dynamics helps explain why adolescent drinking is dependent on more than isolated causal links such as between...

  15. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  16. Developing Entrepreneurial and Technology Commercialization Policies to Promote Cooperative Ventures Between NIH and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomando, Edward F.

    2001-03-01

    The NIH has had a great influence in guiding the biological research agenda for the last half of the 20th century. This may change if the increases in research funding from the private sector that occurred in the last ten years continue into the 21st century. Ten years ago, industry supplied 55% of the US R&D funds. In 2000, industry support of R&D had increased to 76%, with industry carrying out 70% of the nations applied and 91% of its development research. Given this shift, one of the biggest challenges that NIH may face in coming years is sharing control of America's research agenda with industry. For this to occur policies that encourage cooperative ventures with industry are needed. In a unique experiment, I was invited to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the 25 NIH Institutes and Centers, to develop programs and policies that would promote interactions with industry. This talk will introduce the strategy and programs developed to commercialize products and technologies from basic science discoveries and introducing an entrepreneurial atmosphere within the Institute. The results of this experiment will be discussed by comparing differences between discovery-driven and customer-driven innovation. One outcome of this experience is a greater appreciation of the obstacles to introducing disruptive technologies into the market place and of the paradigms that serve as barriers to commercialization. One recommendation is that the NIDCR consider a policy that allows for some participation by industry in setting the research and training agenda of the Institute, and that a mechanism for industry input be introduced into its administrative organization.

  17. Hydrodynamics-Biology Coupling for Algae Culture and Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Olivier; Sainte-Marie, Jacques; Sialve, Bruno; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae represents an acute optimization problem for industry. There is a wide range of parameters that must be taken into account in the development of this technology. Here, mathematical modelling has a vital role to play. The potential of microalgae as a source of biofuel and as a technological solution for CO2 fixation is the subject of intense academic and industrial research. Large-scale production of microalgae has potential for biofuel applications owing to ...

  18. 78 FR 69128 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... COMMISSION Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Proposed..., Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in ] India: Effects on the U.S. Economy, instituted under the.... trade and investment and estimates the effects these barriers have on the U.S. economy and U.S....

  19. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  20. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  1. Sustainable industrial policy and environment. challenges and opportunities; Politica industrial sostenible y medio ambiente. Dificultades y oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle Munoz, M.

    2013-06-01

    The European Union is aware that the current model of production and consumption contributes to global warming, pollution, intensive use of materials and depletion of natural resources and, for that reason, it promotes since years the adoption of more sustainable patterns. Increasing efficiency in the use of resources in the generation and use of energy and the production of goods could also be a powerful source of innovation and a major industrial competitiveness, according to the Commission. This article discusses the existing complementary strategies in efficiency in the use of resources, raw materials, energy, and the energy and climate package adopted in 2008, and the difficulties and opportunities that the industry is facing to implement this policy in the current economic slowdown. (Author)

  2. Indonesian And Australian Tax Policy Implementation In Food And Agriculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanggoro Pamungkas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy is one of the most important policy in consideration of investment development in certain industry. Research by Newlon (1987, Swenson (1994 and Hines (1996 concluded that tax rate is one of the most important thing considered by investors in a foreign direct investment. One of tax policy could be used to attract foreign direct investment is income tax incentives. The attractiveness of income tax incentives to a foreign direct investment is as much as the attractiveness to a domestic investment (Anwar and Mulyadi, 2012. In this paper, we have conducted a study of income tax incentives in food and agriculture industry; where we conduct a thorough study of income tax incentives and corporate performance in Indonesian and Australian food and agriculture industry. Our research show that there is a significant influence of income tax incentives to corporate performance. Based on our study, we conclude that the significant influence of income tax incentives to Indonesian corporate performance somewhat in a higher degree than the Australian peers. We have also concluded that Indonesian government provide a relatively more interesting income tax incentives compare to Australian government. However, an average method of net income –a method applied in Australia– could be considered by Indonesian government to avoid a market price fluctuation in this industry

  3. Security Policies for Web Service Invocation of Automotive Industry Chain Collaboration Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Min

    2007-01-01

    To meet the actual requirements of an automotive industry chain collaboration platform (AICCP), this paper offers several simple but effective security policies based upon the traditional security mechanism of data transfer, including user ID verification with SOAP (simple object access protocol). header, SOAP message encryption with SOAP extension and XML(extensible markup language) file encryption and decryption. Application of these policies to the AICCP for more than one year proves the effectiveness of the data exchange practice between the AICCP and enterprise Intranet.

