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Sample records for biofluid process fluidised-bed

  1. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  2. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  3. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  4. A new process control strategy for aqueous film coating of pellets in fluidised bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.C.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan

    2003-01-01

    The parameters with effect on maximum spray rate and maximum relative outlet air humidity when coating pellets in a fluidised bed were investigated. The tested variables include type of water based modified release film coating (Eudragit® NE 30D, Eudragit® RS 30D, Aquacoat ECD®) coating principle...... (top spray, bottom spray), inlet air humidity and type of pellets (sugar spheres, microcrystalline cellulose pellets). The maximum spray rate was not influenced by the coating principles. The highest spray rate was obtained for the film polymer with the lowest tackiness which is assumed...... to be the controlling factor. The type of pellets affected the maximum spray rate. A thermodynamic model for the coating process is employed throughout the process and not just during steady state. The thermodynamic model is incorporated into a new process control strategy. The process control strategy is based on in...

  5. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  6. Application of process tomography in gas-solid fluidised beds in different scales and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. G.; Che, H. Q.; Ye, J. M.; Tu, Q. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Yang, W. Q.; Ocone, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-solid fluidised beds are commonly used in particle-related processes, e.g. for coal combustion and gasification in the power industry, and the coating and granulation process in the pharmaceutical industry. Because the operation efficiency depends on the gas-solid flow characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the flow behaviour. This paper is about the application of process tomography, including electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and microwave tomography (MWT), in multi-scale gas-solid fluidisation processes in the pharmaceutical and power industries. This is the first time that both ECT and MWT have been applied for this purpose in multi-scale and complex structure. To evaluate the sensor design and image reconstruction and to investigate the effects of sensor structure and dimension on the image quality, a normalised sensitivity coefficient is introduced. In the meantime, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis based on a computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) model and a two-phase fluid model (TFM) is used. Part of the CPFD-TFM simulation results are compared and validated by experimental results from ECT and/or MWT. By both simulation and experiment, the complex flow hydrodynamic behaviour in different scales is analysed. Time-series capacitance data are analysed both in time and frequency domains to reveal the flow characteristics.

  7. Comparative simulation of a fluidised bed reformer using industrial process simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Hamed; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Rahmat; Sarvar-Amini, Amin; Haghtalab, Ali; Mostoufi, Navid

    2016-08-01

    A simulation model is developed by commercial simulators in order to predict the performance of a fluidised bed reformer. As many physical and chemical phenomena take place in the reformer, two sub-models (hydrodynamic and reaction sub-models) are needed. The hydrodynamic sub-model is based on the dynamic two-phase model and the reaction sub-model is derived from the literature. In the overall model, the bed is divided into several sections. In each section, the flow of the gas is considered as plug flow through the bubble phase and perfectly mixed through the emulsion phase. Experimental data from the literature were used to validate the model. Close agreement was found between the model of both ASPEN Plus (ASPEN PLUS 2004 ©) and HYSYS (ASPEN HYSYS 2004 ©) and the experimental data using various sectioning of the reactor ranged from one to four. The experimental conversion lies between one and four sections as expected. The model proposed in this work can be used as a framework in developing the complicated models for non-ideal reactors inside of the process simulators.

  8. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available of titanium dioxide. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led to the supply (through licensees) of a biomass sludge incinerator/boiler generating 26t/h steam, a 20 MW high-sulphur pitch incinerator and a 12 MW fluidised bed...

  9. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  10. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  11. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  12. On suitability of novel fluidised bed technique for separation of metallic powders during commercial powder metallurgical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritherdon, J; Dechsiri, C; Jones, AR; Hoffmann, AC; Wright, IG

    Experiments have been performed to test the efficiency with which a novel fluidised bed technique could separate different metallic powders in terms of size and density. The overall aim was to assess the potential of this technique for the commercial separation of defective powder fractions from

  13. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  14. Solid phase transport in series fluidised bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    In a multistage counter-current fluidised bed column, fluidised bed material is recycled within each stage and a fraction is continuously withdrawn to the next lower stage at a rate dependent only on the rate of removal of the fluidised bed material from the base of the column. It has a particular application to the ion exchange treatment of liquids containing suspended solids, for example leach solutions from uranium ores. (author)

  15. Performance of entrained flow and fluidised bed biomass gasifiers on different scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremel, Alexander; Becherer, Dominik; Fendt, Sebastian; Gaderer, Matthias; Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of biomass in fluidised bed and entrained flow reactors is modelled. ► The systems are evaluated for a thermal input from 10 MW to 500 MW. ► Special attention is given to the preconditioning methods for biomass. ► Fluidised bed and entrained flow gasifiers are compared in terms of efficiency and costs. - Abstract: This biomass gasification process study compares the energetic and economic efficiencies of a dual fluidised bed and an oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifier from 10 MW th to 500 MW th . While fluidised bed gasification became the most applied technology for biomass in small and medium scale facilities, entrained flow gasification technology is still used exclusively for industrial scale coal gasification. Therefore, it is analysed whether and for which capacity the entrained flow technology is an energetically and economically efficient option for the thermo-chemical conversion of biomass. Special attention is given to the pre-conditioning methods for biomass to enable the application in an entrained flow gasifier. Process chains are selected for the two gasifier types and subsequently transformed to simulation models. The simulation results show that the performance of both gasifier types is similar for the production of a pressurised product gas (2.5 MPa). The cold gas efficiency of the fluidised bed is 76–79% and about 0.5–2 percentage points higher than for the entrained flow reactor. The net efficiencies of both technologies are similar and between 64% and 71% depending on scale. The auxiliary power consumption of the entrained flow reactor is caused mainly by the air separation unit, the oxygen compression, and the fuel pulverisation, whereas the fluidised bed requires additional power mainly for gas compression. The costs for the product gas are determined as between €4.2 cent/kWh (500 MW th ) and €7.4 cent/kWh (10 MW th ) in the economic analysis of both technologies. The study indicates that the

  16. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  17. Fluidised bed gasification of high-ash South African coals: An experimental and modelling study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available model (CeSFaMB). The predictive capability of the model was analysed in terms of the degree of variation between experimental and simulated results for each test. The calibrated model was used to design a 15 MW fluidised bed coal gasifier...-scale BFBG are given in Figure 1 and Table 1. Process description Coal, air, oxygen and steam are the input streams to the process which produce the output streams: gas and char (ash). Coal is fed to the gasifier by means of a screw conveyor at a...

  18. Modeling and Simulation of a lab-scale Fluidised Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Halvorsen

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The flow behaviour of a lab-scale fluidised bed with a central jet has been simulated. The study has been performed with an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD model named FLOTRACS-MP-3D. The CFD model is based on a multi-fluid Eulerian description of the phases, where the kinetic theory for granular flow forms the basis for turbulence modelling of the solid phases. A two-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system is used to describe the geometry. This paper discusses whether bubble formation and bed height are influenced by coefficient of restitution, drag model and number of solid phases. Measurements of the same fluidised bed with a digital video camera are performed. Computational results are compared with the experimental results, and the discrepancies are discussed.

  19. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes

  20. Thermal disposal of sewage sludges by fluidised bed combustion with low emissions of pollutants. Thermische Entsorgung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme durch schadstoffarme Verbrennung in der Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, B. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik, Abt. Umwelttechnik); Lindau, S. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik, Abt. Umwelttechnik); Busse, U. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik, Abt. Umwelttechnik)

    1992-04-01

    The volume of sludge from the sewage treatment represents the largest problem in the waste management in Germany recently. The thermal treatment is inevitable for the solution of the problem. The fluidised bed combustion is suitable for a very good usability of sewage sludge. Experimental investigations carried out in a stationary fluidised bed in laboratory scale. The emissions of gaseous air pollutants are influenced by the properties of the sludge and the parameters of the process. The dependence of the formation and the reactions of the pollutants from various parameters are analysed and judged. (orig.)

  1. Model of fragmentation of limestone particles during thermal shock and calcination in fluidised beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Pikkarainen, T.; Tourunen, A.; Rasanen, M.; Jantti, T. [VTT Technical Research Center, Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Fragmentation of limestone due to thermal shock and calcination in a fluidised bed was studied through experiments and modelling. The time for heating was estimated by model calculations and the time for calcination by measurements. Fragmentation due to thermal shock was carried out by experiments in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere in order to prevent the effect of calcination. It was found to be much less than fragmentation due to calcination. Average particle sizes before and after fragmentation are presented for several types of limestone. The effects of particle size and gas composition on the primary fragmentation were studied through experiments. Increasing the fluidisation velocity increased the tendency to fragment. The evolution of the particle size distribution (PSD) of limestone particles due to thermal shock and during calcination (or simultaneous calcination and sulphation) were calculated using a population balance model. Fragmentation due to thermal shock is treated as an instantaneous process. The fragmentation frequency during calcination is presented as exponentially decaying over time. In addition to the final PSD, this model also predicts the PSD during the calcination process. The fragmentation was practically found to end after 10 min. Furthermore. a population balance method to calculate the particle size distribution and amount of limestone in fluidised beds in dynamic and steady state, when feeding history is known, is presented.

  2. A technical pilot plant assessment of flue gas desulfurisation in a circulating fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, F.J.; Ollero, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental; Cabanillas, A.; Otero, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas y Medioambientales, (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurisation in a circulating fluidised bed absorber (CFBA) is quite a novel dry desulfurisation technology [6th International Conference on Circulating Fluidised Beds (1999) 601] that shows significant advantages in comparison with other dry technologies and that could also be competitive with the widely-used wet FGD technology. This experimental study analyses the performance of a flue gas treatment plant comprising a CFBA and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The most significant aspects considered in this study are: the effect of precollecting the fly ash, the effect of the SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the effect of power plant load changes, the contribution of the final particulate control equipment to the overall SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and the impact of the desulfurisation unit on the ESP behaviour and its final dust emissions. In addition, the behaviour of the integrated CFBA-ESP system with respect to the main operating parameters was studied by means of a fractional factorial design of experiments. All this experimental work was carried out in a 3-MWe equivalent pilot plant that processes real gases withdrawn from the Los Barrios Power Plant. Processing a flue gas with up to 2000 ppm SO{sub 2} concentration, a sulfur removal of 95-97% with a lime utilisation of 75% was achieved. A simple regression model to evaluate the efficiency of the whole system is also proposed.(author)

  3. Making the most of South Africa’s low-quality coal: Converting high-ash coal to fuel gas using bubbling fluidised bed gasifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available for process heating or for power generation using the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) process. A high-ash coal from the Waterberg coalfield was tested in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier using various gasification agents and operating conditions...

  4. Coal-char combustion in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, S.P.; Pande, M. [Indian Institute of Technolgy, Kanpur (India)

    2001-12-01

    Combustion of bituminous coal chars ranging from 0.8 mm to 1.8 mm has been studied in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850{sup o}C. The fluidised bed consists of inert sand particles of average size of 0.5 mm and reactive coal char particles. A heat balance has been worked out to calculate the rate of combustion of char from measured incremental changes in the bed temperature during combustion. Investigations on partially burnt particles suggest that the ash layer which builds up around the burning core of char particles is non-flaking and the particles burn in a shrinking core manner. Analysis of rate data indicates that the rate of combustion is controlled by chemical reaction kinetics, though diffusion of oxygen through the bundary layer begins to influence the overall reaction kinetics at higher temperatures. The burnt out time varies linearly with particle size. Activation energy for the chemical reaction control regime is found to be around 68 kJ/mole.

  5. Potential of synthesis gas production from rubber wood chip gasification in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewluan, Sommas; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of rubber wood chip gasification were carried out in a 100-kW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier to investigate the effect of air to fuel ratio (represented as equivalence ratio - ER) on the yield and properties of synthesis gas. For all experiments, the flow rate of ambient air was fixed, while the feed rate of rubber wood chip was adjusted to vary ER in the range of 0.32-0.43. Increasing ER continuously raised the bed temperature, which resulted in higher synthesis gas yield and lower yield of ash and tar. However, higher ER generally gave synthesis gas of lower heating value, partly due to the dilution of N 2 . Considering the energy efficiency of the process, the optimum operation was achieved at ER = 0.38, which yielded 2.33 Nm 3 of synthesis gas per kg of dry biomass at the heating value of 4.94 MJ/Nm 3 . The calculated carbon conversion efficiency and gasification efficiency were 97.3% and 80.2%, respectively. The mass and energy balance of the gasification process showed that the mass and energy distribution was significantly affected by ER and that the energy losses accounted for ∼25% of the total output energy. The economical assessment of synthesis gas utilisation for heat and electricity production based on a 1-MW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier and the operational data resulting from the rubber wood chip gasification experiments in this study clearly demonstrated the attractiveness of replacing heavy fuel oil and natural gas by the synthesis gas for heat applications in terms of 70% and 50% annual saving of fuel cost, respectively. However, the case of electricity production does not seem a preferable option due to its current technical and non-technical barriers.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of geopolymers from fluidised bed gasifier bottom ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluidised bed gasification (FBG) is a clean coal technology suitable for power and fuel generation from low grade coals. However, the resulting bottom ash presents some disposal challenges to the power plants and the environment. The production...

  7. Fungi solubilisation of low rank coal: performances of stirred tank, fluidised bed and packed bed reactors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal biosolubilisation was investigated in stirred tank reactor, fluidised bed and fixed bed bioreactors with a view to highlight the advantages and shortcomings of each of these reactor configurations. The stirred aerated bioreactor and fluidised...

  8. Combustion of poultry litter in a fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Abelha; I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; J. Seabra Barros; I. Cabrita; J. Leahy; B. Kelleher; M. Leahy [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-04-01

    Combustion studies of poultry litter alone or mixed with peat by 50% on weight basis were undertaken in an atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed. Because of high moisture content of poultry litter, there was some uncertainty whether the combustion could be sustained on 100% poultry litter and as peat is very available in Ireland, its presence was considered to help to improve the combustion. However, the results showed that, as long as the moisture content of poultry litter was kept below 25%, the combustion did not need the addition of peat. The main parameters that were investigated are (i) moisture content, (ii) air staging, and (iii) variations in excess air levels along the freeboard. The main conclusions of the results are (i) combustion was influenced very much by the conditions of the fuel supply, (ii) the steady fuel supply was strongly dependent on the moisture content of the poultry litter, (iii) temperature appeared to be still very influential in reducing the levels of unburned carbon and hydrocarbons released from residues, (iv) the air staging in the freeboard improved combustion efficiency by enhancing the combustion of volatiles released from residues in the riser and (vi) NOx emissions were influenced by air staging in the freeboard. Particles collected from the bed and the two cyclones were analysed to determine the levels of heavy metals and the leachability tests were carried out with ashes collected to verify whether or not they could safely be used in agricultural lands. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  9. The combustion of coal blends in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, Dulce; Abelha, Pedro; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel

    1999-07-01

    Combustion studies of five coals of different origin were carried out in a laboratory scale fluidised bed combustor. Five blends prepared by mixing two coals based on their petrological characterisation, in varying amounts, were selected to study the possibility of reduction NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} emissions. The results showed that some blends had the opposite behaviour concerning the release of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in relation to parent coals, and the emissions were higher than expected. The N{sub 2}O amounts observed were, however, in almost all blends tested, lower than predicted values. With some blends, the mixing levels intended to reduce SO{sub 2} were not always found to correspond to those for simultaneous decrease of Nox. Most of the blends studied showed some evidence of interaction between them. Varying the proportion of the blend components was observed to alter the temperatures at which interactions were stronger.

  10. Gaseous emissions in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion. Analysis and summary of the pilot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, T.; Hippinen, I.; Konkola, M.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of operating conditions on gaseous emissions in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion have been studied. The research objectives have been behaviour of sulphur absorbents and reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions, reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions, release of vapour-phase alkalimetals and carbon monoxide emissions. The sulphur capture capacities of calcium-based sorbents under PFBC conditions have been studied at a pressurised fluidised-bed reactor and at a pressurised thermogravimetric apparatus. The project has also connected results of the experimental PFBC at HUT/EVO. (author)

  11. Bed-To-Wall Heat Transfer in a Supercritical Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.

  12. a novel interconnected fluidised bed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of char

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.M.C.; Janse, Arthur M.C.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1999-01-01

    A novel system of two adjacent fluidised beds operating in different gas atmospheres and exchanging solids was developed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of the produced char. Fluidised sand particles (200 μm < dp < 400 μm) are transported from the pyrolysis reactor to the

  13. A novel interconnected fluidised bed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of char.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Arthur M.C.; Janse, A.M.C.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2000-01-01

    A novel system of two adjacent fluidised beds operating in different gas atmospheres and exchanging solids was developed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of the produced char. Fluidised sand particles (200 μm < dp < 400 μm) are transported from the pyrolysis reactor to the

  14. Granular dynamics simulation of segregation phenomena in bubbling gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2000-01-01

    A hard-sphere discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed was used in order to simulate segregation phenomena in systems consisting of particles of different sizes. In the model, the gas-phase hydrodynamics is described by the spatially averaged Navier¿Stokes equations for two-phase flow. For

  15. Heat transfer in a membrane assisted fluidised bed with immersed horizontal tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Volkers, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of gas permeation through horizontally immersed membrane tubes on the heat transfer characteristics in a membrane assisted fluidised bed was investigated experimentally. Local time-averaged heat transfer coefficients from copper tubes arranged in a staggered formation with the membrane

  16. Optimum diameter of a circulating fluidised bed combustor with negative wall heat flux

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available on irreversibilities in a 7 m circulating fluidised bed combustor with a negative wall heat flux, firing a mixture of air and solid pitch pine wood, was investigated. An analytical expression was derived that predicts the entropy generation rate, thereby...

  17. Experimental measurement of variation of heat transfer coefficient and temperature gradients in 16'' deep fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacker, P.T.; McLain, D.R.

    1962-04-01

    The object of the experiments was to choose suitable particulate materials for a fluidised bed cooler, to test a deep fluidised bed for uniformity of heat transfer coefficient, and to explore the temperature distribution in a centrally heated annular fluidised bed. This memorandum records the techniques used and some of the practical aspects involved, together with the performance results obtained, for the assistance of other experimenters who may wish to use fluidised beds as a laboratory technique. Mathematical correlation of the results has not been attempted since some of the properties of the bed material were not known and to determine them was beyond the scope of the work programme. Rather, we have compared our results with those of other experimenters. Graphite tubes, for use in steady state thermal stress experiments, are to be heated by a graphite radiant heater situated in the bore and cooled on the outer surface. The tubes are 2 cm. bore, 8 cm. outside diameter and 48 cm. long. The outside temperature of the tubes is to be between 500 deg. C. and 1500 deg. C. It is estimated that the heat transfer rate required for fracture at the outer surface is 30 watts/cm 2 . This could readily be achieved by cooling with liquid metals, water or high velocity gas. However, serious problems of either materials compatibility or mechanical complexity make these undesirable. A water-cooled fluidised bed of compatible solids fluidised with nitrogen gas can overcome most of these problems and give heat transfer coefficients close to that required, vis. about 0.1 w/cm C . A coolant bed about 20'' long would be required and an annulus of about 2'' radial width round the specimen was considered to be practicable

  18. Experimental measurement of variation of heat transfer coefficient and temperature gradients in 16'' deep fluidised beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, P T; McLain, D R [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-04-15

    The object of the experiments was to choose suitable particulate materials for a fluidised bed cooler, to test a deep fluidised bed for uniformity of heat transfer coefficient, and to explore the temperature distribution in a centrally heated annular fluidised bed. This memorandum records the techniques used and some of the practical aspects involved, together with the performance results obtained, for the assistance of other experimenters who may wish to use fluidised beds as a laboratory technique. Mathematical correlation of the results has not been attempted since some of the properties of the bed material were not known and to determine them was beyond the scope of the work programme. Rather, we have compared our results with those of other experimenters. Graphite tubes, for use in steady state thermal stress experiments, are to be heated by a graphite radiant heater situated in the bore and cooled on the outer surface. The tubes are 2 cm. bore, 8 cm. outside diameter and 48 cm. long. The outside temperature of the tubes is to be between 500 deg. C. and 1500 deg. C. It is estimated that the heat transfer rate required for fracture at the outer surface is 30 watts/cm{sup 2}. This could readily be achieved by cooling with liquid metals, water or high velocity gas. However, serious problems of either materials compatibility or mechanical complexity make these undesirable. A water-cooled fluidised bed of compatible solids fluidised with nitrogen gas can overcome most of these problems and give heat transfer coefficients close to that required, vis. about 0.1 w/cm C . A coolant bed about 20'' long would be required and an annulus of about 2'' radial width round the specimen was considered to be practicable.

  19. Dynamical and technological consequences of multiple isolas of steady states in a catalytic fluidised-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizon Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state characteristics of a catalytic fluidised bed reactor and its dynamical consequences are analyzed. The occurrence of an untypical steady-state structure manifesting in a form of multiple isolas is described. A two-phase bubbling bed model is used for a quantitative description of the bed of catalyst. The influence of heat exchange intensity and a fluidisation ratio onto the generation of isolated solution branches is presented for two kinetic schemes. Dynamical consequences of the coexistence of such untypical branches of steady states are presented. The impact of linear growth of the fluidisation ratio and step change of the cooling medium temperature onto the desired product yield is analyzed. The results presented in this study confirm that the identification of a region of the occurrence of multiple isolas is important due to their strong impact both on the process start-up and its control.

  20. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  1. Sulphation of calcium-based sorbents in circulating fluidised beds under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Alberto Abad; Pilar Gayan; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Aranzazu Rufas; Juan Adanez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. Energy and Environment

    2009-07-01

    Sulphur Retention (SR) by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. In circulating fluidised beds combustors (CFBC's) operating under oxy-fuel conditions, the sulphation process takes place in atmospheres enriched in CO{sub 2} with bed concentrations that can vary from 40 to 95%. Under so high CO{sub 2} concentrations, very different from that in conventional coal combustion atmosphere with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined to optimise the SR process in the combustor. The objective of this work was to determine the SO{sub 2} retention capacity of a Spanish limestone at typical oxy-fuel conditions in CFBC's. Long term duration tests of sulphation (up to 24 h), to simulate the residence time of sorbents in CFBC's, were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Clear behaviour differences were found under calcining and non-calcining conditions. Especially relevant was the result obtained at calcining conditions but close to the thermodynamic temperature given for sorbent calcination. This situation must be avoided in CFBC's because the CO{sub 2} produced inside the particle during calcination can destroy the particles if a non-porous sulphate product layer has been formed around the particle. The effect of the main variables on the sorbent sulphation such as SO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and particle size were analysed in the long term TGA tests. These data were also used to determine the kinetic parameters for the sulphation under oxy-fuel combustion conditions, which were able to adequately predict the sulphation conversion values in a wide range of operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Co-gasification of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cascarosa; L. Gasco; G. Gea; J.L. Sanchez; J. Arauzo [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain). Thermochemical Processes Group

    2011-08-15

    After the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy illness appeared, the meat and bone meat (MBM) produced from animal residues became an important waste. In spite of being a possible fuel due to its heating value (around 21.4 MJ/kg), an important fraction of the meat and bone meal is being sent to landfills. The aim of this work is to evaluate the co-gasification of low percentages of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor as a potential waste management alternative. The effect of the bed temperature (800-900{sup o}C), the equivalence ratio (0.25-0.35) and the percentage of MBM in the solid fed (0-1 wt.%) on the co-gasification product yields and properties is evaluated. The results show the addition of 1 wt.% of MBM in a coal gasification process increases the gas and the liquid yield and decreases the solid yield at 900{sup o}C and 0.35 of temperature and equivalence ratio operational conditions. At operational conditions of 900{sup o}C and equivalence ratio of 0.35, the specific yield to gas (y{sub gas}) increases from 3.18 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg to 4.47 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg. The gas energy yield decreased 24.1% and the lower heating value of the gas decreases from 3.36 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP) to 2.16 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP). The concentration of the main gas components (H{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2}) hardly varies with the addition of MBM, however the light hydrocarbon concentrations decrease and the H{sub 2}S concentration increases at the higher temperature (900{sup o}C). 32 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Kinetic evaluation of an anaerobic fluidised-bed reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de la Grasa; Banks, C.J.; Zhengjian Wang [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1995-09-01

    An anaerobic fluidised-bed reactor for purification of slaughterhouse wastewater was modelled as a continuous-flow, completely-mixed homogeneous microbial system, with the feed COD as the limiting-substrate concentration. The average microbial residence time in the reactor was defined in terms of conventional sludge-retention-time. The experimental data obtained indicated that the Michaelis-Menten expression was applicable to a description of substrate utilisation (i.e. COD removal) in the anaerobic fluidised-bed system. The maximum substrate utilisation rate, k, and the Michaelis constant, K{sub s}, were determined to be 1.2/day and 0.039 g/l. The observed biomass yield in the reactor decreased with increasing sludge-retention-time. The specific methane production rate observed was a linear function of the specific substrate-utilisation rate. (Author)

  4. Gasification of Biomass with CO2 and H2O Mixtures in a Catalytic Fluidised Bed.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeremiáš, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.; Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Šyc, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, DEC 15 (2017), s. 605-610 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluidised bed * gasification * catalyst Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuels Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  5. Advanced circulating fluidised bed technology (CFB) for large-scale solid biomass fuel firing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaentti, Timo; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Nuortimo, Kalle [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide the nations are taking initiatives to counteract global warming by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to increase boiler efficiency and the use of biomass and other solid renewable fuels are well in line with these objectives. Circulating fluidised bed boilers (CFB) are ideal for efficient power generation, capable to fire a broad variety of solid biomass fuels from small CHP plants to large utility power plants. Relevant boiler references in commercial operation are made for Finland and Poland.

  6. Co-combustion of waste with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Boavida, D.; Abelha, P.; Lopes, H.; Cabrita, I. [DEECA-INETI, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The results of a study of cocombustion of waste with coal is described. Various wastes (biomass, sludge, and refuse derived fuel) were burned with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor. Conditions that prevent segregated combustion, reduce production of nitrogen oxides, and attain high combustion efficiency were studied. The effects of variations in air staging in the riser, mixing of air with volatiles, coal/biomass ratio, methods of feeding biomass, and temperature are described. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Gasification of Biomass with CO2 and H2O Mixtures in a Catalytic Fluidised Bed.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeremiáš, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.; Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Šyc, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, DEC 15 (2017), s. 605-610 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluidised bed * gasification * catalyst Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuel s Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  8. Dry formulations of the biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 using fluidised bed drying to control the main postharvest diseases on fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, Anna; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Fons, Estanislau; Teixidó, Neus

    2017-08-01

    The biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 is effective against several diseases. Consequently, the optimisation of a dry formulation of C. sake to improve its shelf life and manipulability is essential for increasing its potential with respect to future commercial applications. The present study aimed to optimise the conditions for making a dry formulation of C. sake using a fluidised bed drying system and then to determine the shelf life of the optimised formulation and its efficacy against Penicillium expansum on apples. The optimal conditions for the drying process were found to be 40 °C for 45 min and the use of potato starch as the carrier significantly enhanced the viability. However, none of the protective compounds tested increased the viability of the dried cells. A temperature of 25 °C for 10 min in phosphate buffer was considered as the optimum condition to recover the dried formulations. The dried formulations should be stored at 4 °C and air-packaged; moreover, shelf life assays indicated good results after 12 months of storage. The formulated products maintained their biocontrol efficacy. A fluidised bed drying system is a suitable process for dehydrating C. sake cells; moreover, the C. sake formulation is easy to pack, store and transport, and is a cost-effective process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Validation of the flux number as scaling parameter for top-spray fluidised bed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    2SO4 using Dextrin as binder in three top-spray fluidised bed scales, i.e. a small-scale (type: GEA Aeromatic-Fielder Strea-1), medium-scale (type: Niro MP-1) and large-scale (type: GEA MP-2/3). Following the parameter guidelines adapted from the original patent description, the flux number....... Coating conditions with flux number values of 4.5 and 4.7 were however successful in terms of agglomeration tendency and match of particle size fractions, but indicated in addition a strong influence of nozzle pressure. The present paper suggests even narrower boundaries for the flux number compared...

  10. A multi-biofuel, fluidised-bed district heating plant in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of 1984, the city of Haessleholm in Sweden started up a 65 MW district heating plant which included a 14 MW solid fuel plant. The plant included a specially-designed fluidised-bed boiler, capable of burning all grades of solid fuel, including organic fuel of such low grade that no other boilers around Haessleholm could use it. By 1992, the district heating system served some 250 detached houses and 6,000 flats as well as several schools and industrial premises. The biofuel boiler provides almost 60% of the energy required. (UK)

  11. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Jong, W de; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  12. Stabilization of ash from combustion of MSW in a fluidised bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Wilewska, Magda [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2004-06-01

    Due to restrictions against the land filling of combustible waste and directives from authorities that favour energy recovery from the waste, combustion of household waste is becoming more common. Even though combustion of MSW reduces the volume of waste to be handled by approximately 90%, it produces ash residues containing most of the metals present in the original fuel and a number of other species carried through the boiler or formed during combustion. The residues can be divided into three categories: 1. Stable, inert ash that can be utilised in, for example, construction applications 2. Ash that is stable enough to be land filled as nonhazardous waste 3. Ash that contains large amounts of soluble components and potentially toxic metal species. The regulations considering leaching of ash components set limits for the release of soluble salts and toxic metals. Some fly ashes show low leachability for metals but gives a salt release that is too close to the limit for total dissolved solids. Since fly ash from FBC boilers represent the largest volume of ash from these boilers there is a need for a simple and cheap treatment method that reduces the amount of soluble salts, i.e. NaCl, KCl etc, in the ash. After stabilisation, the ash is supposed to go into a more stable category. The aim of this project has been to investigate the applicability of a method to wash such an ash with water. The work included laboratory studies of the ash properties, the water washing process, filtration properties of the ash slurry and also tests of the method in pilot scale at a full scale boiler. This work has been concentrated towards the investigation of cyclone ash from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler in Lidkoeping fired with 100% household waste. Elemental composition of ash samples before and after washing/filtration was determined by AAS or ICP after a suitable dissolution of the sample. The mineralogy of ash samples was analysed using X-ray powder diffractometry. This method

  13. Reactive Gas Solids Flow in Circulating Fluidised Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertager, Bjørn Helge; Solberg, Tron; Hansen, Kim Granly

    2005-01-01

    Progress in modelling and simulation of flow processes in gas/particle systems carried out at the authors? research group are presented. Emphasis is given to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that use the multi-dimensional multi fluid techniques. Turbulence modelling strategies for gas...

