WorldWideScience

Sample records for biofuel industry policy

  1. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  2. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  3. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  4. The Policy Objectives of a Biofuel Industry in Canada: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny G. Le Roy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada has a huge stock of biomass resources, which provides a basis (and a temptation for development of a major bio-fuels industry. Both federal and provincial governments have engaged in a wide array of subsidies, mandates, and other measures to stimulate production and consumption of biofuels. As a result, biofuels has become a growth industry in Canada with production of ethanol almost 10 times higher than it was ten years earlier. However, this has come at considerable cost to taxpayers. Increased biofuel production has resulted in minimal reduction in greenhouse gases, short run (but not long run increases in net farm income (that benefited grain and oilseed producers but hurt livestock producers, large increases in the prices of farm land due to the higher grain and oilseed prices, and minimal impacts on rural economic diversification.

  5. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    (from a 2010 base) by the same date. In practice, it will mainly be biofuels that economic operators will use to meet these requirements, but the different approaches can lead to either the RED, or the FQD, acting as the binding constraint. A common set of environmental sustainability criteria apply...... in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension....

  6. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  7. Innovation subject to sustainability : the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Pacini; Alexandre Betinardi Strapasson

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biof...

  8. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  9. Policies and regulations affecting biofuel development in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouk, Benard O.; Kirui, Shadrack; Theuri, Daniel; Wakhungu, Judi W.

    2008-12-15

    An assessment of government initiatives to encourage biofuel development finds the industry is hampered by a lack of policy frameworks. The policy brief looks at the status and possibilities for the various initiatives.

  10. Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

  11. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  12. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  13. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  14. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  15. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  16. U.S. Biofuels Industry. Mind the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This report was prepared is intended to provide an objective view of the evolving biofuels industry and many of its key participants. It is the second “Year in Review” report created for use by an intended audience of industry, investor, policy maker, and regulator stakeholders. This report covers the 2-year period of 2008-2009.

  17. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    also demanded by other sectors, particularly the energy sector to produce renewable electricity and heat, and the forest-based industries to produce wood products. Yet, policy support and initiatives can stimulate the synergies between the stationary energy sector and biofuels and the forest industry can include biofuels among the wide range of products already produced. One possible option is to stimulate supply side development by promoting dedicated biomass plantations to achieve learning and cost reduction in the production of short rotation woody plants and perennial herbaceous plants. This can for instance be done by linking credits for green electricity from co-firing applications with the requirement that a certain share of the biomass fuel is derived from production of such plants within EU. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Integration initiatives may involve cooperation between actors that earlier have not invested in biofuel production, such as municipalities having large district heating networks and power companies that see new opportunities for optimizing their production and improving resource use efficiency. In an increasingly globalized economy, decreasing negative impacts of biofuels on commodity markets and the environment require not only integration of various policy domains but also strategies that are internationally recognized. The early stimulation and learning in new biomass supply systems and the involvement of new types of actors cooperating in biofuel production can facilitate a positive development by reducing strains between sectors and offering opportunities for improving economic and resource use efficiency.

  18. Private governance in the biofuel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2010-01-01

    "The boom of biofuel is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with most crucial consequences in the agro-food sector. For instance, spurred by the increasing use of corn for ethanol, tortilla prices in Mexico suddenly tripled in early 2007. While the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food Jean Ziegler is demanding an international five-year ban on producing biofuels to combat soaring food prices, the biofuel industry is responding with first ini...

  19. Fuelling expectations: A policy-promise lock-in of UK biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controversy over EU-wide biofuel policy resonated within the UK, fuelling policy disagreements among UK public authorities. They disagreed over how to protect a space for future second-generation biofuels, which were expected to overcome harm from first-generation biofuels. The UK government defended rising targets for available biofuels as a necessary stimulus for industry to help fulfil the UK's EU obligations and eventually develop second-generation biofuels. By contrast, Parliamentary Select Committees opposed biofuel targets on grounds that these would instead lock-in first-generation biofuels, thus delaying or pre-empting second-generation biofuels. Those disagreements can be explained by different institutional responsibilities and reputational stakes towards ‘promise-requirement cycles’, whereby techno-optimistic promises generate future requirements for the actors involved. The UK government's stance illustrates a ‘policy-promise lock-in’, a dilemma whereby promised support is a requirement for credibility towards technology innovators and thus technoscientific development – but may delay the redirection of support from incumbent to preferable emerging technologies. Thus the sociology of expectations – previously applied to technological expectations from technology innovators – can be extended to analyse public authorities. - Highlights: • Controversy over EU-wide biofuel policy resonated within the UK. • At issue was how to stimulate future 2nd-generation biofuels. • The government defended targets for 1st-generation as necessary to stimulate industry. • Parliamentary Committees opposed biofuel targets as locking in 1st-generation. • The UK government′s stance illustrates a ‘policy-promise lock-in’

  20. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

  1. For a new industrial policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the french industrial policy, this report suggests some new avenues of research programs. In the domain of the energy, the author proposes: the fuel cell and the hydrogen, the nuclear of IV generation, the nuclear wastes management, the clean and low consumption vehicle, the biofuels, the solar photovoltaic, the CO2 picking and storage. (A.L.B.)

  2. The role of sustainability and life cycle thinking in U.S. biofuels policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of the U.S. federal biofuel-related policies, from 1955 to 2012, was conducted to examine the progression of life cycle thinking within the policies. Over 1300 past and present federal and state biofuel laws and incentives were analyzed to identify the establishment of Life-cycle thinking (LCT) in the biofuel policies. The policies were searched for search terms representing the three themes: life cycle assessment, environmental impact and sustainability. LCT in policies was first seen in the Renewable Fuel Standard under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, where life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions reduction of biofuels was required. Existing U.S. biofuel policies were also characterized to define types of policy as tax incentive, grants, mandate, etc. The results suggested that climate change or energy incentives, air quality or emissions, etc. should be more emphasized in fuel legislation for a continuous improvement of biofuels industry. Only 13% of both the federal and state policies reviewed in this study employed some aspect of LCT. Policies that incorporate LCT often only focused on greenhouse gas emissions; policies should include other environmental impacts to avoid any environmental tradeoffs and unintended consequences from biofuel production. - Highlights: • Identified the establishment of sustainability and life-cycle thinking in biofuel policy. • Presented the spatial distribution of state U.S. biofuels policies and production via GIS. • Analyzed past and present federal and state environmental policies progression toward biofuels. • Life-cycle thinking was only present in 13% of federal and state policies current as of 2013

  3. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generatio...

  4. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ► Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ► The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ► Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ► Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  5. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  6. Sustainability Opportunities and Challenges of the Biofuels Industry

    OpenAIRE

    França, Cesar L.; Maddigan, Kate; White, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Liquid biofuels are being produced to displace fossil fuels for transportation, with bioethanol and biodiesel being the primary biofuels produced for this purpose in the world today. While there is consensus on the need for a sustainable biofuels industry, there is little consensus on how to proceed to avoid environmental and social degradation with global biofuel production. A literature review of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) data, and the generic Strategic Life-Cycle Management (SLCM) and Temp...

  7. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla;

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy. It ...

  8. Assessing the Economic, Environmental and Social Sustainability of Biofuel Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels started to raise interest almost 40 years ago, when the Arab oil embargo pushed oil prices up and therefore spurred the research towards new forms of energy. Nevertheless, biofuel production has not really taken off until recently, when the combination of high oil prices, concern about greenhouse gas emissions, and the progressive reduction of oil reserves induced many countries across the world to implement policies encouraging biofuels production. At the beginning of the 2000s, ...

  9. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generation biofuels is higher. Therefore the development of the third-generation biofuels is undergoing. The third-generation technologies use, mainly algae, as raw material to produce bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel and hydrogen, and use discarded fruits to produce dimethylfuran, etc. Different countries and regions are experiencing different stages of biofuel industry. In the future the raw materials for biofuel production will be focused on various by-products, wastes, and organisms that have not direct economic benefit for human. Production technologies should be improved or invented to reduce carbon emission and environmental pollution during biofuel production and to reduce production cost.

  10. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, M.; Vvan Meijl, H.; Tabeau, A.; Woltjer, G.

    2008-04-15

    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe.

  11. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-31

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs.

  12. International Policies on Bioenergy and Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajcaniova, M.; Ciaian, P.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of international biofuel polices and their main impacts on food prices and land use. Global biofuel production has experienced a rapid growth by increasing from almost a zero level in 1970 to 29 billion gallons in 2011; the United States, the European Union, and Bra

  13. Global Impacts of European Agricultural and Biofuel Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Rienks

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Food supply and food distribution have been and are important issues in the global political arena. The recent emergence of biofuel policies has increased the influence of the policy arena on agricultural production. In this paper we show the regional impact of changes in the European Common Agricultural Policy and biofuel policy. Shifting trade patterns, changes in agricultural production, and expansion of agricultural area or intensification of agriculture result in changes in land use and land use emissions. Higher prices for agricultural crops on the world market together with changing production raise agricultural income. Brazil is the region the most affected. The results show that arrangements or policies will be needed to avoid negative impacts in other regions of changing agricultural or biofuel policies in the European Union.

  14. Global impacts of European agricultural and biofuel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, A.G.; Eickhout, B.; Banse, M.A.H.; Meijl, van H.; Rienks, W.A.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Food supply and food distribution have been and are important issues in the global political arena. The recent emergence of biofuel policies has increased the influence of the policy arena on agricultural production. In this paper we show the regional impact of changes in the European Common Agricul

  15. The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de H.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains an

  16. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production.

  17. Micro-economic modelling of biofuel system in France to determine tax exemption policy under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid biofuel support program launched in 1993 in France is implemented through tax exemptions to biofuels produced by agro-industrial chains. Activity levels are fixed by decree and allocated by the government to the different chains. Based on earmarked budget increase voted in the parliament, total quantity of biofuels will be increased by 50% in the horizon 2002-2003. A micro-economic biofuel activity model containing a detailed agricultural sector component, that is represented by 700 farms, is used to estimate costs and surpluses generated by the activity at the national level as well as tax exemption levels. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to search for efficient tax exemptions policies in an uncertain environment, where biofuel profitability is significantly affected by petroleum price and soja cake prices. Results suggest that, for the most efficient units both at the industry level (large size biomass conversion units) and at the agricultural sector level (most productive farms), unitary tax exemptions could be decreased by 10-20% for both biofuels, ethyl ether and methyl ester, with no risk for the viability of any existing chain

  18. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  19. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  20. External governance and the EU policy for sustainable biofuels, the case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing demand for transport biofuels in the EU is driving an expansion of the industry in developing countries. Large-scale production of energy crops for biofuel, if mismanaged, could cause detrimental environmental and social impacts. The aim of this study is to examine whether the newly adopted EU Directive 2009/28/EC and its sustainability certification system can effectively ensure sustainable production of biofuels outside the EU. Mozambique, a least developed country with biofuels ambitions, is selected as empirical case. The effectiveness of the EU policy in analysed employing ideal models of external governance (hierarchical, market and network governance) as analytical framework. The findings show that the EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results. Stronger emphasis on a network oriented approach based on substantial involvement of foreign actors, and on international policy legitimacy is suggested as a way forward. (author)

  1. External governance and the EU policy for sustainable biofuels, the case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing demand for transport biofuels in the EU is driving an expansion of the industry in developing countries. Large-scale production of energy crops for biofuel, if mismanaged, could cause detrimental environmental and social impacts. The aim of this study is to examine whether the newly adopted EU Directive 2009/28/EC and its sustainability certification system can effectively ensure sustainable production of biofuels outside the EU. Mozambique, a least developed country with biofuels ambitions, is selected as empirical case. The effectiveness of the EU policy in analysed employing ideal models of external governance (hierarchical, market and network governance) as analytical framework. The findings show that the EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results. Stronger emphasis on a network oriented approach based on substantial involvement of foreign actors, and on international policy legitimacy is suggested as a way forward. - Research highlights: →The EU attempts to impose its rules and values on sustainable biofuels using its leverage through trade. →The market approach adopted by the EU is expected to produce only unstable (subject to abrupt changes of market prices and demand) and thin (limited to climate and biodiversity issues) policy results.→In order to promote simultaneously stable and substantial impacts, the EU governance approach based on market access should be integrated with a network mode of governance based on policy legitimacy.

  2. Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model -- a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system -- that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial positive effect on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as supportive policies, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments.

  3. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  4. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  5. Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry : Quantification of the Environmental Performance and Identification of Synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The production of biofuels has increased in recent years, to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change. However, current production practices are heavily criticized on their environmental sustainability. Life cycle assessments have therefore been used in policies and academic studies to assess the systems; with divergent results. In the coming years however, biofuel production practices must improve to meet strict environmental sustainability policies. The aims of the ...

  6. An overview of biofuel policies across the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorda, Giovanni [E.ON Energy Research Center, Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behaviour FCN, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Banse, Martin [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute vTI, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute for Market Analysis and Agricultural Trade Policy, Braunschweig (Germany); Kemfert, Claudia [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung DIW, Energy, Transportation and Environment Department, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    In the last decade biofuel production has been driven by governmental policies. This article reviews the national strategy plans of the world's leading producers. Particular attention is dedicated to blending targets, support schemes and feedstock use. Individual country profiles are grouped by continent and include North America (Canada and the US), South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia), Europe (the European Union, France, and Germany), Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Australia. (author)

  7. An overview of biofuel policies across the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade biofuel production has been driven by governmental policies. This article reviews the national strategy plans of the world's leading producers. Particular attention is dedicated to blending targets, support schemes and feedstock use. Individual country profiles are grouped by continent and include North America (Canada and the US), South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia), Europe (the European Union, France, and Germany), Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Australia.

  8. How Biofuels Policies Boosted Grain Staple Prices: A Counterfactual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenrieth, Eugenio; Wright, Brian; Zeng, Di

    2014-01-01

    We empirically address the implications of biofuel policy regarding major grains, to the subsequent evolution of the markets for calories from the three major grains, maize, wheat and rice. The implied market variables, namely, market price, consumption, and stocks, using a structurally estimated model combined with data on current and projected demand shifts, replicate the levels and dynamics of actual market behaviors, including the price rise before and during the 2007-2008 world food pric...

  9. RED vs. REDD: Biofuel Policy vs. Forest Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Peter; van Meijl, Hans; Rimmer, Maureen; Shutes, Lindsay; Tabeau, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the complex interplay between global Renewable Energy Directives (RED) and the United Nations programme to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). We examine the interaction of the two policies using a scenario approach with a recursive-dynamic global Computable General Equilibrium model. The consequences of a global biofuel directive on worldwide land use, agricultural production, international trade flows, food prices and food security out to 2...

  10. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses...... the conditions under which industrial policies are successfully implemented. It presents an analytical approach to understanding why some ruling elite-capitalist alliances lead to better economic outcomes than others. Sub-Saharan African countries present a particular puzzle given their low productive...

  11. For a new industrial policy; Pour une nouvelle politique industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beffa, J.L

    2005-01-01

    After a presentation of the french industrial policy, this report suggests some new avenues of research programs. In the domain of the energy, the author proposes: the fuel cell and the hydrogen, the nuclear of IV generation, the nuclear wastes management, the clean and low consumption vehicle, the biofuels, the solar photovoltaic, the CO{sub 2} picking and storage. (A.L.B.)

  12. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Peterson, Steven O.

    2015-09-03

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  14. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. The European biofuels policy: from where and where to?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, H.; Silveira, S.

    2011-05-15

    Biofuels for transport had a long history prior to their formal introduction in the European Union by means of formal directives in 2003 and 2009. Dating back to years before the First World War, busses were already rolling in Paris on a mixture of ethanol and petrol. Between 1920 and 1950 the French continued using sugar-beet-based ethanol as a tool to improve energy independence and reduce trade deficits. Ethanol utilization as a fuel blend only fell once oil prices achieved record lows in the 1960s., as large reserves started being tapped in the middle-east. In the 1970s. oil price shocks brought concerns about the European dependence on foreign energy, and the following decades saw many actions which started to change the biofuels panorama in Europe. By 1973 biodiesel research was already being conducted in Wieselburg, Austria, and in 1982 the country had its first pilot plant for biodiesel (producing fatty-acid methyl ester - FAME). After successful experiences with ethanol in Brazil, the first European directive which opened potential large markets for biofuels in Europe was the Council Directive 85/536/ECC, which authorized blends of 5% ethanol and 15% Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE, a bio-ether) on petrol. The usage of bioethanol for blending, however, was hampered by the low prices of oil products which marked the late 1980s. and most of the 1990s. (the same reasons which dealt a blow to the Brazilian ethanol program during that time). In tandem with the development of biofuels in Europe, carbon emissions were already consolidated in scholarly literature as the major causal factor behind climate change. Since the UN's Brundtland commission report from 1987, alternatives to de-carbonize the transport sector were in high demand, but the deployment of alternatives was hampered by a conjuncture of low oil prices. The following years in the 1990s. were instrumental for the emergence of the modern environmental policy pursued by the EU, which became

  16. Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report updates the 2013 report of the same title. Some text originally published in that report is retained and indicated in gray. In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model--a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system--that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial growth impact on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as accompanying incentives, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments. Results from the 2013 report are compared to new results. This report does not advocate for or against investments, incentives, or policies, but analyzes simulations of

  17. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels and Bioproducts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility, a biochemical pilot plant and partnership facility containing equipment and lab space for pretreatement, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, compositional analysis, and downstream processing. For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been at the leading edge of research and technology advancements to develop renewable fuels and bioproducts. NREL works to develop cost-competitive alternatives to conventional transportation fuels and value-added biobased chemicals that can be used to manufacture clothing, plastics, lubricants, and other products. NREL is developing technologies and processes to produce a range of sustainable, energy-dense advanced biofuels that are compatible with our existing transportation fuel infrastructure. As part of that effort, NREL's National Bioenergy Center has entered into more than 90 collaborations in the past five years with companies ranging in size from start-ups to those that appear on Fortune magazine's Fortune 100 list. The new Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) showcases NREL's commitment to collaboration and to meeting the nation's biofuels and bioproducts development and deployment goals. Designed to speed the growth of the biofuels and bioproducts industries, the IBRF is a unique $33.5 million pilot facility capable of supporting a variety of projects. The IBRF is available to industry partners who work with NREL through cooperative research and development, technical, and analytical service agreements. With 27,000 ft2 of high bay space, the IBRF provides industry partners with the opportunity to operate, test, and develop their own biorefining technology and equipment.

  18. Are new industry policies precautionary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; McDaniels, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    industry characterized by risks, uncertainties, exponential growth, economic significance and environmental controversy, the outcomes of such reactive policies are generally reflected in siting criteria that yield implicit environmental and socio-economic disadvantages and trade-offs. This paper proposes....... The paper finally argues that, although in practice, policy makers generally tend to make incremental choices that are reactive to diverse issues, new industries could adopt more precautionary policies based on processes of public negotiation, analytical decision making and regional planning based...

  19. Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Martha J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Townsend, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Biofuels are a new priority in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; nevertheless, the rapid increase in production of biofuel feedstock may threaten biodiversity. There are general principles that should be used in developing guidelines for certifying biodiversity-friendly biofuels. First, biofuel feedstocks should be grown with environmentally safe and biodiversity-friendly agricultural practices. The sustainability of any biofuel feedstock depends on good growing practices and sound environmental practices throughout the fuel-production life cycle. Second, the ecological footprint of a biofuel, in terms of the land area needed to grow sufficient quantities of the feedstock, should be minimized. The best alternatives appear to be fuels of the future, especially fuels derived from microalgae. Third, biofuels that can sequester carbon or that have a negative or zero carbon balance when viewed over the entire production life cycle should be given high priority. Corn-based ethanol is the worst among the alternatives that are available at present, although this is the biofuel that is most advanced for commercial production in the United States. We urge aggressive pursuit of alternatives to corn as a biofuel feedstock. Conservation biologists can significantly broaden and deepen efforts to develop sustainable fuels by playing active roles in pursuing research on biodiversity-friendly biofuel production practices and by helping define biodiversity-friendly biofuel certification standards.

  20. Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Martha J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Townsend, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Biofuels are a new priority in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; nevertheless, the rapid increase in production of biofuel feedstock may threaten biodiversity. There are general principles that should be used in developing guidelines for certifying biodiversity-friendly biofuels. First, biofuel feedstocks should be grown with environmentally safe and biodiversity-friendly agricultural practices. The sustainability of any biofuel feedstock depends on good growing practices and sound environmental practices throughout the fuel-production life cycle. Second, the ecological footprint of a biofuel, in terms of the land area needed to grow sufficient quantities of the feedstock, should be minimized. The best alternatives appear to be fuels of the future, especially fuels derived from microalgae. Third, biofuels that can sequester carbon or that have a negative or zero carbon balance when viewed over the entire production life cycle should be given high priority. Corn-based ethanol is the worst among the alternatives that are available at present, although this is the biofuel that is most advanced for commercial production in the United States. We urge aggressive pursuit of alternatives to corn as a biofuel feedstock. Conservation biologists can significantly broaden and deepen efforts to develop sustainable fuels by playing active roles in pursuing research on biodiversity-friendly biofuel production practices and by helping define biodiversity-friendly biofuel certification standards. PMID:18261147

  1. Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Jan Michael; Klepper, Gernot; Schmitz, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Last year the German Parliament exempted biofuels from the gasoline tax. The promotion of biofuels is being justified by allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. We analyze the basic conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels and show that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive. Using energy and greenhouse gas balances we de...

  2. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  3. Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Steven E.; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

    2009-01-01

    The biofuel industry has received billions of dollars in support from governments around the world, as political leaders respond to new environmental and energy-security imperatives. However, a growing body of research highlights nontrivial costs associated with biofuel production, including environmental destruction and diminished food security, and questions the magnitude of perceived benefits. We discuss the ability of biofuels to accomplish climate change, rural development and energy-sec...

  4. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production: : Quantifying Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Jorge FONSECA

    2011-01-01

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about many issues, including the energy output versus input and the competition with food, has been raised andthe sustainability of biofuels in recent years has been constantly debated. However, the current biofuel systems may be optimized to increase the energy efficiency and environmentalperformance. By using concepts from industrial symbiosis, the material and energy exchangesmay be optimized to result in these performa...

  5. Globalization, crises and industrial policy; Globalizacion, crisis y politica industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, X.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we review the fundamentals of industrial policy and its implementation in the European context. We also analyze the relationship between industrial policy and competition policy. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  7. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H.; Ferroukhi, R. [et al.] [IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  8. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels, NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility and its availability to biofuels' industry partners who want to operate, test, and develop biorefining technology and equipment.

  9. Agro-industrial waste to solid biofuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Daniele; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the use of grape marc for energy purposes was investigated. Grape marc is a residual lignocellulosic by-product from the winery industry, which is present in every world region where vine-making is addressed. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization was chosen as a promising alternative thermochemical process, suitable for the treatment of this high moisture substrate. Through a 50 mL experimental apparatus, hydrothermal carbonization tests were performed at several temperatures (namely: 180, 220 and 250 °C) and residence times (1, 3, 8 h). Analyses on both the solid and the gaseous phases obtained downstream of the process were performed. In particular, solid and gas yields versus the process operational conditions were studied and the obtained hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, elemental analysis, and thermal stability. Data testify that hydrochar form grape marc presents interesting values of HHV (in the range 19.8-24.1 MJ/kg) and physical-chemical characteristics which make hydrochar exploitable as a solid biofuel. In the meanwhile, the amount of gases produced is very small, if compared to other thermochemical processes. This represents an interesting result when considering environmental issues. Statistical analysis of data allows to affirm that, in the chosen range of operational conditions, the process is influenced more by temperature than residence time. These preliminary results support the option of upgrading grape marc toward its energetic valorisation through hydrothermal carbonization.

  10. Analysis of the Romanian biofuels industry under the current economic conditions using PESTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Paul OLTEANU

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels worldwide recorded considerable growth rates over the last years, making them one of the most flourishing young industries. The biofuels industry within the EU27 focused on the production of biodiesel, which is the equivalent of the regular fossil diesel. Main drivers, which led to this development, were a favorable legislative framework promoted by the EU, which was translated by each EU member state through excise tax exemptions and obligatory fuel blending levels, and higher produ...

  11. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  12. Integrated Algae Cultivation for Biofuels Production in Industrial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Sarah; Andersson, Vikor; Hackl, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Declining fossil resources and the issue of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases make global action towards a more sustainable society inevitable. The EU decided in 2007 that 20 % of the union´s energy use should origin from renewable resources by the year 2020. One way of achieving this goal is to increase the utilisation of biofuels. Today 2nd generation biofuels are being developed. They are seen as a more sustainable solution than 1st generation biofuels si...

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura

    2015-07-19

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  14. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk.

  15. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk. (author)

  16. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries in the...... early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  17. Impact of US biofuel policy on US corn and gasoline price variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a large number of studies that examine the influence of biofuels and biofuel policy on commodity prices, the impact of biofuel policy on commodity price variability is poorly understood. A good understanding of biofuel policy’s impact on price variability is important for mitigating food insecurity and assisting policy formation. We examine how U.S. ethanol policies such as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates and the blend wall affect the price variability of corn and gasoline. We first present an analytical and graphical framework to identify the effect and then use stochastic partial equilibrium simulation to measure the magnitude of the impacts. We show that RFS mandates and the blend wall both reduce the price elasticity of demand for corn and gasoline and therefore increase the price variability when supply shocks occur to the markets. This has important implications for policy actions with respect to maintaining or changing the current RFS mandates and/or blend wall in the US. -- Highlights: ► The RFS is found to lead to less elastic demand for corn and gasoline. ► Thus the RFS is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices when supply shocks occur. ► The ethanol blend wall is found to lead to less elastic corn and gasoline demand. ► Thus the blend wall is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices.

  18. Future Testing Opportunities to Ensure Sustainability of the Biofuels Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 increased the intensity of biofuel research and development throughout the U.S. For the Soil and Plant Analysis Community, this will undoubtedly create new opportunities to provide analytical services that will help ensure mandates such as the ...

  19. Does the biofuel industry, with the aid of certification programs, contribute to sustainable development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulff, James Michael

    Despite being a source of alternative energy and an avenue for broad economic development, a number of biofuel producers have demonstrated that the biofuel industry has significant potential for unleashing social, environmental and economic harm. To largely avoid such perils, the industry must demonstrate that it is operating in a sustainable manner, contributing to the sustainable development of all stakeholders who rely upon the industry's responsible operation. Recently minted, internationally developed certification programs have been developed to move the industry into sustainable compliance and to offer a means by which stakeholders can incentivize the industry toward greater levels of sustainability practice. Using OLS regression analysis, this dissertation estimates that the industry is currently operating within the bounds of sustainable development as measured through the World Bank's sustainability model. This conclusion, however, is made with some caution. Many biofuel industry certification programs, despite covering a number of sustainable issues, have created loopholes within their criteria that must be resolved to avert greater long term damage to sustainable development. This work will conclude with methods and additional criteria that can be used to help move the biofuel industry toward more stable and sustainable development activity.