  4. Australian Government Policies and the Balance of Trade Performance of the Transportation Equipment Industry: A Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dale B Truett; Lila J. Truett

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates factors that have affected the trade balance of the Australian motor vehicle industry and considers the impact of Australian government policies to encourage the development of that industry. It presents an overview of the industry, discusses the history of government policies to promote both manufacturing and exports of motor vehicle products, and provides a comparison of Australia with other developing producers of motor vehicles. A linear regression model is employe...

  5. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  6. Exergoeconomic aspects of sectoral energy utilization for Turkish industrial sector and their impact on energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with this thermo-economic analysis of energy utilization in the industrial sector (IS) towards establishing energy policies. The relations between capital costs and thermodynamic losses for subsectors in the IS are investigated. In the analysis, Turkey is taken as an application country based on its actual data over the period from 1990 to 2003. Energy and exergy analyses are performed for eight industrial modes, namely iron-steel, chemical-petrochemical, petrochemical-feedstock, cement, fertilizer, sugar, non-metal industry, other industry. The energy and exergy utilization efficiency values for the entire Turkish IS are obtained to range from 63.45% to 70.11%, and from 29.72% to 33.23%, respectively. The ratio of thermodynamic loss rate-to-capital cost values is also calculated to vary from 0.76 to 1.01

  7. The current potential of algae biofuels in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of future uncertainties about industrial algae biofuel production, the UAE is planning to become "a world leader in biofuels from the algae industry by 2020;" thus joining major countries which have already started producing renewable energy and biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from rene...

  8. Public policy and foreign direct investment : the effects of public policy on foreign direct investment in the mining industry in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    PUBLIC POLICY AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: THE EFFECTS OF PUBLIC POLICY ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN THE MINING INDUSTRY IN GHANA Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine the effects of macroeconomic incentive structure, namely, exchange rate policy, customs tariffs, and a fiscal regime (taxes and royalties) (that assures the government of a high revenue but silmultaneously meets the requirements of multinational mining companies cashflows and for reasonable rate of return on...

  9. Biofuel bonanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The native Australian legume ''Pongamia pinnata'' could be the basis for a new industry in Queensland's north, replacing fossil fuels and breaking the poverty cycle in indigenous communities.

  10. Does a Renewable Fuel Standard for Biofuels Reduce Climate Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Mads Greaker; Michael Hoel; Knut Einar Rosendahl

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature on biofuels has questioned whether biofuels policies are likely to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Our analysis explicitly takes into account that oil is a nonrenewable natural resource. A blending mandate has no effect on total cumulative oil extraction. However, extraction of oil is postponed as a consequence of the renewable fuel standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are negligible, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. The standard also r...

  11. THE EFFECT OF SPIN-OFF POLICY ON FINANCING GROWTH IN INDONESIAN ISLAMIC BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Rianto Al Arif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between spin-off policy on the financing growth of Islamic banking industry in Indonesia. This research used panel regression with fixed effect. The variable used in this paper is dummy variabel of spin-off, and also included the internal factor of industry such as third party fund, and efficiency ratio (measured by BOPO. Besides the internal factor, this research also included the external factor such as inflation rate, economic growth rate, and interest rate from conventional banking. The result shows that only third part funds and interest rate had an impact on the financing growth in spin-off banks. The spin-off policy doesn’t have an impact on the financing growth in spin-off banks

  12. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  13. NGOs and gender policy: some issues from the south Indian silk-reeling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux, L

    1993-10-01

    In India, silk reeling, the middle stage in silk production, is potentially very profitable, and the silk industry has been required to adopt gender-aware policies such as appointing female staff and introducing gender sensitization training. To date, policies designed to encourage women's entrepreneurship in the reeling industry have been unsuccessful. Men have appropriated credit issued in women's names, and no women's cooperatives are currently in operation. The policies designed to encourage female entrepreneurship in reeling woefully overlooked the complexity of this work which involves a substantial investment of capital and significant risk. Women and girls continue to work as unpaid family workers and wage laborers without the benefits of governmental policies to protect their interests. In fact, attempts to introduce labor legislation to protect women have been blocked on the national level by the powerful Reelers' Association. Policies which address gender issues in the family and in the wider context of the silk industry are also lacking, and there is a wide variation in how women are able or unable to manipulate their positions to their advantage. Women's inabilities are the root cause of their inability to become entrepreneurs and improve their labor status. Nongovernmental organizations can enhance entrepreneurship and cooperative development by improving training in all aspects of running a business and in group formation. Women laborers must organize to improve wages and working conditions, and women must be able to increase their control over income and resources and their access to the outside world even as they decrease the time spent on unpaid reproductive labor. PMID:12320732

