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Sample records for bioencapsulated coagulation factor

  1. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coagulation Factors Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Coagulation factor testing is performed to determine if a ...

  2. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Bhopale; R K Nanda

    2003-12-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the clinician should be interested.

  3. Coagulation factor Xa signaling : the link between coagulation and inflammatory bowel disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by activation of the coagulation cascade and it has long been suspected that coagulation is an essential component of this still largely idiopathic group of diseases. The realization that coagulation factors are not only passive mediators in the prop

  4. Coagulation factor VIII activity in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermina Babić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To examine coagulation factor VIII activity in plasma, as a risk factor for thrombosis, in the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Also, to assess its relationship with ibrinogen and fasting blood glucose concentrations and with body mass index. Methods The plasma coagulation factor VIII activity, plasma levels of ibrinogen and blood glucose concentrations were measured in 30 patients with DM type 1, 30 patients with DM type 2 and in 30 healthy subjects. Body weight and body height were also measured and BMI was calculated.Results The plasma factor VIII activity in patients with DM type 1 and patients with DM type 2 was signiicantly higher than the values measured in healthy subjects. There was no signiicant difference in the factor VIII activity between patients with DM type 1 and type 2. The concentrations of ibrinogen and blood glucose in both groups of patients were signiicantly higher than in the group of healthy subjects. Patients with DM type 2 had a signiicantly higher BMI compared to healthy subjects, as well as compared to patients with DM type 1. There was a signiicant positive correlation between plasma factor VIII activity and plasma level of ibrinogen and a signiicant negative correlation between factor VIII activity and BMI in patients with DM type 2. Conclusion Diabetic patients have the elevated plasma coagulation factor VIII activity and increased ibrinogen concentration thus an increased risk of thrombosis and vascular diseases.

  5. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  6. Tissue regenerating functions of coagulation factor XIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, C; Kvist, P H; Seidelin, J B;

    2013-01-01

    The protransglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) has recently gained interest within the field of tissue regeneration, as it has been found that FXIII significantly influences wound healing by exerting a multitude of functions. It supports haemostasis by enhancing platelet adhesion to damaged......-receptor 2 and the αVβ3 integrin is important for angiogenesis supporting formation of granulation tissue. Chronic inflammatory conditions involving bleeding and activation of the coagulation cascade have been shown to lead to reduced FXIII levels in plasma. Of particular importance for this review...

  7. A loop of coagulation factor VIIa influencing macromolecular substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Persson, Egon; Rasmussen, Hanne B;

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) belongs to a family of proteases being part of the stepwise, self-amplifying blood coagulation cascade. To investigate the impact of the mutation Met(298{156})Lys in FVIIa, we replaced the Gly(283{140})-Met(298{156}) loop with the corresponding loop of factor Xa....../Met(298{156})Lys-FVIIa with almost the same activity and specificity profile. We conclude that a lysine residue in position 298{156} of FVIIa requires a hydrophilic environment to be fully accommodated. This position appears critical for substrate specificity among the proteases of the blood coagulation...

  8. Molecular and structural advances in tissue factor-dependent coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhofer, D; Banner, D W

    1997-11-01

    The tissue factor:factor VIIa (TF-F.VIIa) complex is considered the physiological initiator of blood coagulation. Besides its role in normal hemostasis, this enzyme complex has been found to play an important role in various thrombotic disorders and thus has become an attractive target for the development of new anticoagulants. Recently, significant progress has been made in regard to structural and molecular aspects of TF-VIIa-initiated coagulation. A rather complete picture on how tissue factor binds to factor VIIa has emerged and is discussed in detail in this review. Also, the combined data of the TF-F.VIIa crystal structure, of naturally occurring F.VII variants, and of mutagenesis studies provide a framework to discuss molecular aspects of the tissue factor-mediated enhancement of F.VIIa catalytic efficiency and the recognition of macromolecular substrates. F.VIIa as a member of the serine protease family has an active site homologous to other coagulation factors. The release of the coordinates of the crystal structures of F.X and F.IX, together with the earlier determined thrombin structure, now allows a detailed comparison of these active centers with respect to the development of specific and potent active site inhibitors. This structural and molecular information about the TF-F.VIIa complex and other coagulation enzymes adds to our understanding of blood coagulation and should further the development of new classes of anticoagulants. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:316-324). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Functional regions in coagulation factor VIII explored by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, E.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the function of factor VIII (FVIII) have remained poorly understood. FVIII acts in the blood coagulation cascade as cofactor for activated factor IX (FIXa) in the membrane bound activated factor X generating (FXase) complex. A functional absence in FVIII leads to the

  10. Purification of coagulation factor VIII by immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Estela S; Verinaud, Claudia I; Oliveira, Douglas S; Raw, Isaías; Lopes, Alexandre P Y; Martins, Elizabeth A L; Cheng, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) is a glycoprotein that plays an essential role in blood coagulation cascade. Purification of plasma-derived coagulation FVIII by direct application of plasma to a chromatographic column is a method of choice. Anion exchange column is a very powerful method because FVIII is strongly adsorbed, resulting in good activity recovery and high purification factor. However, vitamin-K-dependent coagulation factors coelute with FVIII. In the present study, we report the separation of vitamin-K-dependent coagulation proteins from FVIII using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Cu(2+) as the metal ligand. Plasma was directly loaded to a Q Sepharose Big Beads column, and FVIII was recovered with 65% activity and a purification factor of approximately 50 times. Then, the Q Sepharose eluate was applied to the IMAC-Cu(2+) column, and FVIII was eluted with 200 mM imidazole, with up to 85% recovery of activity. The mass recovery in this fraction was less than 10% of the applied mass of protein. Vitamin-K-dependent proteins elute with imidazole concentrations of lower than 60 mM. Because of the difference in affinity, FVIII could be completely separated from the vitamin-K-dependent proteins in the IMAC column.

  11. Blood coagulation factor Xa as an emerging drug target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Borensztajn; C.A. Spek

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Factor (F) Xa is well-known as an important player in the coagulation cascade responsible for thrombin generation. More recently, FXa emerged as an essential player in cell biology via activation of proteaseactivated receptors (PAR)-1 and -2. This pleiotropic role of FXa forms the basi

  12. Allosteric activation of coagulation factor VIIa visualized by hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Jørgensen, Thomas; Olsen, Ole H;

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a serine protease that, after binding to tissue factor (TF), plays a pivotal role in the initiation of blood coagulation. We used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to visualize the details of FVIIa activation by comparing the exchange kinetics...... tissue factor binding, FVIIa undergoes dramatic structural stabilization as indicated by decreased exchange rates localized throughout the protease domain and in distant parts of the light chain, spanning across 50A and revealing a concerted interplay between functional sites in FVIIa. The results...... of distinct molecular states, namely zymogen FVII, endoproteolytically cleaved FVIIa, TF-bound zymogen FVII, TF-bound FVIIa, and FVIIa in complex with an active site inhibitor. The hydrogen exchange kinetics of zymogen FVII and FVIIa are identical indicating highly similar solution structures. However, upon...

  13. Characterization of coagulation factor synthesis in nine human primary cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty, Monireh; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Spek, C. Arnold; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    The coagulation/fibrinolysis system is essential for wound healing after vascular injury. According to the standard paradigm, the synthesis of most coagulation factors is restricted to liver, platelets and endothelium. We challenged this interpretation by measuring coagulation factors in nine human

  14. Coagulation profile, gene expression and bioinformatics characterization of coagulation factor X of striped murrel Channa striatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, Abirami; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2016-08-01

    A transcriptome wide analysis of the constructed cDNA library of snakehead murrel Channa striatus revealed a full length cDNA sequence of coagulation factor X. Sequence analysis of C. striatus coagulation factor X (CsFX) showed that the cDNA contained 1232 base pairs (bp) comprising 1209 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF region encodes 424 amino acids with a molecular mass of 59 kDa. The polypeptide contains γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) rich domain and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) like domains including EGF-CA domain and serine proteases trypsin signature profile. CsFX exhibited the maximum similarity with fish species such as Stegastes partitus (78%), Poecilia formosa (76%) and Cynoglossus semilaevis (74%). Phylogenetically, CsFX is clustered together with the fish group belonging to Actinopterygii. Secondary structure of factor X includes alpha helix 28.54%, extended strand 20.75%, beta turn 7.78% and random coil 42.92%. A predicted 3D model of CsFX revealed a short α-helix and a Ca(2+) (Gla domain) binding site in the coil. Four disulfide bridges were found in serine protease trypsin profile. Obviously, the highest gene expression (P < 0.05) was noticed in blood. Further, the changes in expression of CsFX was observed after inducing with bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) and fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) infections and other synthetic immune stimulants. Variation in blood clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated prothromboplastin time (APTT) was analyzed and compared between healthy and bacterial infected fishes. During infection, PT and APTT showed a declined clotting time due to the raised level of thrombocytes.

  15. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  16. Suppression of inhibitor formation against FVIII in a murine model of hemophilia A by oral delivery of antigens bioencapsulated in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alexandra; Su, Jin; Lin, Shina; Wang, Xiaomei; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2014-09-04

    Hemophilia A is the X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). To address serious complications of inhibitory antibody formation in current replacement therapy, we created tobacco transplastomic lines expressing FVIII antigens, heavy chain (HC) and C2, fused with the transmucosal carrier, cholera toxin B subunit. Cholera toxin B-HC and cholera toxin B-C2 fusion proteins expressed up to 80 or 370 µg/g in fresh leaves, assembled into pentameric forms, and bound to GM1 receptors. Protection of FVIII antigen through bioencapsulation in plant cells and oral delivery to the gut immune system was confirmed by immunostaining. Feeding of HC/C2 mixture substantially suppressed T helper cell responses and inhibitor formation against FVIII in mice of 2 different strain backgrounds with hemophilia A. Prolonged oral delivery was required to control inhibitor formation long-term. Substantial reduction of inhibitor titers in preimmune mice demonstrated that the protocol could also reverse inhibitor formation. Gene expression and flow cytometry analyses showed upregulation of immune suppressive cytokines (transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10). Adoptive transfer experiments confirmed an active suppression mechanism and revealed induction of CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells that potently suppressed anti-FVIII formation. In sum, these data support plant cell-based oral tolerance for suppression of inhibitor formation against FVIII.

  17. Measurement of Blood Coagulation Factor Synthesis in Cultures of Human Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Stefan; Braspenning, Joris

    2015-01-01

    An important function of the liver is the synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factors. Within the liver, hepatocytes are involved in the synthesis of most blood coagulation factors, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, as well as protein C and S, and antithrombin, whereas liver sinusoidal endothelial cells produce factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. Here, we describe methods for the detection and quantification of most blood coagulation factors in hepatocytes in vitro. Hepatocyte cultures indeed provide a valuable tool to study blood coagulation factors. In addition, the generation and expansion of hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells may be used in future for cell-based therapies of liver diseases, including blood coagulation factor deficiencies.

  18. A novel mutation in a patient with congenital coagulation factor Ⅻ deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ying; YE Xu; PANG Ying; DAI Jing; WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Xu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Human coagulation factor Ⅻ(FⅫ),also called Hageman factor,is a plasma plycoprotein that is functionally deficient in individuals with Hageman trait:which is an inhefited trait discovered by chance during preoperative blood coagulation screening tests.FⅫ is a single-chain 596-amino-acid zymogen of a serine protease with an approximate molecular weight of 80 000.

  19. Recombinant factor Vlla in orthotopic liver transplantation : influence on parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K; Hendriks, HGD; de Wolf, JTM; Klompmaker, IJ; Lisman, T; Hagenaars, AAM; Slooff, MJH; Porte, RJ; van der Meer, J

    2003-01-01

    The effect of recombinant factor Vila (rFVIIa) on blood loss was evaluated in cirrhotic patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. In the present study, we explored the effect of rFVIIa on coagulation and fibrinolysis during orthotopic liver transplantation. Coagulation factors, parameter

  20. Plasmin-induced procoagulant effects in the blood coagulation: a crucial role of coagulation factors V and VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Kenichi; Nogami, Keiji; Nishiya, Katsumi; Shima, Midori

    2010-09-01

    Plasminogen activators provide effective treatment for patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, paradoxical elevation of thrombin activity associated with failure of clot lysis and recurrent thrombosis has been reported. Generation of thrombin in these circumstances appears to be owing to plasmin (Plm)-induced activation of factor (F) XII. Plm catalyzes proteolysis of several coagulant factors, but the roles of these factors on Plm-mediated procoagulant activity remain to be determined. Recently developed global coagulation assays were used in this investigation. Rotational thromboelastometry using whole blood, clot waveform analysis and thrombin generation tests using plasma, showed that Plm (> or =125 nmol/l) shortened the clotting times in similar dose-dependent manners. In particular, the thrombin generation test, which was unaffected by products of fibrinolysis, revealed the enhanced coagulation with an approximately two-fold increase of peak level of thrombin generation. Studies using alpha2-antiplasmin-deficient plasma revealed that much lower dose of Plm (> or =16 nmol/l) actually contributed to enhancing thrombin generation. The shortening of clotting time could be observed even in the presence of corn trypsin inhibitor, supporting that Plm exerted the procoagulant activity independently of FXII. In addition, using specific coagulation-deficient plasmas, the clot waveform analysis showed that Plm did not shorten the clotting time in only FV-deficient or FVIII-deficient plasma in prothrombin time-based or activated partial thromboplastin time-based assay, respectively. Our results indicated that Plm did possess procoagulant activity in the blood coagulation, and this effect was likely attributed by multicoagulation factors, dependent on FV and/or FVIII.

  1. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  2. Coagulation Factor Xa inhibits cancer cell migration via Protease-activated receptor-1 activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel R.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Cell migration is critically important in (patho) physiological processes. The metastatic potential of cancer cells partly depends on activation of the coagulation cascade. The aim of the present study was to determine whether coagulation factor X (FXa) can regulate the migration and invasion of can

  3. A combined structural dynamics approach identifies a putative switch in factor VIIa employed by tissue factor to initiate blood coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole H; Rand, Kasper D; Østergaard, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) requires tissue factor (TF) to attain full catalytic competency and to initiate blood coagulation. In this study, the mechanism by which TF allosterically activates FVIIa is investigated by a structural dynamics approach that combines molecular dynamics (MD...

  4. Utilization Patterns of Coagulation Factor Consumption for Patients with Hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ok; Yu, Su-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia is a serious rare disease that requires continuous management and treatment for which the medicine is costly at the annual average of 100 million KRW for an individual. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the utilization of coagulation factor (CF) used for hemophilia treatment using the National Health Insurance database from 2010 to 2013 in Korea and compare the utilization of CF with other countries. The consumption of CF per capita (IU) in Korea was not more than other countries with similar income to Korea. However, CF usage per patient IU was higher because the prevalence rate of hemophilia in Korea was lower than in other countries while the number of serious patients was much more. Therefore, it is difficult to say that the consumption of hemophilia medicine in Korea is higher than that in other countries. The consumption and cost of hemophilia medicine in Korea is likely to increase due to the increased utilization of expensive bypassing agents and the widespread use of prophylaxis for severe hemophilia. Even during the research period, it increased slightly and other countries show a similar trend. Thus, hemophilia patient management should accompany active monitoring on the health and cost outcomes of pharmaceutical treatment in the future. This study is expected to contribute to further insight into drug policies for other countries that face similar challenges with high price pharmaceuticals.

  5. Bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Kastura, Mike; George, Robert; Bulman, Frank; Yarbrough, Jason; Cox, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia.

  6. Changes in Dietary Fat Content Rapidly Alters the Mouse Plasma Coagulation Profile without Affecting Relative Transcript Levels of Coagulation Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey C A Cleuren

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events.Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding.HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation.Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby preceding plasma metabolic changes, which

  7. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakas, Philip M; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Almeida-Porada, Graca; Porada, Christopher D; Spencer, H Trent; Doering, Christopher B

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII) to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD) ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate the maintenance of

  8. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Zakas

    Full Text Available Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate

  9. Binding of EGF1 Domain Peptide in Coagulation Factor Ⅶ with Tissue Factor and Its Implications for the Triggering of Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅恒; 胡豫; 王华芳; 石威; 邓君; 郭涛

    2010-01-01

    The binding function of EGF1 domain peptide with tissue factor(TF)and its ability of triggering coagulation were explored.The TF expression model in vitro was established by lipopolysaccha-ride induction.The affinity of EGFP-EGF1 and TF expressing cells was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry(FCM).The affinity of EGFP-EGF1 and rat soluble TF was quantitated by surface plasmon resonance(SPR).The ability of EGFP-EGF1 in triggering coagulation was tested by prothrombin time assay.The FCM res...

  10. [Condition setting for the measurement of blood coagulation factor XIII activity using a fully automated blood coagulation analyzer, COAGTRON-350].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Nobuko; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanabe, Kumiko; Jyona, Masahiro; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    The automated laboratory analyzer COAGTRON-350 (Trinity Biotech) is used for routine and specific coagulation testing for the detection of fibrin formation utilizing either mechanical principles (ball method) or photo-optical principles, chromogenic kinetic enzyme analysis, and immune-turbidimetric detection systems in one benchtop unit. In this study, we demonstrated and established a parameter for the measurement of factor XIII (FXIII) activity using Berichrom FXIII reagent and the COAGTRON-350 analyzer. The usual protocol used for this reagent, based on the handling method, was slightly modified for this device. The analysis showed that fundamental study for the measurement of FXIII activity under our condition setting was favorable in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and correlation with another assays. Since FXIII is the key enzyme that plays important roles in hemostasis by stabilizing fibrin formation, the measurement of FXIII is essential for the diagnosis of bleeding disorders. Therefore, FXIII activity assessment as well as a routine coagulation testing can be conducted simultaneously with one instrument, which is useful in coagulopathy assessment.

  11. Coagulation factor V mediates inhibition of tissue factor signaling by activated protein C in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Basu, Sreemanti; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Toso, Raffaella; Rezaie, Alireza R; Fernández, José A; Camire, Rodney M; Ruf, Wolfram; Griffin, John H; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-11-19

    The key effector molecule of the natural protein C pathway, activated protein C (aPC), exerts pleiotropic effects on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. Coagulation-independent cell signaling by aPC appears to be the predominant mechanism underlying its highly reproducible therapeutic efficacy in most animal models of injury and infection. In this study, using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, we demonstrate marked disease stage-specific effects of the anticoagulant and cell signaling functions of aPC. aPC resistance of factor (f)V due to the R506Q Leiden mutation protected against detrimental anticoagulant effects of aPC therapy but also abrogated the anti-inflammatory and mortality-reducing effects of the signaling-selective 5A-aPC variant that has minimal anticoagulant function. We found that procofactor V (cleaved by aPC at R506) and protein S were necessary cofactors for the aPC-mediated inhibition of inflammatory tissue-factor signaling. The anti-inflammatory cofactor function of fV involved the same structural features that govern its cofactor function for the anticoagulant effects of aPC, yet its anti-inflammatory activities did not involve proteolysis of activated coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. These findings reveal a novel biological function and mechanism of the protein C pathway in which protein S and the aPC-cleaved form of fV are cofactors for anti-inflammatory cell signaling by aPC in the context of endotoxemia and infection.

  12. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay among coagulation factor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Shahbazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Haemostasis prevents blood loss following vascular injury. It depends on the unique concert of events involving platelets and specific blood proteins, known as coagulation factors. The clotting system requires precise regulation and coordinated reactions to maintain the integrity of the vasculature. Clotting insufficiency mostly occurs due to genetically inherited coagulation factor deficiencies such as hemophilia. Materials and Methods: A relevant literature search of PubMed was performed using the keywords coagulation factors, Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and premature translation termination codons. Search limitations included English language and human-based studies. Results: Mutations that cause premature translation termination codons probably account for one-third of genetically inherited diseases. Transcripts bearing aberrant termination codons are selectively identified and eliminated by an evolutionarily conserved posttranscriptional pathway known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD. There are many pieces of evidence of decay among coagulation factor genes. However, the hemophilia gene (F8 does not seem to be subjected to NMD. Since the F8 gene is located on the X-chromosome, a connection between X-linked traits and mRNA decay could be assumed. Conclusion: Considering that not all genes go through decay, this review focuses on the basics of the mechanism in coagulation genes. It is interesting to determine whether this translation-coupled surveillance system represents a general rule for the genes encoding components of the same physiological cascade.