  14. Gas-particle interactions in dense gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects gas¿solid contacting and transport processes in dense gas-fluidized beds. A computational study, using a discrete particle method based on Molecular Dynamics techniques, has been carried out to explore the

  15. Recommendations for conversions of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds; Anvisningar foer konvertering av rosterpannor till fluidiserad baeddteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Ingman, Rolf [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report gives advice and recommendations for retrofitting of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds. Nine plants have been visited and experiences from these conversion projects have been gathered and analysed. Among the important points planning, fuel specification, heat balance calculations and clarifying of delivery limits can be mentioned. It is also important not to underestimate the need for education of the operational staff.

  16. SO3 Formation and the Effect of Fly Ash in a Bubbling Fluidised Bed under Oxy-Fuel Combustion Conditions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarbassov, Y.; Duan, L.; Jeremiáš, Michal; Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 167, DEC 1 (2017), s. 314-321 ISSN 0378-3820 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SO3 formation * oxy-fuel combustion * fluidised bed Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuels Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2016

  17. SO3 Formation and the Effect of Fly Ash in a Bubbling Fluidised Bed under Oxy-Fuel Combustion Conditions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarbassov, Y.; Duan, L.; Jeremiáš, Michal; Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 167, DEC 1 (2017), s. 314-321 ISSN 0378-3820 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SO3 formation * oxy- fuel combustion * fluidised bed Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuel s Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2016

  18. Reactivity of coal chars prepared in a fluidised bed reactor at different burn-off degrees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.H.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    The main goal of this work has been to study the effect of the textural properties of coal chars, obtained from partially burned coal, on their reactivity to oxygen. A low volatile bituminous coal was used to prepare chars, with different levels of burn-off, in a bench-scale fluidised bed reactor. Textural characterisation of the samples was accomplished by measuring true (helium) and apparent (mercury) densities, and mercury porosimetry. An increase in the burn-off degree gave rise to a densification of the chars. Porosity development greatly changed during progressive burning of the samples. DTG burning profiles and isothermal gasification were utilised to estimate the reactivities of the precursor coal and its partially burned chars. Reactivity reached a maximum value at an intermediate burn-off and strongly decreased at higher burn-off degrees. (orig.)

  19. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  20. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail: ncsn@fct.unl.pt; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  1. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Lopes, M.H.; Mendes, B.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Santos Oliveira, J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  2. Local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients during the heat treatment of a workpiece in a fluidised bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W.M.; Kong, L.X.; Hodgson, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    The heat-transfer coefficients around a workpiece immersed in an electrically heated heat treatment fluidised bed were studied. A suspension probe designed to simulate a workpiece of complex geometry was developed to measure local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients at a high bed temperature. The probe consisted of an energy-storage region separated by insulation from the fluidised bed, except for the measuring surface, and a multi-thermocouple measurement system. Experiments in the fluidised bed were performed for a fluidising medium of 120-mesh alumina, a wide temperature range of 110-1050 deg. C and a fluidising number range of 1.18-4.24. It was found that the workpiece surface temperature has a more significant effect on heat transfer than the bed temperature. The total heat-transfer coefficient at the upper surface of the workpiece sharply decreased at the start of heating, and then steadily increased as heating progressed, while a sharp decrease became a rapid increase and then a slow increase for the radiative heat-transfer coefficient. A great difference in the heat-transfer coefficients around the workpiece was observed

  3. Occurrence of bromine in fluidised bed combustion of solid recovered fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainikka, P.

    2011-12-15

    Corrosive ash species are the single most important factor limiting the electric efficiency of steam boiler plants fired with waste or biomass. Chlorine has been found to have a central role in the chemistry involved as it reduces the melting temperature of ash, forms corrosive vapour and gas species in the furnace and halogenated deposits on boiler heat transfer surfaces. In this context chlorine has been extensively researched. At the time of writing this thesis there was hardly any published data available on the occurrence of bromine (Br) in the aforementioned context. The objective of this work was to review the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels and characterise the behaviour of bromine in full-scale fluidised bed combustion. The review on the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels revealed that in anthropogenic wastes bromine is mainly found in connection to flame retarded substances. Several weight percentages of bromine can be found in plastics treated with brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Bromine is typically found some 100-200 mg kg-1 in mixed municipal solid wastes (MSW). Bromine may be enriched in fuels with high share of plastics, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF) or refuse derived fuel (RDF). Up to 2000 mg kg-1 was found as a monthly average in SRF, typical levels being 20-200 mg kg-1. Wastewater sludge from paper mills may contain bromine 20-100 mg kg-1 due the use of bromine based biocides. In other fuels bromine may be found in significant amounts in marine influenced coal deposits and peat as well as in biomass treated with brominated pesticides. In the experimental part SRF, spruce bark and wastewater sludge from a paper mill were co-fired in a full- scale bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler, and the collected fuels, aerosols and waterwall deposits were analysed with the focus on the fate of bromine. Bromine was mainly found to form water soluble high vapour pressure alkali metal halides in the furnace - in the form of KBr(g) and NaBr(g) as

  4. Measurements of dioxin emissions during co-firing in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; A.T. Crujeira; P. Abelha; I. Cabrita [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal). Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controle Ambiental

    2007-09-15

    The emissions of dioxins could be considerable when fuels with high chlorine content are used, particularly in fluidised beds due to constraints to use temperatures in the range 800-900{sup o}C for other considerations. However, mixing of fuels with different characteristics may lead to a reduction in dioxin emissions. Studies are currently being undertaken at the above-mentioned department in mixing fuels of varying chlorine and sulphur contents to monitor the emissions of dioxins both in the gas and solid phases. Furthermore, the influence of certain elements like Cu in the ash in the emissions of dioxins is also studied to verify the catalytic effect. The INETI pilot-scale test facility is used for the combustion work. Two different coals, namely Colombian and Polish, are used as the base fuel. The supplementary fuels for co-firing include MBM and straw pellets. The combustion temperature is maintained at about 800-830{sup o}C range without any limestone addition. The residence time of over 2 s is respected. Results obtained by far suggest that the presence of sulphur in both fuels have a very strong effect on the eventual emissions of dioxins and the synergy regarding to reduce the dioxins below the levels permitted is possible by mixing fuels based on their characteristics. The paper reports the results obtained and evaluates the effect of fuel nature and operating conditions on the emissions of dioxins. 34 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Nutrients removal in hybrid fluidised bed bioreactors operated with aeration cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Martin; Enríquez, L López; Fernández-Polanco, M; Villaverde, S; Garcia-Encina, P A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Two hybrid fluidised bed reactors filled with sepiolite and granular activated carbon (GAC) were operated with short cycled aeration for removing organic matter, total nitrogen and phosphorous, respectively. Both reactors were continuously operated with synthetic and/or industrial wastewater containing 350-500 mg COD/L, 110-130 mg NKT/L, 90-100 mg NH3-N/L and 12-15 mg P/L for 8 months. The reactor filled with sepiolite, treating only synthetic wastewater, removed COD, ammonia, total nitrogen and phosphorous up to 88, 91, 55 and 80% with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 h, respectively. These efficiencies correspond to removal rates of 0.95 kgCODm(-3)d(-1) and 0.16 kg total N m(-3)d(-1). The reactor filled with GAC was operated for 4 months with synthetic wastewater and 4 months with industrial wastewater, removing 98% of COD, 96% of ammonia, and 66% of total nitrogen, with an HRT of 13.6 h. No significant phosphorous removing activity was observed in this reactor. Microbial communities growing with both reactors were followed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The microbial fingerprints, i.e. DGGE profiles, indicated that biological communities in both reactors were stable along the operational period even when the operating conditions were changed.

  6. Carbonation of Mg(OH){sub 2} in a pressurised fluidised bed for CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, J.

    2012-07-01

    To date, a number of methods to accelerate natural weathering or in other words increase the CO{sub 2} uptake rate of various minerals have been suggested; commonly this is known as mineral carbonation or CO{sub 2} mineralisation. A brief literature review of recently published articles in this field is presented, showing that the interest in mineral carbonation is increasing. However, it should be noted that mineral carbonation is only one option in a larger portfolio of various carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. Unlike many other options, the CO{sub 2} mineralisation option considered in this thesis is largely founded on the possibility to utilise the exothermic nature of magnesium carbonation and based on this notion, it has been divided into three steps. The first two steps are energy demanding, while the third step is energy 'negative', and in theory, the source of the energy required in the first two steps. Unfortunately, however, the energy demanded by the first two steps, Mg extraction and Mg(OH){sub 2} production, is (currently) much higher than what could be generated by the subsequent Mg(OH){sub 2} carbonation step. Nevertheless, opportunities to reduce the energy intensity of the process in question are still being investigated, and while an energy-neutral carbonation process might be difficult to achieve, energy requirements can still be rendered industrially acceptable (and comparable to or even better than for other CCS methods). The main focus of this thesis lies with the third step, Mg(OH){sub 2} carbonation, which is performed using a pressurised fluidised bed (PFB). The elevated CO{sub 2} pressure conditions (typically approx 20 bar) allow for the carbonation reaction to take place at higher temperatures (typically approx 500 deg C) than otherwise due to thermodynamic constraints on carbonate stability. The increase in reaction rate as a function of temperature follows the Arrhenius equation of exponential increase

  7. Results concerning a clean co-combustion technology of waste biomass with fossil fuel, in a pilot fluidised bed combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, Ioana; Trif-Tordai, Gavril; Ungureanu, Corneliu; Popescu, Francisc; Lontis, Nicolae [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty for Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The research focuses on a facility, the experimental results, interpretation and future plans concerning a new developed technology of using waste renewable energy by applying the cocombustion of waste biomass with coal, in a fluidised bed system. The experimental facility is working entirely in accordance to the allowed limits for the exhaust flue gas concentration, with special concern for typical pollutants. The experiments conclude that the technology is cleaner, has as main advantage the possibility to reduce both the SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} exhaust in comparison to standard fossil fuel combustion, under comparable circumstances. The combustion is occurring in a stable fluidised bed. (orig.)

  8. Gaseous emissions in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion. Analysis and summary of the pilot experiments; Kaasumaiset paeaestoet paineistetussa leijukerrospoltossa. Koetulosten kaesittely ja yhteenveto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Hippinen, I.; Konkola, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The influence of operating conditions on gaseous emissions in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion have been studied. The research objectives have been behaviour of sulphur absorbents and reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions, reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions, release of vapour-phase alkalimetals and carbon monoxide emissions. The sulphur capture capacities of calcium-based sorbents under PFBC conditions have been studied at a pressurised fluidised-bed reactor and at a pressurised thermogravimetric apparatus. The project has also connected results of the experimental PFBC at HUT/EVO. (author)

  9. Effect of organic loading rate on anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de la Grasa; Banks, C.J.; Zhengjian Wang [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1995-09-01

    COD removal efficiencies in the range 75.0-98.9% were achieved in an aerobic fluidised-bed reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater, when evaluated at organic loading rates (OLR) of between 2.9 and 54.0 g COD/l.d, hydraulic retention times (HRT) of between 0.5 and 8 h and feed COD concentrations of between 250 and 4500 mg/l. More than 94% of feed COD could be removed up to OLR of about 27 g COD/l.d. Up to 0.320 litres of methane were produced per gram of COD removed and this methane production rate was independent of the OLR applied in this investigation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the reactor increased sharply at an OLR of about 30 g COD/l.d and, therefore, sufficient alkalinity should be provided to prevent pH from dropping to an undesirable level. The anaerobic fluidised-bed system can be operated at a significantly higher liquid throughput than other previously reported systems while maintaining its excellent efficiency. (Author)

  10. Ruedersdorf cement works substitutes raw material and fuel by means of a circulating fluidised bed; Roh- und Brennstoffsubstitution mit einer Zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht im Zementwerk Ruedersdorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scur, P. [Ruedersdorfer Zement GmbH, Ruedersdorf (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to point out the great potential the cement industry holds for the utilisation of waste materials. There are meanwhile sufficient studies and measuring results to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of the processes and products involved. The solution found for Ruedersdorf cement kiln of using a circulating a fluidised bed for waste utilisation is a good example of the potential still available for conserving natural resources and landfill area. Efficient industrial applications of this kind should become a future mainstay of the waste industry. [Deutsch] In dem vorliegenden Beitrag sollte gezeigt werden, dass die Zementindustrie ueber ein hohes Potential zur thermischen und stofflichen Verwertung von Abfallstoffen verfuegt. Es liegen ausreichende Untersuchungen und konkrete Messergebnisse vor, mit denen die Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Prozess und Produkt nachgewiesen werden kann. Die Loesung zur Abfallverwertung an der Ruedersdorfer Zementofenanlage mit Hilfe einer Zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist ein Beispiel fuer die Reserven zur Schonung natuerlicher Ressourcen und zur Einsparung von Deponieraeumen. Derartige sinnvolle industrielle Einsatzmoeglichkeiten sollten ein wichtiges Standbein fuer die zukuenftige Abfallwirtschaft sein. (orig.)

  11. Incineration as a treatment option for shredder light fractions (SLF) by a stationary fluidised bed combustion; Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Shredderleichtfraktionen in einer stationaeren Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Gaston

    2011-07-15

    In this paper the suitability of the stationary fluidised bed combustion as a treatment option for shredder light fractions (SLF) is discussed. This SLF, SLF coarse grain and SLF generated in a further mechanical treatment were burned. The results show a strong change in grain size distribution of the bed material during the combustion the SLF and SLF-coarse fractions. The formation of agglomerates significantly impaired the fluidization. The main reason for this effect is the high content of alkali and alkaline earth metals in the SLF. During the incineration of SLF generated by further mechanical treatment the change in grain size distribution declines much more slowly. This results from the separation of hard plastics with higher calcium contents during further mechanical processing. The tests also showed a complete burnout and a significant enrichment of metals in the solid combustion residues (fabric filter ash bed ash, cyclone ash). These residues represent a recycling concentrate, which needs to be open in the future. (orig.)

  12. Discrete particle simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed: A hard-sphere approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Briels, Willem J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    A discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed has been developed and in this the two-dimensional motion of the individual, spherical particles was directly calculated from the forces acting on them, accounting for the interaction between the particles and the interstitial gas phase. Our collision

  13. Co-combustion of coal and non-recyclable paper & plastic waste in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, D.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Cabrita, I. [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    Co-combustion of waste with coal was carried out using a fluidised bed combustor with the aim of achieving a fuel mixture with little variations in its heating value and simultaneously reducing the accumulation of non-toxic waste material by upgrading them for energy purposes. Results obtained indicate that the feeding of waste materials could present serious problems which could render conditions for a stable combustion difficult to achieve. The waste was fed mixed with coal and there was some difference observed in results regarding the combustion efficiency and emissions. Part of the combustion of waste material, contrary to that of coal, was observed to take place in the freeboard where the temperature was as much as 150{degree}C above that of the bed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Co-combustion of coal and non-recyclable paper and plastic waste in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Boavida; P. Abelha; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-10-01

    Co-combustion of waste with coal was carried out using a fluidised bed combustor with the aim of achieving a fuel mixture with little variations in its heating value and simultaneously reducing the accumulation of non-toxic waste material by upgrading them for energy purposes. Results obtained indicate that the feeding of waste materials plays an important role to achieve conditions for a stable combustion. The form in which the fuel is fed to the combustor makes a significant contribution to achieve desirable combustion performance and differences were observed in results regarding the combustion efficiency and emissions when waste was fed densified or in a fluffy state when it was burned mixed with coal. Part of the combustion of waste material, contrary to that of coal, was observed to take place in the freeboard where the temperature was as much as 150{sup o}C above that of the bed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for clean coal technology thrust COMMISSIONED PLANTS Slagment Hot Gas Generator Client : Slagment Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98% burnout to provide hot gases for the drying...

  16. Fluidised bed gasification of South African coals – experimental results and process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available % to 51.6%. The new design however requires a significantly larger heat exchange area to exchange the extra energy that was not exchanged in the preliminary design. It is therefore recommended that a cost analysis should be done to determine whether...

  17. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  18. Characteristics of ash and particle emissions during bubbling fluidised bed combustion of three types of residual forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Peres; Vicente, Estela Domingos; Alves, Célia; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio; Tarelho, Luís A C

    2017-04-01

    Combustion of residual forest biomass (RFB) derived from eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus), pine (Pinus pinaster) and golden wattle (Acacia longifolia) was evaluated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor (BFBR). During the combustion experiments, monitoring of temperature, pressure and exhaust gas composition has been made. Ash samples were collected at several locations along the furnace and flue gas treatment devices (cyclone and bag filter) after each combustion experiment and were analysed for their unburnt carbon content and chemical composition. Total suspended particles (TSP) in the combustion flue gas were evaluated at the inlet and outlet of cyclone and baghouse filter and further analysed for organic and elemental carbon, carbonates and 57 chemical elements. High particulate matter collection efficiencies in the range of 94-99% were observed for the baghouse, while removal rates of only 1.4-17% were registered for the cyclone. Due to the sand bed, Si was the major element in bottom ashes. Fly ashes, in particular those from eucalypt combustion, were especially rich in CaO, followed by relevant amounts of SiO 2 , MgO and K 2 O. Ash characteristics varied among experiments, showing that their inorganic composition strongly depends on both the biomass composition and combustion conditions. Inorganic constituents accounted for TSP mass fractions up to 40 wt%. Elemental carbon, organic matter and carbonates contributed to TSP mass fractions in the ranges 0.58-44%, 0.79-78% and 0.01-1.7%, respectively.

  19. Mathematical modelling of sewage sludge incineration in a bubbling fluidised bed with special consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao Bin; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-11-01

    Fluidised bed combustor (FBC) is one of the key technologies for sewage sludge incineration. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for the simulation of a large-scale sewage sludge incineration plant. The model assumes the bed consisting of a fast-gas phase, an emulsion phase and a fuel particle phase with specific consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles. The model further improves over previous works by taking into account throughflow inside the bubbles as well as the floating and random movement of the fuel particles inside the bed. Validation against both previous lab-scale experiments and operational data of a large-scale industrial plant was made. Calculation results indicate that combustion split between the bed and the freeboard can range from 60/40 to 90/10 depending on the fuel particle distribution across the bed height under the specific conditions. The bed performance is heavily affected by the variation in sludge moisture level. The response time to variation in feeding rate is different for different parameters, from 6 min for outlet H2O, 10 min for O2, to 34 min for bed temperature.

  20. Effects of droplet size and type of binder on the agglomerate growth mechanisms by melt agglomeration in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Anette; Holm, Per; Schaefer, Torben

    2002-08-01

    This study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of binder droplet size and type of binder on the agglomerate growth mechanisms by melt agglomeration in a fluidised bed granulator. Lactose monohydrate was agglomerated with melted polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 or Gelucire 50/13 (esters of polyethylene glycol and glycerol), which was atomised at different nozzle air flow rates giving rise to median droplet sizes of 40, 60, and 80 microm. Different product temperatures were investigated, below the melting range, in the middle of the melting range, and above the melting range for each binder. The agglomerates were found to be formed by initial nucleation of lactose particles immersed in the melted binder droplets. Agglomerate growth occurred by coalescence between nuclei followed by coalescence between agglomerates. Complex effects of binder droplet size and type of binder were seen at low product temperatures. Low product temperatures resulted in smaller agglomerate sizes, because the agglomerate growth was counteracted by very high binder viscosity or solidification of the binder. At higher product temperatures, neither the binder droplet size nor the type of binder had a clear effect on the final agglomerate size.

  1. Axial concentration profiles and N{sub 2}O flue gas in a pilot scale bubbling fluidised bed coal combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarelho, L.A.C.; Matos, M.A.A.; Pereira, F.J.M.A. [Environment and Planning Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-05-15

    Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidised Bed Coal Combustion (ABFBCC) of a bituminous coal and anthracite with particle diameters in the range 500-4000 {mu}m was investigated in a pilot-plant facility (circular section with 0.25 m internal diameter and 3 m height). The experiments were conducted at steady-state conditions using three excess air levels (10%, 25% and 50%) and bed temperatures in the 750-900 {sup o}C range. Combustion air was staged, with primary air accounting for 100%, 80% and 60% of total combustion air. For both types of coal, virtually no N{sub 2}O was found in significant amounts inside the bed. However, just above the bed-freeboard interface, the N{sub 2}O concentration increased monotonically along the freeboard and towards the exit flue. The N{sub 2}O concentrations in the reactor ranged between 0-90 ppm during bituminous coal combustion and 0-30 ppm for anthracite. For both coals, the lowest values occurred at the higher bed temperature (900 {sup o}C) with low excess air (10%) and high air staging (60% primary air), whereas the highest occurred at the lower bed temperature (750 {sup o}C for bituminous, 825 {sup o}C for anthracite) with high excess air (50%) and single stage combustion. Most of the observed results could be qualitatively interpreted in terms of a set of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, where catalytic surfaces (such as char, sand and coal ash) can play an important role in the formation and destruction of N{sub 2}O and its precursors (such as HCN, NH{sub 3} and HCNO) by free radicals (O, H, OH) and reducing species (H{sub 2}, CO, HCs)

  2. Particulate and PCDD/F emissions from coal co-firing with solid biofuels in a bubbling fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Lopes; I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; T. Crujeira; D. Salema; M. Freire; R. Pereira; I. Cabrita [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal). DEECA

    2009-12-15

    In the scope of the COPOWER project SES6-CT-2004 to investigate potential synergies of co-combustion of different biofuels with coal, a study of emissions of particulate matter and PCDD/F was carried out. The biofuels tested were meat and bone meal (MBM), sewage sludge biopellets (BP), straw pellets (SP), olive bagasse (OB) and wood pellets (WP). The tests performed include co-firing of 5%, 15% and 25% by weight of biofuels with coals of different origin. Both monocombustion and co-firing were carried out. Combustion tests were performed on a pilot fluidised bed, equipped with cyclones and air staging was used in order to achieve almost complete combustion of fuels with high volatile contents and to control gaseous emissions. Particulate matter emissions were isokinetically sampled in the stack and their particle size analysis was performed with a cascade impactor (Mark III). The results showed that most particles emitted were below 10 {mu}m (PM10) for all the tests, however, with the increasing share of biofuels and also during combustion of pure biofuels, especially olive bagasse, straw and MBM, very fine particles, below about 1 {mu}m were present. With the exception of sewage sludge, greater amounts of biofuels appeared to give rise to the decrease in particulate mean diameters and increase in PM percentages below 1 {mu}m. The formation of very fine particles could be related with the presence of aerosol forming elements such as K, Na (in the case of MBM) and Cl in biofuels, which even resulted in higher PM emissions when the ash content of fuels decreased. A correlation wasverified between the increase of PCDD/F with the decrease of PM mean diameter. This may be due to higher specific surface area and greater Cu concentration in the fly ashes. 33 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Characterising boiler ash from a circulating fluidised bed municipal solid waste incinerator and distribution of PCDD/F and PCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2018-05-31

    In this study, ash samples were collected from five locations situated in the boiler of a circulating fluidised bed municipal solid waste incinerator (high- and low-temperature superheater, evaporator tubes and upper and lower economiser). These samples represent a huge range of flue gas temperatures and were characterised for their particle size distribution, surface characteristics, elemental composition, chemical forms of carbon and chlorine and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and biphenyls (PCB). Enrichment of chlorine, one of the main elements of organochlorinated pollutants, and copper, zinc and lead, major catalytic metals for dioxin-like compounds, was observed in lower-temperature ash deposits. The speciation of carbon and chlorine on ash surfaces was established, showing a positive correlation between organic chlorine and oxygen-containing carbon functional groups. The load of PCDD/F and PCB (especially dioxin-like PCB) tends to rise rapidly with falling temperature of flue gas, reaching their highest value in economiser ashes. The formation of PCDD/F congeners through the chlorophenol precursor route apparently was enhanced downstream the boiler. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the links between the ash characteristics and distribution of chloro-aromatics. The primary purpose of this study is improving the understanding of any links between the characteristics of ash from waste heat systems and its potential to form PCDD/F and PCB. The question is raised whether further characterisation of fly ash may assist to establish a diagnosis of poor plant operation, inclusive the generation, destruction and eventual emission of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  4. Cofiring of difficult fuels: The effect of Ca-based sorbents on the gas chemistry in fluidised bed combustion; Kalsiumpohjaisten lisaeaineiden vaikutus leijukerrospolton kaasukemiaan vaikeiden polttoaineiden sekapoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Partanen, J.; Fabritius, M.; Elo, T.; Virta, A.K. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish the effects of Ca-based sorbents on sulphur, halogen and alkaline chemistry in fluidised bed combustion of difficult fuels, and to find out any restrictions on the use of these sorbents. The aim is to acquire sufficient knowledge to ensure the operational reliability of power plants and to minimise the emissions and costs of flue gas cleaning. The results enable the owner to anticipate necessary changes associated with slagging, fouling and emission control in the existing power plants, when there are plans to increase the range of fuels used. (orig.)

  5. Pressurised fluidised-bed gasification experiments with biomass, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1994. Gasification of Danish wheat, straw and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Staahlberg, P; Moilanen, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed air gasification of three different Danish straw feedstocks and Colombian bituminous coal was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT. The test programme was divided into two different modes of operation. First, the usability of straw as the only feedstock was investigated by operating the gasifier at relatively low temperature normally used in biomass gasifiers. In this operation mode the main aim was to find out the limits for gasification temperatures, set by the sintering behaviour of the straw. Secondly, the use of straw as an additional feedstock in a fluidised-bed coal gasifier was examined by operating the gasifier at about 1 000 deg C with different ratings of straw and coal feeding. The gasifier was operated at 5 bar pressure and at 80 990 deg C. The product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 465-540 deg C. Concentrations of tars, nitrogen com- pounds, sulphur gases, vapour-phase alkali metals as well as chlorine were determined in different operating conditions. (12 refs.)

  6. Strategies to reduce gaseous KCl and chlorine in deposits during combustion of biomass in fluidised bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan

    2012-11-01

    Combustion of a biomass with an enhanced content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. In this work, measures were investigated in order to decrease the risk of superheater corrosion by reducing gaseous KCl and the content of chlorine in deposits. The strategies applied were sulphation of KCl by sulphur/sulphate containing additives (i.e. elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate (AS)) and co-combustion with peat. Both sulphation of KCl and capture of potassium (K) in ash components can be of importance when peat is used. The experiments were mainly performed in a 12 MW circulation fluidised bed (CFB) boiler equipped for research purposes but also in a full-scale CFB boiler. The results were evaluated by means of IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous KCl), conventional gas analysis, deposit and corrosion probe measurements and ash analysis. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. Thus the presence of SO{sub 3} (i.e. AS) is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} (i.e. S) for sulphation of gaseous KCl and reduction of chlorine in deposits. Only a minor reduction of gaseous KCl was obtained during co-combustion with peat although chlorine in the deposits was greatly reduced. This reduction was supposedly due to capture of K by reactive components from the peat ash in parallel to sulphation of KCl. These compounds remained unidentified. The effect of volatile combustibles on the sulphation of gaseous KCl was investigated. The poorest sulphation was attained during injection of ammonium sulphate in the upper part of the combustion chamber during the lowest air excess ratio. The explanation for this is that SO{sub 3} was partly consumed by side reactions due to the presence of combustibles. These experimental results were supported by modelling, although the

  7. Mathematical Determination of Thermal Load for Fluidised Bed Furnaces Using Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonescu Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For technical applications, a physical model capable of predicting the particle evolution in the burning process along its trajectory through the furnace is very useful. There are two major demands: all the thermo-dynamic processes that describe the particle burning process must be accounted and the model must be written in such equation terms to allow the intervention for parameter settings and particle definition. The computations were performed for the following parameters: furnace average temperature between 700 and 1200 °C, size of the sawdust particle from 4 to 6 mm and fix carbon ignition between 500 and 900 °C. The values obtained for the characteristic parameters of the burning process ranged from 30 to 60 [kg/(h·m3] for the gravimetrical burning speed WGh and from 150 to 280 [kW/m3] for the volumetric thermal load of the furnace QV. The main conclusion was that the calculus results are in good agreement with the experimental data from the pilot installations and the real-case measurements in the sawdust working boiler furnaces or pre-burning chambers. Another very important conclusion is that the process speed variation, when the furnace temperature changes, confirms the thermo-kinetic predictions, namely that the burning process speed decreases when the furnace temperature increases.

  8. Utilization of post-reclamation dusts by combustion and oxidising in a pulsating, fluidised bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Invcaigations of thc urilization process of durn. originated from thc mcchanical scclamatbn of uscd moulding sands with Furfury1 alcohol.werc pcrformcd. Colnbustion and oxidat ion processes of pulvcriscd and scparatetl in cycloncs binding agcnts and othcr organiccomponents wcrc carricd out in thc thcrmal mlairncr wherc a grain hcd ~mdcnvent pulsating fluidisat ion cithcs by thc atmnsphcric air orhy oxypcn cnriched air. Factors dclcrmining an effective pcrlormancc of dusls utilization by oxidising in rhc oxygcn cncichcd air wcreindicated and thc plan for thc Furthcr rcscwch was outlined.

  9. Wall heat flux influence on the thermodynamic optimisation of irreversibilities of a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available . The irreversibilities generated were arrived at by computing the entropy generation rates due to the combustion and frictional pressure drop processes. For the combustor where the wall condition was changed from adiabatic to negative heat flux (that is heat leaving...

  10. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  11. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L; Hein, K R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  12. Wear oxidation of evaporator coils in fluidised bed captive power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosal, S.K.; De, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion of pulverised coal or gas to form steam in thermal power plants is a common practice. Corrosion of water-wall, superheater and reheater tubes is the typical problem faced in these power plants. Modification of process conditions, redesigning of equipment and selection of more corrosion resistant materials are few methods which have been tried to combat corrosion to a certain extent. Restricted heat transfer efficiency is another problem associated with these power plants. In order to bring upon improvements, fluidized bed combustors are being used in some advanced thermal power plants at present because of excellent combustion and heat transfer efficiencies. Even with low grade coals, higher combustion efficiency could be achieved in these combustors due to excellent gas/solid chemical reactivity at relatively low reaction temperatures. Further improvements in in-bed heat transfer and bed temperature uniformity have been possible with the use of sand in bed. However, erosion, corrosion and combined erosion/corrosion are some of the major modes of material degradation associated with these fluidized bed combustors using sand. Recently in a captive power unit using bubbling fluidized bed combustors containing sand, evaporator coils made of carbon steel were seen to be severely affected by erosion corrosion. The directional nature of metal removal from the studs, tube OD and ultimately the rupture of the thinned tube wall confirmed the above observation. Microstructural examinations showed loss of carbon at certain places including those near the leaked/punctured regions at the prevailing bed temperature of 850 deg C. This paper describes the detailed investigations carried out on wear oxidation phenomenon occurred in a captive thermal power plant using advanced bubbling fluidized bed combustors. (author)

  13. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  14. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  15. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Frances, E; Campos, I J; Martin, J A; Gil, J [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  16. Investigation of coalescence kinetics of microcristalline cellulose in fluidised bed spray agglomeration: experimental studies and modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peglow

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a model for fluidized bed spray agglomeration is presented. To describe the processes of heat and mass transfer, a physical based model is derived. The model takes evaporation process from the wetted particles as well as the effects of transfer phenomena between suspension gas and bypass gas into account. The change of particle size distribution during agglomeration, modeled by population balances, is linked to the heat and mass transfer model. A new technique is derived to extract agglomeration and nucleation rates from experimental data. Comparisons of experiments and simulations are presented.