  20. Ghana's biofuels policy: challenges and the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antwi, Edward [Kumasi Polytechnic, Mechanical Engineering Department, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana); Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius [Kumasi Polytechnic, Chemical Engineering Department, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana); Quansah, David Ato [The Energy Centre, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Arthur, Richard [Koforidua Polytechnic, PMB, Koforidua (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Liquid biofuels have come up strongly as possible substitute to conventional fossils fuels and woodfuels apparently because of its perceived environmental benefit, sustainability and recent hikes in petroleum fuel prices. These have led most countries to include biofuels in their energy mix to mitigate climate change effect caused by petroleum fuels and also to ensure energy security. Ghana as a developing country has also identified the potential of biofuels in her energy mix by setting some targets in its Strategic National Energy Policy (SNEP). This paper analyses the implications of the policy as presented in SNEP. It also looks at programmes put in place to achieve the set objectives and the possible challenges that are likely to be faced in their implementation. The paper concludes by calling for strong governmental involvement in achieving the set objectives.

  1. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance of agribusiness, and exclusion of family farmers that have occurred with bioethanol production through the ProÁlcool policy since 1975. This paper compares the life histories of the bioethanol and the biodiesel policies of Brazil by analyzing their substantive policy content; the power and politics of actors that struggle for the design and implementation of the policies; and the polity in terms the organization and institutionalization of the policies. The paper concludes that both policies have become submerged by and dependent on the polity and politics of primarily the energy and agricultural sectors that operate as the two semi-autonomous governance fields. This submerging has shaped the substantive contents of biofuels policies, and explains why the 2004 biodiesel policy PNPB, in spite of its objectives for social inclusion and rural development, faces similar problems in implementation as its predecessor, the 1975 bioethanol policy ProÁlcool. - Highlights: • We compare governance fields of bioethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil. • Biodiesel policy wants to learn from the mistakes made with bioethanol. • Governance fields stress dynamics between policy, polity, and politics. • Like ethanol, biodiesel became submerged by domains of energy and agriculture

  2. The extraterritorial dimensions of biofuel policies and the politics of scale: live and let die?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Bastos Lima; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Despite criticism, global biofuel production continues to rise, using primarily food crops. Between 2001 and 2012 it increased nearly six-fold, driven primarily by domestic policies, yet raising strong international concerns, eg over impacts on global food prices. Nevertheless, little international

  3. Developments in international solid biofuel trade - an analysis of volumes, policies and market factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.; Junginger, H.M.; Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses international solid biofuel trade and concludes upon interactions with bioenergy policies and market factors. It shows that trade has grown from about 56 to 300 PJ between 2000 and 2010. Wood pellets grew strongest, i.e. from 8.5 to 120 PJ. Other relevant streams by

  4. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of the most promising African countries. Favorable growing conditions and the availability of land, water and labor are mentioned as major drivers behind this potential. Moreover, the potential of biofuel production to generate socio-economic benefits is reflected in the government's policy objectives for the development of the sector, such as reducing fuel import dependency and creating rural employment. This article provides an overview of biofuel developments in Mozambique and explores to what extent reality matches the suggested potential in the country. We conclude that biofuel developments mainly take place in areas near good infrastructure, processing and storage facilities, where there is (skilled) labor available, and access to services and goods. Moreover, our analysis shows the need to timely harmonize current trends in biofuel developments with the government's policy objectives as the majority of existing and planned projects are not focusing on remote rural areas, and - in absence of domestic markets - principally target external markets.

  5. Policy Challenges Related to Biofuel Development in Tanzania Politische Herausforderungen in Bezug auf Biokraftstoffe in Tansania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sosovele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, agricultural development and natural resource management. The growing demand for biofuels is being driven by high oil prices, energy security concerns and global climate change. In Tanzania there is growing interest on the part of foreign private investors in establishing biofuel projects, although globally there are concerns related to biofuel investments. Tanzania has approved a number of such projects, but the biofuel subsector faces several policy challenges that could clearly hamper its development. These include the lack of a holistic and comprehensive energy policy that addresses the broad spectrum of energy options and issues, and weak or absent institutional and legal frameworks. This article highlights some key policy issues critical to the development of biofuels and argues that if these challenges are not addressed at the national policy level, biofuel development may not result in the expected benefits to Tanzania and the majority of its local communities. Biokraftstoffe sind in jüngster Zeit in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Landwirtschaftsentwicklung und nationales Ressourcenmanagement zu einem wichtigen Thema geworden. Die wachsende Nachfrage nach Biokraftstoffen wird durch die hohen Ölpreise, Befürchtungen in Bezug auf Energiesicherheit und den globalen Klimawandel vorangetrieben. In Tansania ist wachsendes Interesse ausländischer Privatinvestoren an Biokraftstoffprojekten zu beobachten, obwohl es weltweit Bedenken gegenüber solchen Investitionen gibt. Die tansanische Regierung hat einer ganzen Reihe entsprechender Projekte zugestimmt, doch mit dem Biokraftstoffsektor sind politische Herausforderungen verbunden, die diese Entwicklung behindern könnten. Dazu gehören das Fehlen einer ganzheitlichen und umfassenden Energiepolitik, die das ganze Spektrum energiepolitischer Fragestellungen und Optionen einschließt, wie auch schwache oder fehlende institutionelle

  6. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  7. Will improved access to capital dampen the need for more agricultural land? A CGE analysis of agricultural capital markets and world-wide biofuel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.; Rothe, A.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of enhanced biofuel production in regions and countries of the world that have announced plans to implement or expand on biofuel policies. The analysis considers biofuel policies implemented as binding blending targets for transportation fuels. The chosen quantit

  8. Biofuel Expansion, Fertilizer Use, and GHG Emissions: Unintended Consequences of Mitigation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Elobeid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased biofuel production has been associated with direct and indirect land-use change, changes in land management practices, and increased application of fertilizers and pesticides. This has resulted in negative environmental consequences in terms of increased carbon emissions, water quality, pollution, and sediment loads, which may offset the pursued environmental benefits of biofuels. This study analyzes two distinct policies aimed at mitigating the negative environmental impacts of increased agricultural production due to biofuel expansion. The first scenario is a fertilizer tax, which results in an increase in the US nitrogen fertilizer price, and the second is a policy-driven reversion of US cropland into forestland (afforestation. Results show that taxing fertilizer reduces US production of nitrogen-intensive crops, but this is partially offset by higher fertilizer use in other countries responding to higher crop prices. In the afforestation scenario, crop production shifts from high-yielding land in the United States to low-yielding land in the rest of the world. Important policy implications are that domestic policy changes implemented by a large producer like the United States can have fairly significant impacts on the aggregate world commodity markets. Also, the law of unintended consequences results in an inadvertent increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

  10. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  11. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  12. Is there a role for biofuels in promoting energy self sufficiency and security? A CGE analysis of biofuel policy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the rising price of crude oil, some developing countries including Thailand are looking towards developing their domestic renewable energy resources, in particular biofuels. However, there are concerns about the possible adverse effects such a policy strategy would have on key variables such as sectoral output, land allocation and the effects of prices, particularly food prices. This study develops a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Thailand economy that features enhancements of the energy sector and uses it to analyze the government’s recent renewable energy development plan. This plan aims to increase domestic energy use from renewable sources to replace fossil fuel imports. The study simulated specific policies contained in the plan. Among other things, we found that promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel and biofuel feedstock in the short-run, whereas these prices only increase slightly in the long-run due to more elastic supplies. The prices of food and other products marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined by the policy. On the basis of the findings, the study recommends a review of some of the targets because they were found to be rather high, and a phasing in of others. - Highlights: ► This study evaluates Thailand’s 10-year alternative energy development plan. ► Promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel. ► Food prices marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined. ► We recommend a review of some of the targets because they are too high

  13. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  14. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers-the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers-Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program-Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  15. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schut, Marc, E-mail: marc.schut@wur.nl [Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Paassen, Annemarie van, E-mail: annemarie.vanpaassen@wur.nl [Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Leeuwis, Cees, E-mail: cees.leeuwis@wur.nl [Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Bos, Sandra, E-mail: sandra-bos@live.nl [Social Engineer and SME-specialist, FACT Foundation, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Leonardo, Wilson, E-mail: wilson.leonardo@wur.nl [Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lerner, Anna, E-mail: klerner@worldbank.org [Climate Change Mitigation Team, Global Environment Facility, World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-09-15

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: > This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. > Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. > Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. > (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. > Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  16. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  17. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  18. Industrial Clustering Policy and Economic Restructuring in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Thanh Hong; Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the industrial agglomeration and evaluates the industrial clustering policy in Vietnam. Base on the Kuchiki flowchart on the building of industrial clustering policy for developing countries, the authors suggest a policy framework for Vietnam.

  19. Biofuels, tax policies and oil prices in France: Insights from a dynamic CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2009 Renewable Energies Directive (RED) has set up ambitious targets concerning biofuel consumption in the European Union by 2020. Nevertheless, budgetary constraints and growing concerns about the environmental integrity of first-generation biofuels have imposed a phasing out of the fiscal instruments to promote them. Focusing on France, this paper combines an exogenous increase in oil prices and tax policies on fossil fuels. The objective is to determine the efficiency of an alternative incentive scheme for biodiesel consumption based on a higher price of the fossil fuel substitute. Policy simulations are implemented through a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated on 2009 French data. The results show that the 10% biodiesel mandate set by the RED would not be achieved even if the fixed taxes on diesel reach the same level as those on gasoline. Although integrating the rise in oil prices into the fiscal framework improves the biodiesel penetration rate, it remains below the target. Moreover, we find that the effects of biofuel consumption are limited to the biofuel chain sectors. In other agricultural sectors, the substitution effect of biodiesel with diesel is partially offset by the pricing effect induced by higher energy production costs. - Highlights: • We represent the French biodiesel production chain through a dynamic CGE model. • We examine the efficiency of alternative support schemes to biodiesel in France. • Ambitious targets require substantial additional taxes on diesel and rising oil prices. • Spillover effects are limited to the biodiesel chain sectors. • Energy-intensive sectors suffer from higher production costs

  20. Analysis of the evolution of sustainable development in biofuels industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Loayza Rollano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of sustainable development in the biofuel production sector. The Energy Indicators Tool for Sustainable Development (EISD and the Sustainability Indicators Tool Global Association for Bioenergy (GBEP were applied. Performing a comparison of indicators in each performance (economic, social and environmental, it was found that the production of biofuels in Brazil is positive in most of them. Biofuels showed a favorable trend in economic indicators, not only in terms of cost, but also through the use of energy available to the consumer market. Environmental indicators showed an improvement in the efficient use of land, water and energy resources, while pesticide applications are relatively low in relation to the limits. In addition, it appears that the biofuels industries have contributed positively to rural economies, since the social indicators showed a relatively significant and positive increase in labor supply and salary level of the labor market in this sector. Also appears that existing tools are complementary and the results provide a basis for future discussions and the development of sustainability assessments in systems and bioenergy-related projects.

  1. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Nyboer, John; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-01-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions ...

  2. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets.

  3. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. This is the second in a series of policy briefs providing an update on the project. The first brief was issued in March 2012. The project focus is on looking at developing second generation biofuels that hope to improve on issues seen with the first generation options. Second generation biofuels are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  4. Industrial policy and development in Ethiopia: Evolution and present experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreeyesus, Mulu

    2013-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in industrial policy. This paper examines the choices, implementation processes, and outcomes of the Ethiopian present industrial policy. The country represents an excellent case study of recent industrial policy experimentation in Africa as it is one of the few countries that has formulated and implemented a comprehensive industrial policy early on when the term industrial policy had been a taboo in the international policy forums. By providin...

  5. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  6. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater. PMID:26345887

  7. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Caroline; Kaye-Blake, William [Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU), Lincoln University, PO Box 84, Lincoln 7647 (New Zealand); Marshall, Liz [World Resources Institute, 10 G Street NE, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20002 (United States); Greenhalgh, Suzie [Landcare Research, 231 Morrin Road, St. Johns, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); De Aragao Pereira, Mariana [Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU), Lincoln University, PO Box 84, Lincoln 7647 (New Zealand); Embrapa Beef Cattle, Rodovia BR 262, km 4, PO Box 154, CEP 79002-970, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk. (author)

  8. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system; Rapport sur l'optimisation du dispositif de soutien a la filiere biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H.; Hespel, V.; Dupre, J.Y.; Baratin, F.; Gagey, D

    2005-07-01

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  9. Liquid biofuels emergence, development and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Domingos Padula, Antonio; Benedetti Santos, Omar Inácio; Borenstein, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Discusses the debate on the emergence and diffusion of liquid biofuels as an energy source Presents the different elements that compose the debate on public policy, industry organization, competitiveness and sustainability of different systems for the production of liquid biofuels Covers the Brazilian experience of producing Ethanol and Biodiesel, as well as the experiences of other leading countries in the production of biofuels Bioenergy is coming to be seen as a priority on the international agenda, with the use of liquid biofuels a key strategy in the attempt to meet both the

  10. Policy capacity for the transition to a biofuels economy: a comparative study of the EU and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Adrian; Ackrill, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The scale of the ambition to decouple emissions growth from energy consumption in the economy runs counter to several decades of debates and literatures on the limits of government. Transport biofuels are an early and influential case of the policy capacity challenge in the transition to low-carbon economies. The case stands analytically for the policy-maker’s dilemma of maintaining longer term policy goals as credible commitments, even though considerable flexibility and adaptability in poli...

  11. The fuel market effects of biofuel policies and implications for regulations based on lifecycle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absence of a globally-consistent and binding commitment to reducing greenhouse emissions provides a rationale for partial policies, such as renewable energy mandates, product emission standards, etc to target lifecycle emissions of the regulated products or services. While appealing in principle, regulation of lifecycle emissions presents several practical challenges. Using biofuels as an illustrative example, we highlight some outstanding issues in the design and implementation of life cycle-based policies and discuss potential remedies. We review the literature on emissions due to price effects in fuel markets, which are akin to emissions due to indirect land use change, but are, unlike the latter, ignored under all current life cycle emissions-based regulations. We distinguish the current approaches to regulating indirect emissions into hard and soft approaches and discuss their implications. (letter)

  12. Structural change and industrial policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyas, İzak; Atiyas, Izak; Bakış, Ozan; Bakis, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on structural change in Turkey and provides an overview of the evolution of industrial policy in the last three decades. We show that Turkey has experienced substantial growth in labor productivity in the last decade and that this has been associated with substantial change in the composition of value added and employment both in the overall economy and within the manufacturing industry. Using sectoral national accounts data we decompose aggregate productivity g...

  13. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  14. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  15. Ideas on Policy Framework of China's Bamboo Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiyong; WANG Dengju; FAN Baomin; XIAO Jianming; CHEN Yong; LIU Yan; BAO Yingshuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the current situation of China's bamboo industry,the major policy issues,future development trends and policy orientation.And then with industry policy theory as a guide,the paper propounds the basic framework and policy proposals in resources cultivation and management,industrial structure and pattern,markets and trade,industrial organization system,finance and taxes,industrial technologyand So forth.

  16. Current market of industrial bio-products and biofuels, and predictable evolutions by 2015/2030. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this study were to describe the current status of the energetic and industrial bio-product markets (biofuels, bio-lubricants, biomaterials, papers, cosmetics, and so on), to identify and analyze the evolution perspectives of these new markets on a long and medium term, to define scenarios of evolution for different sectors (agro-industry, energy, organic chemistry), to identify the most promising new markets, and to select the priority agro-industrial sectors

  17. Sustainability of biofuels and bioproducts: socio-economic impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutz, D.; van Eijck, J.A.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Many countries worldwide are increasingly engaging in the promotion of biomass production for industrial uses such as biofuels and bioproducts (chemicals, bioplastics, etc.). Until today, mainly biofuels were supported by European policies, but support for bioproducts is still lacking behind. Thus,

  18. Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreasing oil supplies and increasing energy demand provide incentives to find alternative fuels. First, the valorisation of edible crops for ethanol and bio-diesel production led to first generation biofuels. Nowadays, research is focused on lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable carbon (second generation biofuels). Whereas the cellulosic ethanol production is in progress, a new way consisting of the transformation of ex-lignocellulose sugars and polyols towards light hydrocarbons by heterogeneous catalysis in aqueous phase has been recently described. This process is performed under mild conditions (T < 300 deg. C and P < 50 bar). It requires on one hand hydrogen formation by catalytic reforming of carbohydrates in aqueous phase and on the other hand, the dehydration/hydrogenation of polyols leading to alkanes by selective C-O bond cleavages. The challenge here is to conceive multifunctional catalytic systems that are stable, active and selective under the reaction conditions. The aim of this article is to present the involved reactions, the catalytic systems described in literature for that kind of transformation and examples of industrial applications. (authors)

  19. Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union. Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H.

    2012-12-15

    It is feasible for EU member states to meet their commitments regarding transport fuels under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) without resorting to biofuels from food crops. The RED target (10% renewable transport energy in 2020) can be met by a mix of measures aimed at improving energy efficiency, combined with a strong focus on growth of renewable electricity use and biofuels and biomethane from waste and residues. These measures also contribute to the FQD target (6% reduction in carbon intensity of fuels by 2020), but will need to be complemented by other measures such as reduced flaring and venting during oil production. The report shows how EU transport energy policy could reduce its reliance on biofuels from food crops that are likely to cause land use change. This alternative vision for the transport sector in 2020 would cut CO2 emissions by 205 million tonnes.

  20. NIR Techniques Create Added Values for the Pellet and Biofuel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestander, Torbjoern A. [Swedish Univ of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden). Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry; Johnsson, Bo; Grothage, Morgan [Casco Adhesives AB, Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Pelletizing of biomass as biofuels increases energy density, improves storability and reduces transport costs. This process is a major key factor in the transition from fossil fuels to renewable biomass refined as solid biofuels. The fast growing pellet industry is today producing more than 1.2 Gg wood Pellets in Sweden - one of the leading nations to utilize bioenergy in its energy mix. The multitude of raw biomaterials available for fuel pellet production and their widely different characteristics stress the need for rapid characterization methods. A suitable technique for characterization of variation in biomaterials is near infrared (NIR) spectrometry. NIR radiation interacts with polar molecules and especially with structural groups O-H as in water, C-H as in biomass, but also with C-O bonds and C=C double bonds frequently found in biomass. Biomass contains mostly the atoms C, O and H. This means that transmittance or reflectance in the NIR wavelength region covers most of the covalent bonds in biomass, except for the C-C bonds in carbon chains. The NIR technique is also developed for on-line measurement in harsh industrial conditions. Thus, NIR techniques can be applied for on-line and real time characterization of raw biomass as well as in the refinement process of biomass into standardized solid biofuels. Spectral patterns in the NIR region contain chemical and physical information structure that together with reference parameters can be modeled by multivariate calibration methods to obtain predictions. These predictions can be presented to the operators in real time on screens as charts based on multivariate statistical process controls. This improves the possibilities to overview the raw biomass variation and to control the responses of the treatments the biomass undergo in the pelletizing process. The NIR-technique is exemplified by a 23-factorial experiment that was carried out in a pellet plant using sawdust as raw material to produce wood Pellets as

  1. Private forest landowner willingness, community impacts and concerns, and the development of a wood-based biofuels industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric C.

    The technical/economic aspects of using wood-based biomass as an alternative source of fuel have been well represented in current academic literature. However, currently very few studies have examined the concerns of private forest landowners (PFLs) and communities toward increased harvesting rates to support a wood-based biofuels industry. Further, few studies have tried to study or to determine what factors might impact such willingness. The absence of studies that focus on understanding PFLs and community concerns as well as PFLs willingness to participate in harvesting biofuels for energy is in part traceable to two basic, but untested, assumptions regarding communities and forest landowners: (1) PFLs are able and willing to participate in the production of raw materials with few obstacles; and (2) they will make the transition because of the opportunity to increase profits. While the technical/economic aspects are clearly important, little attention has been paid to those social and cultural factors that may impact the viability of such activity. To address this issue, the present study focused on three questions. (1) What are the opportunities and concerns of PFLs, communities, residents, and existing wood-based industries regarding the development of a wood-based biofuel industry? (2) Will PFLs be willing to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? (2a) What sociocultural and sociodemographic dimensions influence PFLs' willingness to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? Data was collected using a mixed methods approach including using secondary data, key informant interviews and a phone survey of both the general public and PFLs in the Eastern forest region.

  2. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the

  3. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Drabenstott, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Industrialization is rapidly becoming a topic of great attention. Driven by fundamental economic forces, industrialization seems likely to advance ore quickly in the coming decade to more industry segments. By changing the way agriculture does business, industrialization will also bring change to public policy and agricultural institutions. Commodity policy will increasingly be out of step with a product-oriented industry. And as industrialization blurs the lines between producers and process...

  4. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  5. Cropland expansion outpaces agricultural and biofuel policies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Tyler J.; Salmon, J. Meghan; Gibbs, Holly K.

    2015-04-01

    Cultivation of corn and soybeans in the United States reached record high levels following the biofuels boom of the late 2000s. Debate exists about whether the expansion of these crops caused conversion of grasslands and other carbon-rich ecosystems to cropland or instead replaced other crops on existing agricultural land. We tracked crop-specific expansion pathways across the conterminous US and identified the types, amount, and locations of all land converted to and from cropland, 2008-2012. We found that crop expansion resulted in substantial transformation of the landscape, including conversion of long-term unimproved grasslands and land that had not been previously used for agriculture (cropland or pasture) dating back to at least the early 1970s. Corn was the most common crop planted directly on new land, as well as the largest indirect contributor to change through its displacement of other crops. Cropland expansion occurred most rapidly on land that is less suitable for cultivation, raising concerns about adverse environmental and economic costs of conversion. Our results reveal opportunities to increase the efficacy of current federal policy conservation measures by modifying coverage of the 2014 US Farm Bill Sodsaver provision and improving enforcement of the US Renewable Fuels Standard.

  6. Energy Policy and Environmental Possibilities: Biofuels and Key Protagonists of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    While a growing body of research indicates the severe ecological and social costs of biofuel production worldwide, the U.S. government continues to promote the expansion of this fuel sector. Recent congressional testimony regarding the promotion of biofuels via the renewable fuel standard (RFS) offers a strategic research site for sociological…

  7. Biofuel production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, le L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel production has continued to develop and is driven by government support around the world. A comprehensive analysis of biofuel production and the policy implementation is crucial for the biofuel sustainability development. The objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG em

  8. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  9. New Policies to Control the Aluminium Industry Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Information from China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association (CNIA) shows that new government policies on China’s aluminium industry will be released soon in order to control the rapid expansion of the aluminium industry which consumes large amount of power resources. Based on the new policies, investors of

  10. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  11. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  12. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar–Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera Lorenzo, Nuria; Fuente Alonso, Enrique; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Suárez Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz Bobes, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    [EN] A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are mor...

  13. Algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  14. The Analysis of the Industrial Policy in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Kuznetsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the issues of the Japanese experience of industrial policy, which managed to overcome significant challenges in economic and social development of the country. Japanese experience of industrial policy is unique, due to the fact that the government provides the planned economic policy of integrated industrial development at the macro and micro levels, with emphasis on the competitive advantages of some regions of the country and on the active involvement of the private sector in various projects of public-private partnership. At the same time, the mechanism of Japanese industrial policy has demonstrated its viability in different historical periods of the economic development of the country.

  15. Biofuels of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Oxburgh, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are good biofuels and bad biofuels. The good ones offer the prospect of transport fuels that have much lower environmental impact than fossil fuels and could before long be less expensive as well. Bad or irresponsibly produced biofuels may at best bring little environmental advantage; at worst they may also cause serious environmental damage, habitat destruction and food shortages. The biofuel industry of the future will make a significant contribution to the greening of the world’s veh...

  16. Regional industrial policy and the new agenda for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    intentions of the law. It is argued that while the law aims at simpli-fying the organisational setting of industrial policy, to some extent in order to avoid goal con-flicts on policy, the practical experiences so far with the raison d’être of the law indicates a process of forming broad regional policy...... on industrial development. Describing the implications of the law in terms of the changes of the regional setting for industrial policy and the ensuing focus on a new agenda for growth, the paper devotes its attention to the region of North Jutland that has been designated as a test case for the organisational...... coalitions rather than centralising the decision mak-ing power. However, since the political bodies involved in industrial policy will become fewer, more powerful and more focussed on industrial policy, goal conflicts are likely to oc-cur in the future....

  17. Do modern times call for an industrial policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlyn Keen and Everett Ladd, editors of Public Opinion, talk with Herbert Stein and Lester Thurow about the state of the economy, the state of the economics profession, and industrial policy. Thurow advocates a policy calling for industry to develop a program and government to reinforce it through things such as exemption from antitrust laws. His ingredients of an industrial policy are a civilian industrial arm, legalization of private investment banking, and industrial triage. Stein is concerned that a new policy will work no better than present back door policies unless political power reduces the ability of government to protect inefficient, ineffective, and too-costly industries. The forum concludes with a tentative forecast for economic recovery.

  18. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  19. Application of theory-based evaluation for the critical analysis of national biofuel policy: A case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F N; Baharuddin, Azizan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-10-01

    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report.

  20. Application of theory-based evaluation for the critical analysis of national biofuel policy: A case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F N; Baharuddin, Azizan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-10-01

    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report. PMID:25898073

  1. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  2. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  3. Fostering citizen deliberations on the social acceptability of renewable fuels policy: The case of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognized that a lack of social acceptance is likely to hinder the ability of governments to achieve policy targets concerning renewable energies. In this paper, we discuss the results of a pre- and post-test online survey that was conducted as part of the 2012 “Advanced Biofuels” deliberative democracy public engagement event in Montréal, Québec. The event sough to foster public learning and discussion in order to produce socially acceptable policy input for one type of renewable energy: advanced lignocellulosic biofuels. Survey results show that the majority of participants were strongly supportive of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel development in Canada after the deliberative event. By the end of the event, support also grew for current Canadian biofuel policies and many agreed that increasing biofuel production should be widely supported by the Canadian public. However, despite this support, about two thirds of participants revealed that they did not feel included in government decisions about biofuels. The gap between support after inclusive deliberation and expressed exclusion from Canadian government decisions points to the importance of fostering future citizen engagements in this area of renewable energy policy. - Highlights: • We analyze outputs from the 2012 “Advanced Biofuels” deliberative democracy event. • We focus on social acceptance levels of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels in Canada. • Participants became less supportive of using food crops after the deliberation. • The majority were also supportive of current federal policy after the event. • However, most did not feel included in government decisions about biofuels

  4. Material property characterization of co-products from biofuel industries: Potential uses in value-added biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an insight of biofuel production and the status -into the co-products obtained from this industry. Furthermore this work explores the possibility of these co-products as raw materials for value-added uses in material applications. This is achieved by understanding composition, solid density, and moisture content of prominent co-products such as soy meal, DDGS (distillers’ dried grains with solubles) and jatropha meal. Moisture content and density measurements showed no trend. Soy meal has the highest protein content, followed by jatropha and DDGS. Thermal stability of these co-products was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which revealed that the thermal stabilities are ranked as soy meal>DDGS>jatropha meal. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to understand the functional groups in these meals and it showed that the amide group was prominent in all of these meals. In pursuit of finding value-added uses for these co-products of biofuel industries, biodegradable polymer, i.e. polycaprolactone (PCL), based biocomposites were prepared by melt processing technique using extrusion followed by injection molding. Tensile, flexural and impact properties were evaluated. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fractured sections of the biocomposites was examined. -- Highlights: ► This paper gives an insight of biofuel production and its co-products. ► We have characterized biofuel co-products such as soy meal, DDGS and jatropha meal. ► Thermal stability and functional groups of these co-products were determined. ► Polycaprolactone based biocomposites were prepared by melt processing technique. ► Tensile, flexural and impact properties of these biocomposites were evaluated.