  13. Identification of the blood coagulation factor interacting sequences in staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Saotomo; Takii, Takemasa; Onozaki, Kikuo; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Hida, Shigeaki

    2017-03-25

    Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins of Staphylococcus aureus. We have shown that SSL10 binds to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and inhibits blood coagulation induced by recalcification of citrated plasma. SSL10 was revealed to bind to coagulation factors via their γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. In this study we attempted to identify the responsible sequence of SSL10 for the interaction with coagulation factors. We prepared a series of domain swap mutants between SSL10 and its paralog SSL7 that does not interact with coagulation factors, and examined their binding activity to immobilized prothrombin using ELISA-like binding assay. The domain swap mutants that contained SSL10β1-β3 ((23)MEMKN ISALK HGKNN LRFKF RGIKI QVL(60)) bound to immobilized prothrombin, and mutants that contained SSL10β10-β12 ((174)SFYNL DLRSK LKFKY MGEVI ESKQI KDIEV NLK(207)) also retained the binding activity. On the other hand, mutants that lacked these two regions did not bind to prothrombin. These sequences, each alone, bound to prothrombin as 33 amino acid length polypeptides. These results suggest that SSL10 has two responsible sequences for the binding to prothrombin. These prothrombin-binding peptides would contribute to the development of new anticoagulants.

  14. Removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water by coagulation: mechanisms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yueping; Niu, Junfeng; Xu, Zesheng; Gao, Ding; Shi, Jianghong; Sun, Xiaomin; Huang, Qingguo

    2014-11-15

    In this study, alum (Al2(SO4)3⋅18H2O), ferric chloride (FeCl3⋅6H2O) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water. The influencing factors, including pH and natural organic matter (NOM), were investigated. A positive correlation was found between the size of the flocs and the removal efficiency of PFOX (X=S and A). The removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA were 32% and ∼12%, respectively, when 50 mg/L of FeCl3⋅6H2O was added as the coagulant at the initial pH. Coagulation achieved high removal ratios for PFOX under acidic conditions (∼47.6% and 94.7% for PFOA and PFOS at pH 4, respectively). In addition, increasing NOM concentrations decreased the removal rates of PFOX because of the existence of competitive adsorption between NOM molecules and PFOX on the surface of the coagulants and flocs. The combination of adsorption by powdered activated carbon (PAC) and coagulation increased the removal ratios up to >90% for PFOX at the initial concentration of 1mg/L, implying that the adsorption enhanced coagulation. Meantime, the experiments with natural water showed that coagulation is a feasible method to remove PFOS and PFOA from surface water.

  15. Dietary effects on coagulation factor VII vary across genotypes of the R/Q353 polymorphism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of factor VII with dietary factors while also considering the R/Q353 polymorphism. Nutrition is an important determinant of coagulation factor VII, which is also genetically determined by the R/Q353 polymorphism. High levels of coagulation

  16. Coagulation factor deficiency apparently related to the Fitzgerald trait: the first cases in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi,Hisamoto

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available A blood coagulation deficiency was found at the contact phase in identical Japanese female twins. Of the four possible factors involved, Factor XI or XII can be ruled out according to cross-correction studies. The problem factor was probably not Fletcher factor, because the abnormal partial thromboplastin time was not significantly shortened by increasing the incubation period of plasma with kaolin. The deficiency is most likely due to the lack of Fitzgerald factor.

  17. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation.

  18. Coagulation factor VA2440G causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lisa M.; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers’ plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder–associated F5A2440G leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation. PMID:23979162

  19. Coagulation factor V(A2440G) causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lisa M; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-09-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers' plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder-associated F5(A2440G) leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation.

  20. 凝血因子与创伤止血%Coagulation factor and traumatic hemostasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕茂民; 王方; 赵雄; 章金刚

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation factors ,which are involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation process of organism ,perform mutual coordination with the anticoagulation system .The dynamic balance between them inorder to maintain the normal blood physiological state .The molecular structure , physicochemical properties , physiological function involved in the trau-matic bleeding hemostasis were detailed in this paper .Meanwhile , the importance of coagulation factors for trauma hemo-stasis and coagulation ,the coagulation factor products , and their use were reviewed here to provide reference for the devel-opment of coagulation factors as drugs .%凝血因子参与机体凝血过程的内、外源性途径,与机体抗凝系统相互协调,两者的动态平衡维持着体内血液正常的生理状态。该文从分子结构、理化特性、生理功能等方面对参与创伤止血相关的凝血因子进行了详述,同时,对其在创伤出血控制、凝血方面发挥的重要作用及相关凝血因子类制品的研究进展、使用现状进行了综述,以期为凝血因子类药物的研发及应用提供借鉴。

  1. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  2. SEVERE BLEEDING CAUSED BY AN INHIBITOR TO COAGULATION-FACTOR-V - A CASE-REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMID, WM; DEWOLF, JTM; NIJLAND, JH; BOM, VJJ; VANDERMEER, J

    1994-01-01

    A 67-year-old man with a severe bleeding due to a high level of factor V inhibitor (maximum level of 350 Bethesda units) is described. Coagulation abnormalities improved initially during treatment with prednisolone in combination with cyclophosphamide. Subsequent treatment with either cyclophosphami

  3. Factor Xa : at the crossroads between coagulation and signaling in physiology and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Activated factor Xa (FXa) is traditionally known as an important player in the coagulation cascade responsible for thrombin generation. Long considered a passive bystander, it is now evident that FXa exerts direct effects on a wide variety of cell types via activation of its two main receptors, prot

  4. Prothrombotic coagulation defects and cardiovascular risk factors in young women with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, BC; Bloemenkamp, DGM; van den Bosch, MAAJ; Kemmeren, JM; Algra, A; van de Graaf, Y; Rosendaal, FR

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of prothrombotic coagulation defects in combination with smoking and other conventional risk factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young women. In 217 women with a first myocardial infarction before the age of 50 years and 763 healthy control women from a populat

  5. Polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor II,V,VII in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耕; 金国栋; 傅国胜; 马骥; 单江; 王建安

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor II,V, VII could predispose an individual to increase risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or myocardial infarction (MI) in Chinese. Methods: We screened coagulation factor II(G20210A),V(G1691A),VII (R353Q and HVR4) genotype in 374 patients undergoing coronary angiography by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Results: The R353Q and HVR4 genotype of the factor VII distribution was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of FVII genotype or allele did not show statistically significant differences between CAD group and controls or between male and female. The frequencies of the Q allele and (RQ+QQ) genotype were significantly higher among the CAD patients without myocardial infarction (MI) history than among those with MI history (P<0.05). However, HVR4 polymorphism was not significantly different within groups. We only find one normal control of factorII(G20210A) mutation. No coagulation factor V(G1691A) mutation was found in the CAD patients and controls. Conclusion: The factor II(G20210A),V(G1691A) mutation is absent and may not be a major genetic factor for CAD and/or MI; the Q allele of the R353Q polymorphism of the factor VII gene may be a protective genetic factor against myocardial infarction in Chinese.

  6. Nanotechnology Applied to Bio-Encapsulation of Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made towards the application of nanotechnology in sustainable food production. In this context, the bio-encapsulation process has taken prominence in particular as an ecofriendly method for pest control while reducing the pesticide load in the environment considerably. By taking into consideration, here we are presenting an overview regarding the prospects for the development of nanoencapsulated pesticides in sustainable agriculture and highlight some challenges to be addressed in order to develop efficient nano-carrier systems that may arise as an alternative for conventional pesticide application. However, much research has to be done in this area in order to develop safe and promising pesticide delivery systems for increasing global food production by enhancing the selectivity, specificity and longevity of the encapsulated pesticides while reducing the negative environmental impacts to ecosystem and human beings.

  7. Polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor Ⅱ,Ⅴ,Ⅶ in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耕; 金国栋; 傅国胜; 马骥; 单江; 王建安

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor Ⅱ,Ⅴ,Ⅶ could predispose an individual to increase risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or myocardial infarction (MI) in Chinese. Methods: We screened coagulation factor Ⅱ( G20210A),Ⅴ( G1691A),Ⅶ( R353Q and HVR4) genotype in 374 patients undergoing coronary angiography by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Results: The R353Q and HVR4 genotype of the factor Ⅶ distribution was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of FVⅡ genotype or allele did not show statistically significant differences between CAD group and controls or between male and female.The frequencies of the Q allele and ( RQ + QQ) genotype were significantly higher among the CAD patients without myocardial infarction (MI) history than among those with MI history (P < 0.05). However, HVR4 polymorphism was not significantly different within groups. We only find one normal control of factorⅡ(G20210A) mutation. No coagulation factor Ⅴ(G1691A) mutation was found in the CAD patients and con-trois. Conclusion: The factor Ⅱ(G20210A),Ⅴ(G1691A) mutation is absent and may not be a major genetic factor for CAD and/or MI; the Q allele of the R353Q polymorphism of the factor Ⅶ gene may be a protective genetic factor against myocardial infarction in Chinese.

  8. Coagulation factor VIIa: prohemostatic drug and biomarker for thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Anne Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Stollingsfactor VIIa: prohemostatisch medicijn en biomarker voor trombose Fysiologische activatie van de bloedstolling begint met de activatie van stollings factor VII tot factor VIIa. Een recombinante vorm van factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is ontwikkeld als medicijn om bloedstolling te stimuleren in patiënt

  9. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...

  10. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation.

  11. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor...... after progestin intake. The integrated response, AUC, for TFPI was significantly lower in the HRT groups compared with the reference group. CONCLUSION: The observed changes may increase the early thrombotic risk associated with HRT use. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Dec...

  12. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  13. Change of Coagulation Factor Ⅷ and Antithrombin Ⅲ Activity in Bank-Stored Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Coagulation factor Ⅷ and antithrombin Ⅲ activity were detected in 15 health donors. It was found that antithrombin Ⅲ activity decreased obviously 12 h after blood drawing. It lost 56 % of the activity at the 3rd day, and 70 % of the activity at the 7th day. FⅧ:c showed no obvious change after 24 h, until the 3rd day. It lost 40 %-60 % of the activity after 36 h and was reduced to the 30 % of the original activity at the 5th day. Our results suggested that at the 3rd day coagulation factor Ⅷ of bank-stored blood can be used to replenish antithrombin Ⅲ, while bank-stored blood in one day can be used to replenish FⅧ.

  14. Inhibition of coagulation factors by recombinant barley serpin BSZx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, S.K.; Petersen, L..C.;

    1996-01-01

    Barley serpin BSZx is a potent inhibitor of trypsin and chymotrypsin at overlapping reactive sites (Dahl, S.W., Rasmussen, S.K. and Hejgaard, J. (1996) J. Biol, Chem., in press), We have now investigated the interactions of BSZx with a range of serine proteinases from human plasma, pancreas...... as substrate, Complexes of these proteinase with BSZx resisted boiling in SDS, and amino acid sequencing showed that cleavage in the reactive center loop only occurred after P-1 Arg. Activated protein C and leukocyte elastase were slowly inhibited by BSZx (k(ass) = 1-2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) whereas factor XIIa......, urokinase and tissue type plasminogen activator, plasmin and pancreas kallikrein and elastase were not or only weakly affected, The inhibition pattern with mammalian proteinases reveal a specificity of BSZx similar to that of antithrombin III. Trypsin from Fusarium was not inhibited while interaction...

  15. Evaluation of Some Plasma Coagulation Factors in Women with Spontaneous Miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Besharat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that 15-20% of parous female have experienced at least one miscarriage, while 3% of them have experienced two miscarriages. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma level of coagulation factors in women with a history of spontaneous abortions. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 82 women with a history of two or more abortions referred to the six private gynecologic clinics in Gorgan city without any structural abnormality were recruited during 2011-2012. Plasma levels of antithrombin III (ATIII using colorimetric assay, protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden and lupus anticoagulant (LAC using coagulation method were measured. The control group was women with a history of normal delivery and no abortions. Those under anti-coagulant therapy were excluded from the study. Data were entered into the computer using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 16 and analyzed by Chi-square, t test and non-parametric tests. Results: At least one abnormality was reported in 35 cases (42.7%. Among them, protein C deficiency was the most prevalent (30.5%. ATIII was abnormal in 17.1% and lupus anti-coagulant was abnormal in 8.5%. Factor V Leiden was normal in all cases and protein S deficiency was only seen in one case. Conclusion: We suggest to perform these tests in regards to the thrombophilia in cases with spontaneous abortions in order to find an early cure for this treatable disorder.

  16. Development of a microplate coagulation assay for Factor V in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samis John A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor V (FV in its activated form, FVa, is a critical regulator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation. There is a need of a simple, fast, and inexpensive microplate-based coagulation assay to measure the functional activity of FV in human plasma. The objective of this study was to develop a microplate-based assay that measures FV coagulation activity during clot formation in human plasma, which is currently not available. Methods The FV assay requires a kinetic microplate reader to measure the change in absorbance at 405nm during fibrin formation in human plasma. The FV assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation in human plasma. Results The FV microplate assay is simple, fast, economical, sensitive to approx 24-80pM, and multiple samples may be analyzed simultaneously. All the required materials are commercially available. Standard curves of time or initial rate of fibrin clot formation vs FV activity in the 1-stage assay (Without activation by thrombin may be used to measure FV activity in samples of human plasma. The assay was used to demonstrate that in nine patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, the FV 1-stage, 2-stage (With activation by thrombin, and total (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity activities were decreased, on average, by approximately 54%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, from prolonged clot times when compared to normal pooled human reference plasma (NHP. The results indicate that the FV in the DIC patient plasmas supported both a delayed and slower rate of fibrin clot formation compared with NHP; however, the extent of fibrin clot formation in the DIC patients remained largely unchanged from that observed with NHP. Conclusions The FV microplate assay may be easily adapted to measure the activity of any coagulation factor using the appropriate factor-deficient plasma and clot initiating reagent. The microplate assay will find use in

  17. Measurement of factor v activity in human plasma using a microplate coagulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Derek; Levit, Irina; Samis, John A

    2012-09-09

    In response to injury, blood coagulation is activated and results in generation of the clotting protease, thrombin. Thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to fibrin which forms an insoluble clot that stops hemorrhage. Factor V (FV) in its activated form, FVa, is a critical cofactor for the protease FXa and accelerator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation as part of prothrombinase (1, 2). Manual FV assays have been described (3, 4), but they are time consuming and subjective. Automated FV assays have been reported (5-7), but the analyzer and reagents are expensive and generally provide only the clot time, not the rate and extent of fibrin formation. The microplate platform is preferred for measuring enzyme-catalyzed events because of convenience, time, cost, small volume, continuous monitoring, and high-throughput (8, 9). Microplate assays have been reported for clot lysis (10), platelet aggregation (11), and coagulation Factors (12), but not for FV activity in human plasma. The goal of the method was to develop a microplate assay that measures FV activity during fibrin formation in human plasma. This novel microplate method outlines a simple, inexpensive, and rapid assay of FV activity in human plasma. The assay utilizes a kinetic microplate reader to monitor the absorbance change at 405 nm during fibrin formation in human plasma (Figure 1) (13). The assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation. It requires only μl quantities of plasma, is complete in 6 min, has high-throughput, is sensitive to 24-80 pM FV, and measures the amount of unintentionally activated (1-stage activity) and thrombin-activated FV (2-stage activity) to obtain a complete assessment of its total functional activity (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity). Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired coagulopathy that most often develops from pre-existing infections (14). DIC is associated with a poor prognosis and increases mortality

  18. Influence of various coagulation factors on chemical composition of sera gained by centrifugation from casein gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological operations applied during curd processing influence syneresis and total solids content of cheese. Syneresis is not a simple physical process representing whey segregation due to curd contractions. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of various parameters (pH, quantity of CaCl2 added, temperature of coagulation and heat treatment on induced syneresis. Reconstituted instant skim milk (control samples and reconstituted instant skim milk heated at 87ºC for 10 min (experimental samples were coagulated at 30ºC and 35ºC, and pH of 5.8 and 6.2 with 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added. According to our results, these parameters had significant influence on nitrogen content of serum as well as on the distribution of nitrogen matter from gel into sera. Due to the formation of coaggregates the best rheological properties of gel were obtained for experimental samples coagulated with 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added at pH 5.8 and temperature of 35ºC.

  19. Coagulation factor VII, serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism: Differences between older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.; Jong, P.T.V.M. de; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Coagulation factor VII activity (FVII:C) is a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. It is related to serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism (alleles R and Q) in the gene coding for factor VII is strongly associated with factor VU[. The association of serum-triglycerides with factor VII

  20. Von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII in Moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shou-Chen; Gao, Bao-Qin; Yang, Wei-Li; Feng, Wei-Xin; Xu, Jian; Li, Shao-Wu; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported the case of a Chinese boy who was diagnosed with Moyamoya disease (MMD) associated with Graves' disease (GD). An overactivation of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) was identified in the plasma of the patient. Thiamazole and metoprolol treatment was thus administrated. After 2 months of treatment, the patient's thyroid function returned to normal and the neurological symptoms improved gradually. At the same time, the activities of vWF and FVIII were depressed. During the 20-month follow-up, information regarding the neurological symptoms, cerebrovascular imaging, thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies and coagulation parameters was collected. High levels of thyroid autoantibodies persisted throughout the follow-up period, while other coagulation parameters remained in the normal range. In conclusion, considering the vital role of vWF and FVIII in vascular diseases, it is hypothesized that these two factors may serve an important role in the occurrence of GD associated with MMD. PMID:27882137

  1. Refreezing previously thawed fresh-frozen plasma. Stability of coagulation factors V and VIII:C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, W H; Riibner, M A; Linehan, S K

    1989-09-01

    With the growth in autologous blood programs and the increased scrutiny of the indications for transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), an increase has been seen in the number of occasions on which FFP was requested and thawed but then not transfused. The coagulation properties of FFP units that were refrozen and then rethawed were therefore studied. Fifty-eight units of plasma were studied, with each experimental unit of FFP paired with an identical control unit. Experimental units were frozen, stored at -65 degrees C, thawed, stored at 1 to 6 degrees C for various periods of time up to 24 hours, and then refrozen, stored at -65 degrees C, rethawed, and stored again in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Control units were frozen once at the time the experimental units were first frozen and thawed once at the time of the second thaw of the experimental units. Aliquots of plasma were sampled periodically and were later batch-tested for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and factor V and VIII:C activity. The results of coagulation testing of the twice-frozen plasmas were always within the normal range. There was a slight but statistically valid prolongation of the PT and aPTT and a decrease in the factor V and VIII:C levels for twice-frozen plasma compared with control plasma. The greatest decline occurred in the level of factor VIII:C. The measured deterioration in coagulation of twice-frozen FFP is unlikely to be of clinical importance. Refreezing FFP may eventually prove useful for rare donor, autologous, and massive transfusion programs.

  2. Characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Producing Coagulation Factor VIII Using Multi-omics Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder

    ,000 fold over the last couple of years due to the revolution of next-generation sequencing (NGS), has dramatically accelerated CHO-omics from virtually non-existent to a vibrant growing field. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) production in CHO cells...... for analysis and engineering of industrially relevant CHO cells. Full implementation of such tools for generating specifically engineered CHO production cell lines may allow significant cost-reductions in production of complex biopharmaceuticals such as FVIII....