  17. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC with the aim of characterizating the ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  18. The behavior of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Helena M.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I. [INETI-DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal); Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S. [UNL-Ubia, Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FRC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their reactor further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out, and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in the cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, and, hence, could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release, which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  19. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helena Lopes, M; Abelha, P; Lapa, N; Oliveira, J S; Cabrita, I; Gulyurtlu, I

    2003-01-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  20. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helena Lopes, M.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I.

    2003-01-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials

  1. Feasibility study - Lowered bed temperature in Fluidised Bed boilers for waste; Foerstudie - Saenkt baeddtemperatur i FB-pannor foer avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2009-01-15

    Waste incineration generally serves two purposes; 1) dispose of waste and 2) generation of heat and power. In the process of power production from waste fuels, the steam temperatures in super heaters are generally limited by the severe fouling and corrosion that occurs at elevated material temperatures, caused by high concentrations of alkali metals and chloride in the flue gas and fly ash. The overall aim of a continuation of present project is to determine if a reduced temperature of the bed zone in a fluidized bed waste incinerator reduces the amount of alkali chlorides in the flue gas. If so, a reduced bed temperature might enable increased steam temperature in super heaters, or, at unchanged steam temperature, improve the lifespan of the super heaters. The results from the project are of interest for plant owners wishing to improve performance of existing plants. The results may also be used to modify the design of future plants by boiler manufacturers. The aim of present pre-study was to determine how far the bed temperature can be reduced in a waste fired fluidized bed boiler in Boraas while maintaining a stable operation with sufficient combustion temperature in the freeboard to fulfil the directives of waste incineration. A continuation of the project will be based on the results from present study. The work is based on experiments at the test boiler. During the present study, no other measurements were performed apart from some sampling of bed material and ashes at different modes of operation. The experiments show that it is possible to alter the air and recycled flue gas in such a manner that the bed temperature is reduced from about 870 deg C to 700 deg C at 100% load and normal fuel mixture, while fulfilling the directive of 850 deg C at 2 seconds. Within normal variations of the fuel properties, however, the bed temperature increases to somewhat above 700 deg C if the fuel turns dry, while it falls below 650 deg C when the fuel turns wet. With

  2. Recommended strategies for spectral processing and post-processing of 1D 1H-NMR data of biofluids with a particular focus on urine

    KAUST Repository

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2018-02-12

    1H NMR spectra from urine can yield information-rich data sets that offer important insights into many biological and biochemical phenomena. However, the quality and utility of these insights can be profoundly affected by how the NMR spectra are processed and interpreted. For instance, if the NMR spectra are incorrectly referenced or inconsistently aligned, the identification of many compounds will be incorrect. If the NMR spectra are mis-phased or if the baseline correction is flawed, the estimated concentrations of many compounds will be systematically biased. Furthermore, because NMR permits the measurement of concentrations spanning up to five orders of magnitude, several problems can arise with data analysis. For instance, signals originating from the most abundant metabolites may prove to be the least biologically relevant while signals arising from the least abundant metabolites may prove to be the most important but hardest to accurately and precisely measure. As a result, a number of data processing techniques such as scaling, transformation and normalization are often required to address these issues. Therefore, proper processing of NMR data is a critical step to correctly extract useful information in any NMR-based metabolomic study. In this review we highlight the significance, advantages and disadvantages of different NMR spectral processing steps that are common to most NMR-based metabolomic studies of urine. These include: chemical shift referencing, phase and baseline correction, spectral alignment, spectral binning, scaling and normalization. We also provide a set of recommendations for best practices regarding spectral and data processing for NMR-based metabolomic studies of biofluids, with a particular focus on urine.

  3. Recommended strategies for spectral processing and post-processing of 1D 1H-NMR data of biofluids with a particular focus on urine

    KAUST Repository

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Saccenti, Edoardo; Gao, Xin; McKay, Ryan T.; dos Santos, Vitor A. P. Martins; Roy, Raja; Wishart, David S.

    2018-01-01

    1H NMR spectra from urine can yield information-rich data sets that offer important insights into many biological and biochemical phenomena. However, the quality and utility of these insights can be profoundly affected by how the NMR spectra are processed and interpreted. For instance, if the NMR spectra are incorrectly referenced or inconsistently aligned, the identification of many compounds will be incorrect. If the NMR spectra are mis-phased or if the baseline correction is flawed, the estimated concentrations of many compounds will be systematically biased. Furthermore, because NMR permits the measurement of concentrations spanning up to five orders of magnitude, several problems can arise with data analysis. For instance, signals originating from the most abundant metabolites may prove to be the least biologically relevant while signals arising from the least abundant metabolites may prove to be the most important but hardest to accurately and precisely measure. As a result, a number of data processing techniques such as scaling, transformation and normalization are often required to address these issues. Therefore, proper processing of NMR data is a critical step to correctly extract useful information in any NMR-based metabolomic study. In this review we highlight the significance, advantages and disadvantages of different NMR spectral processing steps that are common to most NMR-based metabolomic studies of urine. These include: chemical shift referencing, phase and baseline correction, spectral alignment, spectral binning, scaling and normalization. We also provide a set of recommendations for best practices regarding spectral and data processing for NMR-based metabolomic studies of biofluids, with a particular focus on urine.

  4. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  5. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed. Report for the period 2002-07-01 to 2004-06-30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dep. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2005-02-01

    One part of the project was an investigation of the mechanism and kinetics of the absorption of potassium and cadmium in kaolin. Addition of kaolin has been suggested as a method to decrease problems like ash sintering, fouling and corrosion. The results showed that kaolin binds potassium effectively, especially if it is present as chloride or hydroxide. Reducing atmosphere and the presence of water vapour favours the absorption. The products are mainly silicates with low solubility. Cadmium is also absorbed by kaolin in a similar way. In the second part of the project, the chemical forms of some metals present in fly ash from combustion of MSW and bio fuels were studied. The most common Cd-compounds found were sulphate, oxide, chloride and silicate. It was also shown that Cd often is incorporated in calcium minerals, such as calcium silicates, CaO and CaC0{sub 3}, due to the fact that the ions Ca{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} are almost similar in size and charge.

  6. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Nieminen, M; Kurkela, E; Korhonen, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  7. Variations in the stable isotope ratios of specific aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, C.; Snape, C.E.; Fallick, A.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    To establish the scope for applying gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry ({sup {delta}-13}C GC-IRMS) to molecular recognition problems in coal utilisation, {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios were determined for n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of coal rank and process conditions. Six coals ranging from a lignite to a low volatile bituminous coal were subjected to chloroform extraction, fixed-bed pyrolysis under hydrogen pressure (hydropyrolysis) and fluidised-bed (flash) pyrolysis. No significant variations in the stable isotope ratios of n-alkanes were evident as a function of either rank or conversion regime. In contrast, the isotope ratios of PAHs show large variations with those for hydropyrolysis (-23 to -25 parts per thousand) being similar to the bulk values of the initial coals and being isotopically heavier (less negative) than their fluidised-bed pyrolysis counterparts by 2-3 parts per thousand. However, the PAHs from fluidised-bed pyrolysis, which resemble closely those obtained from high temperature coal carbonization, are still heavier (by 2-3 parts per thousand) than those from diesel particulates and coal gasification and combustion residues. This provides a firm basis for the source apportionment of airborne PAHs in the proximity of coking plants, particularly with no major variations in the PAH isotope ratios being found as a function of rank.

  8. Semi-automated literature mining to identify putative biomarkers of disease from multiple biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational methods for mining of biomedical literature can be useful in augmenting manual searches of the literature using keywords for disease-specific biomarker discovery from biofluids. In this work, we develop and apply a semi-automated literature mining method to mine abstracts obtained from PubMed to discover putative biomarkers of breast and lung cancers in specific biofluids. Methodology A positive set of abstracts was defined by the terms ‘breast cancer’ and ‘lung cancer’ in conjunction with 14 separate ‘biofluids’ (bile, blood, breastmilk, cerebrospinal fluid, mucus, plasma, saliva, semen, serum, synovial fluid, stool, sweat, tears, and urine), while a negative set of abstracts was defined by the terms ‘(biofluid) NOT breast cancer’ or ‘(biofluid) NOT lung cancer.’ More than 5.3 million total abstracts were obtained from PubMed and examined for biomarker-disease-biofluid associations (34,296 positive and 2,653,396 negative for breast cancer; 28,355 positive and 2,595,034 negative for lung cancer). Biological entities such as genes and proteins were tagged using ABNER, and processed using Python scripts to produce a list of putative biomarkers. Z-scores were calculated, ranked, and used to determine significance of putative biomarkers found. Manual verification of relevant abstracts was performed to assess our method’s performance. Results Biofluid-specific markers were identified from the literature, assigned relevance scores based on frequency of occurrence, and validated using known biomarker lists and/or databases for lung and breast cancer [NCBI’s On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Cancer Gene annotation server for cancer genomics (CAGE), NCBI’s Genes & Disease, NCI’s Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), and others]. The specificity of each marker for a given biofluid was calculated, and the performance of our semi-automated literature mining method assessed for breast and lung cancer

  9. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.) [de

  10. An assessment of processes for the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, P J; Gartner, E M

    1980-09-01

    Following the laboratory development of a process for the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil for use in structural concrete, a technical and economic assessment of possible processing routes is reported. Rotary kilns, multi-hearth furnaces, sinter-strands, shaft kilns and fluidised bed furnaces are considered and capital and running costs for the various processes are estimated. It is concluded that the initial capital costs of plant are the main barrier to successful exploitation. The cost of fuel for sintering is over-shadowed by the costs of capital investment and electric power, so efforts to reduce fuel consumption are unlikely to make a process economic in themselves.

  11. Impact of biofluid viscosity on size and sedimentation efficiency of the isolated microvesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eMomen-Heravi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles are nano-sized lipid vesicles released by all cells in vivo and in vitro. They are released physiologically under normal conditions but their rate of release is higher under pathological conditions such as tumors. Once released they end up in the systemic circulation and have been found and characterized in all biofluids such as plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, breast milk, ascites, and urine. Microvesicles represent the status of the donor cell they are released from and they are currently under intense investigation as a potential source for disease biomarkers. Currently, the gold standard for isolating microvesicles is ultracentrifugation, although alternative techniques such as affinity purification have been explored. Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to a deforming force by either shear or tensile stress. The different chemical and molecular compositions of biofluids have an effect on its viscosity and this could affect movements of the particles inside the fluid. In this manuscript we addressed the issue of whether viscosity has an effect on sedimentation efficiency of microvesicles using ultracentrifugation. We used different biofluids and spiked them with polystyrene beads and assessed their recovery using the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. We demonstrate that MVs recovery inversely correlates with viscosity and as a result, sample dilutions should be considered prior to ultracentifugation when processing any biofluids.

  12. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  13. Characterisation of coal and chars in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available impact on the physical structure of the residual char. 4 In summary, the distinct burnout characteristics of coals could be attributed to the differences in the macerals and microlithotypes compositions, and mineral matter distribution....0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 REFLECTANCE % RE LA TIV E FR EQ UE NC Y % Increasing reflectance, decreasing volatiles, expected Increase in ignition temperature and time for burn-out Figure...

  14. Sustainable nitrification in fluidised bed reactor with immobilised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... polyacrylamide, polystyrene, polyurethane and polyethylene glycol, have been .... and photographed under ultraviolet light. The representative ..... ited NOB population in immobilised pellets, the degradation of NH4. +-N by ...

  15. Sustainable nitrification in fluidised bed reactor with immobilised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOC concentration above 800 mg·ℓ-1 was not able to cause the inhibition of the heterotrophs over the nitrifiers. PCR-DGGE results indicated the presence of Nitrosomonas (ammonia-oxidising bacteria) and Nitrobacter (nitrite-oxidising bacteria) in the immobilised pellets. Keywords: bioimmobilisation, ammonium, partial ...

  16. Complex and biofluids: From Maxwell to nowadays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2009-11-01

    Complex fluids are the rule in biology and in many industrial applications. Typical examples are blood, cartilage, and polymer solutions. Unlike water (as well as domestic oils, soft clear drinks, and so on), the law(s) describing the behavior of complex fluids are not yet fully established. The complexity arises from strong coupling between microscopic scales (like the motion of a red blood cell in the case of blood, or a polymer molecule for a polymer solution) and the global scale of the flow (say at the scale of a blood artery, or a channel in laboratory experiments). In this issue entitled Complex and Biofluids a large panel of experimental and theoretical problems of complex fluids is exposed. The topics range from dilute polymer solutions, food products, to biology (blood flow, cell and tissue mechanics). One of the earliest model put forward as an attempt to describe a complex fluid was suggested a long time ago by James Clerk Maxwell (in 1867). Other famous scientists, like Einstein (in 1906), and Taylor (in 1932) have made important contributions to the field, but the topic of complex fluids still continues to pose a formidable challenge to science. This field has known during the past decade an unbelievable upsurge of interest in many branches of science (physics, mechanics, chemistry, biology, medical science, mathematics, and so on). Understanding complex fluids is viewed as one of the biggest challenge of the present century. This synthesis will provide a simple introduction to the topic, summarize the main contribution of this issue, and list major open questions in this field. To cite this article: C. Misbah, C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  17. CO2 fixation using magnesium silicate minerals part 1: Process description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerlund, Johan; Nduagu, Experience; Romão, Inês; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a staged carbonation process for magnesium silicate mineral carbonation. This carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) alternative involves the production of magnesium hydroxide, followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed (PFB) reactor. The goal is to utilise the heat of the carbonation reaction to drive the Mg(OH) 2 production step. The results show that Mg(OH) 2 can be produced successfully (up to 78% Mg extraction extent achieved so far) and efficiently from different serpentinite minerals from locations worldwide (Finland, Lithuania, Australia, Portugal…). From the extraction step, ammonium sulphate is recovered while iron oxides (from the mineral) are obtained as by-products. The carbonation step, while still being developed, resulted in >50%-wt conversion in 10 min (500 °C, 20 bar) for > 300 μm serpentinite-derived Mg(OH) 2 particles. Thus the reaction rate achieved so far is much faster than what is currently being considered fast in the field of mineral carbonation. -- Highlights: ► Magnesium silicate-based rock can sequester CO 2 as stable magnesium carbonate. ► Abundance of rock material offers a larger capacity than other CCS methods. ► Mg(OH) 2 production is followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed. ► Carbonation reaches >50% in around 10 min for >0.3 mm particles. ► Mg(OH) 2 produced from different rock material show the same performance.

  18. Developing and understanding biofluid vibrational spectroscopy: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Hussain, Shawn R; Lovergne, Lila; Untereiner, Valérie; Hughes, Caryn; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Thiéfin, Gérard; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2016-04-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy can provide rapid, label-free, and objective analysis for the clinical domain. Spectroscopic analysis of biofluids such as blood components (e.g. serum and plasma) and others in the proximity of the diseased tissue or cell (e.g. bile, urine, and sputum) offers non-invasive diagnostic/monitoring possibilities for future healthcare that are capable of rapid diagnosis of diseases via specific spectral markers or signatures. Biofluids offer an ideal diagnostic medium due to their ease and low cost of collection and daily use in clinical biology. Due to the low risk and invasiveness of their collection they are widely welcomed by patients as a diagnostic medium. This review underscores recent research within the field of biofluid spectroscopy and its use in myriad pathologies such as cancer and infectious diseases. It highlights current progresses, advents, and pitfalls within the field and discusses future spectroscopic clinical potentials for diagnostics. The requirements and issues surrounding clinical translation are also considered.

  19. Unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in flying and swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Li, Gen

    2017-08-01

    Flying and swimming in nature present sophisticated and exciting ventures in biomimetics, which seeks sustainable solutions and solves practical problems by emulating nature's time-tested patterns, functions, and strategies. Bio-fluids in insect and bird flight, as well as in fish swimming are highly dynamic and unsteady; however, they have been studied mostly with a focus on the phenomena associated with a body or wings moving in a steady flow. Characterized by unsteady wing flapping and body undulation, fluid-structure interactions, flexible wings and bodies, turbulent environments, and complex maneuver, bio-fluid dynamics normally have challenges associated with low Reynolds number regime and high unsteadiness in modeling and analysis of flow physics. In this article, we review and highlight recent advances in unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in terms of leading-edge vortices, passive mechanisms in flexible wings and hinges, flapping flight in unsteady environments, and micro-structured aerodynamics in flapping flight, as well as undulatory swimming, flapping-fin hydrodynamics, body-fin interaction, C-start and maneuvering, swimming in turbulence, collective swimming, and micro-structured hydrodynamics in swimming. We further give a perspective outlook on future challenges and tasks of several key issues of the field.

  20. Process for the preparation of unsatured hydrocarbons. Verfahren zur Herstellung ungesaettigter Kohlenwasserstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tmenov, D N; Svintsov, N I; Schapovalova, L P; Tabakov, A V; Dvoretsky, M L; Vasiliev, G I; Schestovsky, G P; Kandalova, V D; Korotkevitsch, B S; Lukaschov, A I

    1980-07-31

    Parrafins, olefines or alkyl aromatic compounds can be dehydrated using a catalyst with a molybdenum oxide compound as the active component and magnesium oxide and crystalline clay or titanium oxide or aluminium oxide as carrier. Monoolefines are formed, which are returned to the contact area, and diolefines. The oxygen of the catalyst is used up in the process, so that this has to be regenerated by a gas rich in oxygen at intervals. In order to avoid oxidation cracking by the oxygen, the catalyst must be flushed with an inert gas before reuse. Dehydration occurs in a fluidised bed, where the yield of olefines is increased by dilution of the hydrocarbons by an inert gas.

  1. Preparation of Small RNA NGS Libraries from Biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alton; Wang, Kai; Baxter, David; Galas, David

    2018-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful method for transcriptome analysis. Unlike other gene expression profiling methods, such as microarrays, NGS provides additional information such as splicing variants, sequence polymorphisms, and novel transcripts. For this reason, NGS is well suited for comprehensive profiling of the wide range of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in biofluids. ExRNAs are of great interest because of their possible biological role in cell-to-cell communication and for their potential use as biomarkers or for therapeutic purposes. Here, we describe a modified protocol for preparation of small RNA libraries for NGS analysis. This protocol has been optimized for use with low-input exRNA-containing samples, such as plasma or serum, and has modifications designed to reduce the sequence-specific bias typically encountered with commercial small RNA library construction kits.

  2. Introducing Discrete Frequency Infrared Technology for High-Throughput Biofluid Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caryn; Clemens, Graeme; Bird, Benjamin; Dawson, Timothy; Ashton, Katherine M.; Jenkinson, Michael D.; Brodbelt, Andrew; Weida, Miles; Fotheringham, Edeline; Barre, Matthew; Rowlette, Jeremy; Baker, Matthew J.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate early diagnosis is critical to patient survival, management and quality of life. Biofluids are key to early diagnosis due to their ease of collection and intimate involvement in human function. Large-scale mid-IR imaging of dried fluid deposits offers a high-throughput molecular analysis paradigm for the biomedical laboratory. The exciting advent of tuneable quantum cascade lasers allows for the collection of discrete frequency infrared data enabling clinically relevant timescales. By scanning targeted frequencies spectral quality, reproducibility and diagnostic potential can be maintained while significantly reducing acquisition time and processing requirements, sampling 16 serum spots with 0.6, 5.1 and 15% relative standard deviation (RSD) for 199, 14 and 9 discrete frequencies respectively. We use this reproducible methodology to show proof of concept rapid diagnostics; 40 unique dried liquid biopsies from brain, breast, lung and skin cancer patients were classified in 2.4 cumulative seconds against 10 non-cancer controls with accuracies of up to 90%.

  3. The potential of microRNAs as biofluid markers of neurodegenerative diseases – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danborg, Pia B; Simonsen, Anja H; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-01-01

    monitoring. This systematic review clarifies biomarker potential of miRNAs detected in biofluids of neurodegenerative disease patients. Thirty-three and ten miRNAs displayed significant expression between patients with multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, compared to healthy controls...

  4. Particulate Emissions from Fluidised Bed Combustion of Ligite with Mineral Sorbents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ondráčková, Lucie; Veselý, Václav; Sýkorová, Ivana; Kučera, Jan; Havránek, Vladimír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl. 1 (2000), s. S670-S671 ISSN 0021-8502. [European Aerosol Conference 2000. Dublin, 03.09.2000-08.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1297; GA AV ČR IAA2046904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2000

  5. Fluidised bed technology – Applications and R&D in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2007-06-28

    Full Text Available Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98 % burnout to provide hot gases for drying slag. Subsequently also used for organic waste incineration. Project duration : 1988 to 1989 Current...

  6. Co-firing of biomass and other wastes in fluidised bed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Lopes, H.; Boavida, D.; Abelha, P. [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal); Werther, J.; Hartge, E.-U.; Wischnewski, R. [TU Hamburg-Harburg (Georgia); Leckner, B.; Amand, L.-E.; Davidsson, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Salatino, P.; Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Urciuolo, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Frederico II and Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (Italy); Oliveira, J.F.; Lapa, N.

    2006-07-01

    A project on co-firing in large-scale power plants burning coal is currently funded by the European Commission. It is called COPOWER. The project involves 10 organisations from 6 countries. The project involves combustion studies over the full spectrum of equipment size, ranging from small laboratory-scale reactors and pilot plants, to investigate fundamentals and operating parameters, to proving trials on a commercial power plant in Duisburg. The power plant uses a circulating fluidized bed boiler. The results to be obtained are to be compared as function of scale-up. There are two different coals, 3 types of biomass and 2 kinds of waste materials are to be used for blending with coal for co-firing tests. The baseline values are obtained during a campaign of one month at the power station and the results are used for comparison with those to be obtained in other units of various sizes. Future tests will be implemented with the objective to achieve improvement on baseline values. The fuels to be used are already characterized. There are ongoing studies to determine reactivities of fuels and chars produced from the fuels. Reactivities are determined not only for individual fuels but also for blends to be used. Presently pilot-scale combustion tests are also undertaken to study the effect of blending coal with different types of biomass and waste materials. The potential for synergy to improve combustion is investigated. Simultaneously, studies to verify the availability of biomass and waste materials in Portugal, Turkey and Italy have been undertaken. Techno-economic barriers for the future use of biomass and other waste materials are identified. The potential of using these materials in coal fired power stations has been assessed. The conclusions will also be reported.

  7. Fluidised bed combustion: a new route to power and heat from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, H D [Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-02-01

    The functioning of fluidized-bed firings and their advantages with regard to SO/sub 2/ emissions are described. The principle of design of a fluidized-bed boiler and a gas/steam turbine power plant with fluidized-bed firing under pressure is outlined. The application and their economics in heat and power generation and marketing potential of fluidized-bed firings and their economics in heat and power generation is pointed out. The construction of waste-fired incinerators has already become possible, but there is still a lot of development work to be done until fluidized-bed firings can be used in central heatings, combined-cycle power plants, and large power plants.

  8. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  9. Co-firing coal and biomass in a fluidised bed boiler

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available ) Nozzle performance trials iv) Large scale combustion trials (including further pumping trials). These phases are covered in greater detail below. Theoretical Studies The first step was to draw up a composite fuel table, where the relative feed.... An example is given in Table 2C. Deviations from theoretical behaviour were investigated, reasons postulated and solutions proposed. Nozzle Performance Trials Trials were carried out at the client’s premises and at the CSIR in order to determine...

  10. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays

  11. Determination of metal ions released by stainless steel arch bar into bio-fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A. Joseph

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel and chromium ions released from new and reused stainless steel arch bar used for maxillomandibular fixation was determined in Hank’s solutions of different hydrogen and chloride ions concentrations, whole blood serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS in vitro, over a six-week immersion time at 37 oC, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The corrosion levels of the wires due to effects of media and incubation times in the bio-fluids were compared by Duncan’s two-way ANOVA (P less than 0.05. Pearson’s correlation was used in establishing relationship in the amounts of metal ions released by new and reused arch bars. The study indicated that the reused wires released more ions than new ones at all time points. The variation of pH and chloride ions of the bio-fluids had a significant effect on the amount of Ni, Mn and Cr ions released. Ageing prior use of arch bars significantly increased Ni ions released into the bio-fluids.

  12. Ionization Suppression and Recovery in Direct Biofluid Analysis Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Carolina; Spence, Corina; Zhang, Chengsen; Bills, Brandon J.; Manicke, Nicholas E.

    2016-04-01

    Paper spray mass spectrometry is a method for the direct analysis of biofluid samples in which extraction of analytes from dried biofluid spots and electrospray ionization occur from the paper on which the dried sample is stored. We examined matrix effects in the analysis of small molecule drugs from urine, plasma, and whole blood. The general method was to spike stable isotope labeled analogs of each analyte into the spray solvent, while the analyte itself was in the dried biofluid. Intensity of the labeled analog is proportional to ionization efficiency, whereas the ratio of the analyte intensity to the labeled analog in the spray solvent is proportional to recovery. Ion suppression and recovery were found to be compound- and matrix-dependent. Highest levels of ion suppression were obtained for poor ionizers (e.g., analytes lacking basic aliphatic amine groups) in urine and approached -90%. Ion suppression was much lower or even absent for good ionizers (analytes with aliphatic amines) in dried blood spots. Recovery was generally highest in urine and lowest in blood. We also examined the effect of two experimental parameters on ion suppression and recovery: the spray solvent and the sample position (how far away from the paper tip the dried sample was spotted). Finally, the change in ion suppression and analyte elution as a function of time was examined by carrying out a paper spray analysis of dried plasma spots for 5 min by continually replenishing the spray solvent.

  13. State-of-the-art in solid-phase extraction of biofluids (M10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, K.-S.; Fleischer, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A major drawback of many SPE protocols in bioanalytical LC is a rather unselective and/or time consuming clean-up procedure. In order to optimize SPE based sample processing with regard to selectivity and speed we investigated tailor-made SPE adorbents, distinct SPE column hardware as well as a novel software (ChromSword ADS, Merck KGaA) for LC(MS)-integrated SPE using column-switching. Restricted Access Materials (RAM) are one family of such special SPE column packing. RAMs are characterized in that they have a defined size-selective exclusion barrier and a non-adsorptive outer particle surface towards macromolecular matrix components (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides). Low-molecular compounds (e.g. drugs) have free access to the binding centers and thus can be extracted and enriched prior to their analytical separation and MS detection. A RAM-SPE column (e.g. LiChrospher ADS, Merck KGaA, Germany) allows the direct, multiple injection and fractionation of crude, complex samples such as hemolyzed blood, plasma, serum, milk, saliva, urine, fermentation broth and cell-culture or tissue homogenate supernatant. In order to improve the selectivity, we extended this on-line sample clean-up protocol by coupling a reversed-phase modified RAM-SPE column with a second short column packed with a Molecularly Imprinted Polymeric (MIP) adsorbent. MIP-SPE adsorbents can be compared with immunoaffinity adsorbents. Besides selective/specific molecular recognition properties, these artificial antibodies exhibit a high stability with respect to pressure, pH, temperature as well as organic solvents. These innovative adsorbents are also attractive because of the ease, low-cost and high reproducibility of preparation. Using MIPS in combination with RAMs we developed a generic SPE platform and protocol, respectively, for highly selective clean-up of complex (bio)fluids. Finally, we succeeded in speeding up the RAM fractionation step (e.g. extraction of 50 pl of

  14. The study of reactions influencing the biomass steam gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Franco; F. Pinto; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [INETI-DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-05-01

    Steam gasification studies were carried out in an atmospheric fluidised bed. The gasifier was operated over a temperature range of 700 900{sup o}C whilst varying a steam/biomass ratio from 0.4 to 0.85 w/w. Three types of forestry biomass were studied: Pinus pinaster (softwood), Eucalyptus globulus and holm-oak (hardwood). The energy conversion, gas composition, higher heating value and gas yields were determined and correlated with temperature, steam/biomass ratio, and species of biomass used. The results obtained seemed to suggest that the operating conditions were optimised for a gasification temperature around 830{sup o}C and a steam/biomass ratio of 0.6 0.7 w/w, because a gas richer in hydrogen and poorer in hydrocarbons and tars was produced. These conditions also favoured greater energy and carbon conversions, as well the gas yield. The main objective of the present work was to determine what reactions were dominant within the operation limits of experimental parameters studied and what was the effect of biomass type on the gasification process. As biomass wastes usually have a problem of availability because of seasonal variations, this work analysed the possibility of replacing one biomass species by another, without altering the gas quality obtained. 19 refs., 8 figs. 2 tabs.