  5. Industrial Policy Revisited: A New Structural Economics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Yifu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Although whether governments should play a facilitating role in economic development has long been a topic for economic discourse and research, as an important instrument industrial policy is often and actively used by governments to promote economic development, both in history and at the moment. Despite much controversy surrounding whether and how governments implement industrial policy, in this article failures and successes of implementing such policy are analyzed through a new structural...

  6. Limitation of Biofuel Production in Europe from the Forest Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Dotzauer, Erik; Kindermann, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The European Union has set a 10% target for the share of biofuel in the transportation sector to be met by 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuel is expected to replace 3 to 5% of the transport fossil fuel consumption. But the competition on the feedstock is an issue and makes the planning for the second generation biofuel plant a challenge. Moreover, no commercial second generation biofuel production plant is under operation, but if reaching commercial status, this type of production plants are expected to become very large. In order to minimize the tranportation costs and to takle the competetion for the feedstock against the existing woody based industries, the geographical location of biofuel production plants becomes an issue. This study investigates the potential of second generation biofuel economically feasible in Europe by 2020 in regards with the competition for the feedsstock with the existing woody biomass based industries (CHP, pulp and paper mills, sawmills...). To assess the biofuel potential in Europe, a techno-economic, geographically explicit model, BeWhere, is used. It determines the optimal locations of bio-energy production plants by minimizing the costs and CO2 emissions of the entire supply chain. The existing woody based industries have to first meet their wood demand, and if the amount of wood that remains is suficiant, new bio-energy production plants if any can be set up. Preliminary results show that CHP plants are preferably chosen over biofuel production plants. Strong biofuel policy support is needed in order to consequently increase the biofuel production in Europe. The carbon tax influences the emission reduction to a higher degree than the biofuel support. And the potential of second generation biofuel would at most reach 3% of the European transport fuel if the wood demand does not increase from 2010.

  7. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Hospes, O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance

  8. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Slingerland, M.A.; Locke, A.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of th

  9. Policy learning and policy change in a context of industry crisis: the case of Chilean salmon farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Petrasic, Veronica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the policy response to the 2007-2010 sanitary crisis in the Chilean salmon industry, the second largest producer and exporter of salmon in the world. This industry is an emblematic case of the possible consequences of employing an intensive natural resource model for development. The research draws upon the two literatures on policy learning and policy change, and crisis and disaster management, and upon the system failure to explain the causes and consequences ...

  10. DMF - A New Biofuel Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guohong; Daniel, Ritchie; Xu, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts...

  11. Green electricity and biofuels in Germany and France. A comparison of policy-networks; Gruener Strom und Biokraftstoffe in Deutschland und Frankreich. Ein Vergleich der Policy-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand-Schock, Ruth

    2010-07-02

    In recent years, the renewable energy experienced a significant upturn in the field of power generation in Europe. The transport sector is one area in which the targets of improving security of supply and reducing greenhouse gas emissions can be accomplished very difficult. The energy supply of road transport almost is based entirely on oil. The contribution under consideration examines the evolution of the actors and policy areas of biofuel production and electricity production from renewable energy sources in Germany and France. The investigation period extends until the year 2006.

  12. The Negro in the Tobacco Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Ash, Robert I.

    The tobacco industry has employed Negroes since its inception in Colonial Virginia. This study is primarily concerned with the course of Negro employment and industry racial policies in the industry processing, manufacturing, selling, and distributing of cigarettes and manufactured tobacco, as distinct from the cigar industry which involves quite…

  13. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; de la Rua, C.; Caldes, N.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R. [CIEMAT, Energy Department, Energy System Analysis Unit, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets. (author)

  14. Industrial Policy and the East German Productivity Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Catching-up of East German productivity to West German levels has completely faded out since the mid l990s. The remaining productivity gap cannot be attributed to an inferior capital endowment. Instead, it appears to be the result of an inappropriate design of industrial policy which fostered the specialization of East German industry on capital intensive smoke-stack industries. These industries are absorbing a large share of factor inputs, whereas their contribution to aggregate output is ra...

  15. Biofuel sustainability standards and public policy: A case study of Swedish ethanol imports from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    sustainability standards for those fuels. Central to these standards are criteria addressing the direct, and sometimes also indirect, greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, transport and use of the biofuels. This case study examines the first scheme applied to a traded biofuel, the Verified...... Sustainable Ethanol Initiative (VSEI), a private initiative of the Swedish fuel-ethanol supplier, SEKAB. VSEI went into operation in August 2008 to verify that the ethanol it was importing from Brazil met its own minimum standards for ―field-to-wheel‖ (life-cycle) greenhouse-gas emission standards...... on those relating to carbon emissions, and the process by which its standards were developed. The Initiative’s brief history in applying and verifying conformity with the standards is discussed. The study notes that the perceived benefits to Brazilian producers participating in the Initiative...

  16. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  17. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-01

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. First generation biofuels -- which are mainly produced from food crops such as grains, sugarcane and vegetable oils -- have triggered one of the most highly contentious debates on the current international sustainability agenda, given their links to energy security, transport, trade, food security, land-use impacts and climate change concerns. Developing second generation biofuels has emerged as a more attractive option, as these are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  18. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  19. 77 FR 20025 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for Reporting Drug Sample Distribution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for... guidance for industry entitled ``Compliance Policy on Reporting Drug Sample Distribution Information Under... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Compliance Policy on Reporting Drug...

  20. An Analysis of Economic Policies Affecting the Philippine Coconut Industry

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Roumasset; Ramon L. Clarete

    1983-01-01

    What are the effects of government policies, such as export tax, production levy and marketing regulation, on the Philippine coconut industry? The answer to this question is made central to this research paper.

  1. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: → A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. → Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. → In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. → In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Land Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization, as one of the main driving forces promoting sustainable economic growth, has increased the area of industrial land use significantly. Industrial land use manifests that the competition between it and other kinds of land use is growing. During the last decade in China, many targeted industrial land use policies have been enacted to stimulate appropriate industrial land use and to promote healthy economic development. However, it is difficult for scholars and governments of rapidly developing countries to judge and evaluate the performance of such policies. Based on statistical data gathered over almost 10 years and an idea called “industrial land equivalent” (ILE, this paper analyzes the contribution made by the implementation of industrial land use policy to economic development, using a Cobb-Douglas production function by which to quantify the influence of land institutions and land regulation systems. The result of the study shows that factors, such as industrial land, labor and capital, all play an important role in GDP growth. Additionally, it is found that industrial land institutions and regulation systems have a strongly positive influence on economic development. It was also found that the influence of policy in eastern China is greater than that in the west and that repeated, short-term land regulation has a negative effect on the economy. Therefore, it is profoundly important for the Chinese economy that a stable and durable industrial land use policy be maintained as the industrial center migrates to the Midwest. The research philosophy and method offered by this paper have great significance for the quantitative evaluation of policy performance.

  3. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  4. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  5. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU l...

  6. Industrial Policy for North Korea: Lessons from Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, Paul G

    2007-01-01

    Possible directions of industrial policy for North Korea are developed in this paper, drawing on the experience of the European transition economies and focusing on privatisation and restructuring, new business formation, and export promotion. North Korea at present is largely closed, and its agriculture is over-developed. Through export promotion and other measures of industrial policy the country will be able to raise living standards and greatly improve food security.

  7. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may ...

  8. Employment impacts of EU biofuels policy. Combining bottom-up technology information and sectoral market simulations in an input-output framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the employment consequences of policies aimed to support biofuels in the European Union. The promotion of biofuel use has been advocated as a means to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from transport activities on the one hand, and to reduce dependence on imported oil and thereby increase security of the European energy supply on the other hand. The employment impacts of increasing biofuels shares are calculated by taking into account a set of elements comprising the demand for capital goods required to produce biofuels, the additional demand for agricultural feedstock, higher fuel prices or reduced household budget in the case of price subsidisation, price effects ensuing from a hypothetical world oil price reduction linked to substitution in the EU market, and price impacts on agro-food commodities. The calculations refer to scenarios for the year 2020 targets as set out by the recent Renewable Energy Roadmap. Employment effects are assessed in an input-output framework taking into account bottom-up technology information to specify biofuels activities and linked to partial equilibrium models for the agricultural and energy sectors. The simulations suggest that biofuels targets on the order of 10-15% could be achieved without adverse net employment effects. (author)

  9. Influence of the Tobacco Industry on Wisconsin Tobacco Control Policies

    OpenAIRE

    University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report by the Monitoring and Evaluation Program of the University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center is to assist policy makers and tobacco control advocates in understanding the role of the tobacco industry in forming state and local policies on tobacco in Wisconsin. These activities in policy-making play an integral role in the level of tobacco use in the state. The late John Slade formulated a public health model of tobacco addiction where the agent (of the diseas...

  10. Economy-wide impacts of biofuels in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina is one of the world's largest biodiesel producers and the largest exporter, using soybeans as feedstock. Using a computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents the biofuel industry, this study carries out several simulations on two sets of issues: (i) international markets for biofuel and feedstock, such as an increase in prices of soybean, soybean oil, and biodiesel, and (ii) domestic policies related to biofuels, such as an introduction of biofuel mandates. Both sets of issues can have important consequences to the Argentinean economy. The simulations indicate that increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstocks would increase Argentina's gross domestic product and social welfare. Increases in international prices of ethanol and corn also can benefit Argentina, but to a lesser extent. The domestic mandates for biofuels, however, would cause small losses in economic output and social welfare because they divert part of biodiesel and feedstock from exports to lower-return domestic consumption. An increase in the export tax on either feedstock or biodiesel also would lead to a reduction in gross domestic product and social welfare, although government revenue would rise. - Highlights: ► Argentina is one of the largest biodiesel producer and exporter using soybeans. ► Economy-wide impacts are assessed using a CGE model for Argentina. ► Policies simulated are feedstock and biodiesel price change, and domestic mandates. ► Increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstock benefit the country. ► Domestic mandates for biofuels cause small losses in economic output

  11. The sustainability scaffold. Steps forward in biofuels policy; De duurzaamheidssteiger. Stappen vooruit in het biobrandstoffenbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-26

    This memo supplements previous recommendations of the Committee Corbey and is intended as a contribution to the debate on increasing the blending obligation of biofuels. The memo maps arguments, and describes six steps of a scaffold by means of which a sustainable bio-economy can be achieved [Dutch] Deze notitie is een aanvulling op eerdere adviezen van de Commissie Corbey en is bedoeld als bijdrage aan de discussie over de verhoging van de bijmengverplichting van biobrandstoffen. De notitie brengt argumenten in kaart en omschrijft zes treden van een steiger waarmee het doel - een duurzame bio-economie - bereikt zou kunnen worden.

  12. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Soimakallio, Sampo

    2012-01-01

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scen...

  13. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  14. Do Labor Rents Justify Strategic Trade and Industrial Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, William T.

    1995-01-01

    Several efficiency wage theories of wage determination have the property that identical workers are more productive in high wage industries and that the promotion of employment in high wage industries can increase GDP (and some measures of welfare). I argue that while policies to favor high wage industries may increase productivity, the effects in developed economies are likely to be very small. This is mainly because the workers who fill the high wage vacancies will come from fairly high wag...

  15. The industry effects of monetary policy and their welfare implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo J.M. Arnold

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic theory provides at least two explanations for differential regional effects of a common monetary policy. The traditional money view focuses on regional differences in industry mix. Alternatively, the more recent credit view emphasizes differences in financial structure. This paper aims to make two contributions. First, building on the work by Carlino and DeFina (1998, I estimate impulse responses of sector earnings to monetary policy shocks for regions of the United States. An analysis of variance shows that the sector effect dominates the regional effect, providing further evidence for the importance of the industry mix. Second, the paper addresses the welfare implications of industry effects of monetary policy. One would expect industries suffering disproportionately from the impact of monetarypolicy to compensate their employees and shareholders. The US evidence on compensating wage and return differentials is, however, mixed.

  16. Institutions and Policies Shaping Industrial Development: An Introductory Note

    OpenAIRE

    Cimoli, Mario; Dosi, Giovanni; Nelson , Richard R.; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    In this work, meant as an introduction to the contributions of the task force on Industrial Policies and Development, Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University, New York, we discuss the role of institutions and policies in the process of development. We begin by arguing how misleading the "market failure" language can be in order to assess the necessity of public policies in that it evaluates it against a yardstick that is hardly met by any observed market set-up. Much nearer to the...

  17. Needs, effectiveness and limitations of the industrial policy of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimir Leković

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the position and the role of the industry that decisively affects the overall level of economic dynamics (GDP growth, employment rate, exports, competitiveness, innovation this paper discusses some of the key factors which in an environment of deindustrialization of the Serbian economy call for the development and implementation of industrial policy, which is, again, the essential requirement for reindustrialization of the country. Building on the theoretical and methodological analysis of the most dominant contemporary concepts of industrial policy, the authors point to the need for setting and implementing an active, flexible and sophisticated industrial policy as an integral part of the socio-economic development of the country, since in this way the accumulation of structural disproportions can be achieved, as well as a more balanced presence on the world market. Current state of the industry characterized by a relatively modest share in the GDP generation and overall employment, low productivity and competitiveness levels, outdated technologies, insufficient innovation and R&D is a result of the irresponsible attitude of the state towards this economic sector. Due to the presence of the existing economic, financial and industrial limitations, it is necessary for the state to define a consistent and sustainable industrial policy concept and include all relevant stakeholders - ministries, employers, trade unions, research institutions and consumer organizations, in its implementation

  18. Changes in the Vector of Industrial Policy and Possibilities for Innovative Development of the Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, reasons for the increased interest in industrial policy, both in developed and developing countries are explained. The systematization of the development results of the Russian industry from 1989 to 2014 showed a lack of systematic selection of its priorities, preventing the formation of a strategic vector of industrial policy. The desired industrial policy diversity is established at the different economic development stages of the country. In the context of economic sanctions against Russia, it is shown that the emergence of a new industrial policy vector is connected to the need for import substitution and concomitant changes in the development model of the domestic economy. The dynamics and characteristics of the industrial development area are shown by the example of a highly developed region like the Central Urals. The total level of innovation activity of organizations continues to be low and composes only 12 %, although in the manufacturing sector this index is higher than the regional economy index by four absolute percentage points. The industrial policy of the Middle Urals is analyzed, and innovation drivers of the industrial sector of the regional economy are established. The possibilities of the defense, civil engineering, mining, chemical and pharmaceutical, and forest complexes of Sverdlovsk Region to implement the import substitution policy are revealed. The most significant investment projects that will reduce the import dependence of the regional economy are presented. The possibilities of the research sector and created innovation infrastructure of the region in solving this problem are shown. The necessity of the regional laws on industrial policy elaboration, developing the basic regulations of the Federal Law "On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation" in proved

  19. Essays on the U.S. biofuel policies: Welfare impacts and the potential for reduction of GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossiso, Kassu Wamisho

    This dissertation study investigates the impact of the US biofuel policies related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulation, tax credit and renewable fuel standard (RFS2) mandate over production and consumption of ethanol as well as technical and environmental performance of corn ethanol plants. The study develops analytical models and provides quantitative estimation of the impact of various biofuel policies in each of the three chapters. Chapter 1 of this dissertation examines the tradeoff between achieving the environmental goal of minimizing life cycle GHG emissions and minimizing production costs in recently built dry-grind corn ethanol plants. The results indicate that the average ethanol plant is able to reduce GHG emissions by 36 % relative to the level under cost minimization, but production costs are 22 % higher. To move from least cost to least emissions allocations, ethanol plants would on average produce 25 % more of wet byproduct and 47% less of dry byproduct. Using a multi-output, multi-input partial equilibrium model, Chapter 2 explores the impact of the tax credit and RFS2 mandate policy on market price of ethanol, byproducts, corn, and other factor inputs employed in the production of corn ethanol. In the short-run, without tax credit ethanol plants will not have the incentive to produce the minimum level of ethanol required by RFS2. In the long-run, if ethanol plants to have the incentive to produce the minimum RFS2 mandate without tax credit policy, gasoline price will need to increase by order of 50% or more relative to the 2011 price. Chapter 3 develop meta-regression model to investigate the extent to which statistical heterogeneity among results of multiple studies on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates can be related to one or more characteristics of the studies in response to conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT). Regarding the difference in the rate of SOC sequestration between NT and CT, our results shows that the

  20. Biofuel application of biomass obtained from a meat industry wastewater plant through the flotation process. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sena, Rennio F.; Claudino, Andreia; Moretti, Karine; Bonfanti, Iris C.P.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J. [Laboratory of Energy and the Environment LEMA, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering EQA, Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC, Center of Tecnology CTC, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Physicochemical treatment of meat industry wastewater is used to increase the organic matter removal efficiency, and it generates great amounts of sludge. Treatment using commercial ferric sulfate as coagulant for this specific wastewater gave high organic matter removals, decreasing considerably the amount of waste material to be treated in biological systems, and also allowing the obtention of 0.83-0.87 kg of biomass fuel for each m{sup 3} of treated wastewater. Due to sanitary, environmental problems and operational costs related to the discharge, land disposal and re-use of wastes, the utilization of this Biofuel (dried sludge) for steam generation has shown to be a viable alternative. This type of fuel has a high heating value, and it is a renewable energy source. The combustion test with a Biofuel to sawdust ratio of 4:1 met the technical requirements for the characterization of this promising fuel; nevertheless, operating conditions must be well designed to achieve NO{sub X} and SO{sub 2} emissions below local and/or international limits. (author)

  1. Competitiveness and carbon leakages in industry under asymmetric climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at studying how to predict competitiveness loss for an industry submitted to an asymmetric carbon constraint, and carbon leakages, whether high losses and important leakages might be feared, and which policies can be used to mitigate these losses and escapes. The author analyses and comments the content of four articles dealing with: the impact on competitiveness, revenue distribution and economic efficiency of a change in the allocation rules for EU greenhouse gas allowances; the relationship between allocation of CO2 allowances and competitiveness in the case of the European iron and steel industry; CO2 abatement, competitiveness and leakage in the European cement industry under EU ETS; and leakage from climate policies and border tax adjustment (lessons from a geographic model of the cement industry). Then, the author combines several approaches to study the cement and steel industries

  2. Recent fiscal policy in selected industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Lebow

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises fiscal developments over the past 10 years in 16 industrial countries, based on OECD data and projections. Several countries that had substantial fiscal deficits early in the 1990s turned to surpluses by the year 2000, with some countries improving their fiscal balances by 5% of GDP or more, even abstracting from the effects of strong economic growth. But in many countries - especially the largest economies - this strong performance had given way to the reappearance of l...

  3. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... and regression analysis are firstly conducted to identify the regional emissions patterns. The regional disparity and inequity is further analyzed with Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient approach. Analytical results verify the regional cluster effects and the emissions' sensitivity to the economic and industrial...... and an environmental inequity. Regional oriented mitigation strategies are required to balance regional disparity, so as to realize the industrial emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle....

  4. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  5. Determinants of Dividend Policy in Kosovo Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Livoreka; Arta Hoti; Erdin Maloku

    2015-01-01

    As salary to Managers and employees is dividend to Shareholders. There are several determinants influencing dividend policy on the banking Industry. A stable dividend policy gives positive signal to shareholders and can be seen as positive on the bank performance. In order to distribute dividend several factors are considered. With multivariable linear regression and the data from the “Financial Stability Report” of the Central Bank of Kosovo this paper tends to present the determinants which...

  6. Earning Management and Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistani Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aurangzeb; Tasfoura Dilawer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of earning management on dividend payout policy. This research is conducted by taking the data of textile industry from the year of 1966 to 2008. All the companies listed with Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) are used as sample. Measurement of dividend policy is done by calculating dividend payout ratio. The dividend payout (DPO) is taken as a dependent variable and the earning management (EM) is taken as an independent variable, discretionary acc...

  7. Determinants of Dividend Policy in Kosovo Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Livoreka; Arta Hoti; Erdin Maloku

    2015-01-01

    As salary to Managers and employees is dividend to Shareholders. There are several determinants influencing dividend policy on the banking Industry. A stable dividend policy gives positive signal to shareholders and can be seen as positive on the bank performance. In order to distribute dividend several factors are considered. With multivariable linear regression and the data from the “Financial Stability Report” of the Central Bank of Kosovo this paper tends to present the det...

  8. The industry effects of monetary policy and their welfare implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo J.M. Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Economic theory provides at least two explanations for differential regional effects of a common monetary policy. The traditional money view focuses on regional differences in industry mix. Alternatively, the more recent credit view emphasizes differences in financial structure. This paper aims to make two contributions. First, building on the work by Carlino and DeFina (1998), I estimate impulse responses of sector earnings to monetary policy shocks for regions of the United States. An analy...

  9. Policy evaluation in terms of relative industrial performance and competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigson, P.; Dotzauer, E. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); Yan, J. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a tool that can improve energy and climate policymaking processes through a stronger inclusion of industry expertise while safeguarding industrial competitiveness. The authors suggested that in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes, policymakers should recognize the role that industry plays as emission abatement investors. The tool is designed to promote policy design and management processes, facilitating transparency of methodology and subjectivity, consensus of results, rapid simulations of policy processes, and high inter-usability by key decision makers. The authors analyzed how climate and energy policy framework design and management processes can be improved through evaluation processes that focus on carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, and utilization of renewable energy resources. The tool was used in a Swedish case study where industries are known to be relatively energy efficient with low emissions. The study showed that a more diversified and individual policy approach could be favorable, but this would result in increased administrative work for the government and public entities that administer the policy regime. Although this is a negative effect, the authors argued that the challenge of combating climate change will incur additional costs and labor in one way or the other. The authors emphasized that early-action can mitigate the costs. 40 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  10. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  11. Regional industrial policy as a tool for efficient use of the industrial potential of the region

    OpenAIRE

    Kudrina, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution theory elements on the understanding and interpretation of the term „regional industrial policy”, both domestic and foreign scholars. Pointed out that in science there are certain requirements for the definition of terms (objectivity, clarity of definition, completeness explanation). Concluded that regional policy should mean, above all, a policy that in the definition should be refined features that distinguish it from other types of policies. The output...

  12. Analysis of government policies to support sustainable domestic defense industries

    OpenAIRE

    Marzah, Roni; SETIAWAN, BUDI

    2015-01-01

    Armed forces all over the world need military equipment to support their security missions. Having a domestic defense industry is one approach that countries use to supply their armed forces’ requirements. The successful development of a domestic defense industry depends on many factors, but perhaps the most significant variable is the government. Because governments are both buyers and suppliers of national security, government policies are often designed by governments to defend and regulat...

  13. Cross-specialization: A New Perspective on Industry Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Matthijs J. Janssen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how an economies’ established stronghold industries can form a basis for sustaining competiveness. As changing market circumstances demand strongholds to stay adaptive, their knowledge bases need to be enriched with knowledge that is uncommon to the industry itself. Inspired by insights from evolutionary economic geography, we argue why rather than (only) supporting related variety, policy makers should ‘cross-specialize’ by creating linkages between strong but unrela...

  14. The Negro in the Drugstore Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, F. Marion; Keeney, Marie R.

    This study examines the historical and current levels of Negro employment in drugstores, the reasons for the employment patterns, the prospects for greater Negro employment in high status jobs, and the effects of industry employment policies on the retail drug industry employment of Negroes. The report explores the nature of the retail drug…

  15. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints

  16. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints.

  17. IMPACTS OF EUROPEAN BIOFUEL POLICIES ON AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND ENVIRONMENT UNDER CONSIDERATION OF 2ND GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, A.; ADENÄUER Marcel; Blanco Fonseca, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Even though recent discussions on food prices and indirect land use change point at potential conflicts associated with the production of biofuels the appraisal of biofuels as an effective instrument to slow down climate change and reduce energy dependency still prevails. The EU Renewable Energy Directive (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2009) underlines this trend by setting a target of 10% share of energy from renewable sources in the transport sector by 2020. As economic competitiveness of biofuel pr...

  18. Research of Talent Development Policy of Online Game Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Che Yang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of information technology and the development of Internet, the digital content industry has become one of the most promising industries in the 21st century. The rapid growth of the online gaming industry at the turn of the century does not only catch the eyes of the whole world, but also reshape the entire information-related industry. The purpose of this study is to explore issue of the talent development policy of the domestic online game industry. The method of in-depth interview is used in this study, and the research target is chosen to be qualified of speaking for the government, the education institutes, and the private sectors in the industry. The findings of this research suggest that Taiwan's government should take up a more vigorous responsibility. Following the government's leadership, both education institutes and industry private sectors must actively participate in the collaboration and feed back the up-dated information, such as the market trend and most wanted human resources, to the policy makers.[Article content in Chinese

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  20. HARMONIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL POLICY AND TRADE POLICY ON THE EXAMPLE OF AGROINDUSTRIAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of harmonization of industrial and trade policies at the micro- and macro-systems due primarily to the fact that it is connecting links between the individual elements of the technological pyramid and from their adequacy the level of economic development of the region and the country as a whole depends. Due to the large variety and inhomogeneity of natural and socio-economic conditions between individual parts and the subjects of the Russian Federation, balanced production, economic and trade relations, firstly, provide economic integrity of the country and, secondly, to promote the formation of a positive effect from intersubjective division of labor. Increasing changes in the environment, the appearance of new buyer inquiries, intensified competition, openings in science and technology, presenting new opportunities for business, requires organizations of an effective system of enterprise management, which allows responding flexibly to all market changes. This problem is solved by the implementation of industrial and trade policies of enterprise and by harmonizing production and sales activities. This article discusses the nature and content of the concepts of "industrial policy" and "trade policy", harmonization methods of industrial and trade policy of enterprises and agriculture in general. The article analyzes main indicators characterizing the contemporary economic condition of the agriculture industry. Based on the findings, it suggest ways to solve the problem

  1. Influence of By-Products Obtained from Biofuels Industry on Productive Performances of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed on 100 lambs, of common race, divided into 4 homogeneous groups of 25 lambs each, which were fed, differentiated for 3 weeks. Lots 1.2 and 3 received a supplement consisting of by-products obtained from the manufacture of biofuels in the area: Feed rations had similar nutritive values for all lambs in the experimental plots. The amount of crude protein in concentrates ratio was 17.40% for group 1, 18.44% for group 2, 17.60% for group 3, and 17.00% for group 4. Bulky feed were given ad libitum for all groups. After the first week of the experiment there was a spectacular evolution of body weight gain. All experimental lots were situated beyond the control group. Body mass growth rate is 3.5 times higher in the group fed with supplement of sunflower meal, 4.16 times higher in that fed with soybean meal supplements and 5.2 times higher in the group fed with additional rape meal. After the second week, the differences are decreasing, as the absolute value of body weight gain.