  3. Absence of in vitro Procoagulant Activity in Immunoglobulin Preparations due to Activated Coagulation Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Adriana E.; Bernardi, María E.; Guglielmone, Hugo A.; Vitali, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Immunoglobulin (IG) products, including intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulins are considered safe and effective for medical therapy; however, a sudden and unexpected increase in thromboembolic events (TE) after administration of certain batches of IVIG products has been attributed to the presence of activated coagulation factors, mainly factor XIa. Our aims were to examine the presence of enduring procoagulant activity during the manufacturing process of IGs, with special focus on monitoring factor XIa, and to evaluate the presence of in vitro procoagulant activity attributed to coagulation factors in different lots of IVIG and SCIG. Methods Samples of different steps of IG purification, 19 lots of IVIG and 9 of SCIG were analyzed and compared with 1 commercial preparation of IVIG and 2 of SCIG, respectively. Factors II, VII, IX, XI and XIa and non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NAPTT) were assayed. Results The levels of factors II, VII, IX, X and XI were non-quantifiable once fraction II had been re-dissolved and in all analyzed lots of IVIG and SCIG. The level of factor XIa at that point was under the detection limits of the assay, and NAPTT yielded values greater than the control during the purification process. In SCIG, we detected higher concentrations of factor XIa in the commercial products, which reached values up to 5 times higher than the average amounts found in the 9 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Factor XIa in commercial IVIG reached levels slightly higher than those of the 19 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Conclusion IVIG and SCIG manufactured by UNC-Hemoderivados showed a lack of thrombogenic potential, as demonstrated not only by the laboratory data obtained in this study but also by the absence of any reports of TE registered by the post marketing pharmacovigilance department. PMID:26733772

  4. A severe deficiency of coagulation factor VIIa results in attenuation of the asthmatic response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Kazuhiko; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2009-05-01

    Eosinophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of wild-type (WT) mice increased after ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, a response that was diminished in comparably challenged low-expressing coagulation factor VII (FVII(tTA/tTA)) mice. Levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and eosinophil-attracting chemokines, eotaxin and RANTES, were also lower in the OVA-challenged FVII(tTA/tTA) mice. Eosinophils purified from low-FVII mice underwent apoptosis at a faster rate compared with WT eosinophils, and eosinophil migration in response to eotaxin was reduced in eosinophils obtained from FVII(tTA/tTA) mice. Airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous layer thickness were reduced in OVA-treated FVII(tTA/tTA) mice, and addition of exogenous coagulation factor X (FX) enhanced mucin production in human epithelial NCI-H292 cells. Correspondingly, incubation of FX with NCI-H292 cells resulted in activated (a) FX production, suggesting that the components required for FX activation were present on NCI-H292 cells. These results demonstrate that FVIIa functions in the asthmatic response to an allergen by stimulating lung eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucin production, this latter effect through its ability to activate FX in conjunction with tissue factor.

  5. 人凝血因子Ⅸ的研究进展%Research progress in human coagulation factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩静静; 杨忠东

    2013-01-01

    Human coagulation factor Ⅸ (FⅨ) is a zymogen of a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that plays an important role in the intrinsic blood coagulation cascade.Deficiency or dysfunction of FⅨ can result in hemophilia B.This article reviews gene and protein structures of FⅨ as well as research status of FⅨ therapy for hemophilia B.%人凝血因子Ⅸ(human coagulation factor Ⅸ,FⅨ)是一种维生素K依赖性丝氨酸蛋白酶原,在内源性凝血级联反应中起重要作用.FⅨ缺乏或功能异常会导致血友病B.此文综述了FⅨ的基因和蛋白结构,以及FⅨ用于血友病B治疗的研究现状.

  6. Ex vivo effects of low-dose rivaroxaban on specific coagulation assays and coagulation factor activities in patients under real life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Helen; Hesse, Christian; Stratmann, Gertrud; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2013-01-01

    Global coagulation assays display variable effects at different concentrations of rivaroxaban. The aim of this study is to quantify the ex vivo effects of low-dose rivaroxaban on thrombophilia screening assays and coagulation factor activities based on the administration time, and to show how to mask possible interferences. Plasma samples from 40 patients receiving rivaroxaban 10 mg daily were investigated to measure activities of clotting factor II, V, VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII and XIII; protein C- and protein S-levels; lupus anticoagulants; anticardiolipin IgG and IgM; D-dimer, heparin-platelet factor 4 (HPF4) antibodies and screening tests for von Willebrand disease (VWD). Two hours after rivaroxaban administration, the activities of clotting factors were significantly decreased to different extents, except for factor XIII. Dilution of plasma samples resulted in neutralisation of these interferences. The chromogenic protein C activity assay was not affected by rivaroxaban. Depending on the timing of tablet intake in relation to blood sampling protein S activity was measured falsely high when a clotting assay was used. False-positive results for lupus anticoagulants were observed depending on the assay system used and the administration time of rivaroxaban. ELISA-based assays such as anticardiolipin IgG and IgM, D-dimer, HPF4-antibodies and the turbidimetric assays for VWD were not affected by rivaroxaban. Specific haemostasis clotting tests should be performed directly prior to rivaroxaban intake. Assay optimisation in the presence of rivaroxaban can be achieved by plasma dilution. Immunologic assays are not influenced by rivaroxaban, while chromogenic assays can be used, when they do not depend on factor Xa.

  7. [A case of pancreatic and duodenal fistula after total gastrectomy successfully treated with coagulation factor XIII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hitoe; Kojima, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Hirokazu; Nakagawa, Koji; Fumura, Masao; Kikuchi, Norio

    2013-11-01

    Pancreatic fistula( PF) is a challenging postoperative complication. We report a case of PF following gastrectomy successfully treated using intravenous coagulation factor XIII( FXIII).A 78-year-old man with early gastric cancer underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. PF developed postoperatively, following which, leakage from the duodenal stump was observed. Percutaneous drainage and re-operative surgery were performed. A somatostatin analogue, antibiotic drugs, and gabexate mesilate were administrated along with nutritional support. The pancreatic and duodenal fistula had been producing duodenal juice for over 30 days since the re-operative surgery. As suspected, reduced FXIII activity was confirmed in the patient. After administering FXIII for 5 days, the amount of duodenal juice from the fistula markedly reduced, and the fistula closed immediately afterwards. The results of our study suggest that administration of FXIII could be a reasonable and effective treatment for patients with pancreatic or/and enterocutaneous fistula who are resistant to standard treatments.

  8. Platelet-Derived Short-Chain Polyphosphates Enhance the Inactivation of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor by Activated Coagulation Factor XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Cristina; Tucker, Erik I.; Ivanov, Ivan S.; Gailani, David; Smith, Stephanie A.; Morrissey, James H.; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Factor (F) XI supports both normal human hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Activated FXI (FXIa) promotes thrombin generation by enzymatic activation of FXI, FIX, FX, and FV, and inactivation of alpha tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPIα), in vitro. Some of these reactions are now known to be enhanced by short-chain polyphosphates (SCP) derived from activated platelets. These SCPs act as a cofactor for the activation of FXI and FV by thrombin and FXIa, respectively. Since SCPs have been shown to inhibit the anticoagulant function of TFPIα, we herein investigated whether SCPs could serve as cofactors for the proteolytic inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa, further promoting the efficiency of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation to generate thrombin. Methods and Results Purified soluble SCP was prepared by size-fractionation of sodium polyphosphate. TFPIα proteolysis was analyzed by western blot. TFPIα activity was measured as inhibition of FX activation and activity in coagulation and chromogenic assays. SCPs significantly accelerated the rate of inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa in both purified systems and in recalcified plasma. Moreover, platelet-derived SCP accelerated the rate of inactivation of platelet-derived TFPIα by FXIa. TFPIα activity was not affected by SCP in recalcified FXI-depleted plasma. Conclusions Our data suggest that SCP is a cofactor for TFPIα inactivation by FXIa, thus, expanding the range of hemostatic FXIa substrates that may be affected by the cofactor functions of platelet-derived SCP. PMID:27764259

  9. Protein trans-splicing based dual-vector delivery of the coagulation factor Ⅷ gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A dual-vector system was explored for the delivery of the coagulation factor VIII gene,using intein-mediated protein trans-splicing as a means to produce intact functional factor VIII post-translationally.A pair of eukaryotic expression vectors,expressing Ssp DnaB intein-fused heavy and light chain genes of B-domain deleted factor VIII (BDD-FVIII),was constructed.With transient co-transfection of the two vectors into 293 and COS-7 cells,the culture supernatants contained (137±23) and (109±22) ng mL–1 spliced BDD-FVIII antigen with an activity of (1.05±0.16) and (0.79±0.23) IU mL–1 for 293 and COS-7 cells,respectively.The spliced BDD-FVIII was also detected in supernatants from a mixture of cells transfected with inteinfused heavy and light chain genes.The spliced BDD-FVIII protein bands from cell lysates were visualized by Western blotting.The data demonstrated that intein could be used to transfer the split factor VIII gene and provided valuable information on factor VIII gene delivery by dual-adeno-associated virus in hemophilia A gene therapy.

  10. Predictive factors for beneficial application of high-frequency electromagnetics for tumour vaporization and coagulation in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerbel Andrei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To identify preoperative and intraoperative factors and conditions that predicts the beneficial application of a high-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF system for tumor vaporization and coagulation. Methods One hundred three subsequent patients with brain tumors were microsurgically treated using the EMF system in addition to the standard neurosurgical instrumentarium. A multivariate analysis was performed regarding the usefulness (ineffective/useful/very helpful/essential of the new technology for tumor vaporization and coagulation, with respect to tumor histology and location, tissue consistency and texture, patients' age and sex. Results The EMF system could be used effectively during tumor surgery in 83 cases with an essential contribution to the overall success in 14 cases. In the advanced category of effectiveness (very helpful/essential, there was a significant difference between hard and soft tissue consistency (50 of 66 cases vs. 3 of 37 cases. The coagulation function worked well (very helpful/essential for surface (73 of 103 cases and spot (46 of 103 cases coagulation when vessels with a diameter of less than one millimeter were involved. The light-weight bayonet hand piece and long malleable electrodes made the system especially suited for the resection of deep-seated lesions (34 of 52 cases compared to superficial tumors (19 of 50 cases. The EMF system was less effective than traditional electrosurgical devices in reducing soft glial tumors. Standard methods where also required for coagulation of larger vessels. Conclusion It is possible to identify factors and conditions that predict a beneficial application of high-frequency electromagnetics for tumor vaporization and coagulation. This allows focusing the use of this technology on selective indications.

  11. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ofelio

    2014-06-01

    The results obtained in the first test showed that the L. rhamnosus was able to survive in seawater during the whole experiment (30h, maintaining densities of 10e7 CFU/ml during the first 6h although decreasing progressively afterwards (10e3 CFU/ml at 30h. This allows adequate levels at sufficient time for Artemia to incorporate the probiotic. In fact, bioencapsulation test demonstrated that Artemia metanauplii were able to bioencapsulate the probiotic, reaching the highest concentration in Artemia after 30 min of bioencapsulation (10e4 CFU/Artemia. A slight further decrease (10e3 CFU/Artemia was observed after 24h. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus reduced in 1Log total Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia during the 3 first hours. Therefore, 3 hours was the time established for the bioencapsulation protocol and further studies are in progress to determine the ability of Artemia metanauplii to maintain bioencapsulated L. rhamnosus once transferred to rearing tanks. Also, the capability of the probiotic to inhibit potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria will be assessed.

  12. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis. Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, D.J.; Debeij, J.; Zaane, B. van; Dekkers, O.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Buller, H.R.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Gerdes, V.E.; Cannegieter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin level

  13. Enhancement of pulmonary tumour seeding by human coagulation factors II, IX, X--an investigation into the possible mechanisms involved.

    OpenAIRE

    Purushotham, A D; McCulloch, P.; George, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    Warfarin inhibits metastasis in the animal model and injection of the Warfarin-dependent coagulation factor complex II, IX, X enhances pulmonary metastasis in the same model. We have studied two possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effect. Mtln3, rat mammary carcinoma cells, radiolabelled with 5-(125) Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUDR) were injected intravenously in female Fisher 344 rats either alone or in combination with factor complex II, IX, X or bovine serum albumin. Following sacr...

  14. Effects of whole-body vibration training on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ghazalian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to evaluate effects of 5-week whole body vibration (WBV training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic/coagulative factors. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects were divided randomly in high or low-amplitude vibration, and control groups. Training consisted of 5-week WBV with amplitudes 4 or 2 mm. Plasma samples were analyzed before and after training. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA (P = 0.028 (pretest: 1744.61 ± 707.95; posttest: 2313.63 ± 997.19 pg/ml, and decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 (P = 0.033 (pretest: 97.94 ± 34.37; posttest: 85.12 ± 36.92 ng/ml. Fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. Low-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tPA (P = 0.006 (pretest: 2208.18 ± 1280.37; posttest: 3492.72 ± 3549.22 pg/ml. PAI-1, fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations in WBV training may affect fibrinolytic factors.

  15. The effect of different methods of leucoreduction on plasma coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul Enein, Azza A; Abdel Rahman, Hala A; Abdel Maged, Mohamed M M; El Sissy, Maha H

    2017-03-01

    Removal of leucocytes from blood products, namely leucoreduction, improves the safety of blood transfusion by reducing adverse events associated with the incidental transfusion of leucocytes. Coagulation factors might be compromised during leucoreduction because of exposure of plasma to a variety of filter materials. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of different methods of prestorage leucofiltration (apheresis and whole blood filters) on prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time and factors V and VIII. There was a significant prolongation of prothrombin time as well as elevation of international normalized ratio in plasma after leucoreduction (14.5 ± 0.7 s vs. 13.9 ± 0.7 s, P = 0.008 and 1.14 ± 0.07 vs. 1.09 ± 0.07, P = 0.005, respectively). Also, there was a statistically significant prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time in nonleucoreduced plasma (55.6 ± 9.9 s vs. 43.2 ± 12.8 s, P = 0.001). There was no significant filtration effect on factors V and VIII levels. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in factors V and VIII levels between plasma filtered by inline whole blood filters and apheresis machine. Leucodepleted plasma originating from both inline whole blood filter and apheresis machine maintained satisfactory levels of factors V and VIII.

  16. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Wolfgang

    2002-10-31

    Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting

  17. Influential factors of formation kinetics of flocs produced by water treatment coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunde Wu; Lin Wang; Bing Hu; Jian Ye

    2013-01-01

    The growth rate and size of floc formation is of great importance in water treatment especially in coagulation process.The floc formation kinetics and the coagulation efficiency of synthetic water were investigated by using an on-line continuous optical photometric dispersion analyze and the analysis of water quality.Experimental conditions such as alum dosage,pH value for coagulation,stirring intensity and initial turbidity were extensively examined.The photometric dispersion analyze results showed that coagulation of kaolin suspensions with two coagulants (alum and polyaluminium chloride) could be taken as a two-phase process:slow and rapid growth periods.Operating conditions with higher coagulant doses,appropriate pH and average shear rate might be particularly advantageous.The rate of overall floc growth was mainly determined by a combination of hydraulic and water quality conditions such as pH and turbidity.The measurement of zeta potential indicates that polyaluminium chloride exhibited higher charge-neutralizing ability than alum and achieved lower turbidities than alum for equivalent Al dosages.Under the same operating conditions,the alum showed a higher grow rate,but with smaller floc size.

  18. Coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism and the risk of puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruthika-Vinod, T P; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Christopher, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a relatively common form of stroke in young women in India. The blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) R353Q polymorphism increases the risk for venous thrombosis. Our aim was to investigate the association of FVII R353Q polymorphism with the risk of puerperal CVT. A total of 100 women with puerperal CVT and 102 age-matched women without postpartum complications were investigated. FVII R353Q genotypes were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our results showed that the homozygous FVII 353QQ genotype was present in 9% and 8% of patients and controls, respectively; and 42% of patients and 31.4% of controls had the heterozygous 353RQ genotype (odds ratio = 1.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.89-2.70; p = 0.243). Our findings suggest that the FVII R353Q polymorphism is not associated with increased risk for CVT occurring during the puerperal period in Indian women.

  19. Expression of human coagulation Factor IX in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lingxia; Chen, Yuhui; Cui, Lijie; Ren, Weiwei; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, a plant binary expression vector PG-pRD12-hFIX (where PG is polygalacturonase) harbouring the hFIX (human coagulation Factor IX) gene was constructed and introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After kanamycin selection, 32 putative independent transgenic tomato plants were regenerated. PCR and Southern-blot analyses confirmed the transgenic status of some plants. RT (reverse transcription)-PCR analysis for the expression of the introduced gene (hFIX) demonstrated that the hFIX gene was expressed specifically in fruits of the tomato. Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of a 56 kDa band specific to hFIX in the transformed tomatoes. ELISA results showed that the expression of hFIX protein reached a maximum of 15.84 ng/g fresh weight in mature fruit. A blood-clotting assay demonstrated the clotting activity of the expressed hFIX protein in transgenic tomato fruits. This is the first report on the expression of hFIX in plants, and our research provides potentially valuable knowledge for further development of the plant-derived therapeutic proteins.

  20. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5-FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad-FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy.

  1. Defective glycosylation of coagulation factor XII underlies hereditary angioedema type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jenny; de Maat, Steven; Lewandrowski, Urs; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Oschatz, Chris; Schönig, Kai; Nöthen, Markus M; Drouet, Christian; Braley, Hal; Nolte, Marc W; Sickmann, Albert; Panousis, Con; Maas, Coen; Renné, Thomas

    2015-08-03

    Hereditary angioedema type III (HAEIII) is a rare inherited swelling disorder that is associated with point mutations in the gene encoding the plasma protease factor XII (FXII). Here, we demonstrate that HAEIII-associated mutant FXII, derived either from HAEIII patients or recombinantly produced, is defective in mucin-type Thr309-linked glycosylation. Loss of glycosylation led to increased contact-mediated autoactivation of zymogen FXII, resulting in excessive activation of the bradykinin-forming kallikrein-kinin pathway. In contrast, both FXII-driven coagulation and the ability of C1-esterase inhibitor to bind and inhibit activated FXII were not affected by the mutation. Intravital laser-scanning microscopy revealed that, compared with control animals, both F12-/- mice reconstituted with recombinant mutant forms of FXII and humanized HAEIII mouse models with inducible liver-specific expression of Thr309Lys-mutated FXII exhibited increased contact-driven microvascular leakage. An FXII-neutralizing antibody abolished bradykinin generation in HAEIII patient plasma and blunted edema in HAEIII mice. Together, the results of this study characterize the mechanism of HAEIII and establish FXII inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy to interfere with excessive vascular leakage in HAEIII and potentially alleviate edema due to other causes.

  2. A specific antidote for reversal of anticoagulation by direct and indirect inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Genmin; DeGuzman, Francis R; Hollenbach, Stanley J; Karbarz, Mark J; Abe, Keith; Lee, Gail; Luan, Peng; Hutchaleelaha, Athiwat; Inagaki, Mayuko; Conley, Pamela B; Phillips, David R; Sinha, Uma

    2013-04-01

    Inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa (fXa) have emerged as a new class of antithrombotics but lack effective antidotes for patients experiencing serious bleeding. We designed and expressed a modified form of fXa as an antidote for fXa inhibitors. This recombinant protein (r-Antidote, PRT064445) is catalytically inactive and lacks the membrane-binding γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain of native fXa but retains the ability of native fXa to bind direct fXa inhibitors as well as low molecular weight heparin-activated antithrombin III (ATIII). r-Antidote dose-dependently reversed the inhibition of fXa by direct fXa inhibitors and corrected the prolongation of ex vivo clotting times by such inhibitors. In rabbits treated with the direct fXa inhibitor rivaroxaban, r-Antidote restored hemostasis in a liver laceration model. The effect of r-Antidote was mediated by reducing plasma anti-fXa activity and the non-protein bound fraction of the fXa inhibitor in plasma. In rats, r-Antidote administration dose-dependently and completely corrected increases in blood loss resulting from ATIII-dependent anticoagulation by enoxaparin or fondaparinux. r-Antidote has the potential to be used as a universal antidote for a broad range of fXa inhibitors.