  15. Peptidomics of urine and other biofluids for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauça, Josep Miquel; Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of most current cancer biomarkers make early cancer diagnosis a challenging task. The comprehensive study of peptides and small proteins in a living system, known as "peptidomics," represents an alternative technological approach to the discovery of potential biomarkers for the assessment of a wide variety of pathologies. This review examines the current status of peptidomics for several body fluids, with a focus on urine, for cancer diagnostics applications. Several studies have used high-throughput technologies to characterize the peptide content of different body fluids. Because of its noninvasive collection and high stability, urine is a valuable source of candidate cancer biomarkers. A wide variety of preanalytical issues concerning patient selection and sample handling need to be considered, because not doing so can affect the quality of the results by introducing bias and artifacts. Optimization of both the analytical strategies and the processing of bioinformatics data is also essential to minimize the false-discovery rate. Peptidomics-based studies of urine and other body fluids have yielded a number of biomolecules and peptide panels with potential for diagnosing different types of cancer, especially of the ovary, prostate, and bladder. Large-scale studies are needed to validate these molecules as cancer biomarkers. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. NMR metabolomics for assessment of exercise effects with mouse biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Moyec, Laurence; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Breuneval, Carole; Petot, Helene; Billat, Veronique L. [Universite Evry Val d' Essonne, UBIAE INSERM U902, Evry Cedex (France); Triba, Mohamed N. [Universite Paris 13, CSPBAT UMR 7244, Bobigny (France)

    2012-08-15

    Exercise modulates the metabolome in urine or blood as demonstrated previously for humans and animal models. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, the present study compares the metabolic consequences of an exhaustive exercise at peak velocity (Vp) and at critical velocity (Vc) on mice. Since small-volume samples (blood and urine) were collected, dilution was necessary to acquire NMR spectra. Consequently, specific processing methods were applied before statistical analysis. According to the type of exercise (control group, Vp group and Vc group), 26 male mice were divided into three groups. Mice were sacrificed 2 h after the end of exercise, and urine and blood samples were drawn from each mouse. Proton NMR spectra were acquired with urine and deproteinized blood. The NMR data were aligned with the icoshift method and normalised using the probabilistic quotient method. Finally, data were analysed with the orthogonal projection of latent-structure analysis. The spectra obtained with deproteinized blood can neither discriminate the control mice from exercised mice nor discriminate according to the duration of the exercise. With urine samples, a significant statistical model can be estimated when comparing the control mice to both groups, Vc and Vp. The best model is obtained according to the exercise duration with all mice. Taking into account the spectral regions having the highest correlations, the discriminant metabolites are allantoin, inosine and branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, metabolomic profiles assessed with NMR are highly dependent on the exercise. These results show that urine samples are more informative than blood samples and that the duration of the exercise is a more important parameter to influence the metabolomic status than the exercise velocity. (orig.)

  17. Biofluid infrared spectro-diagnostics: pre-analytical considerations for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovergne, L; Bouzy, P; Untereiner, V; Garnotel, R; Baker, M J; Thiéfin, G; Sockalingum, G D

    2016-06-23

    Several proof-of-concept studies on the vibrational spectroscopy of biofluids have demonstrated that the methodology has promising potential as a clinical diagnostic tool. However, these studies also show that there is a lack of a standardised protocol in sample handling and preparation prior to spectroscopic analysis. One of the most important sources of analytical errors is the pre-analytical phase. For the technique to be translated into clinics, it is clear that a very strict protocol needs to be established for such biological samples. This study focuses on some of the aspects of the pre-analytical phase in the development of the high-throughput Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of some of the most common biofluids such as serum, plasma and bile. Pre-analytical considerations that can impact either the samples (solvents, anti-coagulants, freeze-thaw cycles…) and/or spectroscopic analysis (sample preparation such as drying, deposit methods, volumes, substrates, operators dependence…) and consequently the quality and the reproducibility of spectral data will be discussed in this report.

  18. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandusky, Peter; Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  19. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, Peter [Eckerd College, Department of Chemistry (United States); Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel, E-mail: raftery@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  20. Biofluid mechanics of special organs and the issue of system control. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop, March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Mair; Moore, James E; Fujioka, Hideki; Gaver, Donald P

    2010-03-01

    In the field of fluid flow within the human body, focus has been placed on the transportation of blood in the systemic circulation since the discovery of that system; but, other fluids and fluid flow phenomena pervade the body. Some of the most fascinating fluid flow phenomena within the human body involve fluids other than blood and a service other than transport--the lymphatic and pulmonary systems are two striking examples. While transport is still involved in both cases, this is not the only service which they provide and blood is not the only fluid involved. In both systems, filtration, extraction, enrichment, and in general some "treatment" of the fluid itself is the primary function. The study of the systemic circulation has also been conventionally limited to treating the system as if it were an open-loop system governed by the laws of fluid mechanics alone, independent of physiological controls and regulations. This implies that system failures can be explained fully in terms of the laws of fluid mechanics, which of course is not the case. In this paper we examine the clinical implications of these issues and of the special biofluid mechanics issues involved in the lymphatic and pulmonary systems.

  1. Numerical simulation of MHD pulsatile flow of a biofluid in a channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to numerically study the interaction of an external magnetic field with the flow of a biofluid through a Darcy-Forchhmeir porous channel, due to an oscillatory pressure gradient, in the presence of wall transpiration as well as chemical reaction considerations. We have noticed that if the Reynolds number of the wall transpiration flow is increased, the average (or maximum velocity of the main flow direction is raised. Similar effect has also been observed for the rheological parameter and the Darcy parameter, whereas an opposite trend has been noted for both the Forchheimer quadratic drag parameter and the magnetic parameter. Further, an increase in the Reynolds number results in straightening the concentration profile, thus making it an almost linear function of the dimensionless spatial variable.

  2. Sample collection and preparation of biofluids and extracts for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M; Al-Talla, Zeyad A; Kharbatia, Najeh M

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the utility of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in metabonomics research, all stages of the experimental design should be standardized, including sample collection, storage, preparation, and sample separation. Moreover, the prerequisite for any GC-MS analysis is that a compound must be volatile and thermally stable if it is to be analyzed using this technique. Since many metabolites are nonvolatile and polar in nature, they are not readily amenable to analysis by GC-MS and require initial chemical derivatization of the polar functional groups in order to reduce the polarity and to increase the thermal stability and volatility of the analytes. In this chapter, an overview is presented of the optimum approach to sample collection, storage, and preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomics with particular focus on urine samples as example of biofluids.

  3. Ultrasensitive multiplex optical quantification of bacteria in large samples of biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Pazos, Elena; Catala, Carme; Mir-Simon, Bernat; Gómez-de Pedro, Sara; Sagales, Juan; Villanueva, Carlos; Vila, Jordi; Soriano, Alex; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient treatments in bacterial infections require the fast and accurate recognition of pathogens, with concentrations as low as one per milliliter in the case of septicemia. Detecting and quantifying bacteria in such low concentrations is challenging and typically demands cultures of large samples of blood (~1 milliliter) extending over 24–72 hours. This delay seriously compromises the health of patients. Here we demonstrate a fast microorganism optical detection system for the exhaustive identification and quantification of pathogens in volumes of biofluids with clinical relevance (~1 milliliter) in minutes. We drive each type of bacteria to accumulate antibody functionalized SERS-labelled silver nanoparticles. Particle aggregation on the bacteria membranes renders dense arrays of inter-particle gaps in which the Raman signal is exponentially amplified by several orders of magnitude relative to the dispersed particles. This enables a multiplex identification of the microorganisms through the molecule-specific spectral fingerprints. PMID:27364357

  4. Biofluid-based microRNA Biomarkers for Parkinsons Disease: an Overview and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapana Shinde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a highly debilitating motor disorder and is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Its current method of diagnosis mainly relies on subjective clinical rating scales in the presence of clinical motor features. Early detection of PD is a known challenge as neuronal cell death may range from 50% to 80% when a patient is first diagnosed with PD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and develop biomarkers for early detection of this progressive disease. This mini review focuses on the recent developments of biofluid-based microRNAs (miRNAs as molecular biomarkers for PD. A comprehensive list of miRNA biomarkers found in blood, plasma, serum, and cerebral spinal fluid is presented. Challenges and future perspectives of using these PD-related molecular biomarkers in a “real-world” clinical setting are also discussed.

  5. The application of biofluid mechanics boundary effects on phoretic motions of colloidal spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Po-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    "The Application of Biofluid Mechanics: Boundary Effects on Phoretic Motions of Colloidal Spheres" focuses on the phoretic motion behavior of various micron- to nanometer-size particles. The content of this book is divided into two parts: one on the concentration gradient-driven diffusiophoresis and osmophoresis, and one on thermocapillary motion and thermophoretic motion driven by temperature gradient. Diffusiophoresis and osmophoresis are mainly used in biomedical engineering applications, such as drug delivery, purification, and the description of the behavior of the immune system; thermocapillary motion and thermophoretic motion are applied in the field of semiconductors, as well as in suspended impurities removal. The book also provides a variety of computer programming source codes compiled using Fortran for researchers' future applications. This book is intended for chemical engineers, biomedical engineers and scientists, biophysicists, and fundamental chemotaxis researchers. Dr. Po-Yuan Chen is an Ass...

  6. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  7. Recent Advances in Mass Spectrometry for the Identification of Neuro-chemicals and their Metabolites in Biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-07-01

    Recently, mass spectrometric related techniques have been widely applied for the identification and quantification of neurochemicals and their metabolites in biofluids. This article presents an overview of mass spectrometric techniques applied in the detection of neurological substances and their metabolites from biological samples. In addition, the advances of chromatographic methods (LC, GC and CE) coupled with mass spectrometric techniques for analysis of neurochemicals in pharmaceutical and biological samples are also discussed.

  8. Investigation of uranium binding forms in environmentally relevant waters and bio-fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Alfatih Ahmed Alamin

    2014-01-01

    Uranium from natural and anthropogenic sources is continuously and increasingly released into the environment, enters the food chain, and eventually accumulates into the bio-systems including humans. Therefore, uranium exposure to human becomes more and more a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Ingestion of uranium via food and drinking water is one of the important pathways of exposure. The ongoing discussion in Germany and the European Union (EU) on the maximum uranium levels in drinking water reflects the increasing awareness of uranium as a public health problem. For water suppliers in many countries around the world, uranium contamination of drinking water also becomes a salient issue. Nevertheless, the health consequences are dependent not only on the level and duration of exposure, but mainly on the physical and chemical forms of uranium (speciation). Unlike total concentration, speciation can provide more information on uranium behavior (mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity) in both geo-systems and bio-systems. The aim of the current work is to elucidate uranium speciation in natural samples (water, bio-fluids) by both spectroscopic means and theoretical modeling. For this purpose, environmentally relevant waters (mineral water, groundwater, acid drainage waters) and natural human body fluids have been investigated. The cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K has successfully been used to identify the speciation in such complex matrices of high organic content and low uranium concentrations without any prior treatment. Data about uranium binding forms in natural waters could be used for more insight research on uranium chemo-toxicity in drinking water since there is no available information on the long-term exposure of low uranium concentrations via ingestion on humans. Altogether the obtained data provides a comprehensive

  9. Investigation of uranium binding forms in environmentally relevant waters and bio-fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Alfatih Ahmed Alamin

    2014-06-04

    Uranium from natural and anthropogenic sources is continuously and increasingly released into the environment, enters the food chain, and eventually accumulates into the bio-systems including humans. Therefore, uranium exposure to human becomes more and more a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Ingestion of uranium via food and drinking water is one of the important pathways of exposure. The ongoing discussion in Germany and the European Union (EU) on the maximum uranium levels in drinking water reflects the increasing awareness of uranium as a public health problem. For water suppliers in many countries around the world, uranium contamination of drinking water also becomes a salient issue. Nevertheless, the health consequences are dependent not only on the level and duration of exposure, but mainly on the physical and chemical forms of uranium (speciation). Unlike total concentration, speciation can provide more information on uranium behavior (mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity) in both geo-systems and bio-systems. The aim of the current work is to elucidate uranium speciation in natural samples (water, bio-fluids) by both spectroscopic means and theoretical modeling. For this purpose, environmentally relevant waters (mineral water, groundwater, acid drainage waters) and natural human body fluids have been investigated. The cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K has successfully been used to identify the speciation in such complex matrices of high organic content and low uranium concentrations without any prior treatment. Data about uranium binding forms in natural waters could be used for more insight research on uranium chemo-toxicity in drinking water since there is no available information on the long-term exposure of low uranium concentrations via ingestion on humans. Altogether the obtained data provides a comprehensive

  10. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  11. Accelerated Biofluid Filling in Complex Microfluidic Networks by Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Cheung, Mei Ki; Liu, Shirley Xiaosu; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Rapid fluid transport and exchange are critical operations involved in many microfluidic applications. However, conventional mechanisms used for driving fluid transport in microfluidics, such as micropumping and high pressure, can be inaccurate and difficult for implementation for integrated microfluidics containing control components and closed compartments. Here, a technology has been developed termed Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM) capable of significantly enhancing biofluid transport in complex microfluidic environments containing dead-end channels and closed chambers. Operation of the V-PAM entails a pressurized fluid loading into microfluidic channels where gas confined inside can rapidly be dissipated through permeation through a thin, gas-permeable membrane sandwiched between microfluidic channels and a network of vacuum channels. Effects of different structural and operational parameters of the V-PAM for promoting fluid filling in microfluidic environments have been studied systematically. This work further demonstrates the applicability of V-PAM for rapid filling of temperature-sensitive hydrogels and unprocessed whole blood into complex irregular microfluidic networks such as microfluidic leaf venation patterns and blood circulatory systems. Together, the V-PAM technology provides a promising generic microfluidic tool for advanced fluid control and transport in integrated microfluidics for different microfluidic diagnosis, organs-on-chips, and biomimetic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coals in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FT-IR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions...

  13. Fluidised bed membrane reactor for ultrapure hydrogen production via methane steam reforming: Experimental demonstration and model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, C.S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is emerging as a future alternative for mobile and stationary energy carriers in addition to its use in chemical and petrochemical applications. A novel multifunctional reactor concept has been developed for the production of ultrapure hydrogen View the MathML source from light hydrocarbons

  14. Fluidised bed membrane reactor for ultrapure hydrogen production via methane steam reforming: Experimental demonstration and model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, C.S.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is emerging as a future alternative for mobile and stationary energy carriers in addition to its use in chemical and petrochemical applications. A novel multifunctional reactor concept has been developed for the production of ultrapure hydrogen (<10 ppm CO) from light hydrocarbons such as

  15. Investigation on catalytic gasification of high-ash coal with mixing-gas in a small-scale fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Lin, J. [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China)

    2005-10-15

    The experimental study on the Yangquan high-ash coal catalytic gasification with mixing gas by using solid alkali or waste liquid of viscose fiber as the catalyst in a small-scale fluidized bed with 28 mm i.d. was carried out. The loading saturation levels of two catalysts in Yangquan high-ash coal are about 6%. Under the gasification temperature ranging from 830 to 900{sup o}C and from 900 to 920{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of Yangquan high-ash coal with respect to the unreacted carbon fraction approximates to 2.3 and 1/3 for the non-catalyst case, respectively. Also, the different values of apparent reaction order in the two temperature ranges are presented for the case with 3% solid alkali catalyst loaded. At the low temperature ranging from 830 to 860{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is 1 since enough active carbon sites on the coal surface are formed during the catalytic gasification by solid alkali. But at the high temperature ranging from 860 to 920{sup o}C, the sodium carbonate produced by the reaction of solid alkali with carbon dioxide can be easily fused, transferred and re-distributed, which affects the gasification reaction rate, and the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is reduced to 1.3. 10 refs., 9 figs., 4 tab s.

  16. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coal in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available that contributed to the higher aromaticity and high burnout level, while for Matla and Duhva with 0.64% and 0.76% Rov values, both the rank and inertinite content playing a role in the carbon conversion with the rank reducing the level of burnout. Table 3...

  17. A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of Gas-Particle Flow and Chemical Reactions in Circulating Fluidised Bed Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Granly

    Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFB's) have been performed. The computations are performed using a 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics code with an Eulerian description of both gas and particle phases. The turbulent motion...... implemented in the CFD code FLOTRACS-MP-3D. The decomposition reaction is studied in a 3D representation of a 0.254 m i.d. riser, which has been studied experimentally by Ouyang et al. (1993). Comparison between measured and simulated time-averaged ozone concentration at different elevations in the riser...

  18. Thermodynamic optimisation and computational analysis of irreversibilities in a small-scale wood-fired circulating fluidised bed adiabatic combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available parameters on energy and exergy characteristics and exergy losses. International Journal of Energy Research 2006; 30: 203-219. [24] Ziebik A, stanek W. Energy and exergy system analysis of thermal improvements of blast-furnace plants. International... in the riser column of a pressurized circulating fluidized bed. International Journal of Energy Research 2006; 30: 149-162. [27] Cihan A, Hacihafizoglu O, Kahveci K. Energy-exergy analysis and modenization suggestions for a combined-cycle power plant...

  19. Modeling electro-magneto-hydrodynamic thermo-fluidic transport of biofluids with new trend of fractional derivative without singular kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhameed, M.; Vieru, D.; Roslan, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic flow of the non-Newtonian behavior of biofluids, with heat transfer, through a cylindrical microchannel. The fluid is acted by an arbitrary time-dependent pressure gradient, an external electric field and an external magnetic field. The governing equations are considered as fractional partial differential equations based on the Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivatives without singular kernel. The usefulness of fractional calculus to study fluid flows or heat and mass transfer phenomena was proven. Several experimental measurements led to conclusion that, in such problems, the models described by fractional differential equations are more suitable. The most common time-fractional derivative used in Continuum Mechanics is Caputo derivative. However, two disadvantages appear when this derivative is used. First, the definition kernel is a singular function and, secondly, the analytical expressions of the problem solutions are expressed by generalized functions (Mittag-Leffler, Lorenzo-Hartley, Robotnov, etc.) which, generally, are not adequate to numerical calculations. The new time-fractional derivative Caputo-Fabrizio, without singular kernel, is more suitable to solve various theoretical and practical problems which involve fractional differential equations. Using the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative, calculations are simpler and, the obtained solutions are expressed by elementary functions. Analytical solutions of the biofluid velocity and thermal transport are obtained by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. The influence of the fractional parameter, Eckert number and Joule heating parameter on the biofluid velocity and thermal transport are numerically analyzed and graphic presented. This fact can be an important in Biochip technology, thus making it possible to use this analysis technique extremely effective to control bioliquid samples of nanovolumes in microfluidic devices used for biological

  20. Comparative evaluation of metal ions release from titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb into bio-fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was designed to investigate the effects of pH, chloride ions and nature of some bio-fluids on the amount of metal ions released from titanium and TiAl 6 Nb 7 plates following incubation in actual and simulated bio-fluids over time. Methods: The amounts of released metal ions from commercially pure titanium (CpTi and TiAl 6 Nb 7 of surgical grade on immersion in 20 mL Hank′s solution of pH 4.0 or 7.0, Hank′s solution of high chloride ions concentration, Whole Blood Serum (WBS and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS at 37° C were determined over an incubation time of 20 weeks using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of released metal ions were compared by two-way ANOVA and Duncan′s post-hoc tests. The amounts of titanium ions released by the samples were analyzed by Pearson′s correlation. Results: TiAl 6 Nb 7 plate showed no release of Ti ions into the test solutions until after 12 weeks of incubation, while Ti ions were released from the CpTi plate from the 1 day immersion time. The re-lease of measurable amount of Al ions from TiAl 6 Nb 7 was after 12 weeks of incubation. The rate of release of Ti and Al ions from the samples increased initially with incubation time and then stabilized due to adsorption-desorption equilibrium. Conclusion: The results showed that variations in pH and chloride ions of the test media has a sig-nificant effect on the amounts of Ti ions released, while increase in chloride ions concentration sig-nificantly elevates the release of Al ions into the bio-fluids.

  1. Model simulation for high-temperature gas desulphurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini; Zaccagnini; Berg; Vitolo; Tartarelli; Zeppi (Struttura Informatica, Florence (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    Metal oxides such as zinc ferrite, zinc titanate and tin oxide have been identified as promising adsorbent materials in the removal of sulphur compounds from hot coal gas in power generation operations. A mathematical model for the sulfidation phase in fixed, moving and fluidised bed reactors has been developed. This paper presents kinetic models of spherical sorbent particles applicable to all reactor configurations and a mathematical model limited to the moving bed reactor. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Biocorrosion studies of TiO2 nanoparticle-coated Ti-6Al-4V implant in simulated biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaveri, Nikita; McEwen, Gerald D.; Karpagavalli, Ramji; Zhou Anhong

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of the TiO 2 nanoparticles coated bioimplant Ti-6Al-4V exposed to three different simulated biofluids (SBF), namely, (1) NaCl solution, (2) Hank's solution, and (3) Cigada solution, were studied by using micro-Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The different electrochemical impedance spectroscopy models were applied to fit the data obtained from the implants before and after the coating of TiO 2 nanoparticles (50-100 nm). It was found that the TiO 2 nanoparticle coatings increased the thickness of the pre-existing oxide layer on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, serving to improve the bioimplant corrosion resistance.

  3. Biocorrosion studies of TiO2 nanoparticle-coated Ti-6Al-4V implant in simulated biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Nikita; McEwen, Gerald D.; Karpagavalli, Ramji; Zhou, Anhong

    2010-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of the TiO2 nanoparticles coated bioimplant Ti-6Al-4V exposed to three different simulated biofluids (SBF), namely, (1) NaCl solution, (2) Hank's solution, and (3) Cigada solution, were studied by using micro-Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The different electrochemical impedance spectroscopy models were applied to fit the data obtained from the implants before and after the coating of TiO2 nanoparticles (50-100 nm). It was found that the TiO2 nanoparticle coatings increased the thickness of the pre-existing oxide layer on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, serving to improve the bioimplant corrosion resistance.

  4. Biocorrosion studies of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-coated Ti-6Al-4V implant in simulated biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, Nikita; McEwen, Gerald D.; Karpagavalli, Ramji; Zhou Anhong, E-mail: Anhong.Zhou@usu.ed [Utah State University, Biological Engineering Program (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The corrosion behaviors of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles coated bioimplant Ti-6Al-4V exposed to three different simulated biofluids (SBF), namely, (1) NaCl solution, (2) Hank's solution, and (3) Cigada solution, were studied by using micro-Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The different electrochemical impedance spectroscopy models were applied to fit the data obtained from the implants before and after the coating of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (50-100 nm). It was found that the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle coatings increased the thickness of the pre-existing oxide layer on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, serving to improve the bioimplant corrosion resistance.

  5. High-Throughput Screening and Quantitation of Target Compounds in Biofluids by Coated Blade Spray-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascon, Marcos; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen; Boyacı, Ezel; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-08-15

    Most contemporary methods of screening and quantitating controlled substances and therapeutic drugs in biofluids typically require laborious, time-consuming, and expensive analytical workflows. In recent years, our group has worked toward developing microextraction (μe)-mass spectrometry (MS) technologies that merge all of the tedious steps of the classical methods into a simple, efficient, and low-cost methodology. Unquestionably, the automation of these technologies allows for faster sample throughput, greater reproducibility, and radically reduced analysis times. Coated blade spray (CBS) is a μe technology engineered for extracting/enriching analytes of interest in complex matrices, and it can be directly coupled with MS instruments to achieve efficient screening and quantitative analysis. In this study, we introduced CBS as a technology that can be arranged to perform either rapid diagnostics (single vial) or the high-throughput (96-well plate) analysis of biofluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that performing 96-CBS extractions at the same time allows the total analysis time to be reduced to less than 55 s per sample. Aiming to validate the versatility of CBS, substances comprising a broad range of molecular weights, moieties, protein binding, and polarities were selected. Thus, the high-throughput (HT)-CBS technology was used for the concomitant quantitation of 18 compounds (mixture of anabolics, β-2 agonists, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, and β-blockers) spiked in human urine and plasma samples. Excellent precision (∼2.5%), accuracy (≥90%), and linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.99) were attained for all the studied compounds, and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were within the range of 0.1 to 10 ng·mL -1 for plasma and 0.25 to 10 ng·mL -1 for urine. The results reported in this paper confirm CBS's great potential for achieving subsixty-second analyses of target compounds in a broad range of fields such as those related to clinical diagnosis, food, the

  6. Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kenny; Kendall, Catherine; Stone, Nicholas; Notingher, Ioan

    2015-07-15

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique based on inelastic scattering of light by vibrating molecules and can provide chemical fingerprints of cells, tissues or biofluids. The high chemical specificity, minimal or lack of sample preparation and the ability to use advanced optical technologies in the visible or near-infrared spectral range (lasers, microscopes, fibre-optics) have recently led to an increase in medical diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy. The key hypothesis underpinning this field is that molecular changes in cells, tissues or biofluids, that are either the cause or the effect of diseases, can be detected and quantified by Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, multivariate calibration and classification models based on Raman spectra can be developed on large "training" datasets and used subsequently on samples from new patients to obtain quantitative and objective diagnosis. Historically, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been known as a low signal technique requiring relatively long acquisition times. Nevertheless, new strategies have been developed recently to overcome these issues: non-linear optical effects and metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance the Raman signals, optimised fibre-optic Raman probes can be used for real-time in-vivo single-point measurements, while multimodal integration with other optical techniques can guide the Raman measurements to increase the acquisition speed and spatial accuracy of diagnosis. These recent efforts have advanced Raman spectroscopy to the point where the diagnostic accuracy and speed are compatible with clinical use. This paper reviews the main Raman spectroscopy techniques used in medical diagnostics and provides an overview of various applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurised combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R; Haeyrinen, V [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) was developed, tested and demonstrated in pressurised combustion facilities. The PEARLS method has been developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). During 1994-1996 the PEARLS method was developed from the laboratory level to an industrial prototype. The alkali measuring instrument has been tested and used for regular measurements in four different pressurised combustion installations ranging up to industrial pilot scale. The installations are: (1) a pressurised entrained flow reactor (PEFR) at VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae, Finland (2) a pressurised fluidised bed combustion facility, called FRED, at DMT in Essen, Germany. (3) a 10 MW pressurised circulating fluidised bed combustion pilot plant at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula, Finland (4) PFBC Research Facility at ABB Carbon in Finspaang, Sweden

  8. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  9. Time-resolved X-ray PIV technique for diagnosing opaque biofluid flow with insufficient X-ray fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Yong; Park, Han Wook; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-05-01

    X-ray imaging is used to visualize the biofluid flow phenomena in a nondestructive manner. A technique currently used for quantitative visualization is X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV). Although this technique provides a high spatial resolution (less than 10 µm), significant hemodynamic parameters are difficult to obtain under actual physiological conditions because of the limited temporal resolution of the technique, which in turn is due to the relatively long exposure time (~10 ms) involved in X-ray imaging. This study combines an image intensifier with a high-speed camera to reduce exposure time, thereby improving temporal resolution. The image intensifier amplifies light flux by emitting secondary electrons in the micro-channel plate. The increased incident light flux greatly reduces the exposure time (below 200 µs). The proposed X-ray PIV system was applied to high-speed blood flows in a tube, and the velocity field information was successfully obtained. The time-resolved X-ray PIV system can be employed to investigate blood flows at beamlines with insufficient X-ray fluxes under specific physiological conditions. This method facilitates understanding of the basic hemodynamic characteristics and pathological mechanism of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Modelling water evaporation during frying with an evaporation dependent heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.; Somsen, D.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study a cylindrical crust-core frying model was developed including an evaporation rate dependent heat transfer coefficient. For this, we applied a Nusselt relation for cylindrical bodies and view the release of vapour bubbles during the frying process as a reversed fluidised bed. The

  11. Quantitative Quantum Mechanical Spectral Analysis (qQMSA) of (1)H NMR spectra of complex mixtures and biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Laatikainen, Reino

    2014-05-01

    The quantitative interpretation of (1)H NMR spectra of mixtures like the biofluids is a demanding task due to spectral complexity and overlap. Complications may arise also from water suppression, T2-editing, protein interactions, relaxation differences of the species, experimental artifacts and, furthermore, the spectra may contain unknown components and macromolecular background which cannot be easily separated from baseline. In this work, tools and strategies for quantitative Quantum Mechanical Spectral Analysis (qQMSA) of (1)H NMR spectra from complex mixtures were developed and systematically assessed. In the present approach, the signals of well-defined, stoichiometric components are described by a QM model, while the background is described by a multiterm baseline function and the unknown signals using optimizable and adjustable lines, regular multiplets or any spectral structures which can be composed from spectral lines. Any prior knowledge available from the spectrum can also be added to the model. Fitting strategies for weak and strongly overlapping spectral systems were developed and assessed using two basic model systems, the metabolite mixtures without and with macromolecular (serum) background. The analyses show that if the spectra are measured in high-throughput manner, the consistent absolute quantification demands some calibration to compensate the different response factors of the protons and compounds. On the other hand, the results show that also the T2-edited spectra can be measured so that they obey well the QM rules. In general, qQMSA exploits and interprets the spectral information in maximal way taking full advantage from the QM properties of the spectra and, at the same time, offers chemical confidence which means that individual components can be identified with high confidence on the basis of their accurate spectral parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Liu, Huili; Zhang, Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu, Lehui

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary α-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  13. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Department of Physics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu Huili; Zhang Limin [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) 138667 (Singapore); Lu Lehui, E-mail: jianghua.feng@hotmail.com, E-mail: jianghua.feng@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary {alpha}-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary {alpha}-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies ({beta}-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of

  14. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianghua; Liu Huili; Zhang Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu Lehui

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary α-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  15. A rapid quantitative analysis of bile acids, lysophosphatidylcholines and polyunsaturated fatty acids in biofluids based on ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem massspectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangxiao; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Ziming; Wang, Jie; Liu, Chunying; Lin, Xuejing; Li, Xin; Ji, Weidan; Fan, Jianhui; Wang, Maorong; Su, Changqing

    2017-11-15

    Much evidence suggested that quantitative analysis of bile acids (BAs), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in biofluids may be very useful for diagnosis and prevention of hepatobiliary disease with a non-invasive manner. However, simultaneously fast analysis of these metabolites has been challenging for their huge differences of physicochemical properties and concentration levels in biofluids. In this study, we present a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with a high throughput analytical cycle (10min) to fast and accurately quantify fifteen potential biomarkers (eight BAs, four LPCs and three PUFAs) of hepatobiliary disease. The accuracy for the fifteen analytes in plasma and urine matrices was 80.45%-118.99% and 84.55%-112.66%, respectively. The intra- and inter- precisions for the fifteen analytes in plasma and urine matrices were all less than 20% and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of analytes is up to 0.0283-8.2172nmol/L. Therefore, this method is fast, sensitive and accurate for the quantitative analysis of BAs, LPCs and PUFAs in biofluids. Moreover, the stability and concentration differences of the analytes in plasma and serum were evaluated, and the results demonstrated that LPCs is stable, but PUFAs is very unstable in freeze and thaw cycles, and the concentrations of the analytes in serum were slightly higher than those in plasma. We suggested plasma may be a kind of better bio-sample than serum using for quantitative analysis of metabolites in blood, due to the characteristics of plasma are more close to blood than those of serum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Not all biofluids are created equal: chewing over salivary diagnostics and the epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Michael E; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-03-01

    This article describes progress to date in the characterization of the salivary epigenome and considers the importance of previous work in the salivary microbiome, proteome, endocrine analytes, genome, and transcriptome. PubMed and Web of Science were used to extensively search the existing literature (original research and reviews) related to salivary diagnostics and biomarker development, of which 125 studies were examined. This article was derived from the most relevant 74 sources highlighting the recent state of the evolving field of salivary epigenomics and contributing significantly to the foundational work in saliva-based research. Validation of any new saliva-based diagnostic or analyte will require comparison to previously accepted standards established in blood. Careful attention to the collection, processing, and analysis of salivary analytes is critical for the development and implementation of newer applications that include genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic markers. All these factors must be integrated into initial study design. This commentary highlights the appeal of the salivary epigenome for translational applications and its utility in future studies of development and the interface among environment, disease, and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A two-magnet strategy for improved mixing and capture from biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andrew B.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic beads are a popular method for concentrating biomolecules from solution and have been more recently used in multistep pre-arrayed microfluidic cartridges. Typical processing strategies rely on a single magnet, resulting in a tight cluster of beads and requiring long incubation times to achieve high capture efficiencies, especially in highly viscous patient samples. This report describes a two-magnet strategy to improve the interaction of the bead surface with the surrounding fluid inside of a pre-arrayed, self-contained assay-in-a-tube. In the two-magnet system, target biomarker capture occurs at a rate three times faster than the single-magnet system. In clinically relevant biomatrices, we find a 2.5-fold improvement in biomarker capture at lower sample viscosities with the two-magnet system. In addition, we observe a 20% increase in the amount of protein captured at high viscosity for the two-magnet configuration relative to the single magnet approach. The two-magnet approach offers a means to achieve higher biomolecule extraction yields and shorter assay times in magnetic capture assays and in self-contained processor designs. PMID:27158286

  18. Fuel cell-based instrumentation for ethanol determination in alcoholic beverages, fermentations, and biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, K W

    1988-01-01

    The main aim of this project was to devise an alternative method for ethanol assay, employing an electrochemical fuel cell sensor. Thus, the early part of this thesis describes the work carried out in the development of a new analytical technique for this purpose. This work resulted in the production of a successful prototype unit which has led to the development of a commercial instrument, vis., the Lion Drinks Alcolmeter (DA-1) available from Lion Laboratories Ltd. The problem of determining the ethanol content of a fermenting liquor at any point during a fermentation process was also broached and a novel technique combining a flow dilution system, dynamic headspace analysis and a fuel cell sensor was developed. This procedure, suitably automated, will enable the ethanolic content of a fermenting beverage to be determined at any stage during a fermentation, the results obtained in this manner being in excellent agreement with those obtained gas chromatographically. Methods of extending the linear working range of a fuel cell-based sampling system are reported in the hope that the encouraging results obtained may initiate further progress in this field. Finally, the sensing system used in this work has also been utilized with an alternative sampling procedure for the determination of ethanol in biological fluids, mainly for clinical and forensic applications. This work has also led to the production of a commercial instrument, viz. the Lion AE-D3 Alcolmeter.