  2. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    What role does scientific claims-making play in the worldwide promotion of biofuels for transport, which continues despite serious concerns about its potentially adverse social and environmental effects? And how do actors with very different and conflicting viewpoints on the benefits and drawbacks...... of biofuels enrol scientific authority to support their positions? The sociological theory of functional differentiation combined with the concept of advocacy coalition can help in exploring this relationship between scientific claims-making and the policy stance of different actors in public debates about...... biofuels. In Denmark two distinct scientific perspectives about biofuels map onto the policy debates through articulation by two competing advocacy coalitions. One is a reductionist biorefinery perspective originating in biochemistry and neighbouring disciplines. This perspective works upwards from...

  3. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Goh, Chun; Teong Lee, Keat [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success. (author)

  4. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Chun Sheng [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Lee, Keat Teong, E-mail: chktlee@eng.usm.m [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  5. State and Industrial Policy: Comparative Political Economic Analysis of Automotive Industrial Policies in Malaysia and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Wan-Ping; Ku, Samuel C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous differences exist between the neoclassical and national development schools of economics on how an economy should develop. For example, should the state interfere in the market using state resources, and cultivate certain industries to achieve specific developmental goals? Although the automotive industries in both Thailand and Malaysia developed in the 1970s with considerable government involvement, they have evolved along very different lines. Can these differences be traced to dif...

  6. Training policy and organisational performance in the Spanish hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Úbeda García, Mercedes; Marco Lajara, Bartolomé; Sabater Sempere, Vicente; García Lillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a general agreement about the importance of training as a tool to help companies in the development of sustainable competitive advantages based on their human resources. Staff qualification is not an option in the tourism industry; human capital training actually becomes a determining factor to be able to achieve a differential positioning within the sector. In Spain, where the tourism sector is a strategic element, it becomes essential to analyse the training policy applie...

  7. Energy valorization of agro-industrial wastes and sweet sorghum for the production of gaseous biofuels through anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Δαρειώτη, Μαργαρίτα

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that renewable resources have received great interest from the international community during the last decades and play a crucial role in the current CO2-mitigation policy. In this regard, energy from biomass and waste is seen as one of the most dominant future renewable energy sources. Thus, organic waste i.e. animal wastes, wastewaters, energy crops, agricultural and agro-industrial residues are of specific importance since these sources do not compete with food crops in agricul...

  8. The effects of alternative carbon mitigation policies on Japanese industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the climate change issue, developed nations have considered introducing carbon pricing mechanisms in the form of a carbon tax or an emissions trading scheme (ETS). Despite the small number of programmes actually in operation, these mechanisms remain under active discussion in a number of countries, including Japan. Using an input–output model of the Japanese economy, this article analyses the effects of carbon pricing on Japan′s industrial sector. We also examine the impact of a rebate programme of the type proposed for energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries in U.S. legislation, the Waxman–Markey Bill (H.R. 2454), and in the European Union′s ETS. We find that a carbon pricing scheme would impose a disproportionate burden on a limited number of sectors – namely, pig iron, crude steel (converters), cement and other EITE industries. Out of 401 industries, 23 would be eligible for rebates according to the Waxman–Markey-type programme, whereas 122 industries would be eligible for rebates according to the E.U.-type programme, if adopted in Japan. Overall, despite the differences in coverage, we find that the Waxman–Markey and E.U. rebate programmes have roughly similar impacts in reducing the average burden on EITE industries. - Highlights: • Energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries suffer the most due to carbon pricing policies. • Twenty-three industries will be eligible under a Waxman–Markey (WM)-type rebate programme. • The E.U. emissions trading scheme (ETS)-type programme identifies 122 industries. • Both WM- and E.U.-type programmes will lower the cost of production to similar levels. • Industries eligible for rebates must be determined carefully

  9. Earning Management and Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistani Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of earning management on dividend payout policy. This research is conducted by taking the data of textile industry from the year of 1966 to 2008. All the companies listed with Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE are used as sample. Measurement of dividend policy is done by calculating dividend payout ratio. The dividend payout (DPO is taken as a dependent variable and the earning management (EM is taken as an independent variable, discretionary accruals are taken as proxy of earning management and three variables are treated as control variables; return on equity (ROE, size of the firm (SF and self finance ratio (SFR. Results explored earning management and all control variables have negative relation with dividend payout policy.

  10. Determinants of Dividend Policy in Kosovo Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Livoreka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As salary to Managers and employees is dividend to Shareholders. There are several determinants influencing dividend policy on the banking Industry. A stable dividend policy gives positive signal to shareholders and can be seen as positive on the bank performance. In order to distribute dividend several factors are considered. With multivariable linear regression and the data from the “Financial Stability Report” of the Central Bank of Kosovo this paper tends to present the determinants which indicate the decision on following a certain policy. Results received from this paper is tended to inform the reader on understanding the role of determinants on dividend distribution as well as new researchers on having an additional opinion related to their future research.

  11. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  12. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... ] Industrial Security Program policy matters. Dated: February 23, 2012. Mary Ann Hadyka, Committee Management... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  13. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy... must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later than Friday, July...

  14. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  15. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  16. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  17. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  18. China's Coke Industrial and Trade Policy Over 2000–2013: Its Evolution and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shuyun Wang; Zesheng Sun

    2014-01-01

    This paper systematically discusses the evolution of China's industrial and trade policy regarding coke and the effects of this policy over the past decade, particularly from 2004 to 2013. We found that: (1) due to the impact of China's strict industrial policies, the country's coal and coke industry is still competitive. These policies have also helped the Chinese government achieve its goal of maintaining security and energy conservation. (2) China's coke trade policies did not reduce the v...

  19. An overview of second generation biofuel technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ralph E H; Mabee, Warren; Saddler, Jack N; Taylor, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The recently identified limitations of 1st-generation biofuels produced from food crops (with perhaps the exception of sugarcane ethanol) have caused greater emphasis to be placed on 2nd-generation biofuels produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels production will continue to face major constraints to full commercial deployment. The logistics of providing a competitive, all-year-round, supply of biomass feedstock to a commercial-scale plant is challenging, as is improving the performance of the conversion process to reduce costs. The biochemical route, being less mature, probably has a greater cost reduction potential than the thermo-chemical route, but here a wider range of synthetic fuels can be produced to better suit heavy truck, aviation and marine applications. Continued investment in research and demonstration by both public and private sectors, coupled with appropriate policy support mechanisms, are essential if full commercialisation is to be achieved within the next decade. After that, the biofuel industry will grow only at a steady rate and encompass both 1st- and 2nd-generation technologies that meet agreed environmental, sustainability and economic policy goals. PMID:19963372

  20. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  1. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  2. The Political Economy of Industrial Policy: A Comparative Study of the Textiles Industry in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew McCartney

    2014-01-01

    The textiles industry in Pakistan has failed to fulfill its “historical mission,” whether judged in terms of promoting rapid and sustained economic growth, reducing poverty, or providing employment to young women and so promoting wider social transformation. This paper makes a case for a particular and targeted form of industrial policy that would help the textiles sector learn and upgrade. It argues that those factors commonly seen as constraints to industrial policy—the “China effect,” the ...

  3. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2010-01-01

    these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb) shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the very small profit margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg), but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72). Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  4. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2009-04-01

    be a source of interference in some areas when using these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the thin margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg, but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72. Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere, probably due to the use of tannin-rich oak fuel. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  5. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the very small profit margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg, but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72. Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  6. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2009-04-01

    estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb) shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the thin margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg), but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72). Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere, probably due to the use of tannin-rich oak fuel. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  7. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July...

  8. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Irving Olsen, S.

    2011-05-15

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal wastewater. Algae capture CO{sub 2} from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating environmental benefits and impacts can be a tool for policy decisions and for technology development. (Author)

  9. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria. PMID:20146765

  10. Impacts of Land use and biofuels policy on climate: IGSM-TEM Land use in CAM3.1-CLM3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, W.; Schlosser, C. A.; Monier, E.

    2011-12-01

    Two land-use frameworks derived from a model of the global economy were used to explore the climate impacts of an energy policy which involves the large scale plantation of cellulosic biofuels to meet 10% of the global energy demand. These frameworks were (i) Pure Cost Conversion Response (PCCR), or 'extensification' scenario, where the price of land constrains agricultural conversion, including growing biofuels, and; (ii) Observed Land Supply Response (OLSR), or 'intensification', where legal, environmental and other constraints encourage more intense use of existing agricultural land (i.e. less forest clearing). The land cover of the Community Atmospheric Model Version 3.0 (CAM3.0) was manipulated to reflect four different land use and energy scenarios (i.e. PCCR and OLSR with and without biofuels). CAM3.0 was run to equilibrium under 1990 and 2050 climate conditions, in order to assess the impact these land cover changes have on the atmospheric state. For the 2050 climate conditions, CAM was prescribed with concentrations of radiatively active trace gases (a.k.a. greenhouse gases), derived from an Integrated Global System Model using the same economic model, that result from a moderate stabilization target by the end of the 21st century. When the biofuel policy is implemented, both economic frameworks increase the land-surface reflectivity over much of the land surface in the extratropics, indicating that biofuel cropland is replacing darker land-vegetation types, and decreasing absorption of solar radiation. This leads to a cooling effect which is strongest in the northern hemisphere and occurs to a greater extent in the PCCR scenario, and is also present to a lesser extent in the PCCR-without-biofuels scenario. Although these temperature changes are for the most part overwhelmed by the trace-gas forcing (i.e. anthropogenic warming), the PCCR scenario land cover changes act to notably lessen the warming. However, in much of the Amazonian and African tropics

  11. Demands for energy policy by industry and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Use of Nuclear Power for Peaceful Purposes' is a key topic in energy policy which produces a split of opinions in Germany, and which the policy of the Grand Coalition seeks to bypass. The Federation of German Industries (BDI) wants to achieve a sensible way of handling this source of energy because, after all, we are facing the challenge of having to secure economic development and prosperity and, at the same time, reduce global CO2 emissions. If this is to be achieved, industry and politics together must build a bridge into a future with less CO2. That bridge would be supported on 4 pillars: - a global strategy of CO2 reduction, - energy efficiency, - a broad energy mix, - energy research and development. In these efforts, industry and the BDI consider nuclear power an indispensable part of a viable climate and energy policy. Next to lignite, nuclear power offers electricity generation at the lowest cost, and promotes climate protection through CO2-free generation. As far as energy efficiency and a broad energy mix are concerned, the potentials for technical development play an important role. This is an area in which German industry can develop future markets for itself by being a leader in technology. Energy research should advance the development of existing technologies and open up new options. In this way, energy research contributes to high technologies in Germany. For nuclear power, it must be ensured that German scientists are able to participate in promising developments of new reactors in the same way in which this is the case in the development and construction of ITER, the international fusion reactor, in France. (orig.)

  12. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Wolfe, Alexis [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); English, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ruddick, Colleen [BCS, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States); Lambert, Devinn [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is committed to advancing the vision of a viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that produces renewable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower; enhances U.S. energy security; reduces our dependence on fossil fuels; provides environmental benefits; and creates economic opportunities across the nation. BETO’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). To accomplish its goals, BETO has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, in partnership with national laboratories, academia, and industry.

  13. Practical implementation of liquid biofuels: The transferability of the Brazilian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic analysis of the particularities and trends pertaining to the development of biofuels in Brazil—a country which has demonstrated its leadership in this field during the last 40 years. The Brazilian experiences with biofuels are often used as references for decision making by other developed and developing countries. The transferability of Brazil's biofuels practices would be appreciated by many researchers and energy policy markers across the world. This work uses an adapted 5W2H (what, when, where, why, who, how, and how much) analysis technique to answer a variety of questions about the subject. The data, facts, and figures herein are offered as resources for other researchers and policy makers seeking benchmarking. Also, this work discusses the main certainties and uncertainties of the sugarcane agro-industry, and also goes into detail about the ethanol supply chain structure, its management, and particularities. Finally, this research analyzes the central aspects of biofuels implementation in Brazil, lists the most important aspects to consider during a selection of possible standard biofuels, and presents the main aspects of the National Program of Biodiesel Production and its sustainability. - Highlights: • A systemic cause–effect analysis was carried out on biofuel program success. • Main questions concerning implementation of liquid biofuels in Brazil were studied. • Main weakness aspects of biofuel logistic were treated. • During selection of benchmarking strategy. What needs to take into account?

  14. Shaping the science-industry-policy interface in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisser, Sibylle; Reiss, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Current advances in the emerging field of synthetic biology and the improvements in key technologies promise great impacts, not only on future scientific development, but also on the economy. In this paper we will adopt the triple helix concept for analyzing the early stages of a new field of science and innovation, namely synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is based on the creation and assembly of parts in order to create new and more complex structures and functions. These features of synthetic biology raise questions related to standardization and intellectual property, but also to security and public perception issues that go beyond the classical biotechnology discussions. These issues concern all involved actors in the synthetic biology field and affect the interrelationship between science, industry and policy. Based on the results of the recently finished EU FP-6 funded project TESSY ( http://www.tessy-europe.de ), the article analyzes these issues. Additionally, it illustrates the setting of clear framework conditions for synthetic biology research and development and the identification and definition of common goals for the future development of the field which will be needed for efficient science-industry-policy interaction. It was shown that it will be crucial to develop approaches that consider the needs of science and industry, on the one hand, and comply with the expectations of society, on the other hand. As synthetic biology is a global activity, the involvement of national decision-makers in international initiatives will further stimulate the development of the field. PMID:19816806

  15. Design of a Nutrient Reclamation System for the Cultivation of Microalgae for Biofuel Production and Other Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Heather Nicole

    Microalgal biomass has been identified as a promising feedstock for a number of industrial applications, including the synthesis of new pharmaceutical and biofuel products. However, there are several economic limitations associated with the scale up of existing algal production processes. Critical economic studies of algae-based industrial processes highlight the high cost of supplying essential nutrients to microalgae cultures. With microalgae cells having relatively high nitrogen contents (4 to 8%), the N fertilizer cost in industrial-scale production is significant. In addition, the disposal of the large volumes of cell residuals that are generated during product extraction stages can pose other economic challenges. While waste streams can provide a concentrated source of nutrients, concerns about the presence of biological contaminants and the expense of heat treatment pose challenges to processes that use wastewater as a nutrient source in microalgae cultures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential application of ultrafiltration technology to aid in the utilization of agricultural wastewater in the cultivation of a high-value microalgae strain. An ultrafiltration system was used to remove inorganic solids and biological contaminants from wastewater taken from a swine farm in Savoy, Arkansas. The permeate from the system was then used as the nutrient source for the cultivation of the marine microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. During the ultrafiltration system operation, little membrane fouling was observed, and permeate fluxes remained relatively constant during both short-term and long-term tests. The complete rejection of E. coli and coliforms from the wastewater was also observed, in addition to a 75% reduction in total solids, including inorganic materials. The processed permeate was shown to have very high concentrations of total nitrogen (695.6 mg L-1) and total phosphorus (69.1 mg L-1 ). In addition, the growth of P. cruentum was analyzed in

  16. India's Biofuel Policy Initiatives: Some Implication for China%印度生物燃料政策及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贺青

    2009-01-01

    The shortage of energy, the degradation of environment and the economical meltdown are the main problems that the world faces. Renewable energy not only helps to solve the energy shortage and to improve environment, but also contributes to increasing job opportunities. In spite of being visibly controversial, the first National Biofuel Policy was passed in India in 2008. This paper is an attempt to probe the evolution of India's biofuel policy and, based on an analytical review, explores its implica-tions for China's biofuel policy.%能源短缺、环境恶化、经济不景气是当今世界面临的三大主要问题,可再生能源不仅有助于缓解能源短缺、改善环境,还有助于增加就业机会,因此受到各国重视.而生物燃料作为一种可再生能源,因其具有不同于其它可再生能源的优势而受到各国政府青睐,即便在2008年生物燃料备受争议的情况下,印度仍然通过生物燃料政策,值得反思.本文旨在系统梳理印度生物燃料政策,并指出其对我国发展生物燃料的启示.

  17. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  18. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  19. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  20. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. PMID:25281367

  1. Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa and import substitution policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula F. Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the understanding of the process of import substitution in Sub-Saharan Africa. The process of industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa occurred in two phases: a first step, even very early during the colonial regime began around the 1920s and ended in the late forties; a second phase of industrialization began in the late fifties and gained momentum in the sixties, when import substitution was implemented more widely. Although these countries were the last to embark on the strategy of import substitution, they followed the same steps of Latin American countries, and as the structural domestic and external constraints were too strong, the failure of the policy of import substitution arrived early and the negative impact on these economies had a greater magnitude.

  2. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  3. Status of Chinese NPP Industry and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China still extended their experiences to both domestic and overseas so far. Chinese State Council approved its 'Medium and Long-term Nuclear Power Development Plan' in November 2007, indicating further definition for nuclear energy as indispensable energy option and future self-reliance development of nuclear industry. China intends to become self-sufficient not only in NPPs capacity, but also in the fuel production for all those plants. There are currently 17 NPPs in operation, and 28 NPPs under construction. However, domestic uranium mining supplying is currently less than a quarter of nuclear fuel demands. This paper investigated and summarized the updated status of NPP industry in China and Nuclear Fuel Cycle(NFC) policy. There still remain a number of technical innovation and comprehensive challenges for this nuclear developing country in the long-term, but its large ambitions and dramatic improvements toward future should not be ignored. As shown in this paper, the most suitable approach for China to achieve both environmentally-friendly power supplying and increasing energy demands meeting simultaneously must be considered. Nuclear energy now was recognized as the most potential and optimal way of energy supply system. In addition, to accommodate such a high-speed NPP construction in China, it should also focus on when and how spent nuclear fuel should be reprocessed. Finally, the nuclear back-end fuel cycle policy should be established, taking into accounts of all costs, uranium resource security, spent fuel management, proliferation resistance and environmental impact

  4. Clean energy: Revisiting the challenges of industrial policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large public investments in clean energy technology arguably constitute an industrial policy. One rationale points to market failures that have not been corrected by other policies, most notably greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil. Another inspiration for clean energy policy reflects economic arguments of the 1980s. It suggests strategic government investments would increase U.S. firms' market share of a growing industry and thus help American firms and workers. This paper examines the reasoning for clean energy policy and concludes that: •While a case can be made that subsidizing clean energy might help address market failures, the case may be narrower than some assert, and turning theory into sound practice is no simple feat. •An appropriate price on greenhouse gases is an essential precondition to ensuring efficient incentives to develop and deploy cost-effective emissions-abating technologies. However, efficient prices alone are unlikely to generate efficient levels of basic research and development by private firms. •Government investments in clean energy are unlikely to produce net increases in employment in the long run, in part because pushing home-grown technologies at taxpayers' expense offers no guarantee that the eventual products ultimately would not be manufactured somewhere else. •Spending on clean energy technologies is not well suited to fiscal stimulus. The authors recommend that: •Federal energy spending should invest in technologies with the lowest expected cost of abatement and highest probability of market penetration. •Funding decisions ought to be insulated – as much as possible – from rent-seeking by interest groups, purely political distortions, and the parochial preferences of legislators. - Highlights: ► Clean energy technology policy may be less justifiable than many assert, and doing it well is hard. ► The government should appropriately price greenhouse gas emissions and fund technology R and D.

  5. Flux and concentration processes of radioactive elements in the forest industry; dosimetry, biofueled heating plants, the alkaline and the acidic pulp mill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of the radionuclides released to the forest ecosystem will be incorporated into different parts of the trees and the wood. A common factor for both biofueled power plants and pulp mills is that they concentrate the radionuclides initially present in the in the biofuel or wood in ashes or other products. The enrichment of radioactive elements is due to the combustion process or in a pulp mill, the combustion of bark and liquors, and also the processes in the pulp mill recycling system. The radiological impacts to man from forest industry arises form radiation emitted from the radionuclides present in ash and pulp mill liquors and liquor sludge. The quantification and calculation of past, present and future activity concentrations in biofuels, ash and pulp mill waste products are all important when assessments of the radiation dose is done. In order to assess the resulting dose to staff working close to radionuclide containing recycling systems and waste dumps, it is necessary to know the dynamics (inflow rate and residence time) of the radionuclides in that system

  6. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  7. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy... regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security...

  8. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  9. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  10. 76 FR 78930 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Enforcement Policy... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and...

  11. 78 FR 69128 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... India affecting trade and foreign direct investment; (2) describe the significant policies currently... COMMISSION Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India...

  12. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  13. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Gokce Adas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with Lehman turmoil by passed Turkish economy in the first years due to the solid, strong and healthy banking sector due to the measurements taken after 2001 banking crisis of Turkey. Therefore, international lenders did not hesitate directing their funds to Turkish banks. As a result, Turkish companies did not suffer in financing their investments through bank loans. Moreover, the growth policy of Turkey based on current account deficit supported Turkish economy and in turn the firms due to the abundance of liquidity after the peak of the crisis. In this work we examined 164 industrial firms that are traded on Borsa Istanbul to see if there happened to be a shift in their financing preferences during the recent global crisis. We found that the importance of borrowing had not decreased and that contradicts the expectations. As of equity issues, before and after 2009 no radical change has been observed. In 2009 where the crisis hit worst Turkish economy leading a 4.7% GDP decrease, the equity issues were doubled.

  14. Industrial Policy and the Environment: The Case of the Manufacturing Sector in Metro Cebu

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.

    1997-01-01

    While industrialization brings with it the promise of development, it also carries the threat of serious environmental problems, which unfortunately has not been well addressed by policy makers. Using Metro Cebu data, the paper investigates the impacts of industrial policies on the manufacturing sector and the interaction of that sector with environmental policy regarding industrial pollution. The paper gathers and analyzes information useful for the identification of problems and the develop...

  15. Competitiveness Policy and Economic Organisation: The Case of the British Film Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Deakin; Stephen Pratten

    1999-01-01

    The British film industry has long been characterised as highly volatile, chronically unstable and liable to recurrent crises. The traditional policy response up until the 1980s involved support through a mixture of quotas, fiscal support and industry levies. During the 1980s this policy stance was reversed as deregulation and the exposure of the industry to market forces were seen as key to enhancing its economic performance. More recently, a new policy preoccupation with, and orientation to...

  16. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A., E-mail: jmathews@luiss.it [Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Tan Hao, E-mail: H.Tan@uws.edu.au [School of Management and CInIS Research Group, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW 2150 (Australia); Moore, Michael J.B., E-mail: MichaelMoore@ShelstonIP.com [Level 21, 60 Margaret Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia); Bell, Geoff, E-mail: Geoff.Bell@microbiogen.com [Microbiogen Pty Ltd. Unit E2, Lane Cove Business Park, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: > A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. > Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. > In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. > In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  17. An assessment of Thailand's biofuel development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S.; Salam, P. Abdul; Shrestha, Pujan;

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects....... The policies, measures and incentives for the development of biofuel include targets, blending mandates and favorable tax schemes to encourage production and consumption of biofuels. Biofuel development improves energy security, rural income and reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but issues related...... to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources...

  18. An Analysis of Policy Issues in Natural Gas Industry Restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    This report explores controversial issues and problems that could emerge in the process of implementing the government's restructuring plan for natural gas industry and aims to suggest policy directions regarding the restructuring. To begin with, it examines current conditions surrounding natural gas industry including domestic demand and supply conditions, world LNG market trend, structural changes of the industry in OECD countries, possibilities of introducing effective competition and assignment of existing import contracts. In doing so, we probe whether the direction of the natural gas industry restructuring is proper and suggest that the results be reflected when a more detailed restructuring implementation plan is formulated. Also, this report suggests possible schemes related to major institutional changes expected by the basic restructuring plan and the detailed restructuring implementation plan announced by the government. First, it presents several alternative ways to properly divide up the import/wholesales section of Korea Gas Corporation. Second, it examines critical issues such as the method of using gas supply facilities and gas balancing mechanism, and presents adoptable alternatives for each issue. These issues constitute the core of network and market operation rules which need to be in place when adopting an open access system, which in turn is a prerequisite for sales competition. Third, the report examines price systems, including gas commodity pricing and rate-making design for transportation service, by first anticipating the direction of changes in gas rate regulation. Specifically, it presents possible ways to design the service rate for each function of pipeline network and import terminals, and discusses controversial issues in determining total cost-of-service and allocating the cost-of-service to each functional service offered such as distance-related rates, interruptible service rate. Lastly, in relation to the opening of retail

  19. Low fertility in industrial countries: causes, consequences, policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, R

    1990-01-01

    In most industrial countries, fertility now stands at levels below those required for population replacement. The increased availability and effectiveness of contraception have made it possible for women to avert unwanted births. Moreover, concerns with the quality of family life, improved child survival, growing proportions of women in the labor force, and the lack of reliance on children for old-age security have combined to reduce the number of children women desire. Marriage rates are decreasing, and marriage takes place at a later age or is often disrupted by divorce--factors that constrain the number of children born. As a result of this prolonged fertility decline in industrial countries, the proportions of children and young adults are decreasing while that of the elderly is growing. In addition, the proportion of the world population living in developed countries has fallen from 35% in the early 20th century to 24% and is expected to decline further to 17% between 2000-25. These trends will have serious economic, social, and political implications. In particular, growing numbers of old people will create a need for expanded social services and the costs of social security will be born by a shrinking labor force. Large-scale emigration from developing countries, where the young adult population will continue to increase, can be expected and is a potential source of political conflicts in the industrial countries of destination. France, the USSR, and several Eastern European countries have adopted pro-natalist population policies--including tax benefits to families with children, lengthy maternity leaves, workplace day care facilities, and preference in housing allocation to young couples--to reverse declining fertility rates, but it is unclear whether the impact of such measures will be permanent. PMID:2248473

  20. Will Europe’s industry survive the crisis? Competitiveness, employment and the need for an industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Cirillo; Dario Guarascio; Mario Pianta

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of Europe’s industry and competitiveness in the current crisis and provides the rationale for a new industrial policy at the European level. Section 1 documents the decline of EU industry and the losses in outpud resulting from the crisis started in 2008. Section 2 investigates the issue of competitiveness, an issue at the top of the EU Commission policy agenda. Competitiveness is seen at the heart of economic growth and in the current crisis much of the policy a...