  14. The political economy of innovation; an institutional analysis of industrial policy and development in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Jose H. V.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines Brazilian industrial policies during the administrations of President Lula (2003-2010) and questions if innovation has truly been the main driver of those instruments. It provides a brief overview on the intersections of politics, economics, innovation and institutions as well as the main choices, incentives and alliances of the Brazilian government, which are illustrated by the Innovation Law, PITCE, PDP and campaign financing of President Lula's 2002 a...

  15. Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry : cost estimates and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Minul; Wheeler, David; Chonghua Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Using factory-level data provided by China's National Environmental Protection Agency and the Tianjin Environmental Protection Bureau, the authors of this report estimate the costs of water pollution abatement for Chinese industry. Using their econometric results, they analyze the cost-effectiveness of current pollution control policy in China and make the conclusions that follow. (1) For each pollutant, marginal abatement costs exhibit great differences by sector, scale, and degree of abatem...

  16. The Impact of Open Access Policies on Libraries: the New Era in Publishing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Κυριακή-Μάνεση, Δάφνη; Χαλεπλίογλου, Άρτεμις; Βασιλακάκη, Ευγενία

    2006-01-01

    Statement: The development and widespread adoption of Internet as a strong information tool is transforming the Publishing Industry. The field, perhaps most, affected by this change is the one of Information Science, which is about to face new challenges and adopt new roles and techniques. Information Organizations assess, collect and manage both printed and digital material. The aforementioned fact is addressing new issues such as collection policy, copyright issues and their financial impli...

  17. Impact of industrialization on relative female survival: Evidence from trade policies

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Tanika

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits an exogenous shift in the trade policy in India to study the impact of industrialization on son preference. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that households are more likely to have a male child in regions with higher trade openness relative to regions with lower trade openness. Moreover, higher trade openness seems to have affected only the Hindu households; there is no analogous effect on the Muslim households. We further analyze the underlying mechanis...

  18. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  19. Assessment of energy efficiency performance measures in industry and their application for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency improvement is a basic yet significant way of addressing both energy security and environment concerns. There are various measures of industrial energy efficiency performance, with different purposes and applications. This paper explores different ways to measure energy efficiency performance (MEEP): absolute energy consumption, energy intensity, diffusion of specific energy-saving technology and thermal efficiency. It discusses their advantages and disadvantages, and roles within policy frameworks. Policy makers should consider the suitability of MEEP based on criteria such as reliability, feasibility and verifiability. The limitations of both energy intensity and necessity of broader all-inclusive indicators and technology diffusion indicators are also discussed. A case study on Japan's iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry. Depending on the boundaries set for the analysis, the energy consumption per ton of crude steel ranges from 16 to 21 GJ. This paper stresses the importance of a proper understanding of various methods to assess energy efficiency, and the linkage with policy objectives and frameworks. Possible next steps for improvement of MEEP, such as database development, were also discussed

  20. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  1. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  2. Development of a sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges.

  3. Priming the Pump with Grass, Trees, and Waste: An exploration of biofuels policy and research discourse and its potential to alter living spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Davitt, Marcia S

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels, a solar-sourced technology that can be processed from non-fossilized plant matter, have significant appeal as a means of securing a reliable, sustainable energy supply. They appear to offer significant potential by virtue of being harvestable from common plant life such as prairie grasses. I argue that a shared set of knowledge claims emerging from multiple energy/environmental institutions in Germany and the U.S. are linked by a shared set of assumptions. I characterize these cl...