  19. High-Precision Dispensing of Nanoliter Biofluids on Glass Pedestal Arrays for Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yang; Xu, QianFeng; Zhu, Jing; Poget, Sébastien F; Lyons, Alan M

    2016-05-04

    Precise dispensing of nanoliter droplets is necessary for the development of sensitive and accurate assays, especially when the availability of the source solution is limited. Conventional approaches are limited by imprecise positioning, large shear forces, surface tension effects, and high costs. To address the need for precise and economical dispensing of nanoliter volumes, we developed a new approach where the dispensed volume is dependent on the size and shape of defined surface features, thus freeing the dispensing process from pumps and fine-gauge needles requiring accurate positioning. The surface we fabricated, called a nanoliter droplet virtual well microplate (nVWP), achieves high-precision dispensing (better than ±0.5 nL or ±1.6% at 32 nL) of 20-40 nL droplets using a small source drop (3-10 μL) on isolated hydrophilic glass pedestals (500 μm on a side) bonded to arrays of polydimethylsiloxane conical posts. The sharp 90° edge of the glass pedestal pins the solid-liquid-vapor triple contact line (TCL), averting the wetting of the glass sidewalls while the fluid is prevented from receding from the edge. This edge creates a sufficiently large energy barrier such that microliter water droplets can be poised on the glass pedestals, exhibiting contact angles greater >150°. This approach relieves the stringent mechanical alignment tolerances required for conventional dispensing techniques, shifting the control of dispensed volume to the area circumscribed by the glass edge. The effects of glass surface chemistry and dispense velocity on droplet volume were studied using optical microscopy and high-speed video. Functionalization of the glass pedestal surface enabled the selective adsorption of specific peptides and proteins from synthetic and natural biomolecule mixtures, such as venom. We further demonstrate how the nVWP dispensing platform can be used for a variety of assays, including sensitive detection of proteins and peptides by fluorescence

  20. Combustion studies in a fluidised bed-The link between temperature, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation, char morphology and coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, B.; Lemos de Sousa, M.J. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Praca de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002, Porto (Portugal); Abelha, P.; Boavida, D.; Gulyurtlu, I. [Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controlo Ambiental (DEECA), Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (INETI), Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, Edif. J, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-06-06

    Five commercially available high volatile bituminous coals from different origins were studied with the objective of characterizing their petrographic nature with respect to emissions of NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. The chars produced [at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 {sup o}C] from these coals were also petrographic ally analyzed to assess the contribution of char to NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation during combustion. Vitrinite-rich coals produced higher porous chars (cenospheres and tenuinetworks) than those that are rich in inertinite. The former coals were, however, found to release lower concentrations of NO. Consistent with previous works, N{sub 2}O emissions were observed to decrease significantly with temperature, however, on the whole, the N{sub 2}O emissions from vitrinite-rich high volatile coals were less than those from inertinite-rich coals. Additionally, high porous chars were found to give rise to lower emissions of NO and N{sub 2}O. (author)

  1. Two-step activation of paper batteries for high power generation: design and fabrication of biofluid- and water-activated paper batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Bang

    2006-11-01

    Two-step activation of paper batteries has been successfully demonstrated to provide quick activation and to supply high power to credit card-sized biosystems on a plastic chip. A stack of a magnesium layer (an anode), a fluid guide (absorbent paper), a highly doped filter paper with copper chloride (a cathode) and a copper layer as a current collector is laminated between two transparent plastic films into a high power biofluid- and water-activated battery. The battery is activated by two-step activation: (1) after placing a drop of biofluid/water-based solution on the fluid inlet, the surface tension first drives the fluid to soak the fluid guide; (2) the fluid in the fluid guide then penetrates into the heavily doped filter paper with copper chloride to start the battery reaction. The fabricated half credit card-sized battery was activated by saliva, urine and tap water and delivered a maximum voltage of 1.56 V within 10 s after activation and a maximum power of 15.6 mW. When 10 kΩ and 1 KΩ loads are used, the service time with water, urine and saliva is measured as more than 2 h. An in-series battery of 3 V has been successfully tested to power two LEDs (light emitting diodes) and an electric driving circuit. As such, this high power paper battery could be integrated with on-demand credit card-sized biosystems such as healthcare test kits, biochips, lab-on-a-chip, DNA chips, protein chips or even test chips for water quality checking or chemical checking.

  2. CO{sub 2} separation by calcium looping from full and partial fuel oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivalingam, Senthoorselvan

    2013-06-05

    This thesis work deals with the research and development of calcium looping process for CO{sub 2} separation from full and partial fuel oxidation based power generation systems. CO{sub 2} is the main greenhouse gas and undoubtedly a major contributor to the global warming. It is estimated that more than one third of the total anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions come from fossil fuel based heat and power generation. Moreover, fossil fuels are unlikely to be phased out rapidly, since developing alternative energy sources not only take time but also require huge investments and infrastructure. An alternative way to reduce emissions in a medium term is to capture the CO{sub 2} from fossil fueled power plants and store it away from the atmosphere. This process system combining a bunch of technologies is called carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture is an important and costly part of CCS and an array of technologies is considered for this. Calcium looping (CaL) is one of such and seems to offer effective and efficient CO{sub 2} separation from fuel oxidation processes. CaL process involves separation of CO{sub 2} at high temperatures (600-700 C) by calcium sorbents (CaO). CO{sub 2} reacts with CaO in a carbonation process and produces CaCO{sub 3}. In a subsequent thermal regeneration (>850 C) called calcination, the CO{sub 2} is released from CaCO{sub 3}. By alternating carbonations and calcinations over multiple cycles, CO{sub 2} is separated from a gas stream. Moreover, the CaL is realised in industrial scale with dual fluidised bed reactors for CO{sub 2} capture (the carbonator) and sorbent regeneration (the calciner). As a process in the development, research is still required in many aspects from thermodynamic modeling to experimental studies. Research works have been carried out in process simulations, sorbent reactivity and optimisation studies in a controlled reactor environment and process parametric studies in a semi-pilot scale CaL test facility

  3. CO2 separation by calcium looping from full and partial fuel oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivalingam, Senthoorselvan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the research and development of calcium looping process for CO 2 separation from full and partial fuel oxidation based power generation systems. CO 2 is the main greenhouse gas and undoubtedly a major contributor to the global warming. It is estimated that more than one third of the total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions come from fossil fuel based heat and power generation. Moreover, fossil fuels are unlikely to be phased out rapidly, since developing alternative energy sources not only take time but also require huge investments and infrastructure. An alternative way to reduce emissions in a medium term is to capture the CO 2 from fossil fueled power plants and store it away from the atmosphere. This process system combining a bunch of technologies is called carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO 2 capture is an important and costly part of CCS and an array of technologies is considered for this. Calcium looping (CaL) is one of such and seems to offer effective and efficient CO 2 separation from fuel oxidation processes. CaL process involves separation of CO 2 at high temperatures (600-700 C) by calcium sorbents (CaO). CO 2 reacts with CaO in a carbonation process and produces CaCO 3 . In a subsequent thermal regeneration (>850 C) called calcination, the CO 2 is released from CaCO 3 . By alternating carbonations and calcinations over multiple cycles, CO 2 is separated from a gas stream. Moreover, the CaL is realised in industrial scale with dual fluidised bed reactors for CO 2 capture (the carbonator) and sorbent regeneration (the calciner). As a process in the development, research is still required in many aspects from thermodynamic modeling to experimental studies. Research works have been carried out in process simulations, sorbent reactivity and optimisation studies in a controlled reactor environment and process parametric studies in a semi-pilot scale CaL test facility. ASPEN Plus power plant simulations integrating the CaL based CO 2

  4. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Seok-Won; Piehowski, Paul D; Moore, Ronald J; Orton, Daniel J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Clauss, Therese R; Chu, Rosalie K; Fillmore, Thomas L; Brewer, Heather; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D

    2014-11-01

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (depletion media can be prohibitive for larger-scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizing sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large-scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 μL column volume microscale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ∼6-μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10-mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the microscale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our microdepletion was reproducible. In an initial application, a 600-μL sample of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.

  5. Capillary column switching restricted-access media-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system for simultaneous and direct analysis of drugs in biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Neto, Alvaro J; Markides, Karin E; Sjöberg, Per J R; Bergquist, Jonas; Lancas, Fernando M

    2007-08-15

    Capillary online restricted-access media-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (RAM-LC-ESI-MS/MS) for direct analysis of drugs and metabolites spiked in biological fluids was developed. Using a column switching setup it was possible to perform effective sample preparation and analysis of raw biological fluids (plasma and urine) without matrix effects in the electrospray mass spectrometric detection step. The peak focusing efficiency of the extraction column was more effective in backflush compared to foreflush mode. The system was able to concentrate diminished samples of polar drugs and their metabolites reaching quantifiable results as low as 1 ng/mL utilizing a sample volume of only 333 nL of biofluids. New column hardware was developed to circumvent clogging problems experienced with plasma injections. The glass fiber filter frit, which is commonly used, was replaced with a short piece of 20 microm i.d. fused silica capillary. The extraction columns were able to handle up to 60 injections and showed a high loading capacity, making the saturation of the MS detector the limiting factor on the linear dynamic range. The simultaneous separation and detection of 10 drugs and metabolites was obtained in 8 min of analysis, including the online sample preparation and enrichment step.

  6. Marketing of fuels - energy from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tweedale, A W

    1986-03-01

    Ways of utilising low grade materials, achieving market acceptance and proving their technical and financial viability are discussed. Alternative ways in which wastes can be used to produce energy are outlined covering the incineration process whereby heat normally lost in the waste gases after the combustion of waste materials is recovered to produce heat and sometimes electricity, waste shredding and use in fluidised bed boilers, and combustion of waste pellets. Employment of utilities company and innovative and energetic approach to marketing are considered.

  7. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite.

  8. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  9. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes are aged. If the leaching values of the ashes are compared to the limits set by the European Union for placing waste on an inert landfill the bio fuel based ashes generally fulfil the demands. Corresponding comparison for waste fuel based ashes shows generally high values for Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4}. As a recommendation the bio fuel based should be used in district heating pipe culverts. The leachability of antimony for waste based fuels is critical and further investigations of the environmental effects caused by Sb are needed to secure the use of waste fuel based ashes.

  10. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  11. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 10, Impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Modern technologies like high-pressure water washout and Fluidised Bed Combustion provide safe and environmentally acceptable solutions for demilitarisation. The environmental impact from the traditional techniques Open Burning and Open Detonation can be drastically reduced. High-pressure water washout in combination with Fluidised Bed Combustion and NO{sub x}-reduction using urea-injection is the best well-demonstrated technology considered in this study. This technology can be used for large/medium sized calibre munitions, but additional removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gases is required in order to comply with European emission standards. It has been made credible at existing Rotary Kilns used for hazardous waste in general can be used also for incineration of de-sensitised, down sized munitions (slurries), with a similar performance with respect to environmental and safety aspects as Fluidised Bed Combustion. Using a Closed Detonation chamber with flue-gas cleaning has important environmental advantages compared to Open Burning and Open Detonation, especially for small munitions (e.g. fuzes, antipersonnel mines, pyrotechnics). However, because Closed Detonation is labour-intensive and requires operation of complex, pressurised systems, it poses more risk on the personnel. For that reason, it is recommended to develop other systems to demilitarise small munitions. It appears that the air pollution emissions from transport of munitions to disposal facilities is significant compared to the process emissions of the 'cleanest' technologies. Similarly, risks related to transport (due to ordinary accidents involving trucks) are not dominating, but cannot be ignored compared to process risks. These considerations need to be included when comparing less sophisticated local or mobile facilities with central facilities having advanced flue gas cleaning. (au)

  12. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Technologies for waste and wastewater treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available fluidised-bed reactor where crushed limestone with a particle-size less than 4 mm is used Sulphate is removed from concentrations as high as 20 g/l (as SO4) to less than 2 g/l, the solubility of gypsum Metals are precipitated as metal hydroxides.... If the acid water is rich in iron (II), it is oxidised prior to the neutralisation stage. Iron (II)- concentrations of 3 g/l (as Fe) are completely oxidised within two hours reaction time. Besides cost savings, the benefits of this process are that...

  13. Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method

  14. Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2004-12-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method.

  15. Organic solvent-free air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for optimized extraction of illegal azo-based dyes and their main metabolite from spices, cosmetics and human bio-fluid samples in one step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh

    2015-08-15

    Air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME) has unique capabilities to develop as an organic solvent-free and one-step microextraction method, applying ionic-liquids as extraction solvent and avoiding centrifugation step. Herein, a novel and simple eco-friendly method, termed one-step air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (OS-AALLME), was developed to extract some illegal azo-based dyes (including Sudan I to IV, and Orange G) from food and cosmetic products. A series of experiments were investigated to achieve the most favorable conditions (including extraction solvent: 77μL of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate; sample pH 6.3, without salt addition; and extraction cycles: 25 during 100s of sonication) using a central composite design strategy. Under these conditions, limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, enrichment factors and consumptive indices were in the range of 3.9-84.8ngmL(-1), 0.013-3.1μgmL(-1), 33-39, and 0.13-0.15, respectively. The results showed that -as well as its simplicity, fastness, and use of no hazardous disperser and extraction solvents- OS-AALLME is an enough sensitive and efficient method for the extraction of these dyes from complex matrices. After optimization and validation, OS-AALLME was applied to estimate the concentration of 1-amino-2-naphthol in human bio-fluids as a main reductive metabolite of selected dyes. Levels of 1-amino-2-naphthol in plasma and urinary excretion suggested that this compound may be used as a new potential biomarker of these dyes in human body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to ICP-MS for the characterization of wear metal particles and metalloproteins in biofluids from hip replacement patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Harrington, Chris F.; Kearney, Jacque-Lucca

    2015-01-01

    or other elements, but the current analytical methods used to investigate the processes involved do not provide sufficient information to understand the size or composition of the wear particles generated in vivo. In this qualitative feasibility study, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled...... to ICP-MS was used to confirm the metal–protein associations in the serum samples. Off-line single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) analysis was used to confirm the approximate size distribution indicated by AF4 of the wear particles in hip aspirates. In the serum samples, AF4–ICP-MS suggested that Cr...... unidentified compounds; AEC analysis confirmed the Cr results and the association of Co with Alb and a second compound. Enzymatic digestion of the hip aspirate sample, followed by separation using AF4 with detection by UV absorption (280 nm), multi-angle light scattering and ICP-MS, suggested that the sizes...

  17. Batch top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up insight using dynamic heat- and mass-transfer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for batch top-spray fluid bed coating processes based on Ronsse et al. [2007a.b. Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part I-model development and validation. journal of Food Engineering 78......, 296-307; Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part II-model and process analysis. journal of Food Engineering 78, 308-322]. The model is based on one-dimensional discretisation of the fluid bed into a number of well-mixed control......-up principles by comparing simulation results with experimental temperature and humidity data obtained from inorganic salt coating of placebo cores in three pilot fluid bed scales being a 0.5kg small-scale (GEA Aeromatic-Fielder Strea-1), 4kg medium-scale (GEA Niro MP-1) and 24kg large-scale (GEA MP-2...

  18. The development of solid fuel gasification systems for cost-effective power generation with low environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M; Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Ranta, J; Hepola, J; Kangasmaa, K [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1997-10-01

    Relatively low carbon conversion is a disadvantage related to the air-blown fluidised-bed coal-biomass co-gasification process. Low carbon conversion is due to different reactivities and ash sintering behaviour of coal and biomass which leads to compromises in definition of gasification process conditions. In certain cases co-gasification may also lead to unexpected deposit formations or corrosion problems in downstream components especially when high alkali metal or chlorine containing biomass feedstocks are co-gasified with coal. During the reporting period, the work focused on co-gasification of coal and wood waste. The objectives of the present work were to find out the optimum conditions for improving the carbon conversion and to study the formation of different gas impurities. The results based on co-gasification tests with a pressurised fluidised-bed gasifies showed that in co-gasification even with only 15 % coal addition the heavy tar concentration was decreased significantly and, simultaneously, an almost total carbon conversion was achieved by optimising the gasification conditions. The study of filter fines recirculation and solid residues utilisation was started by characterizing filter dust. The work was carried out with an entrained-flow reactor in oxidising, inert and reducing gas conditions. The aim was to define the conditions required for achieving increased carbon conversion in different reactor conditions

  19. A study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during coal devolatilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Moreno, A.H.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2001-07-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides during combustion are a major environmental problem. The chemically bound nitrogen in fuel accounts for up to 80% of total NOx emissions. In this respect, fundamental studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and to identify the different species that are precursors in the formation of the NOx. In this work, two methodologies were employed. Simultaneous thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis was used to study the pyrolysis behaviour of three coals of varying rank. The release of different nitrogen compounds was followed by means of temperature-programmed pyrolysis experiments. The influence of coal rank on the evolution of volatile compounds was also considered. In addition, a series of coal chars with different burn-off degrees were obtained in a bench scale fluidised bed reactor, using the same parent coal. The evolution of gaseous compounds arising from the thermal treatment of the partially burned chars was studied in the TG-MS system. It was found that the different chemical structure of the chars exerted some influence on the evolution of the gaseous compounds during the devolatilisation process. Finally, the evolution of the volatile compounds was also studied in the bench scale fluidised bed reactor. Special attention was given to the formation of N{sub 2}O during the pyrolysis of the coals used. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  1. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-02-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  2. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-03-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e., the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oilshale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  3. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  4. Business Process Flow Diagrams in Tissue Bank Informatics System Design, and Identification and Communication of Best Practices: The Pharmaceutical Industry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra A; Velasco, Elizabeth; Ilasi, Nicholas T

    2010-12-01

    Pfizer, Inc.'s Tissue Bank, in conjunction with Pfizer's BioBank (biofluid repository), endeavored to create an overarching internal software package to cover all general functions of both research facilities, including sample receipt, reconciliation, processing, storage, and ordering. Business process flow diagrams were developed by the Tissue Bank and Informatics teams as a way of characterizing best practices both within the Bank and in its interactions with key internal and external stakeholders. Besides serving as a first step for the software development, such formalized process maps greatly assisted the identification and communication of best practices and the optimization of current procedures. The diagrams shared here could assist other biospecimen research repositories (both pharmaceutical and other settings) for comparative purposes or as a guide to successful informatics design. Therefore, it is recommended that biorepositories consider establishing formalized business process flow diagrams for their laboratories, to address these objectives of communication and strategy.

  5. Development and testing of on-line analytical instrumentation for alkali and heavy metal release in pressurised conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R; Haeyrinen, V; Oikari, R [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the project is to demonstrate in industrial conditions and further develop the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). The demonstration takes place in joint measuring campaigns, where two other continuous alkali measurement methods, ELIF and surface ionisation, are being simultaneously demonstrated. A modification of PEARLS will also be developed for the continuous measurement of heavy metal concentrations. A market study of continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metals is further part of the project. The method will be demonstrated in two pressurised fluidised bed combustion facilities. One of these is the 10 MW PCFB of Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula. The second one is yet to be decided. The first measuring campaign is scheduled for the spring of 1997 in Karhula. In 1996 the group at TUT participated in the performance of a market study regarding continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metal concentrations. A draft report was submitted to and approved by the EC. Development work on PEARLS in 1996 has centered around the construction of a calibration device for alkali measurements. The device can be used by all three measuring techniques in the project to check readings against a known alkali concentration at controlled and known conditions. In 1996 PEARLS was applied for alkali measurement at several pressurised combustion installations of laboratory and industrial pilot scale

  6. The Low temperature CFB gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoholm, P.; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar; Fock, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    %) particle separation by the hot secondary cyclone. The next LT-CFB experiment, currently under preparation, is expected to be on either municipal/industrial waste or animal manure. Eventually a 500 kW LT-CFB test plant scheduled for commission during summer 2003, and the anticipated primary LT......The Low Temperature Circulating Fluidised Bed (LT-CFB) gasification process aims at avoiding problems due to ash deposition and agglomeration when using difficult fuels such as agricultural biomass and many waste materials. This, as well as very simple gas cleaning, is achieved by pyrolysing...... the fuel at around 650?C in a CFB reaction chamber and subsequently gasifying the char at around 730oC in a slowly fluidised bubbling bed chamber located in the CFB particle recirculation path. In this paper the novel LT-CFB concept is further described together with the latest test results from the 50 k...

  7. Combustion of biomass-derived, low caloric value, fuel gas in a gasturbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delf (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    The use of biomass and biomass/coal mixtures to produce electricity and heat reduces the net emissions of CO{sub 2}, contributes to the restructuring of the agricultural sector, helps to reduce the waste problem and saves finite fossil fuel reserves. Pressurised fluidised bed gasification followed by an adequate gas cleaning system, a gas turbine and a steam turbine, is a potential attractive way to convert biomass and biomass/coal mixtures. To develop and validate mathematical models, which can be used to design and operate Biomass-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) systems, a Process Development Unit (PPDU) with a maximum thermal capacity of 1.5 MW{sub th}, located at the Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands is being used. The combustor forms an integral part of this facility. Recirculated flue gas is used to cool the wall of the combustor. (orig.)

  8. Combustion of cork waste in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Boavida, D.; Miranda, M.; Cabrita, I. [Dept. de Tecnologias de Combustao, ITE-INETI, Lisboa (Portugal); Abelha, P. [Coaltec e Ambiente, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1999-07-01

    There is currently an ongoing joint project between Portugal and Spain, which is being funded by the FAIR programme. The principal objective of the FAIR project is to investigate the application of the fluidised bed combustion (FBC) technology to burn cork wastes with the aim of overcoming the difficulties currently experienced in the cork processing industries. The combustion studies at INETI were carried out using the 300 kW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed facility. The combustor is square in cross section with each side being 0.3 m long. The combustor height is 5 m. The temperatures in the bed, the riser and that of the flue gases leaving the reactor were continuously monitored. The combustion gases leaving the reactor passed through the recycling cyclone first to capture most of particulates elutriated out of the combustor. The solid particles were intermittently collected for analysis to determine the amount of carbon present, which helped the combustion efficiency to be calculated. Instantaneous measurements of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} present levels in the flue gases were also carried out. The combustion tests were done with both the cork waste dust and granular virgin cork. The difference is that cork dust gets contaminated during the process due to the use of various additives. Most of the combustion took place in the riser where the temperature was at times up to 523 K above that of the bed. The unburned carbon level was low ranging from about 1.5 to 2.% suggesting that most of the particles burned to completion in the riser. (orig.)

  9. Method for online measurement of the CHON composition of raw gas from biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Daniel; Thunman, Henrik; Tarelho, Luís; Larsson, Anton; Seemann, Martin; Matos, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Measuring the CHON composition of a raw gas by current methods is challenging. • An alternative method is to burn the raw gas before measuring the CHON composition. • The CHON contents of the raw gas can be accurately measured by the alternative method. • Measuring the CHON contents of the raw gas is now performed in a “one-step” analysis. • The new method is used to evaluate the operation of a dual fluidised bed gasifier. - Abstract: For unattended biomass gasification processes, rapid methods for monitoring the elemental composition (CHON) of the raw gas leaving the gasifier are needed. Conventional methods rely on time-consuming and costly laboratory procedures for analysing the condensable part of the raw gas. An alternative method, presented in this work, assesses the CHON composition of raw gas in a “one step” analysis without the need to previously characterise its chemical species composition. Our method is based on the quantitative conversion of a raw gas of complex chemical composition into CO 2 , H 2 O, and N 2 in a small combustor. The levels of these simple species can be measured with high accuracy and good time resolution, and the CHON composition of the raw gas can be determined from the mass balance across the combustor. To evaluate this method, an online combustion facility was built and used to analyse the raw gas from the Chalmers 2-MW th dual fluidised bed steam gasifier. Test runs of the developed facility demonstrated complete combustion of the raw gas and the measurements were both fast and reliable. The new method used in combination with zero-dimensional reactor modelling provides valuable data for the operational monitoring of gasification processes, such as the degree of fuel conversion, composition of the char exiting the gasifier, oxygen transport by catalytic bed material, and amount of condensables in raw gas

  10. Development of rheological characterization and twin-screw extrusion/spiral winding processing methods for functionally-graded tissue engineering scaffolds and characterization of cell/biomaterial interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Seher

    Tissue engineering involves the fabrication of biodegradable scaffolds, on which various types of cells are grown, to provide tissue constructs for tissue repair/regeneration. Native tissues have complex structures, with functions and properties changing spatially and temporally, and require special tailoring of tissue engineering scaffolds to allow mimicking of their complex elegance. The understanding of the rheological behavior of the biodegradable polymer and the thermo-mechanical history that the polymer experiences during processing is critical in fabricating scaffolds with appropriate microstructural distributions. This study has first focused on the rheological material functions of various gel-like fluids including biofluids and hydrogels, which can emulate the viscoelastic behavior of biofluids. Viscoplasticity and wall slip were recognized as key attributes of such systems. Furthermore, a new technology base involving twin-screw extrusion/spiral winding (TSESW) process was developed for the shaping of functionally-graded scaffolds. This novel scaffold fabrication technology was applied to the development of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, incorporated with tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles and various porogens in graded fashion. The protein encapsulation and controlled release capabilities of the TSESW process was also demonstrated by dispersing bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein into the PCL matrix. Effects of processing conditions and porosity distributions on compressive properties, surface topography, encapsulation efficiency, release profiles and the secondary structure of BSA were investigated. The PCL scaffolds were determined to be biocompatible, with the proliferation rates of human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) increasing with increasing porosity and decreasing concentration of TCP. BSA proteins were determined to be denatured to a greater extent with melt extrusion in the 80-100°C range (in comparison to wet extrusion using organic

  11. Materials, Processes, and Facile Manufacturing for Bioresorbable Electronics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaowei; Shou, Wan; Mahajan, Bikram K; Huang, Xian; Pan, Heng

    2018-05-07

    Bioresorbable electronics refer to a new class of advanced electronics that can completely dissolve or disintegrate with environmentally and biologically benign byproducts in water and biofluids. They have provided a solution to the growing electronic waste problem with applications in temporary usage of electronics such as implantable devices and environmental sensors. Bioresorbable materials such as biodegradable polymers, dissolvable conductors, semiconductors, and dielectrics are extensively studied, enabling massive progress of bioresorbable electronic devices. Processing and patterning of these materials are predominantly relying on vacuum-based fabrication methods so far. However, for the purpose of commercialization, nonvacuum, low-cost, and facile manufacturing/printing approaches are the need of the hour. Bioresorbable electronic materials are generally more chemically reactive than conventional electronic materials, which require particular attention in developing the low-cost manufacturing processes in ambient environment. This review focuses on material reactivity, ink availability, printability, and process compatibility for facile manufacturing of bioresorbable electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Particle-based methods for multiscale modeling of blood flow in the circulation and in devices: challenges and future directions. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y; Matsuki, N; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-03-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport.