  1. Development Trend of Foreign Trade Policy for China’s Forest Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzed the current status of foreign trade of forest industry in China and the national and international market changes. Based on the analysis, the orientation and transformation of foreign trade policy for China's forest industry were discussed.

  2. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  3. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  4. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SRIVASTAVA, PREM

    2015-03-02

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  5. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  6. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, T. J; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cárdenas; Molina, L. T.; G. Engling; Hsu, S.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case ...

  7. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study m...

  8. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  9. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers’ attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A “multi-method” or “mixed method” research methodology was employed for each case study.

  10. Biofuels and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John; Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason

    2011-06-01

    The recent increase in liquid biofuel production has stemmed from a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil, mitigate rising energy prices, promote rural economic development, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The growth of this industry has important implications for biodiversity, the effects of which depend largely on which biofuel feedstocks are being grown and the spatial extent and landscape pattern of land requirements for growing these feedstocks. Current biofuel production occurs largely on croplands that have long been in agricultural production. The additional land area required for future biofuels production can be met in part by reclaiming reserve or abandoned croplands and by extending cropping into lands formerly deemed marginal for agriculture. In the United States, many such marginal lands have been enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing important habitat for grassland species. The demand for corn ethanOl has changed agricultural commodity economics dramatically, already contributing to loss of CRP lands as contracts expire and lands are returned to agricultural production. Nevertheless, there are ways in which biofuels can be developed to enhance their coexistence with biodiversity. Landscape heterogeneity can be improved by interspersion of land uses, which is easier around facilities with smaller or more varied feedstock demands. The development of biofuel feedstocks that yield high net energy returns with minimal carbon debts or that do not require additional land for production, such as residues and wastes, should be encouraged. Competing land uses, including both biofuel production and biodiversity protection, should be subjected to comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, so that incentives can be directed where they will do the most good.

  11. The trade-off between Innovation and Defence Industrial Policy - A Simulation Model Analysis of the Norwegian Defence Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Castellacci, Fulvio; Blom, Martin; Fevolden, Arne Martin

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the trade-off between innovation and defence industrial policy. It presents an agent-based simulation model calibrated for the Norwegian defence industry that compares different policy scenarios and examines the effects of a pending EU market liberalization process. The paper points to two main results. (1) It finds that a pure scenario where national authorities focus on, and provide support exclusively for, either a) international competitiveness or b) national defenc...

  12. The impact of policy on firms' performance: the case of CNC machine tool industry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study is about understanding how the government policy actually works at firm level in the context of developing countries' industrialization. In the literature, the discussions on impact of government policy on corporate performance primarily stress on macroeconomic aspects of industrial behav

  13. The electronics industry: inward investment versus indigenous development -- the policy debate

    OpenAIRE

    Brunskill, I.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the public policy implications of an active government strategy aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the electronics industry in Britain are examined. The author argues that as a general principle industrial policy should be both designed and applied at as low a level as possible. To achieve this a comprehensive but decentralised institutional economic development network will need to be created.

  14. The crafts in industrial society : Ideals and policy in the Netherlands 1890-1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Lente (Dick)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe article discusses the development of Dutch government policy to support small-scale industrial production. It argues that this policy was the result of concern about the decline of craft production, which was part a debate in several industrializing societies about future forms of pr

  15. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2013 from 10:00 a.m... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  16. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2012 from 10:00 a... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  17. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 17, 2013 from 10:00 a.m... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  18. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2013 from 10:00 a... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  19. The innovation effects of environmental policies. Linking policies, companies and innovations in the Nordic pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivimaa, P.

    2008-07-01

    This thesis analyses the innovation effects of environmental policies by examining both policy and company levels. The research examines the mechanisms through which environmental policies affect innovations, and how variation within and between organisations responding to policies influences the policy effects. Thus the thesis endeavours to explain how the context surrounding policies and innovations varies in the Nordic pulp and paper industry, and why environmental policies sometimes fail to support innovation. The thesis also provides information on how policies could better support environmental innovation. To achieve these objectives, a perspective combining policy, technology, and organisation and management studies is adopted. The policy effects are studied as one among many determinants influencing innovation processes, following the idea of the innovation systems literature. The case study research approach comprises twelve cases of technological innovations and inventions, both processes and products, in the Nordic pulp and paper industry. The innovation cases are complemented by an analysis of how environmental considerations are integrated into product development in four large paper and packaging companies, and by one policy case examining the integration of environmental considerations into Finnish technology policies. The Nordic pulp and paper industry presents an extremely interesting empirical case for the study as it has been important for the historic and economic development of Finland and Sweden, and has recently experienced significant changes in its operational environment influencing its future innovation potential. The sector is characterised by fairly significant achievements in environmental process innovation, developed collaboratively in networks of public and private organisations, often in response to environmental policy. By contrast, environmental product innovations and the focus of environmental policies on products have been

  20. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  1. TO THE QUESTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MEASURES IN THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL POLICY AT THE LEVEL OF A SPECIFIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamov R. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of formation of regional industrial policy. Great attention is paid to learning of the state regulatory impact on the industrial business in the region. We have also considered and classified objectives of industrial policy, identified weaknesses undertaken by the state industrial policy in terms of achieving maximum effect

  2. International trade in biofuels: Good for development? And good for Environment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufey, Annie

    2007-01-15

    Biofuels are heating up debates and energising activities on many policy fronts. On the surface, they offer significant opportunities to pursue environment and development goals both globally and domestically. There are both synergies and trade-offs between these goals and levels. Trade will drive biofuels growth, yet current trade regimes are not fit for maximising benefits nor minimising risks from the sector. The novelty of biofuels, the vast array of issues involved and the lack of knowledge to tackle many of them, together with diverging political and business interests, mean that consensus is elusive. It is therefore increasingly urgent to map a path for the global biofuels industry that supports sustainable development. Based on a new analysis of the sector, this briefing lays out some of the options for achieving this.

  3. Induced market disturbances related to biofuels. Report D2.2 of ELOBIO subtask 2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current market introduction of biofuels coincides with significant price increases on other commodity markets. However it is not clear to what extend biofuels really cause an increased demand for raw materials and thus an important price impact for all alternative applications of these raw materials. While the introduction of biofuels will have a positive impact on some of the related markets and negative on others, the magnitude of this impact needs to be analysed in more detail. Although at this stage, the European biofuel industry does not seem to be a threat to global food production, real concerns exist to what might happen in the future if the current biofuels expansion rates persist. Future growth rates must take due account of the feedback loops that exist between the profitability of biofuel production and feedstock cost, as well as a number of uncertainty factors that will affect the availability and price of raw material for everyone. Such factors include physical aspects of production (land availability, yields, crushing capacities), market factors (e.g. concentration, price elasticity of demand, availability of substitutes), governmental interference (subsidy levels) and international trade agreements. It is important to avoid policy-induced market disturbances as these can become a major barrier for industry and public support for biofuels. The ELOBIO project aims at the development of low-disturbing policy options, enhancing biofuels while minimising the impacts on e.g. markets for food, feed, and biomass for power and heat. This report shows the result of task 2.3 of the ELOBIO project. In this task the status of knowledge of induced market disturbances towards feed, food and other markets will be described. Possible market interferences of various biofuels and feedstocks for biofuels will be described in general and some cases will be treated in more depth, documented with market figures. In a next stage of the ELOBIO project - that is outside

  4. Biofuels for transportation. From R and D to market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilo, C. [comp.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the Workshop was to bring together stakeholders in industry, government and science to identify technical, economic and institutional opportunities and/or barriers to the market penetration of biofuels and to tackle these issues jointly in an international environment. The Workshop was to cover the role of biofuels in replacing fossil fuels and achieving sustainable transportation. It was to be more oriented towards policy issues than towards analyses of scientific and technical details. The Workshop was focused on the conditions in Northern Europe and North America. Three main themes were chosen: THEME 1. Biomass Feedstocks. How do we produce them cost-effectively and for what purpose? THEME 2. Biofuels for Transportation. What will make them technically and economically competitive? THEME 3. Market Penetration of Biofuels. How do we remove barriers? The following biofuels were considered during the Workshop: Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol. Ethers, such as MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether) and ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). Vegetable oils and esters, such as VME (vegetable-oil-methylester), RME (rape-oil-methyl-ester) and REE (rape-oil-ethyl-ester)

  5. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the development mechanism of fiscal and taxation policies in the geothermal industry. The effect of the fiscal and taxation policy on the development of the geothermal industry is analyzed. In order to promote sustainable development of the geothermal industry in China, the government should pay more attention to subsidies for the geothermal industry in the life-cycle stage of the geothermal industry. Furthermore, a plan is necessary to provide a reasonable system of fiscal and taxation policies.

  6. Knowledge and Innovation Management in the Policy Debate on Biofuel Sustainability in Mozambique : What Roles for Researchers?

    OpenAIRE

    Schut, Marc; Leeuwis, Cees; Van Paassen, Annemarie; Lerner, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between knowledge management (KM) and innovation management (IM) in policy processes. By describing and analysing the roles of researchers as knowledge and innovation managers in policy processes we also contribute to the debate on how researchers can enhance their effective contribution to policy processes. Empirical data for the paper were gathered between December 2008 and November 2010. During that period, two of this paper's authors conducted particip...

  7. Open Source Policy and Promotion of IT Industries in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Tetsuo; Yi, Sangmook; Wang, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    The development style of open source has a possibility to create new business markets for Regional IT industries. Some local governments are trying to promote their regional IT industries by adopting an open source in their electronic government systems. In this paper, we analyze the data of open source application policy of the Japanese government and case studies of promotion policy of local industries by local governments; for example, Nagasaki Prefecture and Matsue City. And it aims to ex...

  8. Open Source Introducing Policy and Promotion of Regional Industries in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Tetsuo; Tansho, Terutaka

    2010-01-01

    The development style of open source has a possibility to create new business markets for Regional IT industries. Some local governments are trying to promote their regional IT industries by adopting an open source in their electronic government systems. In this paper, we analyze the data of open source application policy of the Japanese government and case studies of promotion policy of local industries by local governments; for example, Nagasaki Prefecture and Matsue City. And it aims to ex...

  9. Knowledge and innovation management in the policy debate on biofuel sustainability in Mozambique: what roles for researchers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Leeuwis, C.; Paassen, van A.; Lerner, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between knowledge management (KM) and innovation management (IM) in policy processes. By describing and analysing the roles of researchers as knowledge and innovation managers in policy processes we also contribute to the debate on how researchers can enhance the

  10. Industries and the bank lending effects of bank credit demand and monetary policy in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raabe, K.; Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the industry effects of bank lending in Germany and asks whether bank lending to single industries depends on industry-specific bank credit demand or on monetary policy as determinant of bank credit supply. To this end, we estimate individual bank lending functions fo

  11. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.

    2012-08-15

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scenario analysis through top-down and bottom-up modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) were used as methods. The uncertainties were propagated in a statistical way through parameter variation, scenario analysis and stochastic modelling. This study showed that, in determining GHG emissions at product or process level, there are significant uncertainties due to parameters such as nitrous oxide emissions from soil, soil carbon changes and emissions from electricity production; and due to methodological choices related to the spatial and temporal system boundary setting and selection of allocation methods. Furthermore, the uncertainties due to modelling may be of central importance. For example, when accounting for biomass-based carbon emissions to and sequestration from the atmosphere, consideration of the temporal dimension is critical. The outcomes in differentiation of GHG emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups are critically influenced by the quality of data and criteria applied. In both LCA and effort sharing, the major issues are equitable attribution of emissions and emission allowances on the one hand and capturing consequences of measures and policies on the other. As LCA and system level top-down and bottom-up modelling results are increasingly used to justify various decisions by different stakeholders such as policy-makers and consumers, harmonization of practices, transparency and the handling of uncertainties related to

  12. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.

    2012-11-01

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scenario analysis through top-down and bottom-up modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) were used as methods. The uncertainties were propagated in a statistical way through parameter variation, scenario analysis and stochastic modelling. This study showed that, in determining GHG emissions at product or process level, there are significant uncertainties due to parameters such as nitrous oxide emissions from soil, soil carbon changes and emissions from electricity production; and due to methodological choices related to the spatial and temporal system boundary setting and selection of allocation methods. Furthermore, the uncertainties due to modelling may be of central importance. For example, when accounting for biomass-based carbon emissions to and sequestration from the atmosphere, consideration of the temporal dimension is critical. The outcomes in differentiation of GHG emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups are critically influenced by the quality of data and criteria applied. In both LCA and effort sharing, the major issues are equitable attribution of emissions and emission allowances on the one hand and capturing consequences of measures and policies on the other. As LCA and system level top-down and bottom-up modelling results are increasingly used to justify various decisions by different stakeholders such as policy-makers and consumers, harmonization of practices, transparency and the handling of uncertainties related to

  13. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y H Silitonga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO and refined palm oil (RPO, each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to improve the competitiveness of the industry. Therefore the first step was to map the main activities in this industry using value chain analysis. After that a conceptual model was built, where the output of the model is competitiveness of the industry based on market share. The third step was model formulation. The model is then utilized to simulate the policy mix given by government in improving the competitiveness of Palm Oil Industry. Research limitations/implications: The model was developed using only some policies which give direct impact to the competitiveness of the industry. For macro environment input, only price is considered in this model. Practical implications: The model can simulate the output of the industry for various government policies mix given to the industry. Originality/value: This research develops a model that can represent the structure and relationship between industry, government and macro environment, using value chain analysis and hierarchical multilevel system approach.

  14. The Structural Configurations of Alcohol in Denmark: Policy, Culture, and Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes recent developments in Danish alcohol policy, culture, and industry. It reveals cross-sector dynamics and complexities often downplayed in existing literature. It traces how a stable “structural configuration” emerged in the 1960s-1980s between the three domains based...... on liberalization. However, in the 1990s, a particular adolescent alcohol culture of intoxication had emerged, raising public awareness and call for policy intervention. Contrary to what may have been expected, this rupture did not mean a break with the liberal alcohol configuration in policy, culture, and industry......, say, policy events and consumption....

  15. Screening of Industrial Development Policies, Plans and Programs of Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Industrial Sector of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional strengthening of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA in the industrial sector as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial sustainable development in Iran. The leading aim of this paper has been to systematize the environmental considerations in industrial development strategies, policies, plans and programs in the highest strategic decision making processes and to ensure environmental considerations and alternatives together with other economic and social considerations in the procedures, before the research processes. In order to analysis of Iran,s industrial development strategies, a matrix method was used as one of the most practical techniques of strategic programing as; SWOT (strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Eventually the result of SWOT analysis in the form of a cell 29*12 matrix, has been an indicative of the degree of need toward performing SEA in conection with the kinds of the country,s industrial strategies in a categorizing priorities system. As among all the industrial strategic policies, have been screened and evaluated 8 strategies in the first priority and 4 strategies in the second priority.The industrial strategies with the first priority require; the emphasis on new industries, supporting and encouraging of the exports, privatization, competative industrial growth, commercial discharging, attracting the foreign direct investments, developing energy oriented industries and priorities of industrial fields strategies.Industrial strategies also require SEA in the second priority including: supporting the small and medium industries,considering the indexes of industrial potentiality measurement,following demands for establishing industrial workshops from spatial development system and developing legal, institutional and physical structures strategies.The basis of the results of this study is achieving

  16. The Announcement Effects of Regional Tourism Industrial Policy:The Case of the Hainan International Tourism Island Policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Sun; Su Zhang; Nobuyoshi Yamori

    2014-01-01

    China's Hainan Island has a rich diversity of attractions and opportunities for nature-based tourism, outdoor recreation, and sporting activities. Moreover, Hainan Island has a natural and socioeconomic base and environment, hosting the implementation of a tourism industrial policy. On December 31, 2009, China's State Council announced to the world the national policy of the establishment of Hainan International Tourism Island. Hence, China's Hainan Island is well suited for investigating the...

  17. Policy based network management : state of the industry and desired functionality for the enterprise network: security policy / testing technology evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Christine A.; Ernest, Martha J.; Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Klaus, Edward J.; MacAlpine, Timothy L.; Rios, Michael A.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    Policy-based network management (PBNM) uses policy-driven automation to manage complex enterprise and service provider networks. Such management is strongly supported by industry standards, state of the art technologies and vendor product offerings. We present a case for the use of PBNM and related technologies for end-to-end service delivery. We provide a definition of PBNM terms, a discussion of how such management should function and the current state of the industry. We include recommendations for continued work that would allow for PBNM to be put in place over the next five years in the unclassified environment.

  18. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Industrial policy of the ministry of industry, energy and tourism. re-industrialization, competitiveness and job creation; La polititica industrial del Ministerio de Industria, energia y turismo. Reindustrializacion, competitividad y creacion de empleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero Artola, L.

    2013-06-01

    Today, the period of financial crisis and economic recession has led to a general rethinking of economic policy and, in particular, of industrial policy. In addition, there is a full consensus about the importance of a competitive industrial sector for the economy as a whole. Consequently, the European Union has identified the industrial policy as a strategic priority, which has to be based on these four pillars: innovation, internal market, access to credit and human capital. Spain, in line with the EU, has also reviewed its industrial policy, identifying the recovery of the industry share of the GDP as a fundamental objective. This goal will be achieved by an active industrial policy, including structural reforms and the promotion of a competitive industry with high added value and ability to compete in foreign markets and to generate qualified employment.

  20. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  1. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  2. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  3. 78 FR 42965 - Guidance for Industry: Enforcement Policy Regarding Investigational New Drug Requirements for Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Enforcement Policy Regarding Investigational New Drug Requirements for Use of Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation To Treat Clostridium difficile Infection Not Responsive to Standard Therapies; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  4. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  5. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; McMahon, Matthew [Appalachian State University

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply

  6. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overv...

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution and Policies for Restructuring the Steel and Iron Industry in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Novy, M.

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of a three year Industrial Metabolism Project entitled "Regional Material Balance Approaches to Long-Term Environmental Policy Planning" at IIASA which focuses on heavy metal pollution in the Black Triangle-Upper Silesia region of Poland. This report examines the economic importance of the iron and steel industry in the Katowice region, and its impact on heavy metal pollution. Environmental policies in Poland for limiting the emission of heavy metals and maintaining air qua...

  8. Impact of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Policy on Industrial Water Pollution and Groundwater Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cristina C.; Arlene B. Inocencio; Gundaya, Debbie M.

    2000-01-01

    Environmentalists and economists alike have assumed that greater economic openness will lead to increased industrial pollution in developing countries. This paper argues that trade liberalization does not necessarily result in more pollution intensive industrial development using the case of two economic centers in the Philippines. The study links changes in trade and exchange rate policy to the environment by identifying the environmental damage likely to be aggravated by the policy change t...

  9. Policy-driven university – industry linkages and regional innovation networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Won Sohn; Hyungjoo Kim; Jeong Hyop Lee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of the Korean government in creating university – industry linkages and in promoting the role of universities as knowledge providers in regional innovation systems. We investigate the different types of universities’ roles in the capital region of Seoul and in the noncapital regions. We argue that government policy is the main determinant that drives Korean universities to play the role of knowledge provider for industrial innovation. This policy has also bro...

  10. Review of policies and measures for energy efficiency in industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency in industry plays key roles in improving energy security, environmental sustainability and economic performance. It is particularly important in strategies to mitigate climate change. The evidence of great potential for cost-effective efficiency-derived reductions in industrial energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have prompted governments to implement numerous policies and measures aimed at improving their manufacturing industries' energy efficiency. What can be learned from these many and varied initiatives? This paper provides foundation for policy analysis for enhancing energy efficiency and conservation in industry, by surveying more than 300 policies, encompassing about 570 measures, implemented by governments in IEA countries, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. It outlines the measures' main features, their incidence of use, and their connections with specific technical actions and key stakeholders (i.e., how and where measures affect the energy efficiency of industry). It also examines the key features underlying the measures' success: (1) potential to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions cost-efficiently; (2) ease of policy development, execution and assessment and (3) ancillary societal effects. - Highlights: → Provides foundation for policy analysis for energy efficiency in industry. → Surveys more than 300 policies and their trends, of mainly IEA countries. → Outlines measures' features, incidence of use, technical actions and stakeholders. → Examines the key features underlying the measures' success.

  11. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories.

  12. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories. PMID:25708094

  13. Aspects Regarding the Gross Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids Content of Some By-Products Obtained from the Biofuel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of by-products, obtained from the production of biofuels were collected. These products were introduced in different proportions in feed rations of fattening lambs. Gross chemical composition of feed was analyzed and compared with mean reference values. Ash and cellulose content does not influence the results. The percentage of raw protein, specific for each feed, is correlated with the body weight gain. Fat quantity of rape meal is the closest to that of granulated feed and also the highest compared with the other groups, so that it can justify the higher productive performance achieved by group 1, who received rape meal in ratio. The concentration of fatty acids was determined from analyzed feed after oils extraction, their saponification and their reading with a HPLC. The data showed that the fatty acid level is relatively close to that specified in the literature. Euricic acid, that is responsible for the toxic potential of the rape, has been found in rape meal.

  14. Occupation and Industry Sex Segregation, Gender, and Workplace Support: The Use of Flexible Scheduling Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Cook, Alison; Minnotte, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how industry and occupation sex segregation are related to the use of flexible scheduling policies and perceptions of the career repercussions of using such policies. The analysis is performed on data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 2,810). Findings suggest that the percentage of women per industry…

  15. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  16. A Simple Forecasting Model Linking Macroeconomic Policy to Industrial Employment Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    A study detailed further a model linking monetary and fiscal policy to industrial employment in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of four United States regions. The model was used to simulate the impacts on area and regional employment of three events in the economy: changing real gross national product (GNP) via monetary policy, holding the…

  17. Fragmentation, Centralisation and Policy Learning: An Example from China’s Wind Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Korsnes; Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    2014-01-01

    "This paper seeks to understand what government mechanisms have allowed China's wind industry to grow as fast as it has over the past ten years. Instead of formal rules and regulations, this paper focuses on specific sets of institutional conditions that have been crucial in the process of high-speed implementation of wind energy in China. Specifically, fragmentation and centralisation, together with policy experimentation and policy learning, have been fundamental for policy flexibility and ...

  18. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  19. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  20. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  1. Policy Orientation for Power Industry in the 11th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaoping; Fang Yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power industry is one of the largest energy consuming and the heaviest pollutant discharging departments.To meet the targets of energy saving, consumption reduction and environment protection set forth by the state, policy supports are imperative to ensure healthy and sustained development of power industry.

  2. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author)

  3. 'Supply Push’ or ‘Demand Pull?’: Strategic Recommendations for the Responsible Development of Biofuel in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates China's biofuel industry—the third largest in the world—by combining a strength, weakness, opportunity and threats (SWOT) analysis with a method known as fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP). More specifically, the study employs SWOT analysis to identify the influential...... factors affecting the development of the biofuel industry in China. It then prioritizes their importance using the FAHP method. The study finds that high production costs, competition with other renewable energy resources, inconsistent policy and legislation support, and poor technical standards...... are impeding the growth of the biofuel industry of China. The study concludes by proposing strategic recommendations for how the industry can be made both leaner, more efficient and effective, and greener, more socially and environmentally sustainable. Some of these options focuses on improving technical...

  4. New Tax Rebate Policy Favorable to Aluminum Processing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>China has made the decision to increase export tax rebate rate for part of the non-ferrous products from April 1, 2009, among which the export tax rebate for aluminum alloy hollow profiles and other aluminum alloy profiles goes up to 13%. The new policy is a piece of good news for aluminum processing

  5. Partial Retirement and Pension Policy in Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Denis; Turner, John

    2000-01-01

    Examines the advantages and disadvantages of partial retirement--the transitional period between full-time employment and complete retirement--including easing the transition, labor market effects, and financial implications for social security systems and employers. Reviews partial retirement policies in eight countries and concludes that there…

  6. Radiation Safety Regulatory Policy and Rule for NORM Industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background information and the basic status concerning NORM industries in China is briefly introduced in the paper, including current natural radiation levels and the main results of a general survey related to NORM industries implemented by the Ministry of Environmental Protection. An introduction to the radiation safety regulatory policy and rule for NORM industries in China is also briefly presented. Finally, some considerations concerning NORM regulatory issues are discussed. (author)

  7. Roles for evolving markets, policies, and technology improvements in U.S. corn ethanol industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews changes in markets, technologies, and policies that affect corn ethanol profit-ability and industry expansion. Historically, the corn ethanol industry was stimulated by high petro-fuel prices, successful corn and processing technology improvements, and government incentives, such as a blenders' tax credit and mandated markets defined by the leaded fuel ban and reformulated fuel. Presently, the corn ethanol industry has expanded slightly beyond the point of a normal capita...

  8. Brazilian trade policies between 1994 and 2014 and its effects on productivity of the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hubertus Dörner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes protectionist measures adopted by Brazilian trade policy between 1994 and the present and possible impacts on productivity of domestic industry and welfare. To limit the scope of this paper, object is the automotive industry due to its outstanding economic importance and contribution to the development of the country. After a short presentation of the main protectionist measures in the world, aspects of productivity in general a brief summary of the automobile industry in Brazil is exposed. Thereafter, the most common protectionist measures as part of Brazilian foreign trade policy, in particular exchange rate, tariff and non-tariff policy and its possible impacts on the productivity of the automotive industry and welfare in the country are discussed

  9. Policy, economic, and industry repercussions of current e-business diffusion rate In European food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Ilias

    2005-01-01

    European policy is focussed on promoting the business techniques and new ways of working which will provide the economic and social foundation of the information society in Europe. To help policy makers define their programmes, and to monitor the effectiveness of these policies, it is essential to examine progress as well as identify areas requiring active support. This study examined the repercussions of e-business progress in the food sector based on the findings of a large quantitative sur...

  10. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  11. Environmental policy and industrial competitiveness: The pollution haven hypothesis reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Bommer, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    The Pollution-Haven Hypothesis suggests that tight environmental standards reduce domestic producers' competitiveness and give rise to their relocating to countries with more lenient standards. This paper questions that relocation is always caused by reduced competitiveness at home. By using a signaling approach, I show that relocation can be undertaken for purely strategic reasons. Relocation is the producer's tool to convince the policy maker to refrain from a further tightening of environm...

  12. Corporate youth policy: the approach of Russian industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kozina, Irina; Cheglakova, Liudmila

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which social support is provided to the young employees of companies in Russia. Through analysing the data of comparative monographic research, the purposes, priorities, tools and effects of corporate policy toward young people can be revealed. The authors arrived at the conclusion that the increased interest of the Russian business leadership toward their younger staff can be explained not only within the general context of modernization. It also is a respon...

  13. 77 FR 23673 - Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable-DON/USDA/DOE/DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable--DON/USDA/DOE/ DOT-FAA Advanced.... Federal government representatives will also be able to hear from stakeholders as to their abilities...