  3. Levels of acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) and coagulation factors in warfarin-treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, S; Umeki, Y

    1990-04-01

    PIVKA-II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II) was determined and compared with other coagulation factors in normal subjects and patients treated with the anticoagulant warfarin. In 18 (60%) of 30 patients treated with warfarin, PIVKA-II values were 1 microgram/ml or more, although they were less than 1 microgram/ml in all 39 normal subjects (100%). In patients treated with warfarin, values of prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were significantly higher than those in normal subjects. However, values of hepaplastintest (normotest) and thrombotest in the patients were greatly lower than those in normal subjects. There were no significant differences between bleeding time or plasma fibrinogen values in the patients and normal subjects. The values of PIVKA-II were inversely correlated (P less than 0.01) with those of hepaplastintest and thrombotest. The measurement of PIVKA-II in the plasma should be useful in detecting vitamin K-deficient status among haemorrhagic disorders.

  4. [The 1691 G > A (factor V Leiden) and 1328 T > C V coagulation factor polymorphisms and recurrent miscarriages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałajewicz-Nowak, Marta; Pityński, Kazimierz; Milewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Inherited thrombophilia might lead to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of V coagulation factor polymorphisms related with inherited thrombophilia among women in Malopolska region.Material and methods: Group of 136 women, who experienced at least 2 unexplained, idiopathic pregnancy loss. 106 healthy women having at least one uncomplicated pregnancy and delivered healthy children constituted a control group. Each patient were examined for factor V Leiden (FVL) and mutation 1328 T>C of factor V gene with use of real –time PCR and Taq-Man probes.Results: Among patients with RPL inhabiting region of Malopolska compared to control group occurred higher prevalence of FVL and mutation 1328 T>C. There is coincidence of polymorphism 1328 T>C of factor V gene and FVL in group of early and late RPL.Conclusions: TC genotype of 1328 T>C mutation carriers reveal tendency toward RPL below 7 weeks of pregnancy.Based on results of these findings inherited thrombophilia evaluation in patients after two or more RPL should be recommended.

  5. In vitro differentiation of mouse ES cells into hepatocytes with coagulation factors VIII and IX expression profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG; Ying; HUANG; Shaoliang; MIN; Jun; GUO; Zhongmin

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X are produced by hepatocytes. So factors VIII and IX deficiencies, which result in hemophilia A and B, have the potential to respond to cellular re- placement therapy. Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide a unique source for therapeutic applications. Here, E14 mouse ES cells have been induced into hepatocytes in vitro. Morphology revealed that ES-derived hepatic-like cells were round or polyhedral shaped with distinct boundary of individual cells, and some arranged in trabeculae. These cells expressed endodermal- or liver-specific mRNA --transthyretin (TTR), α1-anti-trypsin (AAT), α-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), glucose-6- phoshpatase (G6P) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). Approximately (85.1(0.5)% of the ES-de- rived cells was stained positive green with ICG uptake. These cells were also stained magenta as a result of PAS reaction. In this paper, expression of coagulation factors VIII and IX mRNA in the ES-derived cells is documented. Therefore, ES cells might be developed as substitute donor cells for the therapy of coagulation factor deficiencies.

  6. Plasma triacylglycerol and coagulation factor concentrations predict the anticoagulant effect of dietary fish oil in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M;

    2007-01-01

    determined partly the interindividual variation in thrombin generation, of which prothrombin and triacylglycerol concentrations were the main determinants. In both healthy subjects and diabetes patients, high triacylglycerol concentrations (>1.69 mmol/L) at baseline were closely linked to a strong fish oil......-induced lowering of triacylglycerol and coagulation factor V, VII, and X concentrations, and thrombin generation. We conclude that high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations predict high procoagulant activity and a lowering of thrombin potential with dietary fish oil....

  7. Novel aspects of blood coagulation factor XIII. I. Structure, distribution, activation, and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszbek, L.; Adany, R. [Univ. Medical School of Debrecen (Hungary); Mikkola, H. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a protransglutaminase that becomes activated by the concerted action of thrombin and Ca{sup 2+} in the final stage of the clotting cascade. In addition to plasma, FXIII also occurs in platelets, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. While the plasma factor is a heterotetramer consisting of paired A and B subunits (A{sub 2}B{sub 2}), its cellular counterpart lacks the B subunits and is a homodimer of potentially active A subunits (A{sub 2}). The gene coding for the A and B subunits has been localized to chromosomes 6p24-25 and 1q31-32.1, respectively. The genomic as well as the primary protein structure of both subunits has been established. Plasma FXIII circulates in association with its substrate precursor, fibrinogen. Fibrin(ogen) has an important regulatory role in the activation of plasma FXIII, for instance the proteolytic removal of activation peptide by thrombin, the dissociation of subunits A and B, and the exposure of the originally buried active site on the free A subunits. The end result of this process is the formation of an active transglutaminase, which crosslinks peptide chains through {epsilon}({gamma}-glutamyl)lysyl isopeptide bonds. The protein substrates of activated FXIII include components of the clotting-fibrinolytic system, adhesive and contractile proteins. The main physiological function of plasma FXIII is to cross-link fibrin and protect it from the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. The latter effect is achieved mainly by covalently linking {alpha}{sub 2} antiplasmin, the most potent physiological inhibitor of plasmin, to fibrin. Plasma FXIII seems to be involved in wound healing and tissue repair, and it is essential to maintaining pregnancy. Cellular FXIII, if exposed to the surface of the cells, might support or perhaps take over the hemostatic functions of plasma FXIII; however, its intracellular role has remained mostly unexplored. 328 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Effect of tirofiban combined with clopidogrel on serum inflammatory factors and coagulation functions in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hu; Chao-Ying Jin; Yun-Fang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of tirofiban combined with clopidogrel on serum inflammatory factors and coagulation functions in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods:A total of 106 patients with AMI were selected and randomly divided into observation group (55 cases) and control group (51 cases). The control group was given clopidogrel based on conventional therapy, and the observation was given tirofiban based on the control group. For 2 weeks, the changes of serum inflammatory factors (TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, P-selection) and coagulation functions (PT, TT, APTT) between the two groups were observed.Results:After treatment, TNF-α, hs-CRP, L-6 and P-selection levels in the two group both decreased compared with that before treatment (P<0.05), TNF-α, hs-CRP, L-6 and P-selection levels in the observation group were decreased more significantly than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, PT, TT and APTT levels in the two group both extended compared with that before treatment (P<0.05), PT, TT and APTT levels in the observation group were improved more significantly than that in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse reactions between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusions:Tirofiban combined with clopidogrel could restrain inflammatory response and regulate coagulation functions more significant in patients with AMI, and better than that of using clopidogrel alone.

  9. Effect of alprostadil combined with butylphthalide on the serum inflammatory factors and coagulable function in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhuo Dai; Yue-Nan Kong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of alprostadil combined with butylphthalide on the serum inflammatory factors, coagulable function in patients of acute ischemic stroke.Methods: A total of 84 cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke were randomly divided into observation group (44 cases) and control group (40 cases). The observation group was given alprostadil combined and butylphthalide based on conventional treatment, and the control group was given alprostadil based on conventional treatment. Treatment was developed for 14 d to observe the changes of serum inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, CRP, TNF-α) and coagulation correlated parameters (PT, FIB, DDI, TXB2, PAI-1) between the two groups.Results: After treatment, IL-6, IL-8, CRP, TNF-α of the two groups decreased obviously compared with before, PT increased and FIB, DDI, TXB2, PAI-1 decreased obviously compared with before. All indexes of the observation group were improved more significantly than that of the control group, with statistical difference.Conclusion:Alprostadil combined with butylphthalide can help to inhibit inflammatory reaction and improve high coagulation state in treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  10. Extrahepatic synthesis of coagulation factor Ⅶ by colorectal cancer cells promotes tumor invasion and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jian-qiang; FAN Qing; WU Wen-han; JIA Zhi-chao; LI Hui; YANG Yin-mo; LIU Yu-cun; WAN Yuan-lian

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood coagulation factor Ⅶ (FⅦ) is physiologically synthesized in the liver and released into the blood. Binding of FⅦ to tissue factor (TF) is related to the metastatic potential of tumor cells, also a significant risk factor in the development of hepatic metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been found that some cancer cells can produce FⅦ extrahepatically. However, litte is known about FⅦ and CRC. We therefore hypothesized that CRC cells may synthese FⅦ, leading to tumor invasion and metastasis.Methods We detected the expression of FⅦ protein in 55 CRC specimens by immunohistochemical staining. The FⅦ mRNA in 45 of 55 CRC cases, 6 colon cancer cell lines and one hepatoma cell line was measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Transwell invasion assays were performed to evaluate the changes of cell migration and invasion of LoVo cancer cells in vitro. We further observed the likely effectors regulated by the TF/FⅦa complex Western blotting assay.Results Extrahepatic synthesis of FⅦ was detected in the cytoplasm of 32 (58.2%) CRC specimens byimmunohistochemistry, but not in normal mucosa. Liver metastasis (P=0.003) and TNM staging (P=0.005) were significantly correlated with FⅦ antigen expression. The positive ratios in stages Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were 33.3%, 40.0%,52.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The expression of FⅦ mRNA in CRC with hepatic metastasis was significantly higher than CRC without hepatic metastasis (5.33±2.88 vs. 1.47±0.51, P=0.03). Ectopic FⅦa induced a slight increase (1.34-fold) in the number of migrating cells, which was inhibited by the specific TF antibody. The formation of TF/FⅦacomplex resulted in a marked increase in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 (3.5-fold) and MMP-9(4.7-fold) in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner.Conclusions Extrahepatic synthesis of FⅦ by CRC cells may promote tumor invasion and metastasis. MMPs, as downstream

  11. Quality Control and Assurance for Coagulation Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭黎明

    2006-01-01

    @@ The coagulation laboratory aids the clinician in assessing not only the bleeding patient but also the thrombotic patient. The techniques of coagulation laboratory are used to evaluate not only the coagulation system but also the anti-coagulation system, fibrinolytic system,platelet and vascular endothelial function. Enzymes, inhibitors, plasma factors and co-factors, cellular release products, and cell receptors can be measured in coagulation laboratory.

  12. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M;

    2001-01-01

    , 3.5, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first fat load. Triglycerides, activated FVII (FVIIa), FVII coagulant activity (FVIIc), FVII amidolytic activity (FVIIam) and prothrombin fragment I + 2 (F1 + 2) were analysed in plasma samples. Median plasma triglycerides were significantly raised from 0.67 mmol....../l (baseline) to 2.56 mmol/l 5 h postprandially (P high-fat meal does not seem...

  13. Association of Coagulation and Inflammation Related Genes and Factor VIIc Levels with Stroke: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, Neil A.; Lange, Leslie; Longstreth, W.T.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Kelley, Joanna L; Fornage, Myriam; Nikerson, Debbie; Cushman, Mary; Reiner, Alexander P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Thrombosis and inflammation are critical in stroke etiology, but associations of coagulation and inflammation gene variants with stroke, and particularly factor VII levels are inconclusive. Objectives To test the associations between 736 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) between tagging haplotype patterns of 130 coagulation and inflammation genes, and stroke events in the 5,888 participants ≥ 65 of the observational Cardiovascular Health Study cohort. Patients /Methods: With 16 years of follow-up, age and sex-adjusted Cox models were used to estimate associations of SNPs and factor VIIc levels with future stroke. Results 815 strokes occurred in 5,255 genotyped participants without baseline stroke (748 ischemic strokes, 586 among whites). Among whites, 6 SNPs were associated with stroke with a nominal p HABP2 gene); rs3138055 (NFKB1A) and rs4648004 (NFKB1). Two of these SNPs were associated with factor VIIc levels (units = percent activity): rs6046 (β = −18.5, p = 2.38 × 10−83) and rs3093261 (β = 2.99, p = 3.93 × 10−6). Adjusting for age, sex, race, and cardiovascular risk factors, the association of factor VIIc quintiles (Q) with stroke were (HR: 95% CI): Q1 (reference); Q2 (1.4; 1.1, 1.9); Q3 (1.1; 0.8, 1.5); Q4 (1.5; 1.1, 2.0); Q5 (1.6; 1.2, 2.2). Associations between SNPs and stroke were independent of factor VIIc levels. Conclusions Variation in factor VII-related genes and factor VIIc levels were associated with risk of incident ischemic stroke in this elderly cohort, suggesting a potential causal role for factor VII in stroke etiology. PMID:21114618

  14. Tissue Factor in Dermatitis Herpetiformis and Bullous Pemphigoid: Link between Immune and Coagulation System in Subepidermal Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zebrowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and bullous pemphigoid (BP are skin diseases associated with eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltrations. Although chemokines are critical for the selective accumulation and activation of various leukocyte subsets in the inflammatory process, there are few findings concerning inflammatory cells and production of coagulation factors in blistering diseases. Skin biopsies were taken from 14 patients with DH, 27 with BP, and 20 control subjects. The localization and expression of tissue factor (TF in skin lesions and perilesional skin were studied by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by Western Blot. Moreover the plasma concentrations of TF were measured by immunoassays. D dimers, fibrinogen, and selected coagulation parameters were measured by routine methods. Expression of TF in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in dermis was detected in skin biopsies from BP patients. Examined TF expression was detected in perilesional skin of all BP patients too. The expression of TF was not observed in biopsies from healthy people and DH patients. The findings of the study show an increased expression of tissue factor in the lesional and perilesional skin of patients with bullous pemphigoid. The difference in chemokine pattern expression and variations in the cellular infiltration in BP and DH cause variable expression of TF.

  15. Fouling of microfiltration membranes by organic polymer coagulants and flocculants: controlling factors and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Liu, Charles; Li, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Organic polymers are commonly used as coagulants or flocculants in pretreatment for microfiltration (MF). These high molecular weight compounds are potential membrane foulants when carried over to the MF filters. This study examined fouling of three MF membranes of different materials by three commonly used water treatment polymers: poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (pDADMAC), polyacrylamide (PAM), and poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (PACA) with a wide range of molecular weights. The effects of polymer molecular characteristics, membrane surface properties, solution condition and polymer concentration on membrane fouling were investigated. Results showed severe fouling of microfiltration membranes at very low polymer concentrations, suggesting that residual polymers carried over from the coagulation/flocculation basin can contribute significantly to membrane fouling. The interactions between polymers and membranes depended strongly on the molecular size and charge of the polymer. High molecular weight, positively charged polymers caused the greatest fouling. Blockage of membrane pore openings was identified as the main fouling mechanism with no detectable internal fouling in spite of the small molecular size of the polymers relative to the membrane pore size. Solution conditions (e.g., pH and calcium concentration) that led to larger polymer molecular or aggregate sizes resulted in greater fouling.

  16. A comparative study of tissue factor and kaolin on blood coagulation assays using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Henry T; Grodecki, Richard; Rizoli, Sandro; Shek, Pang N

    2016-01-01

    Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been increasingly used to diagnose acute coagulopathy and guide blood transfusion. The tests are routinely performed using different triggering activators such as tissue factor and kaolin, which activate different pathways yielding different results. To optimize the global blood coagulation assays using ROTEM and TEG, we conducted a comparative study on the activation methods employing tissue factor and kaolin at different concentrations as well as standard reagents as recommended by the manufacturer of each device. Key parameter values were obtained at various assay conditions to evaluate and compare coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles of citrated whole blood collected from healthy volunteers. It was found that tissue factor reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R, and increased ROTEM clot formation time and TEG K in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, tissue factor affected ROTEM alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness, especially in the absence of kaolin activation, whereas both ROTEM and TEG clot lysis (LI30, CL30, and LY30) remained unaffected. Moreover, kaolin reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R and K, but to a lesser extent than tissue factor, in-tem and ex-tem. Correlations in all corresponding parameters between ROTEM and TEG were observed, when the same activators were used in the assays compared with lesser correlations between standard kaolin TEG and ROTEM (INTEM/EXTEM). The two types of viscoelastic point-of-care devices provide different results, depending on the triggering reagent used to perform the assay. Optimal assay condition was obtained to reduce assay time and improve assay accuracy.

  17. Enhancement of pulmonary tumour seeding by human coagulation factors II, IX, X--an investigation into the possible mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, A D; McCulloch, P; George, W D

    1991-09-01

    Warfarin inhibits metastasis in the animal model and injection of the Warfarin-dependent coagulation factor complex II, IX, X enhances pulmonary metastasis in the same model. We have studied two possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effect. Mtln3, rat mammary carcinoma cells, radiolabelled with 5-(125) Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUDR) were injected intravenously in female Fisher 344 rats either alone or in combination with factor complex II, IX, X or bovine serum albumin. Following sacrifice at various intervals, measured lung radioactivity was significantly higher (20%) in animals administered cells with the factor complex than in the other two groups (P less than 0.001, ANOVA and Student's t-test). These results indicate increased entrapment of tumour cells in the pulmonary microcirculation. In a second experiment, rat factor complex II, IX, X was prepared, and Mtln3 cells were then injected in female Fisher 344 rats alone or in combination with either human factor complex or rat factor complex. Following sacrifice, the number of pulmonary nodules in animals receiving cells with rat factor complex was similar to that in animals receiving human factor complex, and significantly higher than that in the control (P less than 0.001, ANOVA and Mann-Whitney), indicating that the observed enhancement of pulmonary seeding is unrelated to the xenogeneic properties of the human factor complex.

  18. Moderation of prekallkrein-factor XII interactions in surface activation of coagulation by protein-adsorption competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Thornton, Jennifer L; Bauer, James W; Vogler, Erwin A; Siedlecki, Christopher A

    2009-10-01

    Traditional biochemistry of contact activation of blood coagulation suggesting that anionic hydrophilic surfaces are specific activators of the cascade is inconsistent with known trends in protein adsorption. To investigate contact activation reactions, a chromogenic assay was used to measure prekallkrein (PK) hydrolysis to kallikrein (Kal) by activated factor XII (FXIIa) at test hydrophilic (clean glass) and hydrophobic (silanized glass) surfaces in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Hydrolysis of PK by FXIIa is detected after contact of the zymogen FXII with a test hydrophobic surface only if putatively-adsorbed FXIIa is competitively displaced by BSA. By contrast, FXIIa activity is detected spontaneously following FXII activation by a hydrophilic surface and requires no adsorption displacement. These results (i) show that an anionic hydrophilic surface is not a necessary cofactor for FXIIa-mediated hydrolysis of PK, (ii) indicate that PK hydrolysis does not need to occur by an activation complex assembled directly on an anionic, activating surface, (iii) confirms that contact activation of FXII (autoactivation) is not specific to anionic hydrophilic surfaces, and (iv) demonstrates that protein-adsorption competition is an essential feature that must be included in any comprehensive mechanism of surface-induced blood coagulation.

  19. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  20. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  1. Relationship between coagulation factors and urticaria%凝血因子与荨麻疹的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁碧华; 朱慧兰

    2009-01-01

    荨麻疹是一种常见的、复发性的皮肤病.其发病机制复杂,至今尚未完全清楚.近年来有学者提出荨麻疹发病可能与凝血状态有关,并对凝血酶原片段F1+2、D二聚体、因子Ⅶ和因子Ⅻ等凝血因子进行相关研究,认为慢性荨麻疹患者体内存在外源性凝血级联反应激活以及纤溶状态,凝血酶生成可能在荨麻疹的发病中起着作用.抗凝治疗在荨麻疹药物治疗中显示出一定的临床应用前景.%Urticaria is a common, recurrent and refractory skin disease. The exact pathogenic mechanism of urticaria is complex and unclear. It has been proposed that the development of urticaria is associated with coagulation status. Related studies on thrombinogen fragment F (1+2), D dimmer, factor Ⅶ and factor Ⅻ revealed the activation of extrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade and signs of fibrinolysis in patients with chronic urticaria. Thromhin generation may play a key role in the pathogenesis of urticaria. And anticoagulant drugs have exhibited a good prospect in the medication of urticaria.