  4. Biofuels securing the planet's future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels include bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils, biomethanol, pyrolysis oils, biogas, and biohydrogen. There are two global biomass based liquid transportation fuels that might replace gasoline and diesel fuel. These are bioethanol and biodiesel. World production of biofuel was about 68 billion L in 2007. The primary feedstocks of bioethanol are sugarcane and corn. Bioethanol is a gasoline additive/substitute. Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. About 60% of global bioethanol production comes from sugarcane and 40% from other crops. Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent mono alkyl ester based oxygenated fuel. Biodiesel production using inedible vegetable oil, waste oil and grease has become more attractive recently. The economic performance of a biodiesel plant can be determined once certain factors are identified, such as plant capacity, process technology, raw material cost and chemical costs. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment.

  5. Optimal localisation of next generation Biofuel production in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mossberg, Johanna [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with large production capacities are likely to be required. Feedstock intake capacities in the range of about 1-2 million tonnes per year, corresponding to a biomass feed of 300-600 MW, can be expected, which may lead to major logistical challenges. To enable expansion of biofuel production in such large plants, as well as provide for associated distribution requirements, it is clear that substantial infrastructure planning will be needed. The geographical location of the production plant facilities is therefore of crucial importance and must be strategic to minimise the transports of raw material as well as of final product. Competition for the available feedstock, from for example forest industries and CHP plants (combined heat and power) further complicates the localisation problem. Since the potential for an increased biomass utilisation is limited, high overall resource efficiency is of great importance. Integration of biofuel production processes in existing industries or in district heating systems may be beneficial from several aspects, such as opportunities for efficient heat integration, feedstock and equipment integration, as well as access to existing experience and know-how. This report describes the development of Be Where Sweden, a geographically explicit optimisation model for localisation of next generation biofuel production plants in Sweden. The main objective of developing such a model is to be able to assess production plant locations that are robust to varying

  6. Revitalizing Old Industrial Base of Northeast China: Process,Policy and Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingyu

    2008-01-01

    Northeast China is the largest old industrial base of China that endured persistent influence of the past planned economy system.This region has lost its leading place since the reform and opening up,and became a backward region by contrast with the coastal areas.This paper elaborates the evolutionary process of the old industrial base of Northeast China,analyses the main reasons for the decline,gives a preliminary evaluation on the revitalizing polices in recent years,and points out major long-term challenges for future revitalization.It concludes that for Northeast China,a relative declining area:1) it is indispensable to get the long-term policy support from the central government;2) system reform and structure adjustment are the crucial strategies,particularly the reform of the large and medium state-owned enterprises;and developing new industries is as important as upgrading traditional advantaged industries;3) the local governments should play an indirect role,avoiding from any unnecessary intervention on economic activity;and 4) social security and investment climate must be improved simultaneously.In addition,the author stresses that the lack of knowledge on the nature of old industrial base had led to failures of the past initiatives,and revitalizing the old industrial base should be treated as a holistic regional project including economy growth,society progress and environment improvement.

  7. Yesterday and Tomorrow of the Palm Oil Biodiesel : A Functional Analysis of the Biofuel Technological Innovation System in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Maziar

    2013-01-01

    The world needs energy everyday more than yesterday. It depends heavily on fossil fuels for satisfying this need, but these resources create environmental problems and will deplete one day. Biofuels are a suitable substitute and Malaysia has great potentials for developing them. However, after a short-lived promising start, the biodiesel (palm oil methyl ester) industry of Malaysia is facing a crisis now. Instead of using the neo-classical approach and proposing policy interventions based on ...

  8. Livelihood implications of biofuel crop production: Implications for governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunsberger, Carol; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve;

    2014-01-01

    While much attention has focused on the climate change mitigation potential of biofuels, research from the social sciences increasingly highlights the social and livelihood impacts of their expanded production. Policy and governance measures aimed at improving the social effects of biofuels have...

  9. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  10. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor and...

  11. Biofuel Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    As concerns regarding increasing energy prices, global warming and renewable resources continue to grow, so has scientific discovery into agricultural biomass conversion. Plant Biomass Conversion addresses both the development of plant biomass and conversion technology, in addition to issues surrounding biomass conversion, such as the affect on water resources and soil sustainability. This book also offers a brief overview of the current status of the industry and examples of production...

  12. Incorporating GIS data into an agent-based model to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an extension to the agent-based model "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by incorporating GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the model, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved model exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.

  13. Incorporating GIS data into an agent-based model to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an extension to the agent-based model "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by incorporating GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the model, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved model exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.