  14. Review on application and feasibility of biodiesel in Hong Kong and how government policies can support industry efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Chee-yun, Joyce.; 談知恩.

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong is vulnerable to energy and economic security due to the heavy dependence on imported fossil fuels. Waste has also been a major environmental management problem due to the amount of rubbish produced every year but lacking the technology and capital to manage different types properly. The objective of the dissertation is to study the feasibility of the use of biofuel in Hong Kong by recycling local waste. Current government policies in Hong Kong and overseas are being investigated o...

  15. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  16. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  17. Biofuels and certification. A workshop at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Charan; Lee, Henry

    2009-06-01

    Liquid biofuels can provide a substitute for fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Many countries have mandated the use of biofuels, by creating targets for their use. If not implemented with care, however, actions that increase biofuel production can put upward pressure on food prices, increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and exacerbate degradation of land, forest, and water sources. A strong global biofuels industry will not emerge unless these environmental and social concerns are addressed. Interested parties around the world are actively debating the design and implementation of policies to meet the biofuel goals, particularly those established in the United States and Europe. In general, policy options for managing the potential risks and benefits of biofuel development should specify not only clear standards governing biofuel content and production processes, but also certification processes for verifying whether particular biofuels meet those standards, and specific metrics or indicators on which to base the certification. Historically, many standards in the energy and environment fields have ultimately been set or supported by governments. Many of the certification processes have been voluntary, carried out by independent third parties. The biofuels case is a young one, however, with questions of goals, standards, certification, and metrics still in interdependent flux. The workshop focused its discussions on certification issues, but found the discussions naturally reaching into ongoing debates regarding possible goals, standards, and metrics. Many countries are proposing that for a biofuel to qualify as contributing to government-mandated targets or goals, it must be certified to meet certain standards. These standards could be limited to the amount of GHG emitted in the production process or could include a number of other environmental sustainability concerns ranging from deforestation and biodiversity to water resources. While the threat to

  18. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  19. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  20. APPLICATION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL CLASSIFICATION TOOLS FOR INDUSTRIAL POLICY MEASURES SUBSTANTIATION: CASE OF IMDUSTRIAL CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Smirnova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The modeling stage of development of industrial cluster is significant for the formation of industrial policy and institutional conditions for economic growth. The work deals with the modeling stage of the life cycle of industrial cluster, the results of testing applied to the petrochemical industry of the Russian Federation. Also, highlights issues approbation of this method by applying the results of simulation as a training set for building the classification tree and the interpretation of the results to justify investment and infrastructure projects.

  1. Influence of firm related factors and industrial policy regime on technology based capacity utilization in sugar industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Akpan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the technology based capacity utilization rate in sugar industry in Nigeria in the period 1970 to 2010. Data used in the study were obtained from the sugar firms, publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. Augmented Dicker Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified data to ascertain their stationarity and order of integration. The result reveals that some variables were stationary at level while some were stationary at first difference. The diagnostic statistics from the multiple log linear regression on the specified variables confirmed the reliability of the model. The empirical result reveals that sugar cane price and sugar industry’s real energy consumption have significant negative relationship with the technology based capacity utilization in the sugar industry in Nigeria. On the other hand, the wage rate of skill workers, industry’s, real research expenditure, human capital and period of import substitution have significant positive influenced on the technology based capacity utilization rate in the industry. Our findings suggest that policy measures aim at expanding the hectares of industrial sugarcane and increase production of refined petroleum fuel in the country will promote capacity utilization in the industry. Also policies targeted on the intensification of research and improved worker’s remuneration in the sub-sector is strongly advocated.

  2. Economic policy impact on competitiveness and efficiency of textile industry in central java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eko Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the competitiveness and efficiency as well as assessing the impact of economic policies on the performance of the textile industry in Central Java. The competitiveness methods use a RCA, TSI, and IIT Indexes. The policy impacts use Policy Analysis Matrix and sensitivity analysis. The results show that the textile industry in Central Java had only a comparative advantage, but not competitive one. The lower protection level made the textile industry was vulnerable to both internal and external shocks. In general economic efficiency was still lower, so it had lower effect on the productivity and competitiveness level.

  3. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, J. E.; Gwyn, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan's government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  4. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  5. The structural configurations of alcohol in Denmark: Policy, culture, and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Magelund Krarup, Troels

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes recent developments in Danish alcohol policy, culture, and industry. It reveals cross-sector dynamics and complexities that are often downplayed in existing literature. It traces how a stable “structural configuration” emerged in the 1960s-1980s between the three domains......, based on liberalization. A particular adolescent alcohol culture of intoxication, however, emerged in the 1990s, raising public awareness and calls for policy intervention. Contrary to what may have been expected, this did not represent a break with the liberal alcohol configuration in policy, culture......, and industry, but an increased segregation of adolescent consumption from adult consumption, exposing the former to severe legal and moral regulation. This analysis of historic-structural dynamics helps explain why adolescent drinking is dependent on more than isolated causal links such as between policy...

  6. Environmental policy and profitability. Evidence from Swedish industry

    OpenAIRE

    Brännlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of a “Porter effect” using firm level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. By utilizing a factor demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function which has a technology component dependent upon firm specific effective tax on CO2, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a reversed “Porter effect” in...

  7. Desenvolvimento, complexo industrial da saúde e política industrial Development, health-industrial complex and industrial policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo situa a questão da saúde no contexto do desenvolvimento nacional e da política industrial. Tomou-se a idéia de corte estruturalista, marxista e schumpeteriano, onde a indústria e as inovações constituem os elementos determinantes do dinamismo das economias capitalistas e de sua posição relativa na economia mundial. Todos os países que se desenvolveram e passaram a competir em melhores condições com os países avançados associaram uma indústria forte com uma base endógena de conhecimento, de aprendizado e de inovação. Todavia, na área da saúde essa visão é problemática, uma vez que os interesses empresariais se movem pela lógica econômica do lucro e não para o atendimento das necessidades da saúde. A noção de complexo industrial da saúde constitui uma tentativa e fornecer um referencial teórico que permita articular duas lógicas distintas: a sanitária e a do desenvolvimento econômico. O trabalho procurou mostrar, com base em dados de comércio exterior, como a desconsideração da lógica do desenvolvimento nas políticas de saúde levou a uma situação de vulnerabilidade econômica do setor que pode limitar os objetivos de universalidade, eqüidade e integralidade. Nesse contexto, propõe-se uma ruptura cognitiva e política com as visões antagônicas que colocam, de um lado, as necessidades da saúde e, de outro, da indústria. Um país que pretende chegar a uma condição de desenvolvimento e de independência requer, ao mesmo tempo, indústrias fortes e inovadoras, e um sistema de saúde inclusivo e universal.This paper puts health questions within the context of national development and industrial policy. It follows the idea of structuralist, Marxist and Schumpeterian approaches, in which industry and innovations form determining factors for the dynamism in capitalist economies and relative positions within the world economy. All countries that have developed and started to compete under better

  8. Environmental pollution and policies in China's Township and Village Industrial Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Taketoshi, Kazuki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze economic and policy factors affecting pollution by Township and Village Industrial Enterprises (TVIEs) in China and to discuss problems and directions in environmental policies for them. With the rapid growth of TVIEs since the early 1980s, pollution has been spreading into the rural areas. The large number and small size of TVIEs makes it difficult for TVIEs themselves and the government to implement environmental measures. The econometric ...

  9. The seed and agricultural biotechnology industries in India: An analysis of industry structure, competition, and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Spielman, David J.; Kolady, Deepthi; Cavalieri, Anthony; N.Chandrasekhara Rao

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, technological advances and policy reforms have opened up new opportunities for growth in India's seed and agricultural biotechnology industries. The impacts of such changes have been significant in India's cotton sector, but less so for the country's main cereal crops, where both yield and output growth rates have been relatively stagnant. Some public policymakers and corporate decisionmakers are confident that the private sector will help reverse these trends, arguing t...

  10. Confronting industry-distributional concerns in U.S. climate-change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most cost-effective policies for achieving CO2 abatement (e.g., standard carbon taxes) are considered politically unacceptable because of distributional consequences. This paper employs a simple analytically tractable model along with a more complex dynamic numerical general equilibrium model to assess the impacts of CO2 policies on key energy industries. We explore how CO2 policies can be designed to avoid adverse profit impacts in these industries, and assess the costs of meeting these potential distributional objectives. We find that without substantial added cost to the overall economy, the government can implement carbon abatement policies that protect equity values in fossil-fuel industries. The reason is that CO2 abatement policies have the potential to generate rents that are quite large in relation to the potential loss of profit. By enabling firms to retain only a small fraction of these potential rents - e.g., by grand-fathering a small percentage of CO2 permits, or by exempting a small fraction of emissions from the base of a carbon tax - the government can protect firms' profits and equity values. Government revenue has an efficiency value because it can be used to finance cuts in pre-existing distortionary taxes. Since the revenue-sacrifice involved in protecting firms' profits is small, the efficiency cost is small as well. We also find that expanding the compensation effort to include industries that significantly use carbon-based fuels does not substantially add to the overall economic cost. (authors)

  11. The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA’s social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents. Building on this literature, including systematic reviews, we develop a critically informed conceptual model of tobacco industry political activity. Methods and Findings We thematically analysed published papers included in two systematic reviews examining tobacco industry influence on taxation and marketing of tobacco; we included 45 of 46 papers in the former category and 20 of 48 papers in the latter (n = 65). We used a grounded theory approach to build taxonomies of “discursive” (argument-based) and “instrumental” (action-based) industry strategies and from these devised the Policy Dystopia Model, which shows that the industry, working through different constituencies, constructs a metanarrative to argue that proposed policies will lead to a dysfunctional future of policy failure and widely dispersed adverse social and economic consequences. Simultaneously, it uses diverse, interlocking insider and outsider instrumental strategies to disseminate this narrative and enhance its persuasiveness in order to secure its preferred policy outcomes. Limitations are that many papers were historical (some dating back to the 1970s) and focused on high-income regions. Conclusions The model provides an evidence-based, accessible way of understanding diverse corporate political strategies. It should enable public health actors and officials to preempt these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry’s claims. PMID:27649386

  12. THE U.S. CANE AND BEET SUGAR INDUSTRY UNDER ALTERNATIVE TRADE LIBERALIZATION POLICY OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze major issues the U.S. sugar industry is facing or will face in the near future and the impacts of alternative trade liberalization policies in the United States and the European Union (EU) on the U.S. sugar industry. Special attention is given to regional competitiveness in sugar production in the United States. A global sugar policy simulation model was used for this study. This study indicates that most sugar producing regions may be able to survive...

  13. The impact of the EU GMO policy on the competitiveness of the livestock industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kruppa, Bertalan

    2010-01-01

    The stringent GMO policy of the EU adversely affects the competitiveness of the member states’ livestock industries, in particular the poultry and pig sectors. This arises from the fact that the EU animal industry is highly dependent on the import of feedstuffs sourced from pro-GMO countries. The import is expected to face increasing difficulties especially due to two elements of the EU GMO policy: the prolonged approval process of new GM varieties and the zero tolerance threshold towards G...

  14. Biofuels from algae: technology options, energy balance and GHG emissions: Insights from a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCA STEFANIA; AGOSTINI ALESSANDRO; GIUNTOLI JACOPO; MARELLI Luisa

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade(s), algal biomass received increasing interest as a potential source of advanced biofuels production resulting in a considerable attention from research, industry and policy makers. In fact, algae are expected to offer several advantages compared to land-based biomass crops, including: better photosynthetic efficiency; higher oil yield; growth on non-fertile land; tolerance to a variety of water sources (i.e. fresh, brackish, saline) and CO2 re-using potential. The alga...

  15. Global assessment of research and development for algae biofuel production and its potential role for sustainable development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of economically deriving fuel from cultivating algae biomass is an attractive addition to the range of measures to relieve the current reliance on fossil fuels. Algae biofuels avoid some of the previous drawbacks associated with crop-based biofuels as the algae do not compete with food crops. The favourable growing conditions found in many developing countries has led to a great deal of speculation about their potentials for reducing oil imports, stimulating rural economies, and even tackling hunger and poverty. By reviewing the status of this technology we suggest that the large uncertainties make it currently unsuitable as a priority for many developing countries. Using bibliometric and patent data analysis, we indicate that many developing countries lack the human capital to develop their own algae industry or adequately prepare policies to support imported technology. Also, we discuss the potential of modern biotechnology, especially genetic modification (GM) to produce new algal strains that are easier to harvest and yield more oil. Controversy surrounding the use of GM and weak biosafety regulatory system represents a significant challenge to adoption of GM technology in developing countries. A range of policy measures are also suggested to ensure that future progress in algae biofuels can contribute to sustainable development. - Highlights: • Algae biofuels can make positive contribution to sustainable development in developing countries. • Bibliometric and patent data indicate that many lack the human capital to develop their own algae industry. • Large uncertainties make algae biofuels currently unsuitable as a priority for many developing countries

  16. Danish and Norwegian wind industry: The relationship between policy instruments, innovation and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article compares the role of policy instruments in stimulating long-term technological change in Danish and Norwegian wind industry. It concludes that although predictability has periodically been low, Denmark's broad portfolio of policies and measures has been well adapted to the different stages in the development of its wind industry. This has contributed to a high degree of innovation, successful establishment in niche markets, high degree of diffusion and establishment of domestic and international mass markets, and-in recent years-an increasingly successful replacement of senescent technology with new. The motivation of Norway's wind energy policies and measures-at least up until the late 1990s-has been to increase power supply rather than to stimulate industrial development and technological change. Policies and measures have been weaker than in Denmark; have been less stable over time; and stimulated the demand side much less. They have not sufficiently covered the wind industry's perceived needs on different stages in the development of new technology, and have not sufficiently stimulated continuous improvement, learning and new product development (dynamic efficiency) in industry. This has been part of the reason why there has been only a limited extent of innovation and diffusion of wind technology in Norway

  17. Research on the Policy Orientation of Government in Agricultural Industrialization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Governmental functions in agricultural industrialization management are analyzed, mainly including supplying public products, providing property right security, managing and protecting resources and environment as well as stabilizing the agro-product market. The policy orientation promoted by the government in agricultural industrialization management is pointed out: formulating a series of macro-management planning to guide and regulate agricultural industrialization operation; fully playing the comprehensive coordinating role of "economic manager"; making and carrying out relevant laws and regulations to normalize the implementation of agricultural industrialization management. To implement the industrial management of agriculture and promote the construction of new countryside, governments at all levels should eliminate the institutional barriers, transform governmental functions gradually and prioritize planning, regulation, service and supervision, changing from merely management to playing the role of market mechanism. Meanwhile, economic, legal and administrative means should be properly adopted to advance the industrial management and the healthy improvement of modern agriculture.

  18. Industrial policy of the European Community: strategic deficits and regional dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    SADLER, D

    1992-01-01

    Industrial policy of the European Community (EC) shifted in emphasis towards a neoliberal approach in the late 1 980s as one part of moves towards completion of the single internal market by 1992. Intervention by national governments was also to be curtailed (in theory at least) on the grounds that it would be contrary to fair competition and free trade. There is mounting evidence, however, that European industry is increasingly falling behind its main rivals based in the USA and Japan. This ...

  19. CAPITAL INDUSTRY PRACTICE AND AGGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE WORKING CAPITAL POLICIES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiu Oyesola Salawu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates fifteen diverse industrial groups over an extended period to establish the relationship between aggressive and conservative working capital practices. Data were sourced from the annual reports of the companies and the publications of Nigerian Stock Exchange. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the data collected. Results strongly show that firms in differing industries have significantly different current asset management policies. Additionally, the relative...

  20. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO2-limiting policy is enacted.

  1. Stabilizing the agricultural frontier: Leveraging REDD with biofuels for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the potential of a proposed policy model that would explicitly link the cultivation of biofuels with forest conservation (Biofuel + FC) as part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The model postulates that a ratio of 4:1 forest conservation to biofuel cultivation be linked to proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD + Biofuel), while a ratio of 9:1 biofuel cultivation to reforestation on degraded landscape (RDL + Biofuel) be linked to the afforestation/reforestation component of the Clean Development Mechanism. Both biofuel production options would be limited to the cultivation of woody perennial biofuel species on low biomass landscapes in order to maximize the carbon benefits of the proposed policy model. The potential to conserve forest, avoid GHG emissions, improve carbon sequestration, and produce renewable energy are evaluated by an illustrative model for five case studies (Pará – Brazil, East Kalimantan – Indonesia, Madagascar, Colombia and Liberia). The Biofuel + FC policy model is then compared with three counterfactual scenarios: REDD Alone with no biofuel cultivation; Biofuel Alone with expanded biofuel cultivation in the absence of REDD and a Most Likely scenario where REDD and biofuel cultivation are implemented without explicit regulatory linkages. The proposed policy model would leverage forest carbon with biofuel markets, which would reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve biodiversity, as well as improve human welfare in developing countries, a win–win–win strategy for sustainable development. -- Highlights: ► We propose to link biofuel cultivation with forest conservation (REDD + Biofuels). ► A similar proposal to support reforestation on degraded landscapes (RDL + Biofuels). ► Woody perennial biofuel species on low biomass landscapes maximize carbon benefits. ► REDD+ revenues can subsidize and foster sustainable biofuels. ► Production of

  2. Energy conservation potential in China’s petroleum refining industry: Evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A long-term equilibrium relationship of energy demand in China’s petroleum refining industry is established. • The sectoral energy conservation potential is evaluated by using scenarios analysis. • Energy prices, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure affect electricity intensity. • Future policy for energy conservation in China’s petroleum refining industry is suggested. - Abstract: China is currently the second largest petroleum refining country in the world due to rapid growth in recent years. Because the petroleum refining industry is energy-intensive, the rapid growth in petroleum refining and development caused massive energy consumption. China’s urbanization process will guarantee sustained growth of the industry for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the energy conservation potential of the petroleum industry. This paper estimates the energy conservation potential of the industry by applying a cointegration model to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and some factors such as energy price, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure. The results show that R and D investment has the greatest reduction impact on energy intensity, and the growth of market participants (i.e. the decline of the share of state-owned companies) can improve energy efficiency of this industry. Under the advanced energy-saving scenario, the accumulated energy conservation potential will reach 230.18 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Finally, we provide some targeted policy recommendations for industrial energy conservation

  3. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  4. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed.

  5. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. PMID:26874262

  6. What new policies should South Africa's life insurance industry adopt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G

    1996-12-01

    By February 1996, the South African life insurance industry had paid out more than R75 million in AIDS-related claims. This situation requires imposition of controls that will make economic sense while reflecting the social responsibility of the insurance companies. AIDS mortality rates suggest that for each 10% of the infected insured population, the risk premium rates should increase 400%. Thus, without controls, the life insurance sector may collapse. While it has been charged that HIV testing associated with the provision of life insurance discriminates against infected individuals, failure to test compromises the rights of uninfected individuals in the individual assurance market. HIV test protocols can be used that protect applicants from false positive results, prevent fraud, and preserve confidentiality. Proposals to require five-year retesting have also been criticized but would protect the interests of uninfected individuals who want life insurance to remain affordable. In an innovative move, South Africa now includes "full-blown AIDS" among the list of "dreaded diseases" that trigger an immediate pay-out. While purchasing life insurance may fall low on the list of priorities of an infected person, demand continues, and two companies offer expensive products to those with Stage I and II disease. Medical insurance is also threatened by the increased costs associated with HIV/AIDS, and treatment protocols may be the only way to control medical expenses and assure the future of medical insurance. At this stage of the epidemic, no one seems prepared to meet their share of the costs associated with HIV/AIDS.

  7. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  8. Domestic policy consequences of new implementation models. Consequences for industrial niches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates to the consequences of domestic policy with the focus on new implementation models used for cost reduction of offshore development projects in Norway. The paper puts the attention to the consequences from implementation models on industrial niches (subcontractors)

  9. Explaining Employment Growth in Small Industrial Enterprises: Does Policy Matter? A Case Study for Central Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Schipper, Youdi

    1997-01-01

    Small-scale and cottage industries (SSMI) have received a considerable amount of attention in development strategies and policies in many countries. One of the main arguments in favour of small scale production is its potential to create employment, as it uses more labour per unit of output. Althoug

  10. 76 FR 40921 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and Radiology Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 75 FR 25271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy Concerning Certain Regulations Restricting the Sale and Distribution of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  12. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry, The Need for Changes in Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    have established rules and control systems for organic agriculture (the last decade). A break-through of organic food production is now taking place in some EU member states. This third change is indicated by more positive attitudes to organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing...... need for a more appropriate respons in the food policy....

  13. State Development Agencies and Employment Expansion. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Alfred S.

    The central aim of this study is to place into the perspective of history, economic theory, and public policy the steps taken by the states to attract new industries, to stimulate the demand for new products, to encourage more tourists, and thus to speed their economic growth and increase employment. Thus, this is a study of the state development…

  14. Misalignment and Alignment in Academic-Industry Collaboration and Research Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Jane Bjørn; Irwin, Alan

    In this paper, we develop a framework for misalignment and alignment with particular reference to academic-industry collaboration. Building upon an extended qualitative study of seven companies, we argue that misalignment plays an important role with far-reaching implications for research policy....

  15. Potential Challenges Faced by the U.S. Chemicals Industry under a Carbon Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemicals have become the backbone of manufacturing within industrialized economies. Being energy-intensive materials to produce, this sector is threatened by policies aimed at combating and adapting to climate change. This study examines the worst-case scenario for the U.S. chemicals industry when a medium CO2 price policy is employed. After examining possible industry responses, the study goes on to identify and provide a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. If climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies to mitigate the impacts of rising energy costs, the examination shows that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competiveness of the U.S. chemicals industry over the next two decades. In the long run, there exist technologies that are available to enable the chemicals sector to achieve sufficient efficiency gains to offset and manage the additional energy costs arising from a climate policy.

  16. Beyond product innovation; improving innovation policy support for SMEs in traditional industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintjes, R.J.M.; Douglas, D.; Fairburn, J.; Hollanders, H.J.G.M.; Pugh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Innovation support measures in the EU are mostly designed to support product innovation in R&D intensive sectors. To increase the still considerable contribution to regional employment and competitiveness from SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries a broader innovation (policy) mix is more app

  17. Hydrodynamics-Biology Coupling for Algae Culture and Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Olivier; Sainte-Marie, Jacques; Sialve, Bruno; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae represents an acute optimization problem for industry. There is a wide range of parameters that must be taken into account in the development of this technology. Here, mathematical modelling has a vital role to play. The potential of microalgae as a source of biofuel and as a technological solution for CO2 fixation is the subject of intense academic and industrial research. Large-scale production of microalgae has potential for biofuel applications owing to ...

  18. Methodological Foundations of Clustering and Innovativeness for Establishing the Competitive Production of Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Oleksandr V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to study the worldwide trends in development of innovative processes and creation of cluster structures for elaborating methodological foundations for establishing the competitive production of biofuels. The article highlights the cluster approaches in conducting the global commercial activities that create effective mechanisms and tools to encourage innovation-investment regional development and can be characterized by their relevance for the Ukrainian economy. Emphasis is made on the matter that clustering is one of the key tools for structuring the energy market, integrated exploiting the potential of bioenergy industry sector, management of the economic policies of redistribution of value added, implementation of the growth of investment attractiveness of the biofuel industry in our country. It has been concluded that cluster development in the biofuel production will stimulate specialization and cooperation processes in the agro-industrial economy sector, bringing together related businesses in the direction of an effective interaction, thereby ensuring a high level of competitiveness of biofuels in both the national and the international markets.

  19. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  20. Biofuels: stakes, perspectives and researches; Biocarburants: enjeux, perspectives et recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Ballerin, D.; Montagne, X.

    2004-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) is a major intervener of the biofuels sector, from the production to the end-use in engines. In this press conference, the IFP takes stock of the technological, environmental and economical stakes of today and future biofuel production processes and of their impact on transports. This document gathers 2 presentations dealing with: IFP's research strategy on biofuels (transparencies: context; today's processes: ethanol, ETBE, bio-diesel; tomorrows processes: biomass to liquid; perspectives), bio-diesel fuel: the Axens process selected by Diester Industrie company for its Sete site project of bio-diesel production unit. The researches carried out at the IFP on biofuels and biomass are summarized in an appendix: advantage and drawbacks of biofuels, the ethanol fuel industry, the bio-diesel industry, biomass to liquid fuels, French coordinated research program, statistical data of biofuel consumption in France, Spain and Germany. (J.S.)

  1. 78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... provide in its report: An overview of trends and policies in India affecting trade and foreign direct... COMMISSION Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...' perception of (1) recent changes in India's trade and investment policies in selected sectors and (2)...

  2. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  3. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  4. Sustainable industrial policy and environment. challenges and opportunities; Politica industrial sostenible y medio ambiente. Dificultades y oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle Munoz, M.

    2013-06-01

    The European Union is aware that the current model of production and consumption contributes to global warming, pollution, intensive use of materials and depletion of natural resources and, for that reason, it promotes since years the adoption of more sustainable patterns. Increasing efficiency in the use of resources in the generation and use of energy and the production of goods could also be a powerful source of innovation and a major industrial competitiveness, according to the Commission. This article discusses the existing complementary strategies in efficiency in the use of resources, raw materials, energy, and the energy and climate package adopted in 2008, and the difficulties and opportunities that the industry is facing to implement this policy in the current economic slowdown. (Author)

  5. The current potential of algae biofuels in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of future uncertainties about industrial algae biofuel production, the UAE is planning to become "a world leader in biofuels from the algae industry by 2020;" thus joining major countries which have already started producing renewable energy and biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from rene...

  6. Indonesian And Australian Tax Policy Implementation In Food And Agriculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanggoro Pamungkas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy is one of the most important policy in consideration of investment development in certain industry. Research by Newlon (1987, Swenson (1994 and Hines (1996 concluded that tax rate is one of the most important thing considered by investors in a foreign direct investment. One of tax policy could be used to attract foreign direct investment is income tax incentives. The attractiveness of income tax incentives to a foreign direct investment is as much as the attractiveness to a domestic investment (Anwar and Mulyadi, 2012. In this paper, we have conducted a study of income tax incentives in food and agriculture industry; where we conduct a thorough study of income tax incentives and corporate performance in Indonesian and Australian food and agriculture industry. Our research show that there is a significant influence of income tax incentives to corporate performance. Based on our study, we conclude that the significant influence of income tax incentives to Indonesian corporate performance somewhat in a higher degree than the Australian peers. We have also concluded that Indonesian government provide a relatively more interesting income tax incentives compare to Australian government. However, an average method of net income –a method applied in Australia– could be considered by Indonesian government to avoid a market price fluctuation in this industry

  7. Security Policies for Web Service Invocation of Automotive Industry Chain Collaboration Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Min

    2007-01-01

    To meet the actual requirements of an automotive industry chain collaboration platform (AICCP), this paper offers several simple but effective security policies based upon the traditional security mechanism of data transfer, including user ID verification with SOAP (simple object access protocol). header, SOAP message encryption with SOAP extension and XML(extensible markup language) file encryption and decryption. Application of these policies to the AICCP for more than one year proves the effectiveness of the data exchange practice between the AICCP and enterprise Intranet.