  2. Independent anti-angiogenic capacities of coagulation factors X and Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Soledad; Gonzalez, Ibeth; Pinto, Mauricio P; Arce, Maximiliano; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Aranda, Evelyn; Elliot, Matias; Alvarez, Marjorie; Henriquez, Soledad; Velasquez, Ethel V; Orge, Felipe; Oliva, Barbara; Gonzalez, Pamela; Villalon, Manuel; Cautivo, Kelly M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Pereira, Karla; Mendoza, Camila; Saez, Claudia; Kato, Sumie; Cuello, Mauricio A; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Palma, Veronica; Allende, Miguel L; Owen, Gareth I

    2014-11-01

    Knockout models have shown that the coagulation system has a role in vascular development and angiogenesis. Herein, we report for the first time that zymogen FX and its active form (FXa) possess anti-angiogenic properties. Both the recombinant FX and FXa inhibit angiogenesis in vitro using endothelial EA.hy926 and human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). This effect is dependent on the Gla domain of FX. We demonstrate that FX and FXa use different mechanisms: the use of Rivaroxaban (RX) a specific inhibitor of FXa attenuated its anti-angiogenic properties but did not modify the anti-angiogenic effect of FX. Furthermore, only the anti-angiogenic activity of FXa is PAR-1dependent. Using in vivo models, we show that FX and FXa are anti-angiogenic in the zebrafish intersegmental vasculature (ISV) formation and in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Our results provide further evidence for the non-hemostatic functions of FX and FXa and demonstrate for the first time a biological role for the zymogen FX.

  3. X-ray structure of antistasin at 1.9 angstrom resolution and its modelled complex with blood coagulation factor Xa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapatto, R; Krengel, U; Schreuder, HA; Arkema, A; deBoer, B; Kalk, KH; Hol, WGJ; Grootenhuis, PDJ; Mulders, JWM; Dijkema, R; Theunissen, HJM; Dijkstra, BW

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of antistasin, a potent inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa, from the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis was determined at 1.9 Angstrom resolution by X-ray crystallography, The structure reveals a novel protein fold composed of two homologous domains, each res

  4. Structural investigation of zymogenic and activated forms of human blood coagulation factor VIII: a computational molecular dynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Divi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII is a large plasma glycoprotein with sequential domain arrangement in the order A1-a1-A2-a2-B-a3-A3-C1-C2. The A1, A2 and A3 domains are interconnected by long linker peptides (a1, a2 and a3 that possess the activation sites. Proteolysis of fVIII zymogen by thrombin or factor Xa results in the generation of the activated form (fVIIIa which serves as a critical co-factor for factor IXa (fIXa enzyme in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Results In our efforts to elucidate the structural differences between fVIII and fVIIIa, we developed the solution structural models of both forms, starting from an incomplete 3.7 Å X-ray crystal structure of fVIII zymogen, using explicit solvent MD simulations. The full assembly of B-domainless single-chain fVIII was built between the A1-A2 (Ala1-Arg740 and A3-C1-C2 (Ser1669-Tyr2332 domains. The structural dynamics of fVIII and fVIIIa, simulated for over 70 ns of time scale, enabled us to evaluate the integral motions of the multi-domain assembly of the co-factor and the possible coordination pattern of the functionally important calcium and copper ion binding in the protein. Conclusions MD simulations predicted that the acidic linker peptide (a1 between the A1 and A2 domains is largely flexible and appears to mask the exposure of putative fIXa enzyme binding loop (Tyr555-Asp569 region in the A2 domain. The simulation of fVIIIa, generated from the zymogen structure, predicted that the linker peptide (a1 undergoes significant conformational reorganization upon activation by relocating completely to the A1-domain. The conformational transition led to the exposure of the Tyr555-Asp569 loop and the surrounding region in the A2 domain. While the proposed linker peptide conformation is predictive in nature and warrants further experimental validation, the observed conformational differences between the zymogen and activated forms may explain and support the

  5. Optical factors determined by the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement of absolute coagulation rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shenghua; Liu, Jie; Sun, Zhiwei

    2006-12-01

    Turbidity measurement for the absolute coagulation rate constants of suspensions has been extensively adopted because of its simplicity and easy implementation. A key factor in deriving the rate constant from experimental data is how to theoretically evaluate the so-called optical factor involved in calculating the extinction cross section of doublets formed during aggregation. In a previous paper, we have shown that compared with other theoretical approaches, the T-matrix method provides a robust solution to this problem and is effective in extending the applicability range of the turbidity methodology, as well as increasing measurement accuracy. This paper will provide a more comprehensive discussion of the physical insight for using the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement and associated technical details. In particular, the importance of ensuring the correct value for the refractive indices for colloidal particles and the surrounding medium used in the calculation is addressed, because the indices generally vary with the wavelength of the incident light. The comparison of calculated results with experiments shows that the T-matrix method can correctly calculate optical factors even for large particles, whereas other existing theories cannot. In addition, the data of the optical factor calculated by the T-matrix method for a range of particle radii and incident light wavelengths are listed.

  6. [Ssp DnaB intein-mediated ligation of heavy and light chains of coagulation factor VIII in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Liu, Zelong; Qu, Huige; Xin, Xiaolin; Dong, Hongxin; Liu, Xiangqin

    2009-07-01

    We studied the ligation of coagulation factor VIII heavy and light chains in Escherichia coli by utilizing the intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. A B-domain deleted factor VIII (BDD-FVIII) gene was broken into two halves of heavy and light chains before Ser1657 which meets the splicing required conserved residue and then fused to 106 and 48 amino acid-containing N-part termed Int-N and C-part termed Int-C coding sequences of split mini Ssp DnaB intein respectively. These two fusion genes were constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. Through induction for expression of recombinant protein it displayed an obvious protein band as predicted size of BDD-FVIII protein on SDS-PAGE gel. Western blotting using factor VIII specific antibodies confirmed that this protein band is BDD-FVIII produced by protein trans-splicing. It demonstrated that the heavy and light chains of BDD-FVIII can be efficiently ligated with the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. These results provided evidence for encouraging our ongoing investigation with intein as a means in dual AAV vectors carrying the factor VIII gene to overcome the packaging size limitation of a single AAV vector in hemophilia A gene therapy.

  7. The coagulation factor Xa/protease activated receptor-2 axis in the progression of liver fibrosis : a multifaceted paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; von der Thusen, Jan H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Activation of the coagulation cascade during liver fibrosis: a puzzling paradox Protease-activated receptors: the link between coagulation cascade activation and liver fibrosis Expression and distribution of human PAR-2 in normal and pathological liver tissue FXa signalling on PAR-2 exp

  8. Use of the copepod Oithona hebes as a bioencapsulator of essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Vanacor Barroso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe advantages of using copepods in aquaculture include nutritional superiority, high digestibility and broad spectrum of sizes, with the possibility of bioencapsulation of nutrients, probiotics and medicines. This study aimed to compare the effects of feeding copepods with a microalgae diet and two commercial inert diets on the copepod culture performance and their fatty acid profile. Wild copepods were collected in the estuarine system of Piraquê-açu River, Aracruz, Espírito Santo, Brazil, with a conical net of 60 cm in diameter and 200 μm mesh with a blind cup end, towed through the subsurface layer at a speed of 1 knot for 5 minutes. Once collected, the material was sieved in order to select only Oithona hebes. The experiment was conducted in nine cylindrical-conical tanks with a 60 L capacity, salinity of 25.8 ± 1.3, temperature of 25.5 ± 0.5 ºC and weak aeration, stocked with a density of 1.5 copepod/mL. Treatments were made in triplicate and consisted of: Treatment 1 (Control fed with microalgae Chaetoceros gracilis and Nannochloropsis oculata (1:1 with 50,000 cells.mL-1each; Treatment 2 with S.Parkle® INVE (1g.million-1; and Treatment 3 with freeze-dried spirulina (1g.million-1. The mean final population was compared by a Tukey test (p < 0.05. Results showed higher population growth for copepods treated with S.parkle, which was the only treatment that presented copepodites. S.parkle was a good source of total lipids (9.54 g.100g-1 dry weight, high availability of DHA, EPA and had a good DHA:EPA:ARA ratio of 12.4:3.4:1.0. Copepods that were fed S.parkle had the highest DHA levels and a DHA:EPA:ARA ratio of 15.4:2.2:1.0. This study showed that S.parkle is a good inert food for rearing the copepod O. hebes, demonstrating the ability of copepods to bioencapsulate nutrients, allowing their transfer in the food chain.

  9. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  10. Synthesis of alginate bioencapsulated nano-hydroxyapatite composite for selective fluoride sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi, Kalimuthu; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy

    2014-11-04

    This article focuses on the development of eco-friendly adsorbent by alginate (Alg) bioencapsulating nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) namely n-HApAlg composite for defluoridation studies in batch mode. n-HAp powder utilized as a promising defluoridating material, but it causes a significant pressure drop during field applications. To overcome such technological bottlenecks, n-HApAlg composite was synthesized. The defluoridation capacity (DC) of synthesized n-HApAlg composite possesses an enhanced DC of 3870 mg F(-)/kg when compared to n-HAp and calcium alginate (CaAlg) composite which possess DC of 1296 and 680 mg F(-)/kg, respectively. The biocomposite features were characterized using FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The various adsorption influencing parameters like contact time, pH, co-anions, initial fluoride concentration and temperature were optimized. The adsorption process was enlightened by various isotherms and kinetic models. The suitability of the biocomposite at field conditions was also tested.

  11. Whey protein-derived biomaterials and their use as bioencapsulation and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subirade Muriel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioactive food compounds (nutraceutical compounds with health benefits provides an excellent opportunity for improving public health. The incorporation of bioactive compounds into food systems is therefore of great interest to researchers in their efforts to develop innovative functional foods that may have physiological benefits or reduce the risk of disease beyond basic nutritional functions. However, the effectiveness of these products in preventing diseases relies on preserving the bioavailability of their active ingredients. This represents undoubtedly a great challenge since these molecules are generally sensitive to environmental conditions encountered in food processes (i.e., temperature oxygen, and light or in the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., pH, enzymes presence of other nutrients, which limit their activity and potential health benefits. However, bio- and microencapsulation can be used to overcome these limitations. Whey proteins, also known as the serum proteins of milk, are widely used in food products, because of their high nutritional value and their ability to form gels, emulsions, or foams. The aim of this article is to provide information on the different types of materials obtained from whey proteins and to examine their use as bioencapsulation and delivery systems.

  12. Etiopathogenesis of Sheehan’s Syndrome: Roles of Coagulation Factors and TNF-Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Diri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheehan’s Syndrome (SS is defined as pituitary hormone deficiency due to ischemic infarction of the pituitary gland as a result of massive postpartum uterine hemorrhage. Herein, we aimed to investigate the roles of Factor II (G20210A, Factor V (G1691A, MTHFR (C677T and A1298C, PAI-1 4G/5G, and TNF-α (-308  G>A gene polymorphisms in the etiopathogenesis of SS. Venous blood samples were obtained from 53 cases with SS and 43 healthy women. Standard methods were used to extract the genomic DNAs. Factor II (G20210A, Factor V (G1691A, and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were identified by real-time PCR. PAI-1 4G/5G and TNF-α (-308  G>A gene polymorphisms were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods. According to statistical analysis, none of the polymorphisms were found to be significantly higher in the SS group compared to the control group. Hence, we suggest that genetic factors other than Factor II, Factor V, MTHFR, PAI-1, and TNF-α gene polymorphisms should be researched in the etiopathogenesis of SS.

  13. Etiopathogenesis of Sheehan's Syndrome: Roles of Coagulation Factors and TNF-Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diri, Halit; Sener, Elif Funda; Bayram, Fahri; Tascioglu, Nazife; Simsek, Yasin; Dundar, Munis

    2014-01-01

    Sheehan's Syndrome (SS) is defined as pituitary hormone deficiency due to ischemic infarction of the pituitary gland as a result of massive postpartum uterine hemorrhage. Herein, we aimed to investigate the roles of Factor II (G20210A), Factor V (G1691A), MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), PAI-1 4G/5G, and TNF- α (-308  G > A) gene polymorphisms in the etiopathogenesis of SS. Venous blood samples were obtained from 53 cases with SS and 43 healthy women. Standard methods were used to extract the genomic DNAs. Factor II (G20210A), Factor V (G1691A), and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms were identified by real-time PCR. PAI-1 4G/5G and TNF- α (-308  G > A) gene polymorphisms were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. According to statistical analysis, none of the polymorphisms were found to be significantly higher in the SS group compared to the control group. Hence, we suggest that genetic factors other than Factor II, Factor V, MTHFR, PAI-1, and TNF- α gene polymorphisms should be researched in the etiopathogenesis of SS.

  14. Novel determinants in coagulation pathophysiology: reappraising the role of β2-glycoprotein I, factor seven activating protease and protein S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dienava-Verdoold, I.

    2012-01-01

    Blood coagulation cascade ensures the arrest of bleeding and restoration of vascular integrity after physical damage and therefore is essential to normal physiology. However, many pathological conditions can disturb the tightly regulated haemostatic balance. Inflammation or malignancies may promote

  15. Expression, purification, and partial in vitro characterization of biologically active human coagulation factor VIII light chain (A3-C1-C2) in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A R, Sudheer Reddy; Satheeshkumar, Padikara Kutty; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2013-09-01

    Recombinant coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) expressed in mammalian expression systems is used extensively in the treatment of hemophilia A. It is reported that the heavy (A1-A2) and light chains (A3-C1-C2) of factor VIII purified from plasma regained the coagulation activity by dimerization in vitro. In this work, cDNA coding for the light chain of human coagulation factor VIII (FVIII-LC) was cloned into pPICZα-A expression vector downstream of alcohol oxidase promoter and α-mating signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to express the protein with a native N-terminus. The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris X-33, was transformed with this cassette, and transformants were selected for production of human factor VIII light chain into culture media. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of factor VIII light chain protein. The expressed protein was purified to near homogeneity using histidine ligand affinity chromatography (2.342 mg/L). The biological activity of FVIII-LC was confirmed by analyzing the interaction between FVIII-LC and phospholipid vesicles. The data presented here indicate the possibilities of exploring cost-effective systems to express complex proteins of therapeutic value.

  16. Targeting of the human coagulation factor IX gene at rDNA locus of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic modification is a prerequisite to realizing the full potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in human genetic research and regenerative medicine. Unfortunately, the random integration methods that have been the primary techniques used keep creating problems, and the primary alternative method, gene targeting, has been effective in manipulating mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs but poorly in hESCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human ribosomal DNA (rDNA repeats are clustered on the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes. They consist of approximately 400 copies of the 45S pre-RNA (rRNA gene per haploid. In the present study, we targeted a physiological gene, human coagulation factor IX, into the rDNA locus of hESCs via homologous recombination. The relative gene targeting efficiency (>50% and homologous recombination frequency (>10(-5 were more than 10-fold higher than those of loci targeted in previous reports. Meanwhile, the targeted clones retained both a normal karyotype and the main characteristics of ES cells. The transgene was found to be stably and ectopically expressed in targeted hESCs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first targeting of a human physiological gene at a defined locus on the hESC genome. Our findings indicate that the rDNA locus may serve as an ideal harbor for transgenes in hESCs.

  17. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from transgenic mice carrying human coagulation factor VIII can correct phenotype in hemophilia A mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Gong, Xiuli; Gong, Zhijuan; Ren, Xiaoyie; Ren, Zhaorui; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-12-20

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Previous studies showed that introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by FVIII-expressing retrovirus may result in phenotypic correction of HA animals. This study aimed at the investigation of an alternative gene therapy strategy that may lead to sustained FVIII transgene expression in HA mice. B-domain-deleted human FVIII (hFVIIIBD) vector was microinjected into single-cell embryos of wild-type mice to generate a transgenic mouse line, from which hFVIIIBD-MSCs were isolated, followed by transplantation into HA mice. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of hFVIIIBD in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of hFVIIIBD positive staining in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. ELISA indicated that plasma hFVIIIBD level in recipient mice reached its peak (77 ng/mL) at the 3rd week after implantation, and achieved sustained expression during the 5-week observation period. Plasma FVIII activities of recipient HA mice increased from 0% to 32% after hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplantation. APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) value decreased in hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplanted HA mice compared with untreated HA mice (45.5 s vs. 91.3 s). Our study demonstrated an effective phenotypic correction in HA mice using genetically modified MSCs from hFVIIIBD transgenic mice.

  18. Patients', physicians', and pharmacists' preferences towards coagulation factor concentrates to treat haemophilia with inhibitors: results from the COHIBA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, L; Mantovani, L G; Borghetti, F; Von Mackensen, S; Gringeri, A

    2009-03-01

    Despite modern highly efficacious technologies, there is still a lack of consensus on how to optimally treat haemophilia patients with inhibitors. The aim of the study was to evaluate preferences towards the characteristics of different coagulation factor concentrates for haemophilia inhibitors patients, from the perspective of patients or their caregivers, haematologists and pharmacists. A discrete choice study was conducted. Potential products were described with eight selected characteristics: perceived viral safety, risk of anamnestic response, possibility of undergoing major surgery, frequency of infusions in prophylaxis, number of infusions to stop bleeding, time to stop bleeding, time to pain recovery and cost. Participants received 16 pairs of potential products and chose from each pair the option they considered better. Data were analysed with a random-effects conditional logistic model. Totally 1614 observations were obtained from 37 patients/caregivers, 39 physicians and 25 pharmacists from Italy. Cost was the most important characteristic to every group. For patients/caregivers, the next most important factors were: risk of anamnestic response, possibility of undergoing major surgery and perceived viral safety. For physicians, the next most important characteristics were: risk of anamnestic response, number of infusions to stop bleeding and possibility of undergoing major surgery. For pharmacists, the next most important factors were: time to stop bleeding, time to pain recovery and possibility of undergoing major surgery. Decisions on treatments must take into account patients clinical needs; however, preferences can also play an important role in the choice and success of treatments. The results of this study could, therefore, help decision-makers to optimize the overall benefits of treatments.