  13. Lagisza, world's largest CFB boiler, begins commercial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortimo, K. [Foster Wheeler, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Early operating experience with the Lagisza circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler in Poland - the world's largest such boiler to date, and also the first one with supercritical steam conditions - has been positive. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    When rape oil is chemically extracted, rape seed meal, a solid residue remains. Currently, it is used as animal feed. Several plants for the production of rape methyl ester (RME, biodiesel) are in operation or under construction. Combustion properties have been studied for rape seed meal produced as a by product to rape-methyl esther (RME, biodiesel). Composition of the material has been measured, using proximate and ultimate analysis. The lower heating value was 18.2 +- 0.3 MJ/kg d.w. and the ash content was 7-8 percent d.w. The material is rich in nitrogen and sulphur. Concentrations of K, P, Ca and Mg are high in the fuel. Rape seed meal was mixed with bark and pelletised. Bark pellets were also used as a reference fuel. Pellets with 10 and 30 percent rape seed meal were produced. Material with 80 percent rape seed meal and 20 percent planer shavings was also pelletised. Wood had to be added to provide enough friction in the pelletising process, with adapted equipment rape seed meal could probably be easily pelletised). The material was studied using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and compared with data from tests with wood powder. The pyrolysis of the rape seed meal has a characteristic temperature of 320 deg C. Devolatilisation starts at 150 deg C (at a lower temperature than for wood powder), and proceeds within a rather wide temperature range. The probable cause is the difference in organic content, in particular protein content. The result does not suggest that the material will be difficult to ignite. Experiments in a bench-scale fluidised bed (5 kW) showed that pellets containing only bark, and the mixture rape seed meal/wood had a bed agglomeration temperature well over the normal operational bed temperature. For the fuel mixtures rape seed meal and bark, the agglomeration temperature was slightly over the operational temperature. Particle emissions from fluidised bed combustion and grate combustion were, the latter simulated using a commercial

  15. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  16. Biofluidic Transport and Molecular Recognition in Polymer Microdevices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Robert H; Anseth, Kristi S; Bowman, Christopher N

    2005-01-01

    .... Key accomplishments include specific cell adhesion and cytocompatibility demonstrated with grafted surfaces, a fluid-responsive polymer micropump integrated on a device and characterized, a porous...

  17. Contributions at the DGMK conference ''conversion of biomass''. Conference report; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung ''Konversion von Biomassen''. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference from 19th to 21st March 2012 in Rotenburg a.d. Fulda (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Biorefineries in the context of the considerations on a future bio economy (K. Wagemann); (2) Characterisation of ethylene glycol - pyrolysis coke slurries, the model fuel of bioliq {sup registered} gasifier (T. Nicoleit); (3) Additional gas generation from fermentation residues amounting to 25 % of the balanced yield of biogas due to the energy content (T. Lehmann); (4) Production of phenols from lignin by means of flash pyrolysis in a circulating fluidised bed - process development and product analytics (M. Franck); (5) Impact of the conditions of torrefication on the temporal decrease in mass of single particles of biomass (A. Becker); (6) Lignins to Aromatic compounds. The Base catalysed degradation in continuous reactors - a tentative review (D. Schmiedl); (7) Thermogravimetric investigations of the pyrolytic degradation of different residues of biomass (G. Pena Chipatecua); (8) Field test campaign for SOFC units with gasification product gas as a preliminary for the SOFC based cogeneration (S. Martini); (9) One-zone-model for pour reactors of industrial size (U. Hellwig); (10) On the actual state of the thermochemical gasification of biomass in Germany at the beginning of 2012 (D. Braekow); (11) Production of green hydrogen based on syngas from biomass gasification (H. Tautz); (12) The BioSyn process - biomass gasification for the generation of syngas free of tar (L. Rochlitz); (13) Efficiency and framework conditions of AER biomass gasification (J. Breilochs); (14) Processing and cleaning of syngas from biomass (S. Vodegel); (15) Processing of product gas from gasification of biomass by means of heat extraction with hot gas cooler with integrated structure pipes and tar extraction with quenching and wet electro filter (C. Hamel); (16) Comparing tests of catalyst for reforming tar and methane in product gases

  18. Minimum emissions from biomass FBC. Improved energy generation based on biomass FBC with minimum emission. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, A. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The primary aim of the project is to improve the performance of biomass fired FBC (fluidised bed combustion) through a concurrent detailed experimental and modelling approach. The expected results shall establish in experimental investigations, the thermochemical performance of a selection of fuels separately and in combination with suitable bed materials, stipulate recommendations, based on labscale via test rig and pilot scale to commercial scale investigations, how to repress agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion systems, indicate, based on the experimental findings, how to utilise primary measures to minimise the formation of nitrogen oxide compounds in the FB and provide a logistic assessment, based on case studies, identifying optimum logistic strategies for the selected fuels in commercial heat and power production. The investigation programme comprises straw, meat and bone meal (MBM) and forest residues as biofuels, quartz sand, bone ash, magnesium oxide and mullite as bed materials, sodium and ammonia carbonate as NO{sub x} reduction additives, and dolomite, kaolinite and coal ash for suppression of bed defluidisation. All materials have undergone a very detailed characterisation programme generating basic data on their chemical and structural composition as well as their sintering propensities. Combustion residues such as bottom and fly ashes have run through the same characterisation programme. The knowledge obtained by the characterisation programme supports the experimental combustion campaigns which are performed at 20, 90 and 350 kW FBC reactors. The information produced is validated in a 3 MW and 25 MW commercial FBC reactor. NO{sub x} formation and destruction mechanisms and rates have been included in a 3-D CFD software code used for NO{sub x} formation modelling. Parameter assessments confirmed the theoretical achievement of a 20-30 % reduction of NO{sub x} formation through implementation of the alkali injection concept as

  19. Absorption of high temperature carbon dioxide for efficient power generation from brown coal; Hochtemperatur CO{sub 2}-Absorption zur effizienten Braunkohleverstromung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Weimer, T. [IVE-Weimer, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    A new process fort the energetic utilisation of lignite is under development in the framework of two European R and D projects with a total project budget of approx. 5 Mio Euro. This new process combines in one reactor steam gasification in a fluidised bed with in-situ high temperature CO{sub 2} absorption. Lime acts as bed material and absorber at the same time. A second reactor for calcining the limestone is required in order to operate the process in a continuous mode. Pure CO{sub 2} for industrial use or sequestration can be produced by operating this commonly used calcination process with pure oxygen. The two reactors are interconnected to feed lime, respectively limestone, from one reactor to the other. First experimental investigations show the feasibility of the new process. Hydrogen concentrations of >70% were achieved without any optimisation measures. Current focus of the research work are the determination of the optimal operational conditions and the improvement of the cycling stability of the absorber. About 20% of the current electricity consumption of the EU could be produced by this process, if the development is successful. Delivering synthesis gas to a fuel synthesis could be a further promising application as the new process allows to adjust the C/H ratio of the product gas without any problem. Both alternatives facilitate the production of pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration, if required. (orig.)

  20. The MetabolomeExpress Project: enabling web-based processing, analysis and transparent dissemination of GC/MS metabolomics datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Adam J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of analytical approaches and reporting methods via community-wide collaboration can work synergistically with web-tool development to result in rapid community-driven expansion of online data repositories suitable for data mining and meta-analysis. In metabolomics, the inter-laboratory reproducibility of gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS makes it an obvious target for such development. While a number of web-tools offer access to datasets and/or tools for raw data processing and statistical analysis, none of these systems are currently set up to act as a public repository by easily accepting, processing and presenting publicly submitted GC/MS metabolomics datasets for public re-analysis. Description Here, we present MetabolomeExpress, a new File Transfer Protocol (FTP server and web-tool for the online storage, processing, visualisation and statistical re-analysis of publicly submitted GC/MS metabolomics datasets. Users may search a quality-controlled database of metabolite response statistics from publicly submitted datasets by a number of parameters (eg. metabolite, species, organ/biofluid etc.. Users may also perform meta-analysis comparisons of multiple independent experiments or re-analyse public primary datasets via user-friendly tools for t-test, principal components analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation analysis. They may interact with chromatograms, mass spectra and peak detection results via an integrated raw data viewer. Researchers who register for a free account may upload (via FTP their own data to the server for online processing via a novel raw data processing pipeline. Conclusions MetabolomeExpress https://www.metabolome-express.org provides a new opportunity for the general metabolomics community to transparently present online the raw and processed GC/MS data underlying their metabolomics publications. Transparent sharing of these data will allow researchers to

  1. Combined distiller waste utilisation and combustion gases desulphurisation method. The case study of soda-ash industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasikowski, Tomasz; Buczkowski, Roman; Cichosz, Marcin; Lemanowska, Eliza [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolas Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper, a concept of technology that can be helpful for lowering the negative influence of the synthetic (based on the Solvay process) soda ash plant on the natural environment is presented. We describe the desulphurisation of combustion gases from the factory's power plant, which is based on their absorption in the overflow of distiller waste. The excess of lime milk, which is added in the process of ammonia regeneration from filter liquor, results in a strong alkalinity of distiller waste. The high pH of distiller waste favours absorption of acidic combustion gases. The laboratory-scale tests showed about 80% efficiency of the desulphurisation process. The suspension samples we obtained consist mainly of CaCO{sub 3}. We suggest using the obtained solid phase as an adsorbent-insert in Fluidised Bed Combustion technology (FBC). Based on raw material prices, production costs, and average sell prices of the product, economic analysis of innovation was executed. Profits from employing the method presented come mainly from reduction of environmental fees. The sensitivity analysis of cost showed that the application of the desulphurisation process causes cost reduction in soda-ash production accounting for EUR 150 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Poland, and EUR 11,700 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Sweden. It has been found that the latter value is similar to the positive environmental impact of this innovation expressed in monetary units (EUR 10,350 thousand per year, excluding depreciation). (author)

  2. Fluidized bed gasification of selected South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available that due to the good heat and mass transfer properties of fluidised beds, coal with ash contents up to 70% can be utilised. The CSIR’s research and development work resulted in the installation of five bubbling fluidised bed combustors (BFBCs) between... 1989 and 1999. Other companies, such as Babcock and Scientific Design, also installed a number of BFBC plants during this time. It was realised during the development of BFBC technology that due to the low lateral dispersion coefficient of coal...

  3. Final stage of first super-critical 460 MW CFB boiler construction. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, Waldemar [PKE, Lagisza Power Plant (Poland); Goral, Damian [Foster Wheeler Energia Polska, Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Steam boilers with circulating fluidised bed combustion have been advanced in the past years and proved well as large-scale technology. A further step was the development and construction of a boiler with super-critical steam parameters and increased output. In 2002 the Polish utility Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA awarded a contract to Foster Wheeler Energia Oy to erect a fluidised bed boiler for the Lagisza power plant. Construction of the 460 MW plant was started in 2006. The plant has been in commercial operation since 2009. (orig.)

  4. Fuel processing. Wastes processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.

    2000-01-01

    The gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive effluents generated by the fuel reprocessing, can't be release in the environment. They have to be treated in order to respect the limits of the pollution regulations. These processing are detailed and discussed in this technical paper. A second part is devoted to the SPIN research program relative to the separation of the long life radionuclides in order to reduce the radioactive wastes storage volume. (A.L.B.)

  5. Enhancement of the electrochemical behaviour and biological performance of Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy by thermo-mechanical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimpean, Anisoara [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei, 91-95, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Vasilescu, Ecaterina; Drob, Paula [Department of Electrochemistry and Corrosion, Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Cinca, Ion, E-mail: ion_cinca@hotmail.com [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Politehnica University, Spl. Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Vasilescu, Cora; Anastasescu, Mihai [Department of Electrochemistry and Corrosion, Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Mitran, Valentina [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei, 91-95, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Drob, Silviu Iulian [Department of Electrochemistry and Corrosion, Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-05-01

    A new Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy based only on non-toxic and non-allergic elements was elaborated in as-cast and thermo-mechanical processed, recrystallized states (XRD and SEM) in order to be used as candidate material for implant applications. Its long-term interactions with Ringer–Brown and Ringer solutions of different pH values and its cytocompatibility were determined. The thermo-mechanically processed alloy has nobler electrochemical behaviour than as-cast alloy due to finer microstructure obtained after the applied treatment. Corrosion and ion release rates presented the lowest values for the treated alloy. Nyquist and Bode plots displayed higher impedance values and phase angles for the processed alloy, denoting a more protective passive film. SEM micrographs revealed depositions from solutions that contain calcium, phosphorous and oxygen ions (EDX analysis), namely calcium phosphate. An electric equivalent circuit with two time constants was modelled. Cell culture experiments with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts demonstrated that thermo-mechanically processed Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy supports a better cell adhesion and spreading, and enhanced cell proliferation. Altogether, these data indicate that thermo-mechanical treatment endows the alloy with improved anticorrosion and biological performances. - Highlights: • Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy exhibited noble electrochemical, passive behaviour in simulated biofluids. • An electric equivalent circuit with two time constants was modelled. • Corrosion rates show the lowest values for the recrystallized Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy. • In vitro tests revealed good cytocompatibility of as-cast and processed alloy. • Recrystallized treatment endows the alloy with superior biological performances.

  6. Enhancement of the electrochemical behaviour and biological performance of Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy by thermo-mechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, Anisoara; Vasilescu, Ecaterina; Drob, Paula; Cinca, Ion; Vasilescu, Cora; Anastasescu, Mihai; Mitran, Valentina; Drob, Silviu Iulian

    2014-01-01

    A new Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy based only on non-toxic and non-allergic elements was elaborated in as-cast and thermo-mechanical processed, recrystallized states (XRD and SEM) in order to be used as candidate material for implant applications. Its long-term interactions with Ringer–Brown and Ringer solutions of different pH values and its cytocompatibility were determined. The thermo-mechanically processed alloy has nobler electrochemical behaviour than as-cast alloy due to finer microstructure obtained after the applied treatment. Corrosion and ion release rates presented the lowest values for the treated alloy. Nyquist and Bode plots displayed higher impedance values and phase angles for the processed alloy, denoting a more protective passive film. SEM micrographs revealed depositions from solutions that contain calcium, phosphorous and oxygen ions (EDX analysis), namely calcium phosphate. An electric equivalent circuit with two time constants was modelled. Cell culture experiments with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts demonstrated that thermo-mechanically processed Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy supports a better cell adhesion and spreading, and enhanced cell proliferation. Altogether, these data indicate that thermo-mechanical treatment endows the alloy with improved anticorrosion and biological performances. - Highlights: • Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy exhibited noble electrochemical, passive behaviour in simulated biofluids. • An electric equivalent circuit with two time constants was modelled. • Corrosion rates show the lowest values for the recrystallized Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy. • In vitro tests revealed good cytocompatibility of as-cast and processed alloy. • Recrystallized treatment endows the alloy with superior biological performances

  7. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency and Food Product Quality Using Adsorption Dryer with Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Djaeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a basic operation in wood, food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Currently, several drying methods are often not efficient in terms of energy consumption (energy efficiency of 20-60% and have an impact on product quality degradation due to the introduction of operational temperature upper 80oC. This work discusses the development of adsorption drying with zeolite to improve the energy efficiency as well as product quality. In this process, air as drying medium is dehumidified by zeolite. As a result humidity of air can be reduced up to 0.1 ppm. So, for heat sensitive products, the drying process can be performed in low or medium temperature with high driving force. The study has been conducted in three steps: designing the dryer, performing laboratory scale equipment (tray, spray, and fluidised bed dryers with zeolite, and evaluating the dryer performance based on energy efficiency and product quality. Results showed that the energy efficiency of drying process is 15-20% higher than that of conventional dryer. In additon, the dryer can speed up drying time as well as retaining product quality.

  9. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  10. Thermodynamic comparison of the FICFB and Viking gasification concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Two biomass gasification concepts, i.e. indirectly heated, fast internally circulating fluidised bed (FICFB) gasification with steam as gasifying agent and two-stage, directly heated, fixed bed Viking gasification are compared with respect to their performance as gas generators. Based on adjusted equilibrium equations, the gas composition and the energy requirements for gasification are accurately modelled. Overall energy balances are assessed by an energy integration with the heat cascade concept and considering energy recovery in a steam Rankine cycle. A detailed inventory of energy and exergy losses of the different process sections is presented and potential process improvements due to a better utility choice or feed pretreatment like drying or pyrolysis are discussed. While Viking gasification performs better as an isolated gas generator than state-of-the-art FICFB gasification, there is large potential for improvement of the FICFB system. Furthermore, a concluding analysis of the gasification systems in an integrated plant for synthetic natural gas production shows that FICFB gasification is more suitable overall due to a more advantageous energy conversion related to the producer gas composition.

  11. The Low Temperature CFB Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoholm, P.; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar; Richardt, K.

    2004-01-01

    straw, animal manure and waste and for co-firing the product gas in existing, e.g. coal fired power plant boilers. The aim is to prevent fouling, agglomeration and high temperature corrosion caused by potassium and chlorine and other fuel components when producing electricity. So far 92 hours......The Low Temperature Circulating Fluidised Bed (LT-CFB) gasification process is described together with the 50 kW and the 500 kW test plants and latest test results. The LT-CFB process is especially developed for medium and large scale (few to >100 MW) gasification of problematic bio-fuels like...... of experiments with the 50 kW test plant with two extremely difficult types of straw has shown low char losses and high retentions of ash including e.g. potassium. Latest 27 hours of experiments with dried, high ash pig- and hen manure has further indicated the concepts high fuel flexibility. The new 500 kW test...

  12. Trends and outlook of coal energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal Abidin Husin (Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Fuel and Materials Management Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Current energy policy in Malaysia is directed towards development of natural gas resources although there is a strategy to diversify energy sources to gas, hydro, coal and oil. By the year 2000, however, coal could emerge as a major energy source. The author advocates the need for a policy direction for the coal industry - for exploration, mine planning, mixing methods, transport and regulations to ensure occupational health and safety. Malaysia has abundant coal resources but most are in Sarawak and Sabah whereas the bulk of energy demand is in the Peninsula Malaysia. A table defines known coal resources in Malaysia and a map shows their location. To ensure successful development of the coal industry, technologies must be developed to meet environmental requirements and global market competition. Several emerging technologies are mentioned: production of process-derived fuel and coal-derived liquid from sub-bituminous coal, coal liquefaction, manufacture of coal water mixture, coal beneficiation, and fluidised bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Availability of P and K in ash from thermal gasification of animal manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaek, G.H.; Soerensen, Peter [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark); Stoholm, P. [Danish Fluid Bed Technology (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In areas like Denmark where the livestock density is regulated on the basis of manure N content, surplus phosphorus is becoming a key environmental problem, which has to be solved in order to avoid increasing P losses to surface waters in the future. Combustion of animal manure or its solid fraction and the subsequent export of the ash to nutrient-poor areas could be a solution. However, combustion is difficult due to fouling and corrosion problems, and the ash will only be marketable if the fertiliser value of the remaining P and K is acceptable and if the content of contaminants (heavy metals) is sufficiently low. A combined fast pyrolysis and char gasification technique for treatment of biomass has been developed where organic material such as manure is processed in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures and around 700 deg. C. After simple separation of a fine textured ash, the cleaned gas is suitable for combustion in a separate unit for energy production. One advantage of this technique is that the temperature can be finely controlled, and temperatures exceeding the melting point of e.g. potassium chloride can be avoided. The low and well-controlled temperature probably also prevents severe reductions in the availability of nutrients in the ash. However, the availability of P and K in the ash remains to be thoroughly tested. (au)

  14. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  15. First operational tests of an oxycoal hot gas cleaning facility; Erste Betriebstests einer Oxycoal-Heissgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, A.; Habermehl, M.; Foerster, M.; Kneer, R. [RWTH Aachen University (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung

    2009-07-01

    An oxyfuel power plant process using a ceramic high temperature membrane for oxygen supply is investigated within the scope of the OXYCOAL-AC project at RWTH Aachen Uni-versity. Implementing the membrane requires a clean gas at a temperature of 850 C. There-fore a hot gas cleaning facility based on porous ceramic candle filters is used, which is state-of-the-art for the gas cleaning of synthesis gas or for flue gas cleaning in pressurised fluid-ised bed furnaces. However, these applications operate at lower temperatures and in a sig-nificantly different atmosphere. Thus, experiences for dust removal at high temperatures in oxyfuel atmoshere are not available. Experiments with a hot gas cleaning facility were con-ducted at the experimental combustion plant of the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, us-ing different candle filter materials. The flue gas was provided by a coal fired 100 kW{sub th} oxy-fuel furnace. The operational behaviour of the filtration facility, the adhesion and dedusting properties of the filter cake were investigated. (orig.)

  16. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  17. Reactivity of chars prepared from the pyrolysis of a Victorian lignite under a wide range of conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Mody, D.; Li, C.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A Loy Yang lignite sample was pyrolysed under a wide range of experimental conditions using a wire-mesh reactor, a fluidised-bed reactor, a drop-tube reformer and a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivity of these char samples in CO{sub 2} and air was measured in the TGA as well as in the fluidised-bed reactor. A sample prepared by the physical impregnation of NaCl into the lignite was also used in order to investigate the effect of NaCl in the lignite on the reactivity of the resulting char. Our experimental results indicate that, due to the volatilisation of a substantial fraction of Na in the lignite substrate during pyrolysis, the true catalytic activity of the Na in the lignite substrate should be evaluated by measuring the sodium content in the char after pyrolysis. The char reactivity measured in situ in the fluidised-bed reactor was compared with that of the same char measured separately in the TGA after re-heating the char sample to the same temperature as that in the fluidised-bed. It was found that the re-heating of the char in the TGA reduced the char reactivity.

  18. Textural properties of chars as determined by petrographic analysis: comparison between air-blown, oxygen-blown and oxygen-enriched gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the textural properties of chars generated from a vitrinite, high ash coal in a fluidised bed gasifier under air-blown, oxygen-blown and oxygen-enriched conditions were determined by detailed petrographic analysis. The char samples...

  19. Process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuegerl, K

    1984-01-01

    The item 'process development' comprises the production of acetonic/butonal with C. acetobylicum and the yeasting of potato waste. The target is to increase productivity by taking the following measures - optimation of media, on-line process analysis, analysis of reaction, mathematic modelling and identification of parameters, process simulation, development of a state estimator with the help of the on-line process analysis and the model, optimization and adaptive control.

  20. Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Yechiali, U.; Ruggeri, F.; Kenett, R.S.; Faltin, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Poisson process is a stochastic counting process that arises naturally in a large variety of daily life situations. We present a few definitions of the Poisson process and discuss several properties as well as relations to some well-known probability distributions. We further briefly discuss the

  1. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  2. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    1962-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  3. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  4. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousot, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included [fr

  5. Biofluid-Based Detection of the Migration Switch in Prostate Cancer to Predict Metastatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    30 parameters spanning clinical sampling and storage to antibody dilution and conjugation. To improve the time for actual analysis, we have isolated...simultaneously using patients’ serum, plasma and urine samples from the proposed cohorts.  To discovery and validate other motility indicators.  To analyze...fewer than 30 parameters spanning clinical sampling and storage to antibody dilution and conjugation. To improve the time for actual analysis, we have

  6. Restricted-access media development for direct analysis of drugs in biofluids using capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmalaviciene, Reda; Kornysova, Olga; Bendokas, Vidmantas; Westerlund, Douglas; Buszewski, Boguslaw; Maruska, Audrius

    2008-07-01

    In analytical sciences the design of novel materials and stationary phases for the sample preparation and separation of analytes from biological fluids is needed. In this work we present different strategies for modification of stationary phases to produce tailored solutions for the analytical problem. In this context a novel shielded polymeric reversed-phase monolithic material was prepared in the presence of different numbers of reactive groups and concentrations of the coating polymer. Chromatographic experiments were performed using benzoic acid propyl ester in order to characterize the hydrophobicity and efficiency of the different restricted-access continuous beds prepared. Inverse size-exclusion chromatography was used for investigation of the pore structure properties of the beds. Capillary columns were applied for nanochromatography of biological fluids containing a mixture of nitrazepamum and medazepamum.

  7. Evaluation of 1H NMR metabolic profiling using biofluid mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athersuch, Toby J; Malik, Shahid; Weljie, Aalim; Newton, Jack; Keun, Hector C

    2013-07-16

    A strategy for evaluating the performance of quantitative spectral analysis tools in conditions that better approximate background variation in a metabonomics experiment is presented. Three different urine samples were mixed in known proportions according to a {3, 3} simplex lattice experimental design and analyzed in triplicate by 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Fifty-four urinary metabolites were subsequently quantified from the sample spectra using two methods common in metabolic profiling studies: (1) targeted spectral fitting and (2) targeted spectral integration. Multivariate analysis using partial least-squares (PLS) regression showed the latent structure of the spectral set recapitulated the experimental mixture design. The goodness-of-prediction statistic (Q(2)) of each metabolite variable in a PLS model was calculated as a metric for the reliability of measurement, across the sample compositional space. Several metabolites were observed to have low Q(2) values, largely as a consequence of their spectral resonances having low s/n or strong overlap with other sample components. This strategy has the potential to allow evaluation of spectral features obtained from metabolic profiling platforms in the context of the compositional background found in real biological sample sets, which may be subject to considerable variation. We suggest that it be incorporated into metabolic profiling studies to improve the estimation of matrix effects that confound accurate metabolite measurement. This novel method provides a rational basis for exploiting information from several samples in an efficient manner and avoids the use of multiple spike-in authentic standards, which may be difficult to obtain.

  8. 1H NMR Metabolic Profiling of Biofluids from Rats with Gastric Mucosal Lesion and Electroacupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric mucosal lesion (GML is a common gastrointestinal disorder with multiple pathogenic mechanisms in clinical practice. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, electroacupuncture (EA treatment has been proven as an effective therapy for GML, although the underlying healing mechanism is not yet clear. Here, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance- (1H NMR- based metabolomic method to investigate the metabolic perturbation induced by GML and the therapeutic effect of EA treatment on stomach meridian (SM acupoints. Clear metabolic differences were observed between GML and control groups, and related metabolic pathways were discussed by means of online metabolic network analysis toolbox. By comparing the endogenous metabolites from GML and GML-SM groups, the disturbed pathways were partly recovered towards healthy state via EA treated on SM acupoints. Further comparison of the metabolic variations induced by EA stimulated on SM and the control gallbladder meridian (GM acupoints showed a quite similar metabolite composition except for increased phenylacetylglycine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, and meta-hydroxyphenylacetate and decreased N-methylnicotinamide in urine from rats with EA treated on SM acupoints. The current study showed the potential application of metabolomics in providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  9. Suppurative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Suppurative process in the case of bronchiectatic disease, abscess and gang rene of lungs, has been described. Characteristic signs of roentgenologic pictu re of the above-mentioned diseases are considered. It is shown,that in most cas es roentgenologic studies give a possibility to make a high-quality diagnosis of suppurative processes

  10. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... and emerging production methods....

  11. Process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata G, G.

    1989-01-01

    Process development: The paper describes the organization and laboratory facilities of the group working on radioactive ore processing studies. Contains a review of the carried research and the plans for the next future. A list of the published reports is also presented

  12. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  13. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  14. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  15. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... support for it). None of the existing techniques enables the user to control the balance between “overfitting” and “underfitting”. To address this, we propose a two-step approach. First, using a configurable approach, a transition system is constructed. Then, using the “theory of regions”, the model...

  16. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  17. Process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Many of the measurements and observations made in a nuclear processing facility to monitor processes and product quality can also be used to monitor the location and movements of nuclear materials. In this session information is presented on how to use process monitoring data to enhance nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). It will be seen that SNM losses can generally be detected with greater sensitivity and timeliness and point of loss localized more closely than by conventional MC and A systems if process monitoring data are applied. The purpose of this session is to enable the participants to: (1) identify process unit operations that could improve control units for monitoring SNM losses; (2) choose key measurement points and formulate a loss indicator for each control unit; and (3) describe how the sensitivities and timeliness of loss detection could be determined for each loss indicator

  18. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  19. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…

  20. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...

  1. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  2. Dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems

  3. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  4. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  5. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....

  6. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the final chapter of this book, there is basic introduction on welding process. The good radiography must know somehow on welding process so that they can know what kind of welding that must rejected or not. All of the exposure technique that mention in earlier chapter almost applicable in this field because welding process is critical problem if there is no inspection will be done. So, for this chapter, all the discontinuity that usually appeared will be discussed and there is another discontinuity maybe not to important and do not give big impact if found it, do not described here. On top of that, the decision to accept or reject based on code, standard and specification that agreed by both to make sure that decision that agreed is corrected and more meaningful.

  7. Markov Processes in Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, E. P.; Kharina, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    Digital images are used as an information carrier in different sciences and technologies. The aspiration to increase the number of bits in the image pixels for the purpose of obtaining more information is observed. In the paper, some methods of compression and contour detection on the basis of two-dimensional Markov chain are offered. Increasing the number of bits on the image pixels will allow one to allocate fine object details more precisely, but it significantly complicates image processing. The methods of image processing do not concede by the efficiency to well-known analogues, but surpass them in processing speed. An image is separated into binary images, and processing is carried out in parallel with each without an increase in speed, when increasing the number of bits on the image pixels. One more advantage of methods is the low consumption of energy resources. Only logical procedures are used and there are no computing operations. The methods can be useful in processing images of any class and assignment in processing systems with a limited time and energy resources.

  8. Film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The processing was made not only to show what are in the film but also to produce radiograph with high quality where the information gathered really presented level of the quality of the object inspected. Besides that, good procedure will make the film with good quality can keep the film in long time for reference. Here, more detailed on how the dark room functioned and its design. So, the good procedure while processed the film will be discussed detailed in this chapter from entering the dark room to exit from there.

  9. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  10. Process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, E.G.; Suarez, P.S.; Pantaleon, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The search for an optimal design of a heavy water plant is done by means of a simulation model for the mass and enthalpy balances of the SH 2 -H 2 O exchange process. A symplified model for the simulation diagram where the entire plant is represented by a sole tray tower with recicles, and heat and mass feeds/extractions was used. The tower is simulated by the method developed by Tomich with the convergence part given by the algorithm of Broyden. The concluding part of the work is centered in setting the design parameters (flowrates, heat exchange rates, number of plates) wich give the desired process operating conditions. (author) [es

  11. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    -terminal of the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is one...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  12. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning...

  13. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  14. Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starks, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The following aspects of the Purex Process are discussed: head end dissolution, first solvent extraction cycle, second plutonium solvent extraction cycle, second uranium solvent extraction cycle, solvent recovery systems, primary recovery column for high activity waste, low activity waste, laboratory waste evaporation, vessel vent system, airflow and filtration, acid recovery unit, fume recovery, and discharges to seepage basin

  15. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  16. Processing Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2015-01-01

    I propose that the course of development in first and second language acquisition is shaped by two types of processing pressures--internal efficiency-related factors relevant to easing the burden on working memory and external input-related factors such as frequency of occurrence. In an attempt to document the role of internal factors, I consider…

  17. Shale processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, W H

    1928-05-29

    The process of treating bituminiferous solid materials such as shale or the like to obtain valuable products therefrom, which comprises digesting a mixture of such material in comminuted condition with a suitable digestion liquid, such as an oil, recovering products vaporized in the digestion, and separating residual solid matter from the digestion liquid by centrifuging.

  18. Radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  19. Leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, H.J.; McClelland, G.E.; Lindstrom, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate

  20. Leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, H J; McClelland, G E; Lindstrom, R E

    1982-10-18

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate.