  8. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  9. Australian Government Policies and the Balance of Trade Performance of the Transportation Equipment Industry: A Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dale B Truett; Lila J. Truett

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates factors that have affected the trade balance of the Australian motor vehicle industry and considers the impact of Australian government policies to encourage the development of that industry. It presents an overview of the industry, discusses the history of government policies to promote both manufacturing and exports of motor vehicle products, and provides a comparison of Australia with other developing producers of motor vehicles. A linear regression model is employe...

  10. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  11. No 2460. Proposal of resolution for the creation of an inquiry commission for the study of the reasons of the freezing up of the implementation of an ambitious policy of biofuels utilization; No 2460. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete visant a etudier les blocages a la mise en place d'une politique ambitieuse d'utilisation des biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Biofuels are a major stake of the French environmental, economical, agricultural and energy policy. The development of biofuels in France is thus a strong political will. However, the direct incorporation of ethanol in automotive fuels, as foreseen in the 2005 finance law, is in practice a complete check for several possible reasons listed in this document (fiscal, administrative and technical). As a consequence, an inquiry commission is created with the mission of analyzing the real reasons of the brakes to the implementation of an ambitious policy of use of biofuels. (J.S.)

  12. NGOs and gender policy: some issues from the south Indian silk-reeling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux, L

    1993-10-01

    In India, silk reeling, the middle stage in silk production, is potentially very profitable, and the silk industry has been required to adopt gender-aware policies such as appointing female staff and introducing gender sensitization training. To date, policies designed to encourage women's entrepreneurship in the reeling industry have been unsuccessful. Men have appropriated credit issued in women's names, and no women's cooperatives are currently in operation. The policies designed to encourage female entrepreneurship in reeling woefully overlooked the complexity of this work which involves a substantial investment of capital and significant risk. Women and girls continue to work as unpaid family workers and wage laborers without the benefits of governmental policies to protect their interests. In fact, attempts to introduce labor legislation to protect women have been blocked on the national level by the powerful Reelers' Association. Policies which address gender issues in the family and in the wider context of the silk industry are also lacking, and there is a wide variation in how women are able or unable to manipulate their positions to their advantage. Women's inabilities are the root cause of their inability to become entrepreneurs and improve their labor status. Nongovernmental organizations can enhance entrepreneurship and cooperative development by improving training in all aspects of running a business and in group formation. Women laborers must organize to improve wages and working conditions, and women must be able to increase their control over income and resources and their access to the outside world even as they decrease the time spent on unpaid reproductive labor. PMID:12320732

  13. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed.

  14. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Jiang; Yalin Lei; Li Li; Jianping Ge

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the...

  15. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  16. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  17. Development of a sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges.

  18. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  19. Priming the Pump with Grass, Trees, and Waste: An exploration of biofuels policy and research discourse and its potential to alter living spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Davitt, Marcia S

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels, a solar-sourced technology that can be processed from non-fossilized plant matter, have significant appeal as a means of securing a reliable, sustainable energy supply. They appear to offer significant potential by virtue of being harvestable from common plant life such as prairie grasses. I argue that a shared set of knowledge claims emerging from multiple energy/environmental institutions in Germany and the U.S. are linked by a shared set of assumptions. I characterize these cl...

  20. Optimal localisation of next generation Biofuel production in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mossberg, Johanna [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with large production capacities are likely to be required. Feedstock intake capacities in the range of about 1-2 million tonnes per year, corresponding to a biomass feed of 300-600 MW, can be expected, which may lead to major logistical challenges. To enable expansion of biofuel production in such large plants, as well as provide for associated distribution requirements, it is clear that substantial infrastructure planning will be needed. The geographical location of the production plant facilities is therefore of crucial importance and must be strategic to minimise the transports of raw material as well as of final product. Competition for the available feedstock, from for example forest industries and CHP plants (combined heat and power) further complicates the localisation problem. Since the potential for an increased biomass utilisation is limited, high overall resource efficiency is of great importance. Integration of biofuel production processes in existing industries or in district heating systems may be beneficial from several aspects, such as opportunities for efficient heat integration, feedstock and equipment integration, as well as access to existing experience and know-how. This report describes the development of Be Where Sweden, a geographically explicit optimisation model for localisation of next generation biofuel production plants in Sweden. The main objective of developing such a model is to be able to assess production plant locations that are robust to varying

  1. Yesterday and Tomorrow of the Palm Oil Biodiesel : A Functional Analysis of the Biofuel Technological Innovation System in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Maziar

    2013-01-01

    The world needs energy everyday more than yesterday. It depends heavily on fossil fuels for satisfying this need, but these resources create environmental problems and will deplete one day. Biofuels are a suitable substitute and Malaysia has great potentials for developing them. However, after a short-lived promising start, the biodiesel (palm oil methyl ester) industry of Malaysia is facing a crisis now. Instead of using the neo-classical approach and proposing policy interventions based on ...

  2. Revitalizing Old Industrial Base of Northeast China: Process,Policy and Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingyu

    2008-01-01

    Northeast China is the largest old industrial base of China that endured persistent influence of the past planned economy system.This region has lost its leading place since the reform and opening up,and became a backward region by contrast with the coastal areas.This paper elaborates the evolutionary process of the old industrial base of Northeast China,analyses the main reasons for the decline,gives a preliminary evaluation on the revitalizing polices in recent years,and points out major long-term challenges for future revitalization.It concludes that for Northeast China,a relative declining area:1) it is indispensable to get the long-term policy support from the central government;2) system reform and structure adjustment are the crucial strategies,particularly the reform of the large and medium state-owned enterprises;and developing new industries is as important as upgrading traditional advantaged industries;3) the local governments should play an indirect role,avoiding from any unnecessary intervention on economic activity;and 4) social security and investment climate must be improved simultaneously.In addition,the author stresses that the lack of knowledge on the nature of old industrial base had led to failures of the past initiatives,and revitalizing the old industrial base should be treated as a holistic regional project including economy growth,society progress and environment improvement.

  3. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  4. Biofuel Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    As concerns regarding increasing energy prices, global warming and renewable resources continue to grow, so has scientific discovery into agricultural biomass conversion. Plant Biomass Conversion addresses both the development of plant biomass and conversion technology, in addition to issues surrounding biomass conversion, such as the affect on water resources and soil sustainability. This book also offers a brief overview of the current status of the industry and examples of production...

  5. The development of the biofuels in the french farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, developed to compensate the farmers incomes after 1993, the biofuels are going today on a second development phase, in the framework of the Kyoto protocol. The aim of this paper is to define the particularities of the biofuels production agricultural phase. The most important aspects of the common agricultural policy (PAC) for the biofuels are underlined. The costs of the raw material and the tool developed by the INRA to estimate the biofuels costs are also presented. In conclusion the authors propose some reference results. (A.L.B.)

  6. Livelihood implications of biofuel crop production: Implications for governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunsberger, Carol; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve;

    2014-01-01

    While much attention has focused on the climate change mitigation potential of biofuels, research from the social sciences increasingly highlights the social and livelihood impacts of their expanded production. Policy and governance measures aimed at improving the social effects of biofuels have...... by their cultivation in the global South – income, food security, access to land-based resources, and social assets – revealing that distributional effects are crucial to evaluating the outcomes of biofuel production across these dimensions. Second, we ask how well selected biofuel governance mechanisms address...

  7. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  8. Incorporating GIS data into an agent-based model to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an extension to the agent-based model "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by incorporating GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the model, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved model exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.

  9. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  10. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  11. State Policy of Stimulation of Industrial Competitiveness under Conditions of Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Viacheslav H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of state regulatory policy of stimulation of economic growth, increase of efficiency of activity of industrial branches of the country. It considers examples of foreign experience in the part of state support of domestic manufacturers. It shows possible variants of integration of co-operation between CIS countries on the basis of specialisation, co-operation and joint activity for achieving economic growth of economies. It demonstrates an automated system of mass servicing of customers, which is offered to be used in the structure of associations of trade enterprises. It offers ways of achievement of competitive advantages of domestic enterprises under conditions of globalisation by means of introduction of clusters of the consumer market enterprises. The article reveals their shortcomings and possibilities of development in the territory of Ukraine under conditions of limited financial resources. It acknowledges that measures of the fiscal policy should be directed, first of all, at support of creation of associations of medium enterprises of the light and other branches of industry and agriculture, which have development potential. It identifies main elements of creation of state programmes of support and development of the cluster form of organisation of the light and other branches of industry, agriculture and trade.

  12. Convergence, Creative Industries and Civil Society Towards a New Agenda for Cultural Policy and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mercer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I start with a personal experience "cameo" from 1996 in Australia and extrapolate from that some issues that remain relevant in the sometimes trou-bled relationship between cultural studies and cultural policy. These are encapsu-lated in the three "cs" of convergence, creative industries and civil society which provide a new context for both new research and new policy settings. The argu-ment is developed and situated in historical terms by examining the "cultural technologies", especially the newspaper, and subsequently print media in the 19th century, electronic media in the 20th century and digital media in the 21st century which provide the content, the technologies and the rituals for "imagining" our sense of place and belonging. This is then linked to ways of understanding culture and cultural technologies in the context of governmentality and the emergence of culture as a strategic object of policy with the aim of citizen- and population for-mation and management. This argument is then linked to four contemporary "testbeds" - cultural mapping and planning, cultural statistics and indicators, cul-tural citizenship and identity, and research of and for cultural policy - and priori-ties for cultural policy where cultural studies work has been extremely enabling and productive. The article concludes with an argument, derived from the early 20th century work of Patrick Geddes of the necessity of linking, researching, un-derstanding and operationalising the three key elements and disciplines of Folk (anthropology, Work (economics, and Place (geography in order to properly situate cultural policy, mapping and planning and their relationship to cultural studies and other disciplines.

  13. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  14. Assessment on the Use of Marginal Areas for Cultivation of Feedstock for Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.

    2011-01-01

    The Philippines has made a major push toward development of biofuel, enacting biofuels mandates and subsidies by the Biofuels Law. To maintain food security, biofuels policies currently restrict feedstock production to marginal lands. This raises its own issues related to commercial viability, small farmer livelihood, and environmental sustainability. This study conducts a field investigation of these issues, covering small holder feedstock producers producing sugarcane, cassava, and coconut....

  15. Municipal strategies for introducing housing on industrial estates as part of compact-city policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals Altes, W.K.; Tambach, M.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting mixed-use development is part of policies aimed at enhancing urban quality. Until recently, however, industry and housing have rarely been found together in the same development as there is a long tradition of keeping these functions separate. As part of a compact-city policy, Dutch local

  16. The divergent transitions towards sustainable biofuel networks/chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Karamichas, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this exploratory paper we investigate how Capabilities, Transaction Costs and Vertical Scope co-evolve, by testing the Jacobides & Winter (2005) model on the Biofuels Industry in the area of the EU. The theoretical framework is based on the Industrial Architecture theory but also on Transaction Costs Economics, Resource Based View and on the concept of the Dynamic Capabilities. Qualitative data on the institutional environment of the Biofuels Industry in the EU-15 was collected. Via in...

  17. Political economy of China's trade policy:the evidence from industrial protection in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Bin

    2006-01-01

    The theory of the political economy of trade policy,combining public choice and neoclassical trade theories,studies the level and pattern of trade intervention from the perspective of policy decision-making process,by stressing on income distribution instead of economic efficiency.The paper attempts to apply such an endogenous trade theory to an empirical study of China.On the basis of a formal revised model of political economy of trade protection,it tests theoretical hypotheses concerning the political and economic determinants of cross-sector trade protection in the Chinese industry at various periods.The results show that trade protection in China fits into China's national development strategy of fast catching-up with the developed world.

  18. Assessing biofuel crop invasiveness: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.

  19. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong’s zero wine and beer tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sungwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. Methods The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as “alcohol tax” and “alcohol industry”. Relevant documents (97 were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Results Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city’s changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government’s strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the

  20. Legal regulation of the reuse of water resources in the oil, natural gas and biofuels industry; A regulamentacao juridica do reuso dos recursos hidricos na Industria do petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Flaviana Marques de; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Constitution of 1988 is a guide for protect natural resources in the country, it was from her that the right to an ecologically balanced environment was elevated to the category of fundamental human right of all was changed understanding regarding the use water resources, irrigation water is characterized as a resource with economic value. In this scenario emerging legal standards for protecting the environment and water resources, which must necessarily be committed to the development of economic activities that use natural resources, and still worry about their conservation and preservation for the use of present and future generations, in line with the desires dictated by sustainable development. Therefore, this work has the scope to verify the legal regulation of reuse of water resources in the context of activities developed by the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, to promote optimum use of water resources in the country, and this can lead to benefits social, economic and environmental. The importance of the study emerges precisely in the industrial sector, and specifically in the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, in order that through these activities is increased the negative potential of natural resources, consequently increasing the ability to cause negative externalities either by adopting systematic contrary to sustainable development, as the high standards of environmental degradation caused by the activities of this kind. The methodology for conducting this study is theoretical and descriptive, developing through the analysis and interpretation of data obtained from the verification of magazines, books and monographs, concerning the subject of water resources and, by examining done about the current environmentalist doctrine and appreciation of constitutional and legislative documents infra constitutional above existing on the subject. (author)

  1. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor...... and accrual of land rents to smallholders, compared with the more capital-intensive plantation approach. Moreover, the benefits of outgrower schemes are enhanced if they result in technology spillovers to other crops. These results should not be taken as a green light for unrestrained biofuels development...

  2. Biofuel goes underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-09-15

    Kirkland Lake Gold, a gold producer, is switching to a blend of biofuel to power the mine's underground equipment. Kirkland Lake Gold is using a soy-based product which has several advantages: less expensive: for example, the soybean-based biofuel used by Kirkland Lake Gold is 10 cents a liter less expensive than diesel; cleaner: biofuel can reduce emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to conventional diesel; and safer: biofuel is safer than miner's diesel because it has a much higher flash point. Testing with soybean-based biofuel began in the early 90s but its price was too high at that time. The federal government's regulation of renewable fuel quotas has led to the better availability of biofuel now. The supply should be doubled to meet government quotas.

  3. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  4. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  5. A resilience perspective on biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas P; Rao, P Suresh C; Park, Jeryang; Zhao, Fu

    2011-07-01

    The recent investment boom and collapse of the corn ethanol industry calls into question the long-term sustainability of traditional approaches to biofuel technologies. Compared with petroleum-based transportation fuels, biofuel production systems are more closely connected to complex and variable natural systems. Especially as biofeedstock production itself becomes more independent of fossil fuel-based supports, stochasticity will become an increasingly important, inherent feature of biofuel feedstock production systems. Accordingly, a fundamental change in design philosophy is necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the biofuels industry. To respond effectively to unexpected disruptions, the new approach will require systems to be designed for resilience (indicated by diversity, efficiency, cohesion, and adaptability) rather than more narrowly defined measures of efficiency. This paper addresses important concepts in the design of coupled engineering-ecological systems (resistance, resilience, adaptability, and transformability) and examines biofuel conversion technologies from a resilience perspective. Conversion technologies that can accommodate multiple feedstocks and final products are suggested to enhance the diversity and flexibility of the entire industry. PMID:21309075

  6. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  7. Stagnating Jatropha Biofuel Development in Southwest China: An Institutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from jatropha has been considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels for some time. Consequently, China started promoting jatropha as one of the options to meet its ever-increasing energy consumption, and the Chinese biodiesel industry also gained interest. However, the excitement of the biofuel industry in jatropha faded after it did not bring about the expected results. This article investigates the stagnation in jatropha development and production for biodiesel in China, using two detailed case studies of jatropha biofuel production in southeast China. It is found that the underdeveloped biodiesel policy and regulation, such as a rather late formulation of standards for biodiesel (especially the B5 and the absence of mandatory targets, is an important reason for hampering jatropha development. Besides that, lack of financial support undermined sustained jatropha planting at the farm level and lack of sustained commitment from state-owned enterprises or private companies over a long time span further contributed to jatropha project’s failure. Better implementation of the rule of law, mandatory blending requirements, hazard insurance, as well as continuous financial support, might improve the continuation of jatropha plantation schemes.

  8. LCA of Transportation Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Adlam, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An increasing need to find alternatives to fossil fuels, and a growing awareness of the global warming effect has resulted in substantial research and development on biofuels. Biofuels are being considered a potential substitution of petroleum based fuels in the transport sector.With this increasing interest in biofuels comes the need to establish the environmental effect of the fuels. Results from several life cycle assessments reviewed in this report show that there are some benefits of bio...

  9. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and implement those standards. The public will have an opportunity to provide input on this proposal... infrastructure policies affecting the supply, secure transport, and distribution of biofuels; and (c) Identifying... authorities made available in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008: (i) Loan guarantees for...

  10. A modelling approach to estimate the European biofuel production: from crops to biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodic, Melissa [Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (IFP/INRA), Paris (France). Instituto Frances do Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Today, in the context of energy competition and climate change, biofuels are promoted as a renewable resource to diversify the energy supply. However, biofuel development remains controversial. Here, we will present a way to make an environmental and economic cost and benefit analysis of European biofuels, from the crops until the marketed products, by using a linear programming optimization modelling approach. To make this European biofuel production model, named AGRAF, possible, we decided to use different independent linear programming optimization models which represent the separate parts of the process: European agricultural production, production of transforming industries and refinery production. To model the agricultural and the refining sections, we have chosen to improve existing and experimented models by adding a biofuel production part. For the transforming industry, we will create a new partial equilibrium model which will represent stake holders such as Sofiproteol, Stereos, etc. Data will then be exchanged between the models to coordinate all the biofuel production steps. Here, we will also focus on spatialization in order to meet certain of our requirements, such as the exchange flux analysis or the determination of transport costs, usually important in an industrial optimization model. (author)

  11. Biofuels and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. STREBKOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The major source of energy comes from fossil fuels. The current situation in the field of fuel and energy is becoming more problematic as world population continues to grow because of the limitation of fossil fuels reserve and its pressure on environment. This review aims to find economic, reliable, renewable and non-polluting energy sources to reduce high energy tariffs in Russian Federation. Biofuel is fuel derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Other alternative energy sources including solar energy and electric power generation are also discussed. Over 100 Mt of biomass available for energy purposes is produced every year in Russian. One of the downsides of biomass energy is its potential threatens to food security and forage industries. An innovative approach proved that multicomponent fuel (80% diesel oil content for motor and 64% for in stove fuel can remarkably reduce the costs. This paper proposed that the most promising energy model for future is based on direct solar energy conversion and transcontinental terawatt power transmission with the use of resonant wave-guide technology.

  12. STUDY ON BEIJING'S EMERGING MOBILE COMMUNICATION INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER AND ITS POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Tie-shan; LI Guo-ping; LU Ming-hua

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary and illustrative case study of Beijing's emerging mobile communication industri-al (MCI) cluster, which helps understand the cluster by qualitative analysis and description. Beijing's MCI cluster is emerg-ing as far as the competence of the industry and its spatial concentration are concerned, although it is not the type of thecluster described by PORTER due to the low competence of indigenous firms. The formation of the cluster can be ex-plained by means of the factor and demand conditions of Beijing. However, it is mostly determined by the multinationalsthat promote the growth of the industry and the formation of the cluster, and by the government that also plays a key rolein many ways. As a matter of fact, the interaction between the multinationals and the local government is the key to under-standing the formation of the cluster. Allinall, Beijing's emerging MCI cluster is a value-chain, geographicallyconcentrat-ed but non-localized cluster, which is highly dominated by the multinationals and the local government. Its special character-istics bear some policy implications as to the change of the roles of the local government and the localization of multination-als, etc.

  13. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  14. Imported palm oil for biofuels in the EU: Profitability, greenhouse gas emissions and social welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the social desirability of renewable diesel production from imported palm oil in the EU when greenhouse gas emissions are taken into account. Using a partial market equilibrium model, we also study the sectoral social welfare effects of a biofuel policy consisting of a blend mandate in a small EU country (Finland), when palm oil based diesel is used to meet the mandated quota for biofuels. We develop a market equilibrium model for three cases: i) no biofuel policy, ii) biofuel policy consisting of socially optimal emission-based biofuel tax credit and iii) actual EU biofuel policy. Our results for the EU biofuel market, Southeast Asia and Finland show very little evidence that a large scale use of imported palm oil in diesel production in the EU can be justified by lower greenhouse gas emission costs. Cuts in emission costs may justify extensive production only if low or negative land-use change emissions result from oil palm cultivation and if the estimated per unit social costs of emissions are high. In contrast, the actual biofuel policies in the EU encourage the production of palm oil based diesel. Our results indicate that the sectoral social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland may be negative and that if emissions decrease under actual biofuel policy, the emission abatement costs can be high regardless of the land use change emissions. - Highlights: • We study the social desirability of renewable diesel production from palm oil in EU. • We also study sectoral social welfare impacts of actual biofuel policy in Finland. • Life cycle GHG emission costs of diesels are included in the economic analysis. • Extensive use of palm oil diesel in EU is difficult to justify by climate benefits. • The social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland can be negative

  15. Innovation-enabling policy and regime transformation towards increased energy efficiency: The case of the circulator pump industry in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2015-01-01

    to transform an existing socio-technical regime. The paper highlights the importance of policies to reduce barriers towards innovation and energy efficiency and shows that it is not always policy-makers that establish the crucial policies that change the innovation dynamics for the benefit of the environment......When new energy efficient products are struggling with their commercialisation and diffusion into widespread applications you would typically expect policy-makers and green lead-users to guide the way. This paper examines the case of the hot water circulator pump industry in Europe, where parts...... of the industry envisioned and worked for a voluntary energy label, bringing technological innovation, new business and energy savings of approx. 85% for each new circulator pump. The case study explores the complexities of innovation processes where technology, market, actors and policy co-evolve over time...

  16. A review of the impacts of tobacco industry privatisation: Implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Fooks, Gary; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    State-owned tobacco companies, which still account for 40% of global cigarette production, face continued pressure from, among others, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to be privatised. This review of available literature on tobacco industry privatisation suggests that any economic benefits of privatisation may be lower than supposed, because private owners avoid competitive tenders (thus underpaying for assets), negotiate lengthy tax holidays and are complicit in the smuggling of cigarettes to avoid import and excise duties. It outlines how privatisation leads to increased marketing, more effective distribution and lower prices, creating additional demand for cigarettes among new and existing smokers, leading to increased cigarette consumption, higher smoking prevalence and lower age of smoking initiation. Privatisation also weakens tobacco control because private owners, in their drive for profits, lobby aggressively against effective policies and ignore or overturn existing policies. This evidence suggests that further tobacco industry privatisation is likely to increase smoking and that instead of transferring assets from state to private ownership, alternative models of supply should be explored. PMID:21790502

  17. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  18. The Impact of Feedstock Supply and Petroleum Price Variability on Domestic Biofuel and Feedstock Markets – The Case of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Yuki; Blandford, David; Surry, Yves R.

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of biofuel use in preference to traditional petroleum-based transportation fuel has linked agricultural commodity markets and energy markets more closely together. Biofuel policies can involve multiple policy instruments, but studies examining their effects on biofuel feedstock and energy markets are scarce. In addition, the impact of alternative policy approaches in the context of variability in petroleum prices and the supply of biofuel feedstock has received limited attention...

  19. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind. PMID:20981716

  20. Energy choices under environmental controversy: the French biofuels case; Controverse environnemental et choix de filieres energetiques: les biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallot, A.

    2003-07-01

    In France, the persistence of biofuels at an experimental or pre-industrial stage, hangs on measures that were taken on the account of environmental policy in the energy sector. Our recent and thorough case study has resulted in the statement that biofuels do not offer the prospects for enough profitability to any economic agent - neither biomass providers nor energeticists - that would justify the investments necessary to reach large scale production. A real biofuel 'file' is not viable in a context where fossil energies dominate, nor in a context where the complete taking into account of environmental variables would have defeated the ''technological lock-in'' that nowadays excludes no-carbon technologies. We look for an explanation of the continuing public support to biofuels in the present peculiar context, where new measures of environmental policy are being decided in the energy sector without any agreement on the importance of environmental and other long term issues. For that matter, we propose a simple option value model, where both issues of irreversibility and uncertainty are tackled. (author)

  1. Emergence of green business models: The case of algae biofuel for aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergent business models seek to take advantage of new market mechanisms driven by technological changes, particularly those related to the production and delivery of clean or sustainable energy. Such business models often function at the intersection of various industries, with global views, and the resulting systems have distinct social, political, environmental, economic, technological, and business dimensions. Such holistic systems are not only difficult to develop but also require support from a broad range of actors with effective regulations and policies in place, such that the firm functions within a framework that integrates various factors. This study substantiates such a framework by detailing the nascent algae-based bio-fuel industry that caters to the aviation sector while arguing that businesses in the energy industry can emerge as a next-practice platform that drive a sixth wave of innovation. The framework begins with three basic enablers, innovation, flexibility, and sustainability, and explains how value from renewable energy technologies can be created and captured sustainably and innovatively with new market mechanisms implemented by firms with green business models. - Highlights: • We develop a framework that enables the emergence of green energy business models. • We present a case study on the algae based biofuel system for airline industry. • The green business models in energy are global in nature and are next practice platforms. • New market mechanisms and policy measures lead to sustainable energy business models. • Innovation, flexibility and sustainability are the basic enablers of the framework

  2. Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. A section of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted. Algal cell harvesting and oil extraction techniques tested and developed for algae discussed alongwith policies and economics are also provided.