  19. Endothelial cell processing and alternatively spliced transcripts of factor VIII: potential implications for coagulation cascades and pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Shovlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII deficiency leads to haemophilia A. Conversely, elevated plasma levels are a strong predictor of recurrent venous thromboemboli and pulmonary hypertension phenotypes in which in situ thromboses are implicated. Extrahepatic sources of plasma FVIII are implicated, but have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemistry of normal human lung tissue, and confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA quantification of conditioned media from normal primary endothelial cells were used to examine endothelial expression of FVIII and coexpression with von Willebrand Factor (vWF, which protects secreted FVIII heavy chain from rapid proteloysis. FVIII transcripts predicted from database mining were identified by RT-PCR and sequencing. FVIII mAb-reactive material was demonstrated in CD31+ endothelial cells in normal human lung tissue, and in primary pulmonary artery, pulmonary microvascular, and dermal microvascular endothelial cells. In pulmonary endothelial cells, this protein occasionally colocalized with vWF, centered on Weibel Palade bodies. Pulmonary artery and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells secreted low levels of FVIII and vWF to conditioned media, and demonstrated cell surface expression of FVIII and vWF Ab-reacting proteins compared to an isotype control. Four endothelial splice isoforms were identified. Two utilize transcription start sites in alternate 5' exons within the int22h-1 repeat responsible for intron 22 inversions in 40% of severe haemophiliacs. A reciprocal relationship between the presence of short isoforms and full-length FVIII transcript suggested potential splice-switching mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pulmonary endothelium is confirmed as a site of FVIII secretion, with evidence of synthesis, cell surface expression, and coexpression with vWF. There is complex alternate transcription initiation from the FVIII gene. These findings provide a

  20. Long-Acting Recombinant Fusion Protein Linking Coagulation Factor IX with Albumin (rIX-FP) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambost, Hervé; Male, Christoph; Lambert, Thierry; Halimeh, Susan; Chernova, Tatiana; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Curtin, Julie; Voigt, Christine; Li, Yanyan; Jacobs, Iris; Santagostino, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Summary A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of a recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 27 previously treated male children (1–11 years) with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2 IU/dl). All patients received routine prophylaxis once every seven days for up to 77 weeks, and treated any bleeding episodes on-demand. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 91.4 hours (h), 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment and clearance was 1.11 ml/h/kg, 6.4-fold slower than previous FIX treatment. The median (Q1, Q3) annualised spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (0.00, 0.91) and was similar between the <6 years and ≥6 years age groups, with a weekly median prophylactic dose of 46 IU/kg. In addition, patients maintained a median trough level of 13.4 IU/dl FIX activity on weekly prophylaxis. Overall, 97.2% of bleeding episodes were successfully treated with one or two injections of rIX-FP (95% CI: 92% to 99%), 88.7% with one injection, and 96% of the treatments were rated effective (excellent or good) by the Investigator. No patient developed FIX inhibitors and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate that rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia B with weekly prophylaxis. Routine prophylaxis with rIX-FP at treatment intervals of up to 14 days are currently being investigated in children with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01662531) PMID:27583313

  1. Engineering the substrate and inhibitor specificities of human coagulation Factor VIIa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Katrine S; Østergaard, Henrik; Bjelke, Jais R;

    2007-01-01

    of the selective active site in defining specificity. Being a trypsin-like serine protease, FVIIa had P1 specificity exclusively towards arginine and lysine residues. In the S2 pocket, threonine, leucine, phenylalanine and valine residues were the most preferred amino acids. Both S3 and S4 appeared to be rather...... promiscuous, however, with some preference for aromatic amino acids at both positions. Interestingly, a significant degree of interdependence between the S3 and S4 was observed and, as a consequence, the optimal substrate for FVIIa could not be derived directly from a subsite-directed specificity screen...... for FVIIa by marked changes in primary substrate specificity and decreased rates of antithrombin III inhibition. Interestingly, these changes do not necessarily coincide with an altered ability to activate Factor X, demonstrating that inhibitor and macromolecular substrate selectivity may be engineered...

  2. Regulation of coagulation factor XI expression by microRNAs in the human liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Salloum-Asfar

    Full Text Available High levels of factor XI (FXI increase the risk of thromboembolic disease. However, the genetic and environmental factors regulating FXI expression are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the regulation of FXI by microRNAs (miRNAs in the human liver. In silico prediction yielded four miRNA candidates that might regulate FXI expression. HepG2 cells were transfected with miR-181a-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-16-5p and miR-195-5p. We used mir-494, which was not predicted to bind to F11, as a negative control. Only miR-181a-5p caused a significant decrease both in FXI protein and F11 mRNA levels. In addition, transfection with a miR-181a-5p inhibitor in PLC/PRF/5 hepatic cells increased both the levels of F11 mRNA and extracellular FXI. Luciferase assays in human colon cancer cells deficient for Dicer (HCT-DK demonstrated a direct interaction between miR-181a-5p and 3'untranslated region of F11. Additionally, F11 mRNA levels were inversely and significantly correlated with miR-181a-5p levels in 114 healthy livers, but not with miR-494. This study demonstrates that FXI expression is directly regulated by a specific miRNA, miR-181a-5p, in the human liver. Future studies are necessary to further investigate the potential consequences of miRNA dysregulation in pathologies involving FXI.

  3. The M358R variant of α(1)-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, William P; Bhakta, Varsha

    2016-02-12

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg-Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg-Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10(2) M(-1)sec(-1). We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin.

  4. Impaired Activity of Blood Coagulant Factor XIII in Patients with Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guo-Zhong; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Gigi; Abdullah, Fizan; Harris, Mary Cay; Brandt, Mary L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Bowers, Corinna; Martin, Camilia R; Moss, R Lawrence; Sylvester, Karl G

    2015-08-17

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) medical/surgical emergency of the newborn and a leading cause of preterm neonate morbidity and mortality. NEC is a challenge to diagnose since it often shares similar clinical features with neonatal sepsis. In the present study, plasma protein profiling was compared among NEC, sepsis and control cohorts using gel electrophoresis, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. We observed significant impairment in the formation of fibrinogen-γ dimers (FGG-dimer) in the plasma of newborns with NEC that could efficiently differentiate NEC and sepsis with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. Interestingly, the impaired FGG-dimer formation could be restored in NEC plasma by the addition of exogenous active factor XIII (FXIII). Enzymatic activity of FXIII was determined to be significantly lower in NEC subject plasma for crosslinking FGG when compared to sepsis. These findings demonstrate a potential novel biomarker and related biologic mechanism for diagnosing NEC, as well as suggest a possible therapeutic strategy.

  5. The acute effect of moderate intensity aquatic exercise on coagulation factors in haemophiliacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Luis Gustavo Normanton; Abreu, Laurinda; Almeida, Jussara; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyse the acute effect of aquatic exercise on haemostasis in persons with haemophilia. Ten adult haemophiliacs (8 type A, 2 type B) familiarized with aquatic training performed a 20-min exercise session in a swimming pool at an intensity of ~70% maximum heart rate (HR). Blood samples were collected immediately after the training session. The haemostatic parameters selected for analyses were factor VIII (FVIII), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen. There were unclear effects of the exercise bout on FVIII and APTT, with a possibly beneficial effect on PT (-11·4%; 90% confidence interval: -26·1;3·3%), and a trivial change on fibrinogen levels. It was found an association between the mean rise in HR during exercise and the decrement in PT after exercise (r = 0·729; P = 0·026). The greater changes were observed in the patients diagnosed with a moderate level of haemophilia. It is concluded that a short bout of moderate intensity of aquatic exercise may have a positive influence on PT in adults with haemophilia with greater changes in those individuals exhibiting a greater rise in HR during exercise. This may be an important issue to the haemostatic control of haemophiliacs in clinical settings. Further studies are warranted for testing the influence of different aquatic exercise intensities on haemostasis.

  6. Expression of the human coagulation factor IX in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadehsadat Azadbakhsh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are appropriate target for gene and cell-based therapy of hemophilia B patients. MSCs possess several unique properties such as capability of differentiating into multiple lineages and lower immunogenecity in transplant procedure that make them attractive candidates for cell and gene therapy. One of the challenges in the gene therapy is the low expression level of transgene. To improve expression, strong regulatory elements in the context of vectors could contribute to improve efficacy of gene therapy strategies. In this study four human factor IX (hFIX-expressing plasmids equipped with various combination of human -globin (hBG introns and Kozak sequence were transfected into the MSCs and expression of the hFIX was evaluated in vitro. Material and Methods: MSCs were obtained from tibias and the femora of rats and phenotypic characterization of the MSCs was determined by flow cytometry. Four hFIX-expressing plasmids were introduced into the culture-expanded MSCs using transfection agent. 48 hours after transfection, ability of the MSCs for expression of the hFIX and efficacies of the plasmids were evaluated by performing sandwich ELISA on cultured media as well as semi-quantitative RT-PCR. All analyses were performed with One-way ANOVA using SPSS software. Results:The highest expression level of the hFIX was obtained from intron-less and hBG intron-I containing construct. The highest biological activity was obtained from hBG intron-I,II containing construct. Conclusion:Successful expression of the hFIX was obtained from recombinant MSCs. MSCs were able to splice heterologous hBG intron-I from the hFIX-cDNA. Application of thehBG introns reduced the hFIX expression levels, probably due to improper splicing of the hBG introns.

  7. A sequence variation scan of the coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) structural gene and associations with plasma FVIII activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Kevin R; Machiah, Deepa K; Warren, Diane M; Khachidze, Manana; Buil, Alfonso; Fernstrom, Karl; Souto, Juan C; Peralta, Juan M; Smith, Todd; Blangero, John; Porter, Sandra; Warren, Stephen T; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Soria, Jose M; Flanders, W Dana; Almasy, Laura; Howard, Tom E

    2007-05-01

    Plasma factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) level is a highly heritable quantitative trait that is strongly correlated with thrombosis risk. Polymorphisms within only 1 gene, the ABO blood-group locus, have been unequivocally demonstrated to contribute to the broad population variability observed for this trait. Because less than 2.5% of the structural FVIII gene (F8) has been examined previously, we resequenced all known functional regions in 222 potentially distinct alleles from 137 unrelated nonhemophilic individuals representing 7 racial groups. Eighteen of the 47 variants identified, including 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were previously unknown. As the degree of linkage disequilibrium across F8 was weak overall, we used measured-genotype association analysis to evaluate the influence of each polymorphism on the FVIII:C levels in 398 subjects from 21 pedigrees known as the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia project (GAIT). Our results suggested that 92714C>G, a nonsynonymous SNP encoding the B-domain substitution D1241E, was significantly associated with FVIII:C level. After accounting for important covariates, including age and ABO genotype, the association persisted with each C-allele additively increasing the FVIII:C level by 14.3 IU dL(-1) (P = .016). Nevertheless, because the alleles of 56010G>A, a SNP within the 3' splice junction of intron 7, are strongly associated with 92714C>G in GAIT, additional studies are required to determine whether D1241E is itself a functional variant.

  8. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor Ⅸ rescues factor Ⅸ deficiency mouse by AAV-mediated gene transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖立辉; 陈立; 卢大儒; 王琪; 高啸波; 邱信芳; Jerry; L.Hsueh; 薛京伦; 王健民; 周虹

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver and express human blood clotting factor DC (hFIX) gene in skeletal muscle of coagulation factor IX deficiency mouse strain (FactorIX-knockout) is e-valuated. The muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK) and βactin promoter ((3A) were used to drive the hFIX minigene (hFIXml), which was flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). Following intramuscular injection of high liter (2.5 x 1011 vector genomes/mL) of AAV, increased hFIX expression (256 ng/mL of plasma) was achieved. The time course of hFIX expression demonstrated that the expression level gradually increased over a period of two weeks before anti-hFIX antibodies developed in mouse circulating plasma. Those results provided a promising evidence that rAAV-me-diated gene transfer and skeletal muscle-specific expression of hFIX is a feasible strategy for treating patients for hemophilia B.

  9. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  10. Characterization of the gene for the a subunit of human factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase), a blood coagulation factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, A.; Davie, E.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer (a{sub 2}b{sub 2}) consisting of two a and two b subunits. The primary structures of the a and b subunits of human factor XIII have been reported by a combination of cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence analysis. To establish the gene structure of the a subunit for factor XIII, several human genomic libraries were screened by using the cDNA encoding the a subunit as a probe. Among {approx}5 {times} 10{sup 7} recombinant phage, 121 have been shown to contain an insert encoding a portion of the a subunit. Twenty-five unique clones were than characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. Overlapping clones encoding the a subunit of factor XIII span >160 kilobases. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the activation peptide released by thrombin, the active site cysteine region, the two putative calcium-binding regions, and the thrombin cleavage site leading to inactivation are encoded by separate exons. This suggest that the introns may separate the a subunit into functional and structural domains. A comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the genomic DNA sequence with those deduced from cDNA or determined by amino acid sequence analysis of the plasma and placental proteins revealed apparent amino acid polymorphisms in six positions of the polypeptide chain of the a subunit.

  11. Potentiation of thrombin generation in hemophilia A plasma by coagulation factor VIII and characterization of antibody-specific inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya S Doshi

    Full Text Available Development of inhibitory antibodies to coagulation factor VIII (fVIII is the primary obstacle to the treatment of hemophilia A in the developed world. This adverse reaction occurs in 20-30% of persons with severe hemophilia A treated with fVIII-replacement products and is characterized by the development of a humoral and neutralizing immune response to fVIII. Patients with inhibitory anti-fVIII antibodies are treated with bypassing agents including recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa. However, some patients display poor hemostatic response to bypass therapy and improved treatment options are needed. Recently, we demonstrated that fVIII inhibitors display widely variable kinetics of inhibition that correlate with their respective target epitopes. Thus, it was hypothesized that for antibodies that display slow rates of inhibition, supplementation of rfVIIa with fVIII would result in improved thrombin generation and be predictive of clinical responses to this novel treatment regimen. In order to test this hypothesis, 10 murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs with non-overlapping epitopes spanning fVIII, differential inhibition titers, and inhibition kinetics were studied using a thrombin generation assay. Of the 3 MAbs with high inhibitory titers, only the one with fast and complete (classically defined as "type I" kinetics displayed significant inhibition of thrombin generation with no improvement upon supplementation of rfVIIa with fVIII. The other two MAbs that displayed incomplete (classically defined as "type II" inhibition did not suppress the potentiation of thrombin generation by fVIII. All antibodies that did not completely inhibit fVIII activity demonstrated potentiation of thrombin generation by the addition of fVIII as compared to rfVIIa alone. In conclusion, fVIII alone or in combination with rfVIIa corrects the thrombin generation defect produced by the majority of anti-fVIII MAbs better than single agent rfVIIa. Therefore, combined f

  12. Disorders of coagulation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D; Beilin, Y

    2015-12-01

    The process of haemostasis is complex and is further complicated in the parturient because of the physiological changes of pregnancy. Understanding these changes and the impact that they have on the safety profile of the anaesthetic options for labour and delivery is crucial to any anaesthetist caring for the parturient. This article analyses current theories on coagulation and reviews the physiological changes to coagulation that occur during pregnancy and the best methods with which to evaluate coagulation. Finally, we examine some of the more common disorders of coagulation that occur during pregnancy, including von Willebrand disease, common factor deficiencies, platelet disorders, the parturient on anticoagulants, and the more rare acute fatty liver of pregnancy, with a focus on their implications for neuraxial anaesthesia.

  13. Evaluation of coagulation factors and platelet function from an off-line modified ultrafiltration technique for post-cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, S; Lynn, P; Miller, S; Harris, R; DiMarco, R F; Ross, J E

    2013-05-01

    Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is a technique that hemoconcentrates residual CPB circuit blood and the patient at the same time. Hemoconcentration and MUF are Class 1-A recommendations in the anesthesia and surgical blood conservation guidelines. This study evaluated the off-line MUF process of the Hemobag (HB, Global Blood Resources, Somers, CT, USA) to quantitate coagulation factor levels, platelet (PLT) count and function in one facility and cellular growth factor concentrations of the final product that were transfused to the patient in another facility In two cardiac surgery facilities, after decannulation, the extracorporeal circuit (ECC) blood from 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgery was processed with the HB device. In eleven patients from the first facility by the study design, blood samples for coagulation factor levels and PLT aggregation were drawn from the reservoir of the MUF device pre- and post-processing. The samples (n = 11) were sent to a reference laboratory where testing for prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), reptilase time, fibrinogen, clotting factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, ADAMTS-13, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and platelet (PLT) aggregation were performed. A portion of the final concentrated HB blood samples (n = 5-10) from the second facility by design were evaluated for transforming and platelet-derived cellular growth factor concentrations. On average, approximately 800 - 2000 mls of whole blood were removed from the ECC post-CPB for processing in the HB device. After processing, there was, on the average, approximately 300 - 950 mls of concentrated whole blood salvaged for reinfusion. The PT and INR were significantly lower in the post-processing product compared to the pre-processing samples while the aPTT times were not significantly different. All coagulation factors and natural anti-coagulants were significantly

  14. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  15. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  16. Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa labelled with the fac-99 mTc(CO)3-core: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a putative new radiopharmaceutical for imaging in acute bleeding lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Christensen, Jesper B.; Olsen, Ole H.;

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation in blood is initiated when coagulation factor VII (FVII) binds to exposed TF and is activated to FVIIa, and the TF/ FVIIa complex may therefore provide a marker of vascular injury potentially applicable in diagnostic imaging of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods: Recombinan...... for stabilizing the 99mTc(CO)3 1-ligand structure in FVIIa were identified. Conclusion: Radiolabelled rFVIIa derivatives may represent a novel tool for the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding lesions....

  17. Genotyping analysis for the 46 C/T polymorphism of coagulation factor XII and the involvement of factor XII activity in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Asano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations and abnormal embryonic karyotype. A systematic review concluded that coagulation factor XII (FXII deficiency was associated with RPL. However, it could not be established whether the 46 C/T SNP of FXII or low activity of FXII was a risk factor for RPL, because of the small sample size. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional and cohort study in 279 patients with two or more unexplained consecutive pregnancy losses and 100 fertile women. The association between the lupus anticoagulant (LA activity and FXII activity was examined. The frequency of the CC, CT and TT genotypes and the FXII activity were also compared between the patients and controls. Subsequent miscarriage rates among the CC, CT, TT genotypes and according to the FXII activity was examined. LA was associated with reduced FXII activity. The CT, but not the TT, genotype was confirmed to be a risk factor for RPL in the cross-sectional study using multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.37-5.85. The plasma FXII activity in the patients was similar to that in the controls. Neither low FXII activity nor the CT genotype predicted the subsequent pregnancy outcome in the cohort study. On the other hand, and intermediate FXII activity level of 85-101% was predictive of subsequent miscarriage. CONCLUSIONS: Low FXII activity was not associated with RPL. The FXII gene was found to be one of the significant susceptibility genes for RPL, similar to the FV Leiden mutation. However, the clinical influence of the CT genotype might be relatively small, because the presence/absence of this genotype did not have any predictive value for the subsequent pregnancy outcome. This was the first study indicating the influence of FXII 46C/T on further pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Analysis of the Factors Associated with Abnormal Coagulation and Prognosis
in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are associated with high risk of invasion, metastases, and negative final outcomes. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for approximately 80% to 85% of all lung malignancies. This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for NSCLC and provide a reference to patients on the prevention and treatment of thrombophilia. Methods Data were collected from 604 cases of hospitalized patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC from January 2009 to December 2012 at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Data included the related indexes of coagulation function in patients before treatment [(i.e., prothrombin time (PT, prothrombin time activity (PTA, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrinogen (Fib, D-dimer, and platelet count], as well as sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, and lymph node status. Fifty control subjects without cancer were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Results The plasma level of all coagulation tests including D-dimer, Fib, PT, APTT, INR, and platelet counts revealed statistically significant differences between the patient and control group (P<0.001 for all variables; P=0.001,5 and P=0.004,5 for Fib and platelet counts, respectively. The squamous subtype exhibited high plasma Fib levels (P<0.001 compared with adenocarcinoma cell lung cancer patients. Fib and PLT levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.014, respectively, and aPTT decreased (P<0.001 in patients at stages III and IV compared with those in patients at stages I and II. aPTT decreased significantly (P<0.001, and Fib and D-dimer levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.048, respectively in N1-3 patients with NSCLC compared with those of N0 patients. Prolonged PT and INR, high plasma Fib levels, and

  19. A structural locus for coagulation factor XIIIA (F13A) is located distal to the HLA region on chromosome 6p in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaisen, B; Gedde-Dahl, T; Teisberg, P; Thorsby, E; Siverts, A; Jonassen, R; Wilhelmy, M C

    1985-01-01

    Linkage between the locus for coagulation factor XIIIA (F13A) and HLA-region genes has been revealed during a linkage study between F13A and approximately 40 other polymorphic marker genes. In males, the maximum lod score between F13A and HLA-region genes (HLA-A, -C, -B, -DR; C4A, -B; Bf; and/or C2) is 7.60 at theta 1 = .18. To GLO, the maximum lod score is 2.37 at theta 1 = .19; to PGM3, .22 at theta 1 = .35. Female data indicate a clear sex difference in recombination frequency between F13A and HLA. The present findings, in combination with earlier knowledge of PGM3/GLO/HLA localization and gene distances, show that F13A is distal to HLA on the short arm of chromosome 6 in man. It is thus likely that by including FXIIIA typing in linkage studies, the whole male 6p is within mapping distance of highly polymorphic, classical marker genes. Earlier findings that the Hageman factor gene (F12) is located in the same chromosomal region may indicate the presence of a coagulation factor gene cluster in this region.