  1. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  2. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  3. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Andrei N

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the theory of stochastic processes. A significant part of the book is devoted to the classic theory of stochastic processes. In turn, it also presents proofs of well-known results, sometimes together with new approaches. Moreover, the book explores topics not previously covered elsewhere, such as distributions of functionals of diffusions stopped at different random times, the Brownian local time, diffusions with jumps, and an invariance principle for random walks and local times. Supported by carefully selected material, the book showcases a wealth of examples that demonstrate how to solve concrete problems by applying theoretical results. It addresses a broad range of applications, focusing on concrete computational techniques rather than on abstract theory. The content presented here is largely self-contained, making it suitable for researchers and graduate students alike.

  4. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...... technical-rational calculation of the most efficient organisation of activities across national borders, but it is rather specific to the parent companies’ national contexts....

  5. Photobiomodulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on biosystems. There is little research on PBM dynamics although its phenomena and mechanism have been widely studied. The PBM was discussed from dynamic viewpoint in this paper. It was found that the primary process of cellular PBM might be the key process of cellular PBM so that the transition rate of cellular molecules can be extended to discuss the dose relationship of PBM. There may be a dose zone in which low intensity LI (LIL at different doses has biological effects similar to each other, so that biological information model of PBM might hold. LIL may self-adaptively modulate a chronic stress until it becomes successful.

  6. Multiphoton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manus, C.; Mainfray, G.

    1980-01-01

    The main features of multiphoton processes are described on a somewhat elementary basis. The emphasis is put on multiphoton ionization of atoms where the influence of resonance effects is given through typical examples. The important role played by the coherence of light is shown to produce a very dramatic influence on multiphoton absorption. Different observations concerning molecules, electrons, as well as solid surfaces illustrate the generality of these very non linear interaction between light and matter

  7. Process heat. Triggering the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-07-01

    If solar process heat is to find a market, then the decision makers in industrial companies need to be aware that it actually exists. This was one of the main goals of the So-Pro project, which officially drew to a close in April 2012. (orig.)

  8. Application of THOR-Technology on resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Lindberg, M.

    2003-01-01

    The THermal Organic Reduction (THOR) process, developed and patented by studsvik utilises pyrolysis / steam reforming technology. The THOR-process provides a reliable and safe method for treating a wide variety of LLW in a unique, fluidised bed treatment system at moderate temperature. This technology is suitable for processing hazardous, mixed and dry active LLW with appropriate waste feed modifications. Both solid and liquid LLRW and ILRW streams including ion exchange resins, activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 4 Sv/hr can be processed. Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its facility at Erwin, Tennessee, USA. During this period studsvik has processed more than 1,5 thousand tons of radioactive ion exchange bead resins. powdered filter media and active carbon, with a cumulative total radioactivity of about 7 (E+8) MBq. Operations have demonstrated consistent, reliable, robust operating characteristics. Due to the widely varying characteristics of the incoming waste streams various efficiencies and volume reductions have been experienced. Input waste has varied in total inorganic content from 90%. A substantial element of this variability has been the ''soluble salt'' content of the input waste streams. Final reformed residue comprises a non-dispersible, granular solid which is suitable for long-term storage or direct burial in a qualified container. Special containers, THOR-liners, are available from studsvik for the transport of waste from the customer to the Erwin facility and HICs (high integrity containers) for transport of the residues to Barnwell. The paper will give an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing LLRW from commercial nuclear power plans. (orig.)

  9. Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    The VDE system developed had the capability of recognizing up to 248 separate words in syntactic structures. 4 The two systems described are isolated...AND SPEAKER RECOGNITION by M.J.Hunt 5 ASSESSMENT OF SPEECH SYSTEMS ’ ..- * . by R.K.Moore 6 A SURVEY OF CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND RESEARCH’ by J.S.Bridle...TECHNOLOGY IN NAVY TRAINING SYSTEMS by R.Breaux, M.Blind and R.Lynchard 10 9 I-I GENERAL REVIEW OF MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING DR. BRUNO

  10. Developed Hybrid Model for Propylene Polymerisation at Optimum Reaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical model combined with CFD (computational fluid dynamic method was used to explain the detailed phenomena of the process parameters, and a series of experiments were carried out for propylene polymerisation by varying the feed gas composition, reaction initiation temperature, and system pressure, in a fluidised bed catalytic reactor. The propylene polymerisation rate per pass was considered the response to the analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM, with a full factorial central composite experimental design, was applied to develop the model. In this study, analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated an acceptable value for the coefficient of determination and a suitable estimation of a second-order regression model. For better justification, results were also described through a three-dimensional (3D response surface and a related two-dimensional (2D contour plot. These 3D and 2D response analyses provided significant and easy to understand findings on the effect of all the considered process variables on expected findings. To diagnose the model adequacy, the mathematical relationship between the process variables and the extent of polymer conversion was established through the combination of CFD with statistical tools. All the tests showed that the model is an excellent fit with the experimental validation. The maximum extent of polymer conversion per pass was 5.98% at the set time period and with consistent catalyst and co-catalyst feed rates. The optimum conditions for maximum polymerisation was found at reaction temperature (RT 75 °C, system pressure (SP 25 bar, and 75% monomer concentration (MC. The hydrogen percentage was kept fixed at all times. The coefficient of correlation for reaction temperature, system pressure, and monomer concentration ratio, was found to be 0.932. Thus, the experimental results and model predicted values were a reliable fit at optimum process conditions. Detailed and adaptable CFD results were capable

  11. Boiler control using on-line determination of moisture content for incoming fuel; Forskning kring pannstyrning med on-line fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelin, Anders; Dahlquist, Erik; Moden, Per Erik

    2008-10-15

    Incoming fuels to the biomass fueled boiler are the main source for uncertainties in the combustion process. Fuel quality has large impact on the combustion and the heat transfer in the boiler. There are several possibilities to control the boiler when the bed temperature varies. Flue gas recirculation is one of the variables used for control of the bed temperature in the boiler. Another parameter to use for controlling the bed temperature is to adjust the humidification of the combustion air. The parameter with the major influence on the bed temperature is the amount of primary air. These three parameters are all used as control variables for control of the bed temperature. One part of the study has been to investigate how much and how fast each parameter influences bed temperature and how the information of the moisture content in the incoming fuel can be used for feed-forward information for controlling bed temperature. At the reception terminal all the incoming deliveries are registered with quality and moisture content. This study has also investigated how to use the information about the moisture content of incoming fuel, based on NIR measurements on the fuel transported in to the boiler, and the fluctuation of the bed temperature. Another question is how to connect this information for the bed control. This part of the study is used to evaluate if the information to the operators about the moisture content from the NIR has affect on the variation of the bed temperature. A process model has been developed of the Bubbling Fluidised Bed boiler (BFB) that is one of the boilers at the power plant in Eskilstuna. The model has been used to analyze the process. Process models have become more common and important in the heat and power industry. Nowadays process models are used for training of the staff in simulators of the real plant and for offline tests of control systems

  12. Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkwood, James R

    2015-01-01

    Review of ProbabilityShort HistoryReview of Basic Probability DefinitionsSome Common Probability DistributionsProperties of a Probability DistributionProperties of the Expected ValueExpected Value of a Random Variable with Common DistributionsGenerating FunctionsMoment Generating FunctionsExercisesDiscrete-Time, Finite-State Markov ChainsIntroductionNotationTransition MatricesDirected Graphs: Examples of Markov ChainsRandom Walk with Reflecting BoundariesGambler’s RuinEhrenfest ModelCentral Problem of Markov ChainsCondition to Ensure a Unique Equilibrium StateFinding the Equilibrium StateTransient and Recurrent StatesIndicator FunctionsPerron-Frobenius TheoremAbsorbing Markov ChainsMean First Passage TimeMean Recurrence Time and the Equilibrium StateFundamental Matrix for Regular Markov ChainsDividing a Markov Chain into Equivalence ClassesPeriodic Markov ChainsReducible Markov ChainsSummaryExercisesDiscrete-Time, Infinite-State Markov ChainsRenewal ProcessesDelayed Renewal ProcessesEquilibrium State f...

  13. Coking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, H K

    1917-11-20

    A gas suitable for use in containers or motor-vehicles, etc., and consisting mainly of methane, is obtained by distilling at a temperature not exceeding 500/sup 0/C bastard cannel coal, lignite, wood, peat, shale, etc., in an horizontal or vertical retort, through which the material is continuously fed in a thin layer or column by means of a screw conveyor or the like. Cracking or dissociation of the gaseous products is prevented by introducing into the retort part of the gas which is the result of the process and which is compressed to a pressure of at least 15 atmospheres and allowed to expand into the retort to cool and carry away the gaseous products produced. These are then passed through condensers for extracting liquid hydrocarbons, and other hydrocarbons are extracted by passage through washing-oils. The gas is then compressed by a water-cooled pump to a pressure of 15 atmospheres, whereby a spirit similar to petrol is formed, and a stable gas left which is mainly methane, part of the gas being used to carry out the process described above.

  14. Etherification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  15. Oligomerization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  16. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  17. Lithospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldridge, W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy

  18. Carbonizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-22

    In the downward distillation of coal, shale, lignite, or the like, the heat is generated by the combustion of liquid or gaseous fuel above the charge the zone of carbonization thus initiated travelling downwards through the charge. The combustible gases employed are preferably those resulting from the process but gases such as natural gas may be employed. The charge is in a moistened and pervious state the lower parts being maintained at a temperature not above 212/sup 0/F until influenced by contact with the carbonization zone and steam may be admitted to increase the yield of ammonia. The combustible gases may be supplied with insufficient air so as to impart to them a reducing effect.

  19. WELDING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  20. Corn Drying with Zeolite in The Fluidized Bed Dryer under Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drying is an important step to find high quality of corn. Based on Standard of National Industry, populer as SNI, number 01-3920-1995, the corn was well stored at moisture content 14% or below (wet basis. However, conventional corn drying dealed with in-efficient energy process and corn quality degradation. This research evaluated the performance of corn drying assisted by zeolite as moisture adsorbent. In this process, the zeolite and corn were placed in the dryer fluidized by warm air as drying medium under 40 - 50oC. The air evaporated water product from corn, and at same time the zeolite adsorbed moisture in air. So, the relative humidity of air in dryer can be kept low in which enhanced the driving force for drying. Beside that, the moisture adsoprtion by zeolite was exothermic process that can supply the energy for drying or keep the dryer temperature. Thus, the drying rate can be faster. This work foccussed to observe the effect of drying temperature, air velocity, and corn to zeolite ratio on drying time as well as corn quality. As indicators, the drying rate was estimated and the proxymates content such as protein, fat, and carbohydrate content were analyzed. The results showed that compared with conventional fluidised bed dryer, corn drying with zeolite, can speed up drying time as well as improving the constant of drying rate. In addition, the corn proximate nutrition content can be well retained. At operating temperature 40oC, air velocity 9 m.s-1, and zeolite to corn ratio 1:2, the drying time can be 60 minutes shorter compared to that without zeolite.

  1. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  2. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    Fluidised bed thermal gasification of biomass is an effective route that results in 100 % conversion of the fuel. In contrast to chemical, enzymatic or anaerobic methods of biomass treatment, the thermal conversion leaves no contaminated residue after the process. The product gas evolved within thermal conversion can be used in several applications such as: fuel for gas turbines, combustion engines and fuel cells, and raw material for production of chemicals and synthetic liquid fuels. This thesis treats a part of the experimental data from two different gasifiers: a 90 kW{sub th} pressurised fluidised bubbling bed gasifier at Lund University and a 18 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed gasifier integrated with gas turbine (IGCC) in Vaernamo. A series of parallel and consecutive chemical reactions is involved in thermal gasification, giving origin to formation of a variety of products. These products can be classified within three major groups: gases, tars and oils, and char. The proportion of these categories of species in the final product is a matter of the gasifier design and the process parameters. The thesis addresses the technical and theoretical aspects of the biomass thermochemical conversion and presents a new approach in describing the gasification reactions. There is an evidence of fuel effect on the characteristics of the final products: a mixture of plastic waste (polyethylene) and biomass results in higher concentration of linear hydrocarbons in the gas than gasification of pure biomass. Mixing the biomass with textile waste (containing aromatic structure) results in a high degree of formation of aromatic compounds and light tars. Three topic questions within biomass gasification, namely: tar, NO{sub x} and alkali are discussed in the thesis. The experimental results show that gasification at high ER or high temperature decreases the total amount of the tars and simultaneously reduces the contents of the oxygenated and alkyl-substituted poly

  3. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.gago@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Badia-Fabregat, Marina, E-mail: marina.badia@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Alba, E-mail: esalba.olivares@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: benjami.pina@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui, E-mail: paqui.blanquez@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.vicent@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.caminal@uab.cat [Unitat de Biocatalisi Aplicada associada al IQAC (CSIC-UAB). Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: silvia.diaz@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-06-15

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungus T. versicolor is able to degrade totally BP3 and BP1 in few hours in a fluidised bed bioreactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BP3 is not degraded under simulated sunlight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycoconjugates have been identified as the main intermediate metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in endocrine activity

  4. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of nitrided or oxinitrided, and powder painted regular and interstitial free (IF) drawing steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogalski, Z.; Latas, Z. [Instytut Mechaniki Precyzyjnej, ul. Duchnicka 3, 01-796 Warszawa (Poland)

    2004-06-01

    Specimens of 0.8 mm thick regular and interstitial free (IF) drawing steel sheet have been nitrided in fluidised bed for 2 hours at 620 C and 560 C with and without a post-oxidation, and slow and accelerated cooling. As a result, surface hardness, yield and tensile strength of the sheets increased considerably without a critical loss of ductility. Resistance welds between the sheets did not lose their original strength after nitriding-oxinitriding. Nitrided-oxinitrided at 620 C and then powder painted sheets, as compared with powder painted raw sheets, were more corrosion resistant in neutral salt spray and climatic tests. Some mechanical and anticorrosion properties of the IF steel sheet that had undergone the nitriding-oxinitriding processes were definitely better than those of equally processed regular steel sheet. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Proben aus 0,8 mm dickem Blech aus Ziehmassenstahl sowie aus Ziehstahl ohne interstitiel geloeste Legierungsanteile (IF), werden im Wirbelbett in 2 Stunden bei 620 und 560 {sup o}C nitriert mit nachfolgenden Oxidierung sowie alternativ ohne Oxidierung und mit langsamer und beschleunigter Abkuehlung. Infolge dessen nehmen die Haerte, die Dehngrenze und die Zugfestigkeit der Bleche zu, ohne kritischen Zaehigkeitsverlust. Die Widerstandsschweisswulste zwischen den Blechen nach dem Nitrieren-Oxinitrieren haben nicht an Festigkeit verloren. Die bei 620 {sup o}C nitrierten-oxinitrierten und nachfolgend mit Pulverlack beschichteten Bleche sind bei den Versuchen in Salznebel und bei klimatischen Versuchen korrosionbestaendiger im Vergleich mit den mit nur Pulverlack beschichteten Rohblechen. Manche der mechanischen und korrosionsverhalten betreffenden Eigenschaften der Bleche aus IF-Staehle sind entscheidend besser als fuer das ebenso behandelte Blech aus Ziehmassenstahl. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. - Highlights: ► Fungus T. versicolor is able to degrade totally BP3 and BP1 in few hours in a fluidised bed bioreactor. ► BP3 is not degraded under simulated sunlight. ► Glycoconjugates have been identified as the main intermediate metabolites. ► Decrease in endocrine activity was found in both photodegradation and biodegradation.

  6. [In process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasch, Michael; Kaasch, Joachim

    -increasing competitiveness which came to a head as an embroiled dispute resulting from differences in scientific and scientific policy views. In the process a battle was fought over research resources so that, what was at first an apparently personal quarrel, affected the course of research promotion at an institutional level in the area of life sciences in the GDR. Despite several attempts at mediation, old age finally forced the adversaries to put aside their differences.

  7. Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  8. Hydrothermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  9. Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw. [Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fock, F. [Ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nygaard, I. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Roskilde (Denmark); Maiga, A.; Kone, B.; Kamissoko, F.; Coulibaly, N.; Ouattara, O.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective is to make a first evaluation regarding if it's technically possible, economically viable, sustainable and recommendable to build a rice straw/hulls fired power plant in Niono in Mali. Based on the available resource of rice straw and the possibilities for connecting to the grid it has been chosen to analyse a 5 MW power plant in the project. For technical reasons the rice straw should be the main fuel, but rice hulls can be used for co-firing. Up to around 20% of the fuel in the plant can be rice hulls instead of rice straw. A number of different biomass power production technologies have been evaluated in the project. This includes: 1) Grate fired boiler. 2) Bubbling fluidised bed. 3) Circulating fluidised bed. 4) Dust fired boiler. 5) Gasification. 6) Stirling engine. 7) Organic Rankine Cycle. Grate firing is the most relevant technology in this case, due to the fuel, the size of the power plant, the demand for electricity only and not heat, the demand for a robust and well proven technology. For a grate fired plant a calculation of the thermodynamic process of the power plant has been carried out in order to determine the electrical efficiency of the plant. The case consists of a 5 MW grate fired power plant with steam turbines and air cooled condenser resulting in an efficiency of 24.6% at full load (20% as yearly average). Investment costs and costs for O and M have been assumed based on experience from Danish power plants but adjusted for local conditions in Mali. The costs for collecting and transporting the rice straw and for the ash disposal have been specifically estimated in this project. The average cost of capital has been estimated based on assumptions on equity, international loans and local loans/bank finance. Based on the investment, the cost of O and M, fuel, ash disposal and the financial assumptions, a cash flow analysis is made in order to calculate the power price resulting in a Net Present Value (NPV) of the

  10. Investigation and modelling of the alkaline release and transport during coal combustion at elevated pressures. Final report; Untersuchung und Modellierung der Freisetzungs- und Transportvorgaenge von Alkalien bei der Kohleverbrennung unter hohen Druecken. Untersuchungen mit der Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Thermowaage, Alkalienanalysen in Rohkohlen und Feuerungsversuche in der Druckwirbelschichtanlage FRED (DMT). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, B.; Steffin, C.; Busch, U.; Mayer, M.

    2000-07-01

    In this joint research project DMT investigated the release (and incorporation) of alkalis of the coal mineral matter to clear up the affecting mechanisms during combustion at elevated pressure. In the experiments parameter like the ambient gas and the ash composition, pressure and heating rate were varied. The experiments were conducted in DMT's high-temperature and high-pressure Thermogravimetric-Analyser (TGA) and the DMT Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustor (PFBC). TGA-Experiments: A model compounds for the alkali sodium chloride and for the mineral matter metakaoline were used. The chemical properties (basicity) of metakaoline was modified by adding CaO. The commonly accepted physical volatilization process of the alkali from the ash was not confirmed by TGA experiments. The alkali release must be regarded as a desorption mechanism of the sodium chloride from the metakaoline surface. The desorption of the alkali is not affected by chemical composition of the mineral matter but is strongly influenced by gas phase oxygen species and pressure. PFBC-Experiments: The rig was operated with a fluidised bed temperature of 920 C and a pressure of 7 bar. The online/in-situ alkali detection was based on the excimer laser induced fragmentation fluorescence ELIF. The alkali content of the coal was varied by addition of sodium acetate and sodium chloride. Kaoline was used as gettermaterial for mitigation of alkali emissions. Furthermore, the influence of limestone on the alkali release was investigated. Among other results, the experiments showed that the alkali emissions of the lignite are 50-100 times higher than those of the bituminous coal and if limestone for capturing SO{sub 2} is added to the combustor the alkali chloride emissions increase rapidly. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des o.g. Gemeinschaftsprojekts untersuchte die DMT die Freisetzung (und Einbindung) der Alkalien aus der Mineralsubstanz von Kohlen zur Aufklaerung der beeinflussenden Mechanismen bei der

  11. Bioenergy II. Biomass Valorisation by a Hybrid Thermochemical Fractionation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.J.; Den Uil, H.; Reith, J.H. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands); Lunshof, A.; Hendriks, C.; Van Eck, E. [Radboud University, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Heeres, E. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    The need for green renewable sources is adamant because of the adverse effects of the increasing use of fossil fuels on our society. Biomass has been considered as a very attractive candidate for green energy carriers, chemicals and materials. The development of cheap and efficient fractionation technology to separate biomass into its main constituents is highly desirable. It enables treatment of each constituent separately, using dedicated conversion technologies to get specific target chemicals. The synergistic combination of aquathermolysis (hot pressurised water treatment) and pyrolysis (thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen) is a promising thermolysis option, integrating fractionation of biomass with production of valuable chemicals. Batch aquathermolysis in an autoclave and subsequent pyrolysis using bubbling fluidised bed reactor technology with beech, poplar, spruce and straw indicate the potential of this hybrid concept to valorise lignocellulosic biomass. Hemicellulose-derived furfural was obtained in yields that ranged from 2 wt% for spruce to 8 wt% for straw. Hydroxymethylfurfural from hemicellulose was obtained in yields from 0.3 wt% for poplar to 3 wt% for spruce. Pyrolysis of the aquathermolised biomass types resulted in 8 wt% (straw) to 11 wt% (spruce) of cellulose-derived levoglucosan. Next to the furfurals and levoglucosan, appreciable amounts of acetic acid were obtained as well from the aquathermolysis step, ranging from 1 wt% for spruce to 5 wt% for straw. To elucidate relations between the chemical changes occurring in the biomass during the integrated process and type and amount of the chemical products formed, a 13C-solid state NMR study has been conducted. Main conclusions are that aquathermolysis results in hemicellulose degradation to lower molecular weight components. Lignin ether bonds are broken, but apart from that, lignin is hardly affected by the aquathermolysis. Cellulose is also retained, although it seems to become more

  12. Von Roll RCP method - first experiences; Von Roll RCP - Verfahren. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, P.; Engweiler, J. [Roll Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The RCP method was designed as a residue-optimised alternative to the thermally optimised grate firing of residual wastes. Its technical realisation and development to market maturity took no more than 5 years. In the first process stage the waste is converted to high-carbon pyrolysis charcoal and high-rank gas in the absence of oxygen. In the second stage these substances are oxidised by addition of oxygen. The resulting temperature causes the non-combustible constituents of the slag to melt. In a third, optional, stage this molten slag can be liberated of (heavy) metals to such an extent that it can subsequently be used directly as additive for grinding. Further exhaust gas treatment is facilitated by the use of a circulatory fluidised-bed secondary combustion chamber. Despite the reduced flue gas volume and resultant higher pollutant concentrations in the crude gas, overall emissions are lower than in conventional plants. [Deutsch] Das reststoffoptimierte RCP Verfahren ist als Alternative zur thermisch optimierten Rostverbrennung von Restabfaellen konzipiert. In nur fuenf Jahren wurde das Verfahren technisch umgesetzt und zur Marktreife entwickelt. In einer ersten Stufe des Verfahrens wird der Abfall unter Luftabschluss in einen kohlenstoffreichen Pyrolysekoks und eine heizwertreiches Gas umgesetzt. Im zweiten Schritt werden diese Stoffe unter Zugabe von Sauerstoff oxidiert. Dabei treten Temperaturen auf, bei denen die nichtbrennbaren Bestandteile der Schlacke schmelzen. Optional wird diese Schmelzschlacke in einem dritten Schritt derart von (Schwer-) Metallen befreit, dass sie anschliessend direkt als Zement-Zumahlstoff eingesetzt werden kann. Die Nutzung der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht - Nachbrennkammer zur Abgasbehandlung vereinfacht die weitergehende Abgasbehandlung. Trotz verringertem Rauchgasvolumen und damit hoeheren Schadstoffkonzentrationen im Rohgas werden die Gesamtemissionen gegenueber konventionellen Anlagen verringert. (orig./SR)

  13. Nitrous oxide from solid fuel combustion: contribution to national inventories in the UK, France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynes, G.; Hughes, I.S.C.; Sage, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable uncertainties exist over the extent and timing of any potential climate change as a result of increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These uncertainties result from inadequate knowledge and understanding of the natural mechanisms that control the chemistry, and hence lifetimes, of these gases in the atmosphere. An important aspect of the scientific investigation into potential climate change is the attempt to quantify the sources and sinks of the various greenhouse gases. This will enable the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to be placed in context with those from natural sources. The British Coal Corporation is co-ordinating a project funded by the EEC JOULE Programme to investigate the emissions of greenhouse gases from coal fired plant. This collaborative programme aims to establish the extent of greenhouse gas emissions, with particular emphasis on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from a wide range of coal burning appliances. An important aspect of the programm is to identify potential greenhouse-related problems with emerging clean-coal technologies, as well as retrofit pollution abatement technology, attributable to modifications to the combustion process. For example, the environmental benefits of fluidised bed combustion in reducing emissions of acidic gases are well proven. However, the lower combustion temperatures in such systems have been shown to promote greater emissions of N 2 O. The information from the various emissions assessments will be combined with a survey of coal use in the UK and the rest of Europe to establish an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  15. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  16. A novel approach using metabolomics coupled with hematological and biochemical parameters to explain the enriching-blood effect and mechanism of unprocessed Angelica sinensis and its 4 kinds of processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Wei, Yanming; Hua, Yongli; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yao, Wanling; Ma, Qi; Yuan, Ziwen; Wen, Yanqiao; Yang, Chaoxue

    2018-01-30

    Angelica sinensis (AS), root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, an important kind of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, has been used for women to enrich the blood for thousands of years. It is mainly distributed in Gansu province of China. According to Traditional Chinese medicine usage, unprocessed AS (UAS) and its 4 kinds of processed products (ASs) are all used to treat different diseases or syndromes. The difference among the enriching-blood effects of ASs is unclear. And their exact mechanisms of enriching the blood are not fully understood. In this study, our aim is to compare the enriching-blood effect and explain the related mechanism of ASs, to lay the foundation for the blood deficiency diagnosis and the rational use of ASs in the clinic. ASs were used to intervene the blood deficiency syndrome model mice induced by acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). A novel approach using metabolomics coupled with hematological and biochemical parameters to explain the enriching-blood effect and mechanism of ASs was established. The blood routine examination, ATPase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, methemoglobin, glutathion peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and erythropoietin were measured. Two biofluids (plasma and urine) obtained from mice were analyzed with GC-MS. Distinct changes in metabolite patterns of the two biofluids after mice were induced by APH and CTX, and mice were intervened with ASs were analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Potential biomarkers were found using a novel method including variable importance in the projection (VIP) >1.0, volcano plot analysis, and significance analysis of microarray. The results of hematological, biochemical parameters and the integrated metabolomics all showed the blood deficiency syndrome model was built successfully, ASs exhibited different degree of enriching-blood effect, and AS pached with alcohol (AAS) exhibited the best enriching-blood effect. 16 metabolites in

  17. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  18. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  19. Economics of coal-based electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, D F; Johnston, R; Teper, M

    1979-01-01

    The report deals with base-load electricity generation from coal and compares the economics of four alternative technologies: conventional pulverised-fuel (PF) boiler with steam cycle; atmospheric fluidised-bed (AFB) boiler with steam cycle; pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) boiler with combined cycle; and integrated air-blown coal gasification with combined cycle systems are compared for both a high sulphur (3.5%) coal with environmental regulations requiring 85% sulphur removal, and for a low sulphur coal without sulphur removal. The results indicate that there is no single clear 'winner' among the advanced technologies. The optimum system depends on coal price, required rate-of-return, sulphur content of the coal, taxation regime etc. (34 refs.) (Available from IEA Coal Research, Economic Assessment Service)

  20. State of the art and the future fuel portfolio of fluidized bed combustion systems; Status und kuenftiges Brennstoffportfolio bei Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szentannai, Pal; Friebert, Arpad; Winter, Franz [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrens-, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften

    2008-07-01

    Coal, biomass and substitute fuels energetically can be used efficiently and with low pollution in fluidized bed plants. In comparison to biomass there are significant differences between the circulating and stationary fluidized bed technology. The stationary fluidised bed is fed predominantly with biomasses and residual substances. Coal usually is the basis fuel in the circulating fluidised bed. Biomass and residual substances frequently are course-fired. The state of the art is the employment of a broad fuel mixture in small and large fluidized-bed combustion systems. Future developments present an increased use of sewage sludge, fluidized bed combustion systems with wood as a basis fuel, utilization of household waste and the gas production.

  1. Management of processes of electrochemical dimensional processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I. D.; Zakirova, A. R.; Sadykov, Z. B.

    2017-09-01

    In different industries a lot high-precision parts are produced from hard-processed scarce materials. Forming such details can only be acting during non-contact processing, or a minimum of effort, and doable by the use, for example, of electro-chemical processing. At the present stage of development of metal working processes are important management issues electrochemical machining and its automation. This article provides some indicators and factors of electrochemical machining process.

  2. Fluid-bed methane proposed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The first full scale plant for the production of methane from organic waste could be built in the next few years believes M.J. Nyns of the University of Louvain, Belgium, utilizing either expanded bed or fluidised bed systems, with more than one stage, in a continuous flow arrangement. Up to 8.0 m cubed gas/m cubed digester/day could be produced with residence times reduced to 34 hours.

  3. Treatment of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method of treating radioactive waste to substantially reduce the volume and which is especially useful in the treatment of material which includes radioactive halogens such as 131 I, is described. A fluidised bed incinerator and calciner are used to reduce all the liquid and combustible solid waste to anhydrous granular solids, all of which is carried by fluidizing gases into an off-gas system designed for their collection. (U.K.)

  4. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  5. BPMN process views construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yongchareon, S.; Liu, Chengfei; Zhao, X.; Kowalkiewicz, M.; Kitagawa, H.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Process view technology is catching more attentions in modern business process management, as it enables the customisation of business process representation. This capability helps improve the privacy protection, authority control, flexible display, etc., in business process modelling. One of

  6. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  7. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  8. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  9. Minimal and careful processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    In several standards, guidelines and publications, organic food processing is strongly associated with "minimal processing" and "careful processing". The term "minimal processing" is nowadays often used in the general food processing industry and described in literature. The term "careful processing" is used more specifically within organic food processing but is not yet clearly defined. The concept of carefulness seems to fit very well with the processing of organic foods, especially if it i...

  10. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and......In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points......, thus, can be used as a graphical exploratory tool for inspecting the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  11. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can......This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified...... be used as a diagnostic for assessing the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  12. A process insight repository supporting process optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Vetlugin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Existing solutions for analysis and optimization of manufacturing processes, such as online analysis processing or statistical calculations, have shortcomings that limit continuous process improvements. In particular, they lack means of storing and integrating the results of analysis. This makes the valuable information that can be used for process optimizations used only once and then disposed. The goal of the Advanced Manufacturing Analytics (AdMA) research project is to design an integrate...