  3. Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. A section of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted. Algal cell harvesting and oil extraction techniques tested and developed for algae discussed alongwith policies and economics are also provided. PMID:27620098

  4. Liquid biofuels - can they meet our expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Liquid biofuels are one of the options for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and the dependence on fossil fuels. This is reflected in the DIRECTIVE 2003/30/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport. The promotion of E10, an automotive fuel containing 10 percent bioethanol, is based on this directive. At present almost all bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as maize, corn or sugar beet and sugar cane in suitable climates. In view of shortages and rising prices of food, in particular in developing countries, the use of food and feed crops for biofuel production is increasingly criticized. Alternative sources of biomass are perennial grasses and wood, whose cellulose fraction can be converted to alcohol by the so called "second generation" processes, which seem to be close to commercial deployment. The use of the total plant biomass increases the biofuel yield per hectare as compared to conventional crops. Of special interest for biofuel production is woody biomass from forests as this avoids competition with food production on arable land. Historically woody biomass was for millennia the predominant source of thermal energy. Before fossil fuels came into use, up to 80 percent of a forest was used for fuel wood, charcoal and raw materials such as potash for trade and industry. Now forests are managed to yield up to 80 percent of high grade timber for the wood industry. Replacing sophisticatedly managed forests by fast growing biofuel plantations could make economic sense for land owners when a protected market is guaranteed by politics, because biofuel plantations would be highly mechanized and cheap to operate, even if costs for certified planting material and fertilizer are added. For forest owners the decision to clear existing long rotation forests for biofuel plantations would still be weighty because of the extended time of decades required to rebuild a

  5. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO2 emissions

  6. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    be comprehensive whereas policies in Estonia seem to be more open for interpretation. We have found little information on policies in Canada and Latvia, from which Sweden import significant amounts of biofuels today. Certification is a way to ascertain sustainability of forestry systems, which often includes both reforestation and other aspects. For further research we think it would be useful to make life cycle analyses of several fuels at the time, setting the same system boundaries, which enable a fully valid comparison and would reduce uncertainties. In addition we think that existing comparisons of national legislation concerning reforestation legislation needs to be amended in future studies with all European countries as well as other important forest nations of the world. If criteria for biofuels with low net greenhouse gas emissions are found to be needed for a specific purpose we suggest that all parties concerned (authorities, industry, land-owners etc.) are involved in the process of establishing the criteria. Emissions from the fuel chains should be considered from a life-cycle point of view and limits for the different steps of the production and utilisation chain could be set. In addition comparison of the climate impact of the emissions should be done by using radiative forcing calculations. The radiative impact will show the important impact of timing of emissions

  7. Management of University-Industry Linkages. Policy Forum No. 11. Proceedings from the Policy Forum Held at the IIEP (Paris, France, June 1-2, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Gudmund; Martin, Michaela

    To explore varying institutional responses to the structural problems involved in university-industry linkages, the International Institute for Educational Planning conducted case-study research during 1997 to 1999 and then held a Policy Forum to share and validate the insights gained from the projects. The Forum showed that one of the most…

  8. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement.

  9. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  10. Transitioning to Biofuels: A System-of-Systems Perspective; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    Using the existing fuel supply chain infrastructure as a framework, this paper discusses a vision for transitioning to a larger biofuels industry and the challenges associated with a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  11. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  12. Public opinion about biofuels: The interplay between party identification and risk/benefit perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an experiment embedded within a representative survey, this study examined the interactive effect of party identification and risk/benefit perception on public opinion about biofuels. Democrats tended to be more supportive of biofuels than Republicans. However, the effect of party identification on opinion about biofuels varied when individuals considered the risk/benefit of biofuels in different domains. Individuals who reported greater affiliation with the Democratic Party were likely to support funding biofuels research when primed with the economic risks or the social/ethical benefits of biofuels. For those who considered the social/ethical benefits of biofuels, more self-identified Democrats were likely to support biofuels production and use. However, more self-identified Democrats were less supportive of biofuels production and use when they considered the political risks of biofuels. Implications are discussed. - Highlights: • We examined public opinion about biofuels policies. • Effect of risk/benefit perception varied across respondents' party identification. • Democrats favored more research when considering economic risks or social benefits. • Democrats favored biofuels more when considering social benefits. • Democrats favored biofuels less when considering political risks

  13. From biomass to sustainable biofuels in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zyl, W.H.; Den Haan, R.; Rose, S.H.; La Grange, D.C.; Bloom, M. [Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland (South Africa). Dept. of Microbiology; Gorgens, J.F.; Knoetze, J.H. [Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland (South Africa). Dept. of Process Engineering; Von Blottnitz, H. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a global sustainable bioenergy project with particular reference to South Africa's strategy to develop biofuels. The current biofuel production in South Africa was presented along with the potential for biofuels production and other clean alternative fuels. The South African industrial biofuel strategy (IBS) was developed in 2007 with a mandate to create jobs in the energy-crop and biofuels value chain; attract investment into rural areas; promote agricultural development; and reduce the import of foreign oil. The proposed crops for bioethanol include sugar cane and sugar beet, while the proposed crops for biodiesel include sunflower, canola and soya beans. The exclusion of maize was based on food security concerns. Jatropha curcas was also excluded because it is considered to be an invasive species. In addition to environmental benefits, the production of biofuels from biomass in Africa offers improved energy security, economic development and social upliftment. All biofuel projects are evaluated to ensure that these benefits are realized. Although first generation technologies do not score well due to marginal energy balance, negative life cycle impacts or detriment to biodiversity, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass scores well in terms of enabling the commercialization of second generation biofuels. This paper discussed both the biochemical and thermochemical technological interventions needed to develop commercially-viable second generation lignocellulose conversion technologies to biofuels. tabs., figs.

  14. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  15. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Thiveral-Grignon, 78 (France); Vanderpooten, D. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, LAMSADE, Paris, 75 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l{sup -1} [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l{sup -1} for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l{sup -1} for ester and 3.30FF l{sup -1} for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l{sup -1} for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  16. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l-1 [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l-1 for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l-1 for ester and 3.30FF l-1 for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l-1 for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  17. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

  18. Bio-fuel Chains – An Overview on the Structure and the Value Chain Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Hanf, Jon Henrich

    2007-01-01

    Structural change in the agricultural sector as well as in the whole agricultural value chain is an ongoing dynamic process and creates a number of diverse phenomena. The EU Strategy for Biofuels (2006) and the Biomass action plan (2005) set a clear signal that the EU wishes to establish and to support the bio energy-industry. The perceivable aim of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) consists in reducing food production and in enlarging the non-food production. Another driver for the attrac...

  19. Comparison of fixed versus variable biofuels incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated several variants of a variable biofuel subsidy and compared them with the fixed subsidy and Renewable Fuel Standard using two different modeling approaches. First we used a partial equilibrium model encompassing crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, and ethanol by-products. Second, we used a stochastic simulation model of a prototypical ethanol plant. From the partial equilibrium analysis, it appears the variable subsidy provides a safety net for ethanol producers when oil prices are low; yet, it does not put undue pressure on corn prices when oil prices are high. At high oil prices, the level of ethanol production is driven by market forces. From the plant level stochastic analysis, essentially the same conclusions are reached. As with the fixed subsidy, the variable subsidy can increase the net present value (NPV) sufficiently to encourage investment, but with lower risk for the producer, lower probability of a loss from the investment, and often lower expected cost to government. Finally, in the US, the ethanol industry is up against a blending limit called the blend wall. If the blending wall remains in place and no way around it is found, it does not matter much what other policy options are used.

  20. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  1. Endogenous versus exogenous development: a comparative study of biotechnology industry cluster policies in South Korea and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Sook Lee; Ying-Chian Tee; Dong-wan Kim

    2009-01-01

    With this study we aim to develop a theoretical understanding and to assess policy implications of cluster development in the context of a knowledge-driven, globalizing Asian economy. We will examine both the strengths and the limitations of recent biotechnology cluster policies in South Korea and Singapore. We argue that the two states share similar experiences in terms of the state’s proactive role as a cluster creator, but that they have promoted biotechnology industry clusters in contrast...

  2. Forecast for biofuel trade in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One principal general conclusion is that the European biofuel market for the period up to the year 2000 will be competitive, dynamic and affected by technical development and innovations. That leads to the conclusion that prices will go down, which will increase the ability of biofuels to compete in the market. Still, biofuels will generally not be able to compete at the price level of fossil fuels in the world market, but will need support or protection to reach a competitive position. There are several reasons for support, e.g. offsetting the green-house effect and acid rain, conservation of the limited fossil fuel deposits, utilisation of local and domestic energy resources, etc. As energy crops in Europe are at an introductory stage, no large international trade can be expected within the next ten years. In this study it is assumed that some limited protective measures are imposed, which is a possible result of the energy and environmental policy currently discussed for the European Community, EC. The study implies that in the year 2000 it is possible to transport large quantities of biofuels to large energy consumers if taxes and other incentives now under discussion in the EC and national governments are introduced. The study also implies that in the year 2000 it is possible to utilise biofuels primarily in local and national markets. In the latter case, international trade will be reduced to minor spot quantities

  3. Biofuels, times are changing. Notification effect or real progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This well-documented book analyses the implications relative to the recent decisions taken for the development of biofuels. The history of alcohol-based biofuels, in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, shows why the present day 'opportunity window' makes these fuels more 'sustainable' today than in the past: the common agricultural policy, the oil crisis, the global warming and its expected impacts have led governments to develop biofuels. The authors stress on the fragile equilibrium between agriculture and energy markets and on the fact that the viability/sustainability of biofuels-related decisions will depend on the economic scales (from micro- to macro-economy) and on the agronomic environmental scales (from the rural area to the global environment). Many researches remain to be carried out on biofuels, in particular with respect to their potential toxicity and to their conformability with recent regulations. (J.S.)

  4. Sustainable Biofuel Contributions to Carbon Mitigation and Energy Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Steele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in US biofuels has been motivated by two primary national policy goals, (1 to reduce carbon emissions and (2 to achieve energy independence. However, the current low cost of fossil fuels is a key barrier to investments in woody biofuel production capacity. The effectiveness of wood derived biofuels must consider not only the feedstock competition with low cost fossil fuels but also the wide range of wood products uses that displace different fossil intensive products. Alternative uses of wood result in substantially different unit processes and carbon impacts over product life cycles. We developed life cycle data for new bioprocessing and feedstock collection models in order to make life cycle comparisons of effectiveness when biofuels displace gasoline and wood products displace fossil intensive building materials. Wood products and biofuels can be joint products from the same forestland. Substantial differences in effectiveness measures are revealed as well as difficulties in valuing tradeoffs between carbon mitigation and energy independence.

  5. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part 3. Policy barriers and investment decisions in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    This work is based on previous research reported in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, LBL 7834, June 1978. Several guidelines were selected for subsequent work. In addition, five subjects were chosen to be investigated--recycling, industrial decision making, recreational travel, residential and commercial buildings, and end-use energy conservation data base. This report concerns industrial decision making. The industrial sector consumes about forty percent of the energy used both in California and in the nation. Opportunities for conserving substantial amounts of energy exist in industry, and decisions are made each year regarding investment in conservation. Government policy (1) could be formulated to encourage conservation investments, but government intervention should be limited to those situations where it is both necessary and likely to be effective. To assist policy makers in understanding the industrial decision making process and recognizing the factors which prevent a measure's being adopted, a methodology is developed that can be applied to most conservation measures in all industrial subsectors. The methodology is summarized in two flow charts and a matrix that are described in Sections I and II respectively.

  6. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy elites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764 were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.

  7. Structural asymmetries at the roots of the eurozone crisis: what’s new for industrial policy in the EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Botta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze and try to measure productive and technological asymmetries between central and peripheral economies in the eurozone. We assess the effects such asymmetries would likely bring about on center–periphery divergence/convergence patterns, and derive some implications as to the design of future industrial policy at the European level. We stress that future European Union (EU industrial policy should be regionally focused and specifically target structural changes in the periphery as the main way to favor center–periphery convergence and avoid the reappearance of past external imbalances. To this end, a wide battery of industrial policy tools should be considered ranging from subsidies and fiscal incentives to innovative firms, public financing of R&D efforts, sectoral policies, and public procurements for home-produced goods. All in all, future EU industrial policy should be much more interventionist than it currently is, and dispose of much larger funds with respect to the present setting in order to effectively pursue both short-run stabilization and long-run development goals.

  8. Meeting the Demand for Biofuels: Impact on Land Use and Carbon Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Madhu; Jain, Atul; Onal, Hayri; Scheffran, Jurgen; Chen, Xiaoguang; Erickson, Matt; Huang, Haixiao; Kang, Seungmo.

    2011-08-14

    The purpose of this research was to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework to investigate the implications of large scale production of biofuels for land use, crop production, farm income and greenhouse gases. In particular, we examine the mix of feedstocks that would be viable for biofuel production and the spatial allocation of land required for producing these feedstocks at various gasoline and carbon emission prices as well as biofuel subsidy levels. The implication of interactions between energy policy that seeks energy independence from foreign oil and climate policy that seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for the optimal mix of biofuels and land use will also be investigated. This project contributes to the ELSI research goals of sustainable biofuel production while balancing competing demands for land and developing policy approaches needed to support biofuel production in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

  9. Uncertainty, irreversibility, and investment in second-generation biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tanner Joseph

    The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to be substantial. The analysis also reveals that a break-even approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of risk premium), and the traditional Marshallian approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of both the risk premium and the drift rate), would significantly underestimate the gasoline entry trigger price and the magnitude of that underestimation increases as both volatility and mean of gasoline prices increase. Results also uncover a great deal of hysteresis (i.e. a range of gasoline prices for which there is neither entry nor exit in the market) in entry/exit behavior by plants. Hysteresis increases as gasoline prices become more volatile. Hysteresis suggests that, at the industry level, positive (negative) demand shocks will have a significant impact on prices (production) and a limited impact on production (prices). In combination all of these results suggest that policies supporting second generation biofuels may have fallen short of their targets because of their failure to alleviate uncertainty.

  10. Biofuels: which interest, which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synthesis of several studies concerning the production and utilization of bio-fuels: energy balance and greenhouse effect of the various bio-fuel systems; economical analysis and profitability of bio-fuel production; is the valorization of bio-fuel residues and by-products in animal feeding a realistic hypothesis?; assessment of the cost for the community due to tax exemption for bio-fuels

  11. Determinants of innovation in energy intensive industry and implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts: The Korean government adopted “green growth” in 2008 as an environmentally friendly growth strategy. The energy efficiency of Korea, however, is still relatively low due to the large portion of energy intensive industry (EII) in its manufacturing sector. To improve energy efficiency in Korea, from an EII perspective a new approach has to be taken because restructuring entire industries would take too much time and be too costly. This study aims to emphasize the importance of innovation and analyze the effects of R&D on product and process innovations in EII in Korea. The Probit model is adopted to estimate the effects of eight determinants in the Korea Innovation Survey 2008 data. The results of this study demonstrate that one of the most important determinants, the R&D personnel ratio, has a strong positive effect on both product and process innovation, while another determinant, R&D intensity, only has a strong and positive effect on process innovation in EII. Because of the resulting innovation, energy policies should be enacted to enhance energy efficiency. Thus, the Korean government should keep providing incentives for firms in EII to invest more financial and human resources in their R&D activities. -- Highlights: •We analyze determinants on two innovations in energy intensive industry (EII). •The R&D personnel ratio is effective in product innovation in EII. •Both R&D intensity and R&D personnel are effective in process innovation in EII. •In less EII, R&D variables have positive effects on product and process innovations. •The Korean government should strongly support R&D to improve energy efficiency

  12. Biofuels: A win-win strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This article looks at the overall goal of stabilizing global climate change while achieving a sustainable energy future. On Earth Day 1993, President Clinton announced that the U.S. would comply with the Rio accord and bring U.S. greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Since the transportation sector accounts for over 30 percent of domestic CO{sub 2} emissions, the large-scale use and deployment of biofuels would be a useful tool in achieving the Administration`s goals of limiting greenhouse gases. Biofuels such as ethanol, methanol, and biodiesel are expected to have lower emissions of greenhouse gases than those derived from petroleum or other fossil fuels. This marked difference is due to the {open_quotes}CO{sub 2} recycling effect{close_quotes} associated with the growth process of biomass renewable resources such as trees and grasses. This article covers the following topics: global climate change an future energy consumption, reducing greenhouse transportation sector emissions: improving fuel economy and switching to low-carbon emission fuel sources; integration of fuel economy and alternative fuels; biofuels as a transportation strategy for mitigating global climate change; a win-win strategy: biofuels reduce carbon dioxide while promoting sustainable economic growth; increasing biofuels utilization through government and industry cooperation. 5 figs.

  13. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  14. Influence of macro-economic growth, CAP reforms and biofuel policy on the Polish agri-food sector in 2007–2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possible development scenario of the Polish agricultural sector till 2020. It also assesses the impact of macroeconomic growth, CAP reforms and worldwide policies towards the agriculture on this development. The scenario is build using an extended version of the Global Trade

  15. A comparison of innovation policy in the smart grid industry across the pacific: China and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilities are increasing their investment in smart grid technologies because of the rising demand for electricity, the aging transmission and distribution infrastructure in developed countries and the need for real-time visibility of energy supply and demand to optimize service reliability and cost. Government policies are contributing to this rising investment in the smart grid in many countries around the globe. Using Rothwell and Zegveld's innovation policy framework as a starting point, this paper compares innovation policy in smart grids across the Pacific; specifically, China and the USA. This research describes the policy tools used by both countries and presents results that indicate national preferences for innovation policy that differ in the ways in which they are linked with the state of the power system. China has preferred to use “supply-side policy,” which focuses on “public enterprise, scientific and technical development and legal regulation.” The USA has preferred to use “environmental-side policy,” which focuses on “scientific and technical development, financial, political and public enterprise.” This paper also describes in detail a number of innovation policies being pursued in the smart grid industry in both China and the USA. - Highlights: ► This research describes the policy tools used by China and USA and presents results that indicate national preferences for innovation policy that differ in the ways in which they are linked with the state of the power system. ► China has preferred to use “supply-side policy,” which focuses on “public enterprise, scientific and technical development and legal regulation.” ► The USA has preferred to use “environmental-side,” policy, which focuses on “scientific and technical development, financial, political and public enterprise.”

  16. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin A. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  17. An Assessment of Thailand’s Biofuel Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujan Shrestha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues—environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects. The policies, measures and incentives for the development of biofuel include targets, blending mandates and favorable tax schemes to encourage production and consumption of biofuels. Biofuel development improves energy security, rural income and reduces greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, but issues related to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources. The authors estimate that sustainably-derived agricultural crop residues alone could amount to 10.4 × 106 bone dry tonnes per year. This has the technical potential of producing 1.14–3.12 billion liters per year of ethanol to possibly displace between 25%–69% of Thailand’s 2011 gasoline consumption as transportation fuel. Alternatively, the same amount of residue could provide 0.8–2.1 billion liters per year of diesel (biomass to Fischer-Tropsch diesel to potentially offset 6%–15% of national diesel consumption in the transportation sector.

  18. Microalgae: biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Babita Kumari; Vinay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels....

  19. The biofuels, situation, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic change with the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, sees the development of ''clean'' energy sources. Meanwhile the biofuels remain penalized by their high production cost, the interest is increasing. Facing their development ecologists highlight the environmental and social negative impacts of the development of the biofuels. The author aims to take stock on the techniques and the utilizations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  1. The development of the biofuels in the german farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany is today at the first place of the world for the production and the utilization of vegetable oils and by products, the Diester. The main reasons of this enjoyment is the two european directives on biofuels and the tax exemption at 100% decided by the government in 2004. All the biofuels available in Germany, as the ethanol, the vegetable oils and the bio-alcohol, are presented in this paper. The research axis and the government policy in favor of the biofuels are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  2. 77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  3. Threats to the Sustainability of the Outsourced Call Center Industry in the Philippines: Implications for Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friginal, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study overviews current threats to the sustainability of the outsourced call center industry in the Philippines and discusses implications for macro and micro language policies given the use of English in this cross-cultural interactional context. This study also summarizes the present state of outsourced call centers in the Philippines, and…

  4. 78 FR 77489 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of... the U.S. Economy. The investigation was instituted under section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930...

  5. Biofuel economics in a setting of multiple objectives & unintended consequences

    OpenAIRE

    William K. Jaeger; Egelkraut, Thorsten M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines biofuels from an economic perspective and evaluates the merits of promoting biofuel production in the context of the policies’ multiple objectives, life-cycle implications, pecuniary externalities, and other unintended consequences. The policy goals most often cited are to reduce fossil fuel use and to lower greenhouse gas emissions. But the presence of multiple objectives and various indirect effects complicates normative evaluation. To address some of these complicating ...

  6. Biofuels And Chemicals Production From Renewable Raw-Materials. Exploiting yeasts diversity to bridge the gap between the proof-of-concept and industrial success

    OpenAIRE

    Signori, L

    2016-01-01

    The success of the biorefinery concept will require efficient, robust and versatile cell factories. Currently, the major part of industrial microorganisms are used because of historical grounds, rather than being selected for a specific application. Additionally, demands for increased productivity, wider substrate range utilization, and production of nonconventional compounds lead to a great interest in further improving the currently used industrial workhorses (hosts) and the selection or de...

  7. Climate risk management for the U.S. cellulosic biofuels supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Langholtz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As U.S. energy policy turns to bioenergy, and second-generation biofuels in particular, to foster energy security and environmental benefits, consideration should be given to the implications of climate risk for the incipient bioenergy industry. As a case-in-point, we review evidence from the 2012 U.S. drought, underscoring the risk of extreme weather events to the agricultural sector in general, and the bioenergy supply chain in particular, including reductions in feedstock production and higher prices for agricultural commodities and biofuels. We also use a risk management framework developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to review current understanding regarding climate-related hazards, exposure, and vulnerability of the bioenergy supply chain with a particular emphasis on the growing importance of lignocellulosic feedstocks to future bioenergy development. A number of climate-related hazards are projected to become more severe in future decades, and future growth of bioenergy feedstocks is likely to occur disproportionately in regions preferentially exposed to such hazards. However, strategies and opportunities are available across the supply chain to enhance coping and adaptive capacity in response to this risk. In particular, the implications of climate change will be influenced by the expansion of cellulosic feedstocks, particularly perennial grasses and woody biomass. In addition, advancements in feedstock development, logistics, and extension provide opportunities to support the sustainable development of a robust U.S. bioenergy industry as part of a holistic energy and environmental policy. However, given the nascent state of the cellulosic biofuels industry, careful attention should be given to managing climate risk over both short- and long-time scales.

  8. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  9. Breaking the Link between Food and Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock

    2008-01-01

    Production of biofuels from feedstocks that are diverted from food production or that are grown on land that could grow crops has two important drawbacks: higher food prices and decreased reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. If U.S. policy were to change and place greater emphasis on food prices and greenhouse gas reductions, then we would transition away from current feedstocks toward those that do not reduce our ability to produce food. Examples of such feedstocks include crop residues, a...

  10. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels

  11. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bole, T.; Londo, H.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels.

  12. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from m...... the useful life into the post-consumer stage. [2] IPP is a public policy strategy, which seeks to reduce the life cycle environmental impacts of products from the mining of raw materials to production, distribution, use and waste management.......Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...

  13. The health insurance industry: perpetuating the opioid crisis through policies of cost-containment and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatman ME

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Schatman1, Lynn R Webster21Foundation for Ethics in Pain Care, Bellevue, WA, USA; 2PRA Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA"People don’t trust private health insurance companies for all the right reasons." – Senator Bernie Sanders.Throughout the world, industrialized nations look at the USA and are befuddled by its opioid crisis. Between 1999 and 2011, we witnessed the number of opioid deaths in the USA increase from 4,030 to 16,917,1 with these figures having seemingly stabilized over the past several years.2 Many agree regarding the root causes of the crisis, with an analysis by Webster et al3 identifying health comorbidities (most prominently substance use disorders, payer policies mandating methadone as a first-line treatment option, physician error due to a lack of knowledge, patient nonadherence, unanticipated medical and mental health issues, concomitant utilization of other central nervous system depressants such as benzodiazepines, and sleep-disordered breathing as contributory.

  14. Technological Learning In The Energy Sector. Lessons for Policy, Industry and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junginger, M.; Van Sark, W.; Faaij, A. (eds.) [Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Technological learning is a key driver behind the improvement of energy technologies and subsequent reduction of production costs. Understanding how and why production costs for energy technologies decline, and whether they will continue to do so in the future, is of crucial importance for policy makers, industrial stakeholders and scientists alike. This timely and informative book therefore provides a comprehensive review of technological development and cost reductions for renewable energy, clean fossil fuel and energy-efficient demand-side technologies. It responds to the need for a quality-controlled data set of experience curves, including assessment of measurement methodology, technological knowledge and associated cost. The expert contributors present a thorough overview and discussion of the pitfalls of applying the experience curve approach, including aspects such as geographical system boundaries, whether the slope of the experience curves is constant or not, statistical error and sensitivity analysis of experience curves, and whether the experience curve approach can be utilized to quantify improvements in energy efficiency. A clear set of recommendations for the use of the experience curve approach is also prescribed. Providing a significant contribution to the current literature on energy and climate models, scenario analysis, and methodological lessons on experience curves, this book appeals to academics and students in the areas focusing on energy and public sector economics.

  15. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  16. Microbiological aspects of biofuel production: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa S. Elshahed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel research is currently an area of immense interest due to the increase in global energy demand by emerging economies and the recent increases in global oil prices. Multiple approaches are currently being researched for the use of microorganisms in the production of various biofuel (e.g. alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biogas from multiple starting materials. This review provides a brief overview on the research currently underway on laboratory and industrial scales in the area of biofuels, with specific emphasis on the economic viability of various approaches currently being utilized.

  17. Available Resources for Algal Biofuel Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuel research in China has made noticeable progress, and algae cultivation for biofuel production is considered to be an important contribution to Greenhouse Gas (GHG mitigation and energy security. In this paper, the algal biofuel potentiality in China was reviewed from the points of view of algal biodiversity, algal culture collection, GHGs (especially CO2 mitigation, and the availability of the required sunlight, wastewater and land resources. The cultivation of microalgae utilizing power plants gas with large amounts of CO2 and wastewaters from urban households, industry and animal husbandry are suitable for large scale production in China. Land is hardly a limitation for algae cultivation.

  18. The biofuels in France; Les biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO{sub 2} accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  19. Biofuels - Answering the energy and environmental challenges of transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change of the worldwide energy context with the weight of the environmental stakes has led to increase the research works on biofuels of second and third generation. This book is an updated and enriched version of a previous edition published in 2006 and entitled 'biofuels - development status, perspectives and stakes'. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art of the production processes of biofuels of first generation. It describes the new production processes, named 'second generation' which use the lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. These new processes are progressively leading to industrial facilities which reduce the competition effect between the biofuel industry development and the agriculture for feeding purposes. A technical point is addressed which concerns the energy valorization of algae (the third generation) and the methane and hydrogen production by biochemical processes. (J.S.)

  20. Time for commercializing non-food biofuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booming automobile in China has added additional pressure on the country that needs to import almost 50% of its oil. Non-food-based biofuel is a viable fuel alternative for cars. China already has the required-foundation to commercialize non-food-based biofuel. Chinese crop straw and stock, energy crop, and woody biomass that could potentially be converted into energy are projected to be 700 million toe (ton of oil equivalent) in the near future. Meanwhile, Chinese food-based ethanol fuel industry ranks as the world's third after United States and Brazil. Several non-food-based ethanol plants are constructed or under constructed, one of which has been licensed. However, more efforts should be directed to commercializing non-food-based biofuel, including industrialized feedstock, strengthening key technology research, supporting private enterprise, and E10 upgrading to E20. The enormous increase in private ownership of car must compel China to commercialize biofuel. (author)