  14. The development of the biofuels in the french farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, developed to compensate the farmers incomes after 1993, the biofuels are going today on a second development phase, in the framework of the Kyoto protocol. The aim of this paper is to define the particularities of the biofuels production agricultural phase. The most important aspects of the common agricultural policy (PAC) for the biofuels are underlined. The costs of the raw material and the tool developed by the INRA to estimate the biofuels costs are also presented. In conclusion the authors propose some reference results. (A.L.B.)

  15. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  16. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to assess implications for the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels. Scope: We present an overview of key 1G sustainability challenges, assess their relevance for 2G, and highlight the challenges for policy in managing the transition. We address limitations of existing sustainability assessments by exploring where challenges might emerge across the whole system of bioenergy and the wider context of the social system in which bioenergy research and policy are done. Conclusions: Key lessons arising from 1G are potentially relevant to the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels depending on the particular circumstances or conditions under which 2G is introduced. We conclude that sustainability challenges commonly categorised as either economic, environmental or social are, in reality, more complexly interconnected (so that an artificial separation of these categories is problematic). - Highlights: • Controversy surrounding 1G biofuels is relevant to sustainability appraisal of 2G. • Challenges for policy in managing the transition to 2G biofuels are highlighted. • A key lesson is that sustainability challenges are complexly interconnected

  17. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  18. Convergence, Creative Industries and Civil Society Towards a New Agenda for Cultural Policy and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mercer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I start with a personal experience "cameo" from 1996 in Australia and extrapolate from that some issues that remain relevant in the sometimes trou-bled relationship between cultural studies and cultural policy. These are encapsu-lated in the three "cs" of convergence, creative industries and civil society which provide a new context for both new research and new policy settings. The argu-ment is developed and situated in historical terms by examining the "cultural technologies", especially the newspaper, and subsequently print media in the 19th century, electronic media in the 20th century and digital media in the 21st century which provide the content, the technologies and the rituals for "imagining" our sense of place and belonging. This is then linked to ways of understanding culture and cultural technologies in the context of governmentality and the emergence of culture as a strategic object of policy with the aim of citizen- and population for-mation and management. This argument is then linked to four contemporary "testbeds" - cultural mapping and planning, cultural statistics and indicators, cul-tural citizenship and identity, and research of and for cultural policy - and priori-ties for cultural policy where cultural studies work has been extremely enabling and productive. The article concludes with an argument, derived from the early 20th century work of Patrick Geddes of the necessity of linking, researching, un-derstanding and operationalising the three key elements and disciplines of Folk (anthropology, Work (economics, and Place (geography in order to properly situate cultural policy, mapping and planning and their relationship to cultural studies and other disciplines.

  19. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, A; Landeweerd, L; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z; Puylaert, P G B; Osseweijer, P

    2011-04-01

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially for first generation biofuels. Although environmental (Planet) aspects have dominated the biofuel debate, their overall assessment is mostly negative with regard to first generation biofuels. By contrast, economic (Profit) aspects are the only ones that are assessed positively with regard to first generation biofuels. Furthermore, positive and negative assessments of biofuel development are strongly influenced by the differences in focus between different stakeholder clusters. Stakeholders who appear generally supportive to biofuel development (industry) focus relatively more on aspects that are generally assessed as positive (Profit). By contrast, non-supportive stakeholders (NGO's) tend to focus mainly on aspects that are generally assessed as negative (Planet). Moreover, our analysis of reference lists revealed few citations of primary scientific data, and also that intergovernmental organizations produce the most influential publications in the debate. The surprising lack of listed references to scientific (primary) data reveals a need to assess in which arena the transition of scientific data towards secondary publications takes place, and how one can measure its quality. This work should be understood as a first effort to take some control over a complex and contradictory number of publications, and to allow the effective governance of the field through the identification of areas of overlapping consensus and persisting controversy, without reverting to claims on

  20. Political economy of China's trade policy:the evidence from industrial protection in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Bin

    2006-01-01

    The theory of the political economy of trade policy,combining public choice and neoclassical trade theories,studies the level and pattern of trade intervention from the perspective of policy decision-making process,by stressing on income distribution instead of economic efficiency.The paper attempts to apply such an endogenous trade theory to an empirical study of China.On the basis of a formal revised model of political economy of trade protection,it tests theoretical hypotheses concerning the political and economic determinants of cross-sector trade protection in the Chinese industry at various periods.The results show that trade protection in China fits into China's national development strategy of fast catching-up with the developed world.