  13. Process mining: making knowledge discovery process centric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Task Force on Process Mining released the Process Mining Manifesto. The manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active contributions from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing

  14. Business process model repositories : efficient process retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As organizations increasingly work in process-oriented manner, the number of business process models that they develop and have to maintain increases. As a consequence, it has become common for organizations to have collections of hundreds or even thousands of business process models. When a

  15. Comparative nontargeted profiling of metabolic changes in tissues and biofluids in high-fat diet-fed Ossabaw pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Barri, Thaer; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    to reveal metabolite groups for generating new hypotheses of obesity-related metabolic disturbances produced in an animal model. A large spectrum of metabolites in the semi-polar region, including small water soluble molecules like betaine and dihydroxyindole, and a wide range of bile acids as well...... as various lipid species were detected. The high fat diet influenced metabolic homeostasis of Ossabaw pigs, especially the lipid metabolome, throughout all the analyzed sample types, including plasma, urine, bile, liver, pancreas, brain cortex, intestinal jejunum and proximal colon. However, even dramatic...... and lipids, thus pointing to the pathways of metabolism affected by the dietary treatment....

  16. Targeted LC-MS/MS method for quantification of Plant Lignans and Enterolignans in Biofluids from Humans and Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Lignans have gained nutritional interest due to their promising role in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. However, epidemiological studies are in need of more evidence to link the intake of lignans to this promising role. In this context, it is necessary to study large population groups...... to obtain sufficient statistical power. Therefore, there is a demand for fast, sensitive, and accurate methods for quantitation with high throughput of samples. This paper presents a validated LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of eight plant lignans (matairesinol, hydroxymatairesinol...

  17. A label-free aptamer-fluorophore assembly for rapid and specific detection of cocaine in biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Daniel; Yu, Haixiang; Xu, Xiaowen; Wu, Shuo; Liu, Ran; Debord, Joshua; Lou, Xinhui; Xiao, Yi

    2014-11-18

    We report a rapid and specific aptamer-based method for one-step cocaine detection with minimal reagent requirements. The feasibility of aptamer-based detection has been demonstrated with sensors that operate via target-induced conformational change mechanisms, but these have generally exhibited limited target sensitivity. We have discovered that the cocaine-binding aptamer MNS-4.1 can also bind the fluorescent molecule 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine (ATMND) and thereby quench its fluorescence. We subsequently introduced sequence changes into MNS-4.1 to engineer a new cocaine-binding aptamer (38-GC) that exhibits higher affinity to both ligands, with reduced background signal and increased signal gain. Using this aptamer, we have developed a new sensor platform that relies on the cocaine-mediated displacement of ATMND from 38-GC as a result of competitive binding. We demonstrate that our sensor can detect cocaine within seconds at concentrations as low as 200 nM, which is 50-fold lower than existing assays based on target-induced conformational change. More importantly, our assay achieves successful cocaine detection in body fluids, with a limit of detection of 10.4, 18.4, and 36 μM in undiluted saliva, urine, and serum samples, respectively.

  18. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling of bile acid metabolites in biofluids: application to experimental toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Elizabeth J; Coen, Muireann; Masson, Perrine; Keun, Hector C; Pearce, Jake T M; Reily, Michael D; Robertson, Donald G; Rohde, Cynthia M; Holmes, Elaine; Lindon, John C; Plumb, Robert S; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2010-06-15

    We have developed an ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS(E)) method to measure bile acids (BAs) reproducibly and reliably in biological fluids and have applied this approach for indications of hepatic damage in experimental toxicity studies. BAs were extracted from serum using methanol, and an Acquity HSS column coupled to a Q-ToF mass spectrometer was used to separate and identify 25 individual BAs within 5 min. Employing a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile over 21 min enabled the detection of a wide range of endogenous metabolites, including the BAs. The utilization of MS(E) allowed for characteristic fragmentation information to be obtained in a single analytical run, easily distinguishing glycine and taurine BA conjugates. The proportions of these conjugates were altered markedly in an experimental toxic state induced by galactosamine exposure in rats. Principally, taurine-conjugated BAs were greatly elevated ( approximately 50-fold from control levels), and were highly correlated to liver damage severity as assessed by histopathological scoring (r = 0.83), indicating their potential as a sensitive measure of hepatic damage. The UPLC-MS approach to BA analysis offers a sensitive and reproducible tool that will be of great value in exploring both markers and mechanisms of hepatotoxicity and can readily be extended to clinical studies of liver damage.

  19. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  20. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  1. The permanent process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...

  2. Explosive processes in nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    There are many explosive processes in nucleosynthesis: big bang nucleosynthesis, the rp-process, the γ-process, the ν-process, and the r-process. However, I will discuss just the rp-process and the r-process in detail, primarily because both seem to have been very active research areas of late, and because they have great potential for studies with radioactive nuclear beams. I will also discuss briefly the γ-process because of its inevitability in conjunction with the rp-process. (orig.)

  3. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, process intensification (PI) has attracted considerable academic interest as a potential means for process improvement, to meet the increasing demands for sustainable production. A variety of intensified operations developed in academia and industry creates a large number...... of options to potentially improve the process but to identify the set of feasible solutions for PI in which the optimal can be found takes considerable resources. Hence, a process synthesis tool to achieve PI would potentially assist in the generation and evaluation of PI options. Currently, several process...... design tools with a clear focus on specific PI tasks exist. Therefore, in this paper, the concept of a general systematic framework for synthesis and design of PI options in hierarchical steps through analyzing an existing process, generating PI options in a superstructure and evaluating intensified...

  4. Mining processes in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.S.; Reijers, H.A.; van Genuchten, M.; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry,

  5. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  6. Business Process Customization using Process Merging Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, Pavel; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    One of the important application of service composition techniques lies in the field of business process management. Essentially a business process can be considered as a composition of services, which is usually prepared by domain experts, and many tasks still have to be performed manually. These

  7. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the

  8. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  9. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  10. Fractional Poisson process (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Wen Zhixiong; Zhang Shiying

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic process W H (t)(H-bar (12,1)) which we call fractional Poisson process. The process W H (t) is self-similar in wide sense, displays long range dependence, and has more fatter tail than Gaussian process. In addition, it converges to fractional Brownian motion in distribution

  11. Genetic process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Alves De Medeiros, A.K.; Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Ciardo, G.; Darondeau, P.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of process mining has attracted the attention of both researchers and tool vendors in the Business Process Management (BPM) space. The goal of process mining is to discover process models from event logs, i.e., events logged by some information system are used to extract information about

  12. Business process quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, H.A.; Mendling, J.; Recker, J.; Brocke, vom J.; Rosemann, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Process modeling is a central element in any approach to Business Process Management (BPM). However, what hinders both practitioners and aca demics is the lack of support for assessing the quality of process models — let alone realizing high quality process models. Existing frameworks are

  13. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  14. Exploring processes and deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, S.J.J.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Fournier, F.; Mendling, J.

    2015-01-01

    In process mining, one of the main challenges is to discover a process model, while balancing several quality criteria. This often requires repeatedly setting parameters, discovering a map and evaluating it, which we refer to as process exploration. Commercial process mining tools like Disco,

  15. Distributed genetic process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratosin, C.C.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining aims at discovering process models from data logs in order to offer insight into the real use of information systems. Most of the existing process mining algorithms fail to discover complex constructs or have problems dealing with noise and infrequent behavior. The genetic process

  16. Dosimetry and process control for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Accurate radiation dosimetry can provide quality assurance in radiation processing. Considerable relevant experiences in dosimetry by the SSDL-MINT has necessitate the development of methods making measurement at gamma plant traceable to the national standard. It involves the establishment of proper calibration procedure and selection of appropriate transfer system/technique to assure adequate traceability to a primary radiation standard. The effort forms the basis for irradiation process control, the legal approval of the process by the public health authorities (medical product sterilization and food preservation) and the safety and acceptance of the product

  17. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  18. A Campbell random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Campbell process is a stationary random process which can have various correlation functions, according to the choice of an elementary response function. The statistical properties of this process are presented. A numerical algorithm and a subroutine for generating such a process is built up and tested, for the physically interesting case of a Campbell process with Gaussian correlations. The (non-Gaussian) probability distribution appears to be similar to the Gamma distribution

  19. Business process transformation the process tangram framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a framework through transformation and explains  how business goals can be translated into realistic plans that are tangible and yield real results in terms of the top line and the bottom line. Process Transformation is like a tangram puzzle, which has multiple solutions yet is essentially composed of seven 'tans' that hold it together. Based on practical experience and intensive research into existing material, 'Process Tangram' is a simple yet powerful framework that proposes Process Transformation as a program. The seven 'tans' are: the transformation program itself, triggers, goals, tools and techniques, culture, communication and success factors. With its segregation into tans and division into core elements, this framework makes it possible to use 'pick and choose' to quickly and easily map an organization's specific requirements. Change management and process modeling are covered in detail. In addition, the book approaches managed services as a model of service delivery, which it ex...

  20. Application of coal combustion residues to the stabilization/solidification of industrial wastes (IRIS); Desarrollo de un Proceso, a Escala Piloto de Inertizacion de Residuos Industriales con Cenizas Volantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes, also called inertization processes, are a group of techniques which employ additives to reduce the mobility of the hazardous components from the waste and make possible for the residue to be accepted for its disposal in a safe way. These processes, mainly applied to wastes that contain heavy metals (such as lead, zinc, cadminum, mercury, copper, nickel, titanium, chromium-III, chromium-VI, arsenic,....) change the waste into a solid-like material in which the metals are trapped (nets and matrix) by physical or chemical links. The IRIS Project, carried out by AICIA through the ECSC Coal Programme with the participation of two industrial partners (Sevillana de Electricidad and EGMASA, a public-owned company for waste treatment), has developed, at pilot scale, a new S/S process for inorganic industrial wastes that uses great quantities of fly ash in the place of other more commonly used and expansive reagents. A pilot plant for 200 kg/h has been designed, built and operated. This facility has allowed to add improvements and scientific foundations to existing S/S technology. It has also allowed to obtain industrial scale parameters for fixed and portable plants. Experiencie have been mainly carried out using fly ash from high quality coals, but types of ash have been tested coming from coals with a greater calcium content, from fluidised bed combustion boilers and from desulphurisation processes, giving very suitable characteristics for their application to S/S processes. The addition of fly ash (up to 30%) in the IRIS process improves the results in comparison with the S/S processes that use only cement, because the final pH obtained (8-11) does not allow amphoteric metallic ions to escape in the leachate. The same as other S/S processes, IRIS can be applied also to wastes that contain certain metals (chromium-VI, arsenic, for example) with specific pre-treatments (redox, for example). The efficiency of the IRIS treatment

  1. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  2. Honing process optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrov, Ramil R.; Charikov, Pavel N.; Pryanichnikova, Valeria V.

    2018-03-01

    This article considers the relevance of honing processes for creating high-quality mechanical engineering products. The features of the honing process are revealed and such important concepts as the task for optimization of honing operations, the optimal structure of the honing working cycles, stepped and stepless honing cycles, simulation of processing and its purpose are emphasized. It is noted that the reliability of the mathematical model determines the quality parameters of the honing process control. An algorithm for continuous control of the honing process is proposed. The process model reliably describes the machining of a workpiece in a sufficiently wide area and can be used to operate the CNC machine CC743.

  3. Defense waste processing facility precipitate hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, J.P.; Eibling, R.E.; Marek, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate are used to assist in the concentration of soluble radionuclide in the Savannah River Plant's high-level waste. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility, concentrated tetraphenylborate/sodium titanate slurry containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and traces of plutonium from the waste tank farm is hydrolyzed in the Salt Processing Cell forming organic and aqueous phases. The two phases are then separated and the organic phase is decontaminated for incineration outside the DWPF building. The aqueous phase, containing the radionuclides and less than 10% of the original organic, is blended with the insoluble radionuclides in the high-level waste sludge and is fed to the glass melter for vitrification into borosilicate glass. During the Savannah River Laboratory's development of this process, copper (II) was found to act as a catalyst during the hydrolysis reactions, which improved the organic removal and simplified the design of the reactor

  4. The Diazo Copying Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterby, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Described is an activity which demonstrates an organic-based reprographic method that is used extensively for the duplication of microfilm and engineering drawings. Discussed are the chemistry of the process and how to demonstrate the process for students. (CW)

  5. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  6. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  7. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  8. Business Process Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...

  9. Process evaluation distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  10. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  11. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  12. Improving Healthcare Logistics Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes

    logistics processes in hospitals and aims to provide theoretically and empirically based evidence for improving these processes to both expand the knowledge base of healthcare logistics and provide a decision tool for hospital logistics managers to improve their processes. Case studies were conducted...... processes. Furthermore, a method for benchmarking healthcare logistics processes was developed. Finally, a theoretically and empirically founded framework was developed to support managers in making an informed decision on how to improve healthcare logistics processes. This study contributes to the limited...... literature concerned with the improvement of logistics processes in hospitals. Furthermore, the developed framework provides guidance for logistics managers in hospitals on how to improve their processes given the circumstances in which they operate....

  13. Flavor changing lepton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  14. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process models....... The process innovation laboratory facilitates innovation by using an integrated action learning approach to process modelling in a controlled environment. The study is based on design science and the paper also discusses the implications to EIS research and practice......Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...

  15. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...

  16. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  17. Flue Gas Desulphurization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Halhouli, K.A.; Abu-Ashur, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization process are discussed. These processes can be grouped into non-regenerable systems and regenerable systems. The non-regenerable systems produce a product which is either disposed of as waste or sold as a by-product e.g. lime/limestone process. While in the regenerable systems, e.g. Wellman-Lord process, the SO 2 is regenerated from the sorbent(sodium sulphite), which is returned to absorb more SO 2 . Also a newer technology for flue gas desulphurization is discussed. The Ispra process uses bromine as oxidant, producing HBr, from which bromine is regenerated by electrolysis. The only by-products of this process are sulphuric acid and hydrogen, which are both valuable products, and no waste products are produced. Suggested modifications on the process are made based on experimental investigations to improve the efficiency of the process and to reduce its costs

  18. Chemical radwaste solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Some of these processes and their problems are briefly reviewed: early cement systems; urea-formaldehyde; Dow solidification process; low-viscosity chemical agents (POLYPAC); and water-extensible polyester. 9 refs

  19. The plasma hearth process: Process residuals characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Hassel, G.; Wolfe, P.; Carney, K.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature waste treatment process being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Department of Energy (DOE) that destroys hazardous organics while stabilizing radionuclides and hazardous metals in a vitreous slag waste form. The PHP has potential application for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is conducting a three phase development project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex

  20. Process and device for processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for processing liquid radioactive wastes. It includes the heating of the liquid wastes so that the contained liquids are evaporated and a practically anhydrous mass of solid particles inferior in volume to that of the wastes introduced is formed, then the transformation of the solid particles into a monolithic structure. This transformation includes the compressing of the particles and sintering or fusion. The solidifying agent is a mixture of polyethylene and paraffin wax or a styrene copolymer and a polyester resin. The device used for processing the radioactive liquid wastes is also described [fr

  1. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  2. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  3. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  4. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  5. Generating process model collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Business process management plays an important role in the management of organizations. More and more organizations describe their operations as business processes. It is common for organizations to have collections of thousands of business processes, but for reasons of confidentiality these

  6. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  7. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  8. How yogurt is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  9. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health...

  10. Process research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    The following major processes involved in the production of crystalline-silicon solar cells were discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and assembly. The status of each of these processes, and the sequence in which these processes are applied, were described as they were in 1975, as they were in 1985, and what they might be in the future.

  11. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  12. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  13. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  14. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  15. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  16. Nonaqueous processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, M.S.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    A high-temperature process utilizing molten salt extraction from molten metal alloys has been developed for purification of spent power reactor fuels. Experiments with laboratory-scale processing operations show that purification and throughput parameters comparable to the Barnwell Purex process can be achieved by pyrochemical processing in equipment one-tenth the size, with all wastes being discharged as stable metal alloys at greatly reduced volume and disposal cost. This basic technology can be developed for large-scale processing of spent reactor fuels. 13 references, 4 figures

  17. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  18. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  19. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  20. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  1. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J Y; Kim, Y S [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K K; Yang, M S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  2. The SILVA atomic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1997-01-01

    The SILVA laser isotope separation process is based on the laser selective photo-ionization of uranium atomic vapour; the process is presently under development by CEA and COGEMA in France, with the aim to reduce by a factor three the cost of uranium enrichment. The two main components of a SILVA process plant are the lasers (copper vapour lasers and dye lasers) and the separator for the vaporization (with a high energy electron beam), ionization and separation operations. Researches on the SILVA process started in 1985 and the technical and economical feasibility is to be demonstrated in 1997. The progresses of similar rival processes and other processes are discussed and the remaining research stages and themes of the SILVA program are presented

  3. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...... in infrastructure implementation projects. The purpose of this paper is articulate a need and a direction to medi- ate between the process-driven and the technology-driven approaches. Using a cross-case analysis, we gain insight into two examples of sys- tems and process implementation. We highlight the dierences...... between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process...

  4. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  5. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  6. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  7. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  8. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  9. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  10. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  11. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  12. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  13. Scientific information processing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.

  14. Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. To keep the decision-making process economically viable and timely, the process as known today still needs to be improved, and new tools need to be developed....... This paper presents a new scheme: the integrated renovation process. One successful case study is introduced, and recommendations for future developments needed in the field are provided....

  15. Transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample

  16. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  17. Refractometry in process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepscher, H

    1980-02-01

    Following a brief historical introduction into general refractometry, the limiting angle refractometer is dealt with in the first section and the differential refractometer in the second section, as well as process engineering information on this measuring method being given. An attempt is made with an extensive close-to-practice description to introduce the planner and technician to this physical measuring method in process engineering in order that they be able to use it themselves if necessary. When properly applied, it can be a valuable help to process control in compliance with process automization.

  18. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  19. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process....... Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...

  20. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...

  1. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  2. Quantum information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leuchs, Gerd; Beth, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SimulationofHamiltonians... References... 1 1 1 3 5 8 10 2 Quantum Information Processing and Error Correction with Jump Codes (G. Alber, M. Mussinger...

  3. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  4. Accurate Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Bone Models with Porous Scaffold Structures by Using Stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu

    2011-01-01

    Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.

  5. Accurate Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Bone Models with Porous Scaffold Structures by Using Stereolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu, E-mail: c-maeda@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki City, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.

  6. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  7. Processer og procesledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Benedicte

    Bogen udfolder, nuancerer og konkretiserer procesledelse ift. mentale, relationelle og organisatoriske processer. Eksempler på kapitel-overskrifter: Procesbegrebet, Rammesætning, Kontraktredskabet, Mødeledelse, Samtaler, Reflekterende positioner og processer, Konflikthåndtering og teamudvikling......, Invitation til det dialogiske rum - om at arbejde over og under stregen, og Mentale omstruktureringer....

  8. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  9. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  10. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  11. Valuing the Accreditation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The value of the National Association for Developmental Education (NADE) accreditation process is far-reaching. Not only do students and programs benefit from the process, but also the entire institution. Through data collection of student performance, analysis, and resulting action plans, faculty and administrators can work cohesively towards…

  12. CMOS/SOS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondetta, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes processes used in making complementary - metal - oxide - semiconductor/silicon-on-sapphire (CMOS/SOS) integrated circuits. Report lists processing steps ranging from initial preparation of sapphire wafers to final mapping of "good" and "bad" circuits on a wafer.

  13. Management oriented process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ANAV decided to implement process-oriented management by adopting the U. S. NEI (Nuclear Electric Industry) model. The article describes the initial phases of the project, its current status and future prospects. The project has been considered as an improvement in the areas of organization and human factors. Recently, IAEA standard drafts are including processes as an accepted management model. (Author)

  14. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  15. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  16. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  17. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  18. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  19. Process energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, V.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 2 process energy cost analysis for chemical processing is treated in a general way, independent of the specific form of energy and power production. Especially, energy data collection and data treatment, energy accounting (metering, balance setting), specific energy input, and utility energy costs and prices are discussed. (R.P.) 14 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs

  20. Continuous affine processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Affine processes possess the property that expectations of exponential affine transformations are given by a set of Riccati differential equations, which is the main feature of this popular class of processes. In this paper we generalise these results for expectations of more general transformati...

  1. Food-Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2017-10-01

    Literature published in 2016 and early 2017 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  2. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Business process intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, M.; Alves De Medeiros, A.K.; Mendling, J.; Weber, B.; Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Cardoso, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Business Process Intelligence (BPI,) is an emerging area that is getting increasingly popularfor enterprises. The need to improve business process efficiency, to react quickly to changes and to meet regulatory compliance is among the main drivers for BPI. BPI refers to the application of Business

  4. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  5. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  6. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  7. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  8. Production process of VE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This book tells of synopsis of production process of VE(value engineering), object selection method and establishment of target, collection of object information, design of function, write improvement suggestion, evaluation of improvement suggestion, all sorts of worksheets of production process of VE, explanation of IE, explanation of PERT.

  9. Perspectives on Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garud, R.; Tuertscher, P.R.; Van de Ven, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Innovation is often thought of as an outcome. In this chapter, we review the literatures on innovation processes pertaining to the invention, development, and implementation of ideas. In particular, we explore how these processes unfold within firms, across multi-party networks, and within

  10. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  11. Methods of information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosarev, Yu G; Gusev, V D

    1978-01-01

    Works are presented on automation systems for editing and publishing operations by methods of processing symbol information and information contained in training selection (ranking of objectives by promise, classification algorithm of tones and noise). The book will be of interest to specialists in the automation of processing textural information, programming, and pattern recognition.

  12. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, M.; Winchell, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical

  13. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  14. Microcontroller base process emulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jovrea Titus Claudiu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a microcontroller base emulator for a conventional industrial process. The emulator is made with microcontroller and is used for testing and evaluating the performances of the industrial regulators. The parameters of the emulated process are fully customizable online and downloadable thru a serial communication from a personal computer.

  15. Cementation process study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.H.; Han, K.W.; Ahn, S.J.; Choi, K.S.; Lee, M.W.; Ryu, Y.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the cementation process study, in 1984, design of the waste treatment simulator was finished for the first step. We can experience not only the operation of solidification system but the design and construction of comming large scale plant through the design of cementation process. (Author)

  16. Monitoring of operating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for monitoring the processes of a nuclear reactor to detect off-normal operation of any process and for testing the monitoring apparatus. The processes are evaluated by response to their paramters, such as temperature, pressure, etc. The apparatus includes a pair of monitoring paths or signal processing units. Each unit includes facilities for receiving on a time-sharing basis, a status binary word made up of digits each indicating the status of a process, whether normal or off-normal, and test-signal binary words simulating the status binary words. The status words and test words are processed in succession during successive cycles. During each cycle, the two units receive the same status word and the same test word. The test words simulate the status words both when they indicate normal operation and when they indicate off-normal operation. Each signal-processing unit includes a pair of memories. Each memory receives a status word or a test word, as the case may be, and converts the received word into a converted status word or a converted test word. The memories of each monitoring unit operate into a non-coincidence which signals non-coincidence of the converted word out of one memory of a signal-processing unit not identical to the converted word of the other memory of the same unit

  17. Teaching the Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, John

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines some cognitive process models of writing composition. Possible reasons why students' writing capabilities do not match their abilities in some other school subjects are explored. Research findings on the efficacy of process approaches to teaching writing are presented and potential shortcomings are discussed. Product-based…

  18. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  19. Nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Hohn, H.; Schad, M.; Schwarz, D.; Singh, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a system for the application of high temperature heat from the HTR one must distinguish between the current generation and the use of process heat. In this respect it is important that the current can be generated by dual purpose power plants. The process heat is used as sensible heat, vaporisation heat and as chemical energy at the chemical conversion for the conversion of raw materials, the refinement of fossil primary energy carriers and finally circuit processes for the fission of water. These processes supply the market for heat, fuels, motor fuels and basic materials. Fifteen examples of HTR heat processes from various projects and programmes are presented in form of energy balances, however in a rather short way. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  1. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Zhang Shiying; Fan Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W H (j) (t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W H (j) (t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function λ(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W H (j) (t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W H (j) (t)

  2. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, which are measured in the aeration tanks of the biological nutrient removal system. The alternatign operation modes of the BIO-DENITRO and BIO-DENIPHO processes are of particular interest. Time series models of the hydraulic and biological processes are very......-known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...

  3. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  4. Integrated biofuels process synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Second and third generation bioethanol and biodiesel are more environmentally friendly fuels than gasoline and petrodiesel, andmore sustainable than first generation biofuels. However, their production processes are more complex and more expensive. In this chapter, we describe a two-stage synthesis......% used for bioethanol process), and steam and electricity from combustion (54%used as electricity) in the bioethanol and biodiesel processes. In the second stage, we saved about 5% in equipment costs and 12% in utility costs for bioethanol separation. This dual synthesis methodology, consisting of a top......-level screening task followed by a down-level intensification task, proved to be an efficient methodology for integrated biofuel process synthesis. The case study illustrates and provides important insights into the optimal synthesis and intensification of biofuel production processes with the proposed synthesis...

  5. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... the complete software process lifecycle, from the initial definition of a product to its systematic improvement. In doing so, it addresses difficult problems, such as how to implement processes in highly regulated domains or where to find a suitable notation system for documenting processes, and provides...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...

  6. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  7. Business process support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  8. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  9. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M [ed.

    1999-12-31

    expenditure of FIM 227 million have resulted in individual valuable results in abundance. Based on these results conclusions have been made and new understanding of the combustion process has been obtained. One example of tangible results is the elucidation of the mechanisms governing the formation of nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Much effort was invested in this topic because of the threats it presented to the Finnish fluidised bed technology. The control of this emission is no longer considered a problem

  10. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    expenditure of FIM 227 million have resulted in individual valuable results in abundance. Based on these results conclusions have been made and new understanding of the combustion process has been obtained. One example of tangible results is the elucidation of the mechanisms governing the formation of nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Much effort was invested in this topic because of the threats it presented to the Finnish fluidised bed technology. The control of this emission is no longer considered a problem

  11. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  12. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  13. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  14. Organic waste incineration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P. [CEA Valrho, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and {alpha}-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  15. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  16. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...

  17. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  18. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  19. Semi-Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabski

    2014-01-01

    Semi-Markov Processes: Applications in System Reliability and Maintenance is a modern view of discrete state space and continuous time semi-Markov processes and their applications in reliability and maintenance. The book explains how to construct semi-Markov models and discusses the different reliability parameters and characteristics that can be obtained from those models. The book is a useful resource for mathematicians, engineering practitioners, and PhD and MSc students who want to understand the basic concepts and results of semi-Markov process theory. Clearly defines the properties and

  20. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  1. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  2. DWPF process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendoin, F.M. II

    1983-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is in the final design stage. Instrumentation to provide the parameter sensing required to assure the quality of the two-foot-diameter, ten-foot-high waste canister is in the final stage of development. All step of the process and instrumentation are now operating as nearly full-scale prototypes at SRP. Quality will be maintained by assuring that only the intended material enters the canisters, and by sensing the resultant condition of the filled canisters. Primary emphasis will be on instrumentation of the process

  3. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  4. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  5. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  6. Nano integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-01

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  7. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....

  8. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  9. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  10. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  11. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  12. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  13. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  14. Iron-based materials as tar cracking catalyst in waste gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgreen, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sweden has changed during the past decades due to national legislation and European Union directives. The former landfills have more or less been abandoned in favour of material recycling and waste incineration. On a yearly basis approximately 2.2 million tonnes waste are incinerated in Sweden with heat recovery and to some extent also with electricity generation, though at a low efficiency. It is desirable to alter this utilisation and instead employ MSW as fuel in a fluid bed gasification process. Then electrical energy may be produced at a much higher efficiency. However, MSW contain about 1 % chlorine in the form of ordinary table salt (NaCl) from food scraps. This implies that the tar cracking catalyst, dolomite, which is normally employed in gasification, will suffer from poisoning if applied under such conditions. Then the tar cracking capacity will be reduced or vanish completely with time. Consequently, an alternative catalyst, more resistant to chlorine, is needed. Preliminary research at KTH has indicated that iron in its metallic state may possess tar cracking ability. With this information at hand and participating in the project 'Energy from Waste' an experimental campaign was launched. Numerous experiments were conducted using iron as tar cracking catalyst. First iron sinter pellets from LKAB were employed. They were reduced in situ with a stream of hydrogen before they were applied. Later iron-based granules from Hoeganaes AB were tested. These materials were delivered in the metallic state. In all tests the KTH atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier with a secondary catalytic reactor housing the catalytic material was deployed. Mostly, the applied fuel was birch. The results show that metallic iron possesses an intrinsic ability, almost in the range of dolomite, to crack tars. Calculations indicate that iron may be more resistant to chlorine than dolomite. The exploration of metallic iron

  15. The SILVA atomic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1996-01-01

    The SILVA isotopic laser separation process of atomic uranium vapor requires the use of specific high power visible light laser devices and systems for uranium evaporation and management (separation modules). The CEA, in collaboration with industrialists, has developed these components and built some demonstration plants. The scientific and technological challenges raised by this process are now surmounted. The principle of the SILVA process is the selective photo-ionization of uranium isotopes using laser photon beams tuned to the exact excitation frequency of the isotope electron layers. This paper describes the principle of the SILVA process (lasers and separator), the technical feasibility and actual progress of the program and its future steps, its economical stakes, and the results obtained so far. (J.S.). 2 figs., 2 photos

  16. Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Widrow, Bernard; Eliashberg, Victor; Kamenetsky, Max

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving...

  17. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  18. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  19. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  20. Essentials of stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Building upon the previous editions, this textbook is a first course in stochastic processes taken by undergraduate and graduate students (MS and PhD students from math, statistics, economics, computer science, engineering, and finance departments) who have had a course in probability theory. It covers Markov chains in discrete and continuous time, Poisson processes, renewal processes, martingales, and option pricing. One can only learn a subject by seeing it in action, so there are a large number of examples and more than 300 carefully chosen exercises to deepen the reader’s understanding. Drawing from teaching experience and student feedback, there are many new examples and problems with solutions that use TI-83 to eliminate the tedious details of solving linear equations by hand, and the collection of exercises is much improved, with many more biological examples. Originally included in previous editions, material too advanced for this first course in stochastic processes has been eliminated while treatm...