  20. Distinct roles of Ser-764 and Lys-773 at the N terminus of von Willebrand factor in complex assembly with coagulation factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Lydia; Bloem, Esther; Boon-Spijker, Mariëtte G; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-01-04

    Complex formation between coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) is of critical importance to protect FVIII from rapid in vivo clearance and degradation. We have now employed a chemical footprinting approach to identify regions on VWF involved in FVIII binding. To this end, lysine amino acid residues of VWF were chemically modified in the presence of FVIII or activated FVIII, which does not bind VWF. Nano-LC-MS analysis showed that the lysine residues of almost all identified VWF peptides were not differentially modified upon incubation of VWF with FVIII or activated FVIII. However, Lys-773 of peptide Ser-766-Leu-774 was protected from chemical modification in the presence of FVIII. In addition, peptide Ser-764-Arg-782, which comprises the first 19 amino acid residues of mature VWF, showed a differential modification of both Lys-773 and the α-amino group of Ser-764. To verify the role of Lys-773 and the N-terminal Ser-764 in FVIII binding, we employed VWF variants in which either Lys-773 or Ser-764 was replaced with Ala. Surface plasmon resonance analysis and competition studies revealed that VWF(K773A) exhibited reduced binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain, which harbors the VWF-binding site. In contrast, VWF(S764A) revealed more effective binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain compared with WT VWF. The results of our study show that the N terminus of VWF is critical for the interaction with FVIII and that Ser-764 and Lys-773 have opposite roles in the binding mechanism.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of AHP IX-bp, a zinc ion and pH-dependent coagulation factor IX binding protein from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianye; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2003-04-01

    A new coagulation factor IX binding protein, AHP IX-bp, has been purified from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom and estimated to be an AB heterodimer of about 25 kDa consisting of two chains (an A chain of 15.5 kDa and a B chain of 15 kDa) linked by one or more disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sequence of AHP IX-bp has been determined and aligned with C-type lectin-like proteins. The protein has a high sequence similarity to some snake-venom C-type lectin-like proteins. AHP IX-bp binds to coagulation factor IX but not to coagulation factor X. Moreover, AHP IX-bp shows binding to coagulation factor IX in both zinc ion-dependent and pH-dependent manners. The affinity between AHP IX-bp and coagulation factor IX is higher under neutral or weakly alkaline conditions than under weakly acidic conditions. Single crystals of AHP IX-bp grown at pH 6.5 and 7.5 diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. Both crystals are isomorphous and belong to the space group P1; only one AB heterodimer is present in the unit cell.

  2. Contribution of explicit solvent effects to the binding affinity of small-molecule inhibitors in blood coagulation factor serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Robert; Salam, Noeris K; Shelley, John; Farid, Ramy; Friesner, Richard A; Sherman, Woody

    2011-06-06

    The prevention of blood coagulation is important in treating thromboembolic disorders, and several serine proteases involved in the coagulation cascade have been classified as pharmaceutically relevant. Whereas structure-based drug design has contributed to the development of some serine protease inhibitors, traditional computational methods have not been able to fully describe structure-activity relationships (SAR). Here, we study the SAR for a number of serine proteases by using a method that calculates the thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) of the water that solvates the active site. We show that the displacement of water from specific subpockets (such as S1-4 and the ester binding pocket) of the active site by the ligand can govern potency, especially for cases in which small chemical changes (i.e., a methyl group or halogen) result in a substantial increase in potency. Furthermore, we describe how relative binding free energies can be estimated by combining the water displacement energy with complementary terms from an implicit solvent molecular mechanics description binding.

  3. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  4. Patient preference and ease of use for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution device scenarios: a cross-sectional survey in five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimino E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ernesto Cimino,1 Silvia Linari,2 Mara Malerba,3 Susan Halimeh,4 Francesca Biondo,5 Martina Westfeld5 1Dipartimento Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Universita’ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Agenzia per l’ Emofilia, AOU Careggi di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 3Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Centro Emofilia e Trombosi “A Bianchi Bonomi”, Milan, Italy; 4CRC Coagulation Research Centre GmbH, Duisburg, Germany; 5Pfizer Italia, Rome, Italy Introduction: Hemophilia A treatment involves replacing the deficient coagulation factor VIII. This process may involve multiple steps that might create a barrier to adherence. A new dual-chamber syringe (DCS; FuseNGo® was recently introduced with the aim of simplifying reconstitution. Aim: This study aimed to identify factors associated with adult patients’ preferences for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution systems and to test ease of use and patient preference for the DCS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adults with hemophilia A in five European countries was conducted; a subset of subjects also participated in a practical testing session of the DCS. Results: Among the 299 survey participants, the device scenario requiring the least equipment and reconstitution steps (the DCS received a median preference rating of 71 out of 100 (0 being “the least desirable” and 100 “the most desirable” rating. This was significantly higher than the other scenarios (the next highest achieved a median of 50 points; P<0.001. Participants would be more likely to use this device prophylactically (P<0.001. Among the 98 participants who tested the DCS, 57% preferred this device over their current device, 26% preferred their current device, and 17% had no preference. The DCS was rated as easier to use than current treatment devices (median score 9/10 versus 7/10 for current treatment, P=0.001. Conclusion: The survey indicates that the prefilled DCS, Fuse

  5. Molecular analysis of G202010A mutation in factor II of blood coagulation and its relationship with polymorphism rs5030737 of MBL gene in recurrent pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mohammad Rafiee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Miscarriage means ending a pregnancy at any stage of the fetus. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as two or more loss of pregnancy to be detected continuous or discontinuous before the twentieth week of pregnancy.Mutations in the gene for coagulation factor IIand MBL gene can be involved in miscarriage. Hence, according to importance of this issue, the purpose of this study is to investigate G20210A mutation of coagulation factor IIand its relationship with polymorphism rs5030737 of MBL gene to evaluate on-time diagnosis and treatment of miscarriage. Method: in order to conduct the study, 41 patients with history of miscarriage and 48 healthy women with successful delivery were selected. A questionnaire was fulfilled by them to insert comprehensive information including history of miscarriage, history of miscarriage among relatives, age, weight, blood type, type of marriage and smoking. Then, blood sample of every one was taken. The blood samples were transferred to the laboratory and after extraction of DNA from each of samples, G20210A mutation in coagulation factor IIandtype of polymorphism rs5030737 in MBL gene was determined using PCR method. Finally, analysis of the results and assessment of other important and effective factors in them was done using Epi Info software and using chi square (X2 test. Results: among the patients, frequency of patients with one miscarriage was determined to 29.25%; frequency of patients with two miscarriages to 58.85% and frequency of patients with 3 miscarriages was obtained to 4.9%. In regard with assessing G20210A mutation in coagulation factor II, frequency percent ofheterozygous or carriers were equal to 7.3% among patients and to 2.1% for healthy individuals. Among them, frequency of available genotypes included GG: 92.6%; GA: 7.3%, AA: 0 in patient group and GG: 97.9%, GA: 2.1% and AA: 0 in healthy individuals. On the other hand, frequency of types of polymorphism of MBL included BB: 17%; AB

  6. Hysteresis-like binding of coagulation factors X/Xa to procoagulant activated platelets and phospholipids results from multistep association and membrane-dependent multimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoplelova, Nadezhda A; Sveshnikova, Anastasia N; Kurasawa, James H; Sarafanov, Andrey G; Chambost, Herve; Vasil'ev, Sergey A; Demina, Irina A; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2016-06-01

    Binding of coagulation factors X (fX) and Xa (fXa) to activated platelets is required for the formation of membrane-dependent enzymatic complexes of intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase. We carried out an in-depth characterization of fX/fXa binding to phospholipids and gel-filtered, thrombin-activated platelets. Flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance, and computational modeling were used to investigate interactions of fX/fXa with the membranes. Confocal microscopy was employed to study fXa binding to platelet thrombi formed in flowing whole blood under arterial conditions. Binding of fX/fXa to either vesicles or procoagulant platelets did not follow a traditional one-step reversible binding model. Their dissociation was a two-step process resulting in a plateau that was up to 10-fold greater than the saturation value observed in the association experiments. Computational modeling and experimental evidence suggested that this was caused by a combination of two-step association (mainly for fX) and multimerization on the membrane (mainly for fXa). Importantly, fX formed multimers with fXa, thereby improving its retention. The same binding/dissociation hysteresis was observed for annexin V known to form trimers on the membranes. Experiments with platelets from gray syndrome patients showed that alpha-granular factor Va provided an additional high-affinity binding site for fXa that did not affect the hysteresis. Confocal microscopy observation of fXa binding to platelet thrombi in a flow chamber and its wash-out confirmed that this phenomenon persisted under physiologically relevant conditions. This suggests its possible role of "locking" coagulation factors on the membrane and preventing their inhibition in plasma and removal from thrombi by flow.

  7. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  8. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation.

  9. Enhancement of pig embryonic implants in factor VIII KO mice: a novel role for the coagulation cascade in organ size control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aronovich

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to organ size differences between species. In the present study, we used a mouse model of embryonic pig tissue implantation to define the role of host Factor VIII in controlling the final size attained by the implant. We show here that pig embryonic spleen, pancreas, and liver all grow to an increased size in mice that are deficient in the Factor VIII clotting cascade. Similar results were obtained using the transplantation model after treatment with the low molecular weight heparin derivative Clexane which markedly enhanced transplant size. Likewise, enhanced size was found upon treatment with the direct thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran, suggesting that organ size regulation might be mediated by thrombin, downstream of Factor VIII. Considering that thrombin was shown to mediate various functions unrelated to blood clotting, either directly by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs or indirectly by cleaving osteopontin (OPN on stroma cells, the role of PAR1 and PAR4 antagonists as well as treatment with cleaved form of OPN (tcOPN were tested. While the former was not found to have an impact on overgrowth of embryonic pig spleen implants, marked reduction of size was noted upon treatment with the (tcOPN. Collectively, our surprising set of observations suggests that factors of the coagulation cascade have a novel role in organ size control.

  10. Aestivation induces changes in transcription and translation of coagulation factor II and fibrinogen gamma chain in the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiong, Kum C; Tan, Xiang R; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to sequence and characterize two pro-coagulant genes, coagulation factor II (f2) and fibrinogen gamma chain (fgg), from the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine their hepatic mRNA expression levels during three phases of aestivation. The protein abundance of F2 and Fgg in the liver and plasma was determined by immunoblotting. The results indicated that F2 and Fgg of P. annectens were phylogenetically closer to those of amphibians than those of teleosts. Three days of aestivation resulted in an up-regulation in the hepatic fgg mRNA expression level, while 6 days of aestivation led to a significant increase (3-fold) in the protein abundance of Fgg in the plasma. Hence, there could be an increase in the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens during the induction phase of aestivation. By contrast, the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens might be reduced in response to decreased blood flow and increased possibility of thrombosis during the maintenance phase of aestivation, as 6 months of aestivation led to significant decreases in mRNA expression levels of f2 and fgg in the liver. There could also be a decrease in the export of F2 and Fgg from the liver to the plasma so as to avert thrombosis. Three to 6 days after arousal from 6 months of aestivation, the protein abundance of F2 and Fgg recovered partially in the plasma of P. annectens; a complete recovery of the transcription and translation of f2/F2 in the liver might occur only after refeeding.

  11. Unidentified coagulation disorders in post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Chen, Yue-Shih; Remmert, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 6,966 patients who had undergone tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy to evaluate the incidence and clinical features of previously unidentified coagulation disorders in patients who experienced postoperative hemorrhage (n = 201). We found that post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage secondary to unidentified coagulation disorders is extremely rare. However, normal coagulation values and an insignificant history do not rule out coagulation disorders. If diffuse, persistent, and bilateral bleeding is not related to arterial hypertension, dissection technique, or local infection, a rapid and detailed analysis of coagulation factors should be considered.

  12. The C1 and C2 domains of blood coagulation factor VIII mediate its endocytosis by dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Bagirath; Ing, Mathieu; Delignat, Sandrine; Peyron, Ivan; Teyssandier, Maud; Kaveri, Srinivas V.; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The development of inhibitory antibodies to therapeutic factor VIII is the major complication of replacement therapy in patients with hemophilia A. The first step in the initiation of the anti-factor VIII immune response is factor VIII interaction with receptor(s) on antigen-presenting cells, followed by endocytosis and presentation to naïve CD4+ T cells. Recent studies indicate a role for the C1 domain in factor VIII uptake. We investigated whether charged residues in the C2 domain participate in immunogenic factor VIII uptake. Co-incubation of factor VIII with BO2C11, a monoclonal C2-specific immunoglobulin G, reduced factor VIII endocytosis by dendritic cells and presentation to CD4+ T cells, and diminished factor VIII immunogenicity in factor VIII-deficient mice. The mutation of basic residues within the BO2C11 epitope of C2 replicated reduced in vitro immunogenic uptake, but failed to prevent factor VIII immunogenicity in mice. BO2C11 prevents factor VIII binding to von Willebrand factor, thus potentially biasing factor VIII immunogenicity by perturbing its half-life. Interestingly, a factor VIIIY1680C mutant, that does not bind von Willebrand factor, demonstrated unaltered endocytosis by dendritic cells as well as immunogenicity in factor VIII-deficient mice. Co-incubation of factor VIIIY1680C with BO2C11, however, resulted in decreased factor VIII immunogenicity in vivo. In addition, a previously described triple C1 mutant showed decreased uptake in vitro, and reduced immunogenicity in vivo, but only in the absence of endogenous von Willebrand factor. Taken together, the results indicate that residues in the C1 and/or C2 domains of factor VIII are implicated in immunogenic factor VIII uptake, at least in vitro. Conversely, in vivo, the binding to endogenous von Willebrand factor masks the reducing effect of mutations in the C domains on factor VIII immunogenicity. PMID:27758819

  13. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  14. [New oral anticoagulants - influence on coagulation tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, L; Nagler, M; Wuillemin, W A

    2014-01-01

    The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent alternative antithrombotic agents for prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic diseases. They act either by inhibition of the clotting factor Xa or IIa (thrombin). As a consequence, they influence several coagulation assays (for example prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time). Because of the short half-life of these new agents, these changes show great variations in the course of 24 hours. Furthermore, there are significant differences of laboratory results depending on the used reagents. We explain the influence of apixaban, rivaroxaban (factor Xa inhibitors) and dabigatran (thrombin inhibitor) on the most commonly used coagulation assays. Besides we show that this influence depends on the way of action of the drug as well as on the principle of the coagulation assay. Being aware of this relationships helps to interpret the results of coagulation assays under influence of NOACs correctly.

  15. Polymorphisms of the coagulation factor Ⅶ gene and its plasma levels in relation to acute cerebral infarction differences in allelic frequencies between Chinese Han and European populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文英; 王鸿利; 熊立凡; 王学锋; 储海燕; 璩斌; 刘湘帆; 尹俊; 段宝华; 王振义

    2004-01-01

    Background Coagulation factor Ⅶ (F Ⅶ) levels in plasma are usually related to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebral infarction shares many of the risk factors related to IHD. Is there any relationship between factor Ⅶ and cerebral infarction? We investigated the relationship between F Ⅶ and acute cerebral infarction and reported genotype frequencies and allelic frequencies of FⅦ gene polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population.Methods We recruited 62 patients with acute cerebral infarction confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from Ruijin Hospital, and 149 age-matched patients clinically free of vascular disease to act as controls. All of them were unrelated, and were from the Chinese Han population. FⅦ coagulant activity (FⅦc) was determined using an clotting assay, activated FⅦ (FⅦa) and FⅦ Ag were assayed using enzyme immunoassay kits. The FⅦ gene polymorphisms to be detected included-401G/T, -402G/A, 5'F7A1/A2, IVS7 and R353Q. 5'F7 and IVS7 were revealed by means of a PCR and direct agarose gel electrophoresis. The rest were examined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results The results showed that FⅦc, FⅦAg and FⅦa were higher in the acute cerebral infarction group than in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, respectively). There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies of FⅦ gene polymorphisms between the two groups. The allelic frequencies in the Chinese Han population were as follows: -401G/T (96.64/3.36), -402G/A (52.01/47.99), 5'F7A1/A2(96.64/3.36), IVS7 H5/H6/H7/H8 (0.34/52.35/46.98/0.34) and R353Q (95.64/4.36). There were significant differences (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively) in these allelic frequencies between the Chinese Han and European populations.Conclusions The results indicate that increased plasma FⅦ levels may contribute to thrombosis in cerebral infarction. And there was no significant difference

  16. Extrahepatic sources of factor VIII potentially contribute to the coagulation cascade correcting the bleeding phenotype of mice with hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolini, Diego; Merlin, Simone; Feola, Maria; Ranaldo, Gabriella; Amoruso, Angela; Gaidano, Gianluca; Zaffaroni, Mauro; Ferrero, Alessandro; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Valente, Guido; Gupta, Sanjeev; Prat, Maria; Follenzi, Antonia

    2015-07-01

    A large fraction of factor VIII in blood originates from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells although extrahepatic sources also contribute to plasma factor VIII levels. Identification of cell-types other than endothelial cells with the capacity to synthesize and release factor VIII will be helpful for therapeutic approaches in hemophilia A. Recent cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation studies indicated that Küpffer cells, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells could synthesize factor VIII in sufficient amount to ameliorate the bleeding phenotype in hemophilic mice. To further establish the role of blood cells in expressing factor VIII, we studied various types of mouse and human hematopoietic cells. We identified factor VIII in cells isolated from peripheral and cord blood, as well as bone marrow. Co-staining for cell type-specific markers verified that factor VIII was expressed in monocytes, macrophages and megakaryocytes. We additionally verified that factor VIII was expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and endothelial cells elsewhere, e.g., in the spleen, lungs and kidneys. Factor VIII was well expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells and Küpffer cells isolated from human liver, whereas by comparison isolated human hepatocytes expressed factor VIII at very low levels. After transplantation of CD34(+) human cord blood cells into NOD/SCIDγNull-hemophilia A mice, fluorescence activated cell sorting of peripheral blood showed >40% donor cells engrafted in the majority of mice. In these animals, plasma factor VIII activity 12 weeks after cell transplantation was up to 5% and nine of 12 mice survived after a tail clip-assay. In conclusion, hematopoietic cells, in addition to endothelial cells, express and secrete factor VIII: this information should offer further opportunities for understanding mechanisms of factor VIII synthesis and replenishment.

  17. The effect of different apheresis modalities on coagulation factor XIII level during antibody removal in ABO-blood type incompatible living related renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Norio; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Kawarasaki, Hiroo; Kido, Ryo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Ishikawa, Akira; Enomoto, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro; Noiri, Eisei; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2013-10-01

    Apheresis therapy is used to remove pathogenic antibodies within the recipient blood during ABO-incompatible living related renal transplantation (LRRT). Factor XIII (FXIII) is a coagulating factor. Its deficiency reportedly engenders perioperative bleeding. This study compared apheresis modalities from the perspective of the FXIII level. Cases 1-3 were treated only with double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) without (case 1) or with (cases 2 and 3) fresh frozen plasma (FFP) supplementation. Cases 4 and 5 were treated with simple plasma exchange (PEx) with FFP supplementation for the last session. Cases 1-3 showed a marked (case 1, 8.6%) or moderate (case 2, 26.2%; case 3, 28.4%) decrease in FXIII on the day before the procedure after the last apheresis session, although cases 4 (81.9%) and 5 (66.2%) did not. Case 1 experienced perioperative bleeding. The last session is usually performed the day before the surgical procedure. Therefore, FXIII elimination by DFPP might cause bleeding complications because of its slow recovery. The fact warrants that the last apheresis modality during the course might be PEx from the viewpoint of FXIII depletion.

  18. Effects of calcium signaling on coagulation factor VIIa-induced proliferation and migration of the SW620 colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Hong; Yu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Lichao; Meng, Fanlu; Jiang, Shuanghong

    2014-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF)/VIIa/protease‑activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been shown to trigger the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This was shown to be closely associated with the proliferation and migration of SW620 colon cancer cells; however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of calcium signaling on the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by coagulation factor VIIa. The results demonstrated that VIIa and PAR2 agonist PAR2‑AP increased [Ca2+]i in SW620 cells. In addition, VIIa‑and PAR2‑AP‑induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by thapsigargin (TG)‑induced depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and EGTA‑mediated removal of extracellular Ca2+. It was also identified that VIIa and PAR2‑AP‑induced proliferation and migration of SW620 cells was modulated by EGTA and TG. Taken together, the present results indicate that VIIa triggers calcium signaling in SW620 cells, in a TF‑dependent manner, which is critical for VIIa‑induced ERK1/2 activation in SW620 cells. These results suggested that calcium signaling had a vital role in the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells.

  19. BIOENKAPSULASI PROBIOTIK (Lactobacillus casei DENGAN POLLARD DAN TEPUNG TERIGU SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP VIABILITAS DAN LAJU PENGASAMAN [Bioencapsulation of Prebiotics (Lactobacillus casei with Pollard and Wheat Flour and its Roles for the Acidificati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Wahyuni2

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BIOENKAPSULASI PROBIOTIK (Lactobacillus casei DENGAN POLLARD DAN TEPUNG TERIGU SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP VIABILITAS DAN LAJU PENGASAMAN [Bioencapsulation of Prebiotics (Lactobacillus casei with Pollard and Wheat Flour and its Roles for the Acidification Rate and Viability] An experimental was conducted in order to investigate the viability of bio-encapsulated probiotics Lactobacillus casei during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt fermentation was prepared on pasteurized 18% of skim milk medium and inoculated with 6% (v/v of starters consisting of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with the proportion of 1:1:1 (v/v/v. Fermentation was conducted until the pH reached 4.5. Bioencapsulation was carried out through the formation of calcium-alginate bead gels with the addition of pollard or wheat flour. The results showed that bio-encapsulated probiotics took longer time (10 hours to reach pH 4.5 as compared to non-bio-encapsulated one (9 hoours. It also showed that bio-encapsulated probiotics with pollard resulted in a higher cell viabilyty after fermentation namely at 2.4 x 108 celss/g as compared to that encapsulated with wheat flour at 9.3 x 107 cells/g. Bio- encapsulation with pollard was able to maintain viability of prebiotics at 9.37 x 107 cells/g as compared to that of wheat flour and non filler encapsulation at 1.07 x 107 and 1.48 x 106 cells/g respectively. It was shown that alginate bio- encapsulation with addition of 2% (v/v pollard or wheat flour can maintain probiotics viability up to 4 weeks.

  20. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...

  1. Full Length cDNA Cloning of Human Coagulation Factor C Homology%人凝血因子C同源物基因全长cDNA克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勍; 韩东一; 程静; 王国建; 刘新; 于飞; 韩冰; 陈静; 戴朴; 袁慧军

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过克隆凝血因子C同源物基因(Coagulation factor C homology,COCH)全长cDNA,为COCH编码蛋白cochlin的功能研究打下基础.方法 从听力正常人新鲜外周静脉血中提取总RNA,应用一步法RT-PCR试剂盒进行COCH反转录,转录产物进行浓缩、酶切、连接.结果 反转录COCH cDNA全长与标准基因序列比较,结果完全相符,得到完整的COCH cDNA全长序列.结论 本研究成功克隆了COCH cDNA全长序列,为COCH编码蛋白cochlin的功能研究打下了良好的基础.

  2. In vitro/in vivo effect of Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.) juice on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mirza, Talat; Mustansir, Tazeen; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-07-01

    The genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae includes many species e.g. Citrus indica, Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus limon, among which Citrus limon L. Burm. f. has been reported to have highest antimicrobial activity. It is used as antidote against certain venom, due to its platelet inhibitory effect and also reported to have hypocholesterolemic effect. However its anticoagulant and thrombolytic effect were not been investigated, hence a prospective in-vitro/in-vivo study was designed to determine the effect of Citrus limon on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors. In-vitro tests revealed highly significant increase in thrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time by Citrus limon, whereas fibrinogen concentration was significantly reduced in comparison to control, however prothrombin time was not affected significantly. In-vivo testing of Citrus limon was done at three different doses i.e. 0.2ml/kg, 0.4ml/kg and 0.6ml/kg in healthy rabbits. Significant changes were observed in hematological parameters such as erythrocytes, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Bleeding time and thrombin time was significantly prolonged and there was increase in protein C and thrombin antithrombin complex levels. These results may be due to inactivation of thrombin because it significantly decreases fibrinogen concentration and inhibit platelet aggregation. Citrus limon showed maximal anticoagulant effect at 0.4ml/kg, which suggest that Citrus limon possesses an anti-thrombin component and could prevent thrombosis playing a cardio protective role.

  3. Serum stimulation of CCR7 chemotaxis due to coagulation factor XIIa-dependent production of high-molecular-weight kininogen domain 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponda, Manish P; Breslow, Jan L

    2016-10-24

    Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in immune function by directing cell-specific movement. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) facilitates entry of T cells into lymph nodes. CCR7-dependent chemotaxis requires either of the cognate ligands C-C chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) or CCL21. Although CCR7-dependent chemotaxis can be augmented through receptor up-regulation or by increased chemokine concentrations, we found that chemotaxis is also markedly enhanced by serum in vitro. Upon purification, the serum cofactor activity was ascribed to domain 5 of high-molecular-weight kininogen. This peptide was necessary and sufficient for accelerated chemotaxis. The cofactor activity in serum was dependent on coagulation factor XIIa, a serine protease known to induce cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) at sites of inflammation. Within domain 5, we synthesized a 24-amino acid peptide that could recapitulate the activity of intact serum through a mechanism distinct from up-regulating CCR7 expression or promoting chemokine binding to CCR7. This peptide interacts with the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin 4 (TSP4), and antibodies to TSP4 neutralize its activity. In vivo, an HK domain 5 peptide stimulated homing of both T and B cells to lymph nodes. A circulating cofactor that is activated at inflammatory foci to enhance lymphocyte chemotaxis represents a powerful mechanism coupling inflammation to adaptive immunity.

  4. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  5. Cancer and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, C; Medico, E

    2006-05-01

    In human patients, blood coagulation disorders often associate with cancer, even in its early stages. Recently, in vitro and in vivo experimental models have shown that oncogene expression, or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, upregulate genes that control blood coagulation. These studies suggest that activation of blood clotting, leading to peritumoral fibrin deposition, is instrumental in cancer development. Fibrin can indeed build up a provisional matrix, supporting the invasive growth of neoplastic tissues and blood vessels. Interference with blood coagulation can thus be considered as part of a multifaceted therapeutic approach to cancer.

  6. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c

  7. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol) %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10...

  8. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group .The malondialdehyde (MDA oxidized-LDL (oxLDL fibrinogen factor VII apolipoprotein A (ApoA and apolipoprotein B (ApoB were measured before the experiment and at the end period (2month. At the end of study using Chekanov method fatty streak formation in aorta artery was determined in all groups. Results: Using both doses of apple cider vinegar significantly decreased fibrinogen oxLDL MDA ApoB ApoB/ApoA VIIlevels in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet (P0.05. Also consumption of apple cider vinegar induced significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesions in aorta artery compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion: This study suggests that apple cider vinegar (as an antioxidant might have some protective effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis.

  9. 注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗血友病A的护理%The nursing for patients with hemophilia treated with recombinant coagulation factor Ⅷ for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲君; 余菊; 吉承玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the nursing methods and points for patients with hemophilia treated by recombinant coagulation factor VI for injection. Methods Seven patients with hemophilia were treated with 31 injections of recombinant coagulation factor VIE, as well as nursing interventions including psychological nursing, drug preparation, observation and health education. Results No adverse response was observed in the treatment of recombinant coagulation factor VBI for the 7 patients with hemophilia. Conclusion In use of recombinant coagulation factor VB for injection, we are able to strengthening the nursing for patients and drugs can help decrease the side effects and improve the patient's compliance and response.%目的 探讨注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ(拜科奇)治疗血友病A的护理方法和要点.方法 通过对7例血友病A患者31次使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ进行治疗时,予心理护理、药物配制、用药观察以及健康教育等护理干预.结果 7例血友病A患者31次使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗,均未见不良反应.结论 在使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗中,加强药物及患者的护理,可减少不良反应,提高患者的治疗依从性与治疗效果.

  10. Computer Simulation of Influence of Sedimentation on Rapid Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙祉伟; 陈致英

    2003-01-01

    A computer simulation was performed to explore the features and effects of sedimentation on rapid coagulation.To estimate the accumulated influence of gravity on coagulation for dispersions, a sedimentation influence ratio is defined. Some factors possibly related to the influence of sedimentation were considered in the simulation and analysed by comparing the size distribution of aggregates, the change in collision number, and coagulation rates at different gravity levels (0 g, 1 g and more with g being the gravitational constant).

  11. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Maria Nastase; Eriksson, Per; Ericsson, Carl-Göran; Hamsten, Anders; Silveira, Angela

    2006-03-01

    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin clot structure and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, the potential contribution of SNPs harboured in the fibrinogen, IL6 and F13A1 genes to these biochemical and clinical phenotypes was examined. A database and biobank based on 387 survivors of a first MI and population-based controls were used. Sixty controls were selected according to FGG 9340T > C [rs1049636] genotype for studies on fibrin clot structure using the liquid permeation method. The multifactor dimensionality reduction method was used for interaction analyses. We here report that the FGA 2224G > A [rs2070011] SNP (9.2%), plasma fibrinogen concentration (13.1%) and age (8.1%) appeared as independent determinants of fibrin gel porosity. The FGA 2224G > A SNP modulated the relation between plasma fibrinogen concentration and fibrin clot porosity. The FGG-FGA*4 haplotype, composed of the minor FGG 9340C and FGA 2224A alleles, had similar effects, supporting its reported protective role in relation to MI. Significant epistasis on plasma fibrinogen concentration was detected between the FGA 2224G > A and F13A1 Val34Leu [rs5985] SNPs (p FGG 9340T > C and FGB 1038G > A [rs1800791] SNPs appeared to interact on MI risk, explaining the association of FGG-FGB haplotypes with MI in the absence of effects of individual SNPs. Thus, epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms contribute to the variation in plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin clot structure and risk of MI.

  12. Effect of rivaroxaban on blood coagulation using the viscoelastic coagulation test ROTEM™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casutt, M; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of the oral direct inhibitor of factor Xa rivaroxaban on blood coagulation measured by rotation thrombelastometry ROTEM™. Blood was obtained from 11 healthy male volunteers before and 2.5 h after oral administration of 10 mg rivaroxaban. In addition to standard coagulation tests clot formation was measured by ROTEM™ analyzing extrinsic (Extem) and intrinsic thrombelastometry (Intem). Significant differences to the baseline values were found in the Extem clotting time (Extem-CT, 58 ± 9 s and 87 ± 17 s, p coagulation by rivaroxaban.

  13. Effect of individual dietary fatty acids on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Miller, G.J.; Bysted, Anette

    2003-01-01

    ), a smaller increase in FVII:c (P tissue plasminogen activator concentrations (P = 0.028, diet effect), and a tendency to a greater postprandial decline in PAI-1 (P = 0.06, diet effect) compared with the unsaturated test fats (O, T, and L). The increase......Background: Hypertriglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances to the hemostatic system. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is increased in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma may promote factor VII (FVII) activation....... Objective: We tested the hypothesis that FVII activation would be less after consumption of saturated fatty acids than after other fatty acids. Design: The effects of 6 matching dietary test fats, rich in stearic (S), palmitic (P), palmitic + myristic (M), oleic (O), trans 18:1 (T), and linoleic (L) acid...

  14. 探讨相关护理因素对凝血4项检测结果的影响%The Effect of Relative Nursing Factor on the Test Results About Four Items of Blood Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛黎

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of the related factors on the test results of four items of blood coagulation.Methods According to the clinical nursing data of 860 cases of inpatient department in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015,the effect of the relevant nursing factors on the detection results of four items of blood coagulation were discussed.Results The unqualified sample accounted for 2.21%. The main nursing factors were that blood samples had the phenomenon of hemolysis,blood coagulation or local coagulation,blood vessel were not properly,blood colection was too high or too low. Conclusion Nursing staff should improve their nursing skils to ensure the accuracy of blood sampling and inspection results.%目的 探究相关护理因素对凝血4项检测结果的影响.方法 根据我院2013年6月~2015年6月收治的400例住院部患者的临床护理资料,对相关护理因素对凝血4项检测结果的影响进行讨论.结果 不合格样本占2.21%.主要护理因素为:血液样本有溶血现象,抗凝血样本有小块血凝或局部凝血,采血容器不当,采血量过高或过低.讨论 护理人员应提高自身护理技能以确保采血样本的准确性和检查结果的准确性.

  15. 颅脑损伤患者创伤后凝血病发生的影响因素分析%Analysis of influencing factors on the occurrence of post-traumatic coagulation in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒振云; 陈明志; 廖金平; 施永周; 宋斌

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析颅脑损伤患者创伤后凝血病发生的危险因素。方法选取2014年6月~2015年10月接受治疗的115例颅脑损伤患者为观察对象,根据其是否发生凝血病分为凝血病组和非凝血病组。观察颅脑损伤患者创伤后凝血病的发生率,分析造成创伤后凝血病发生的危险因素。结果115例颅脑损伤患者中,发生创伤后凝血病26例,凝血病发生率为22.61%;凝血病组患者凝血酶原时间( PT)、活化部分凝血酶原时间(PTT)和血小板计数(PLT)水平低于非凝血病组,D-二聚体(D-DT)水平高于非凝血病组,两组患者的纤维蛋白原(FIB)水平无明显差异(P>0.05);损伤严重度评分(ISS)>16分、血压≤90mmHg、体温<36.5℃、动脉血pH<7.2的颅脑损伤患者创伤后凝血病的发生率较高,差异具有统计学意义,而不同年龄、性别的患者凝血病发生率无明显差异;将单因素分析有意义的ISS评分>16分、收缩压≤90mmHg、体温<36.5℃、动脉血pH<7.2作为自变量,将是否发生凝血病作为因变量,进行多因素Logistic回归分析,结果ISS评分、输液量和动脉血pH进入回归方程,其OR值分别为4.286、5.128和3.962。结论颅脑损伤患者有发生创伤后凝血病的危险,ISS评分、输液量和动脉血pH是患者发生凝血病的危险因素。%Objective To analyze the risk factors of blood coagulation in patients with traumatic brain inju-ry.Methods Totally 115 cases of traumatic brain injury in our hospital from Jun.2014 to Oct.2015 were select-ed as the observation objects.According to the occurrence of coagulation disorders,they were divided into the coagu-lation group and the non-coagulation group.The incidence of post-traumatic coagulation in patients with traumatic brain injury was observed,and the risk factors for the occurrence of post-traumatic coagulation disorders were ana

  16. In Situ Transplantation of Alginate Bioencapsulated Adipose Tissues Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs via Hepatic Injection in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs transplantation has recently gained widespread enthusiasm, particularly in the perspective to use them as potential alternative cell sources for hepatocytes in cell based therapy, mainly because of their capability of hepatogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. But some challenges remain to be addressed, including whether ADSCs can be provided effectively to the target organ and whether subsequent proliferation of transplanted cells can be achieved. To date, intrasplenic injection is the conventional method to deliver ADSCs into the liver; however, a number of donor cells retained in the spleen has been reported. In this study, our objective is to evaluate a novel route to transplant ADSCs specifically to the liver. We aimed to test the feasibility of in situ transplantation of ADSCs by injecting bioencapsulated ADSCs into the liver in mouse model.The ADSCs isolated from human alpha 1 antitrypsin (M-hAAT transgenic mice were used to allow delivered ADSCs be readily identified in the liver of recipient mice, and alginate was selected as a cell carrier. We first evaluated whether alginate microspheres are implantable into the liver tissue by injection and whether ADSCs could migrate from alginate microspheres (study one. Once proven, we then examined the in vivo fate of ADSCs loaded microspheres in the liver. Specifically, we evaluated whether transplanted, undifferentiated ASDCs could be induced by the local microenvironment toward hepatogenic differentiation and the distribution of surviving ADSCs in major tissue organs (study two.Our results indicated ADSCs loaded alginate microspheres were implantable into the liver. Both degraded and residual alginate microspheres were observed in the liver up to three weeks. The viable ADSCs were detectable surrounding degraded and residual alginate microspheres in the liver and other major organs such as bone marrow and the lungs. Importantly, transplanted

  17. Low cost tuberculosis vaccine antigens in capsules: expression in chloroplasts, bio-encapsulation, stability and functional evaluation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Saikumar Lakshmi

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading fatal infectious diseases. The development of TB vaccines has been recognized as a major public health priority by the World Health Organization. In this study, three candidate antigens, ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secretory antigenic target and Mtb72F (a fusion polyprotein from two TB antigens, Mtb32 and Mtb39 fused with cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB and LipY (a cell wall protein were expressed in tobacco and/or lettuce chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation/oral delivery. Site-specific transgene integration into the chloroplast genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. In transplastomic leaves, CTB fusion proteins existed in soluble monomeric or multimeric forms of expected sizes and their expression levels varied depending upon the developmental stage and time of leaf harvest, with the highest-level of accumulation in mature leaves harvested at 6PM. The CTB-ESAT6 and CTB-Mtb72F expression levels reached up to 7.5% and 1.2% of total soluble protein respectively in mature tobacco leaves. Transplastomic CTB-ESAT6 lettuce plants accumulated up to 0.75% of total leaf protein. Western blot analysis of lyophilized lettuce leaves stored at room temperature for up to six months showed that the CTB-ESAT6 fusion protein was stable and preserved proper folding, disulfide bonds and assembly into pentamers for prolonged periods. Also, antigen concentration per gram of leaf tissue was increased 22 fold after lyophilization. Hemolysis assay with purified CTB-ESAT6 protein showed partial hemolysis of red blood cells and confirmed functionality of the ESAT-6 antigen. GM1-binding assay demonstrated that the CTB-ESAT6 fusion protein formed pentamers to bind with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. The expression of functional Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in transplastomic plants should facilitate development of a cost-effective and orally deliverable TB booster vaccine with potential

  18. Low cost tuberculosis vaccine antigens in capsules: expression in chloroplasts, bio-encapsulation, stability and functional evaluation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Priya Saikumar; Verma, Dheeraj; Yang, Xiangdong; Lloyd, Bethany; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading fatal infectious diseases. The development of TB vaccines has been recognized as a major public health priority by the World Health Organization. In this study, three candidate antigens, ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secretory antigenic target) and Mtb72F (a fusion polyprotein from two TB antigens, Mtb32 and Mtb39) fused with cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) and LipY (a cell wall protein) were expressed in tobacco and/or lettuce chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation/oral delivery. Site-specific transgene integration into the chloroplast genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. In transplastomic leaves, CTB fusion proteins existed in soluble monomeric or multimeric forms of expected sizes and their expression levels varied depending upon the developmental stage and time of leaf harvest, with the highest-level of accumulation in mature leaves harvested at 6PM. The CTB-ESAT6 and CTB-Mtb72F expression levels reached up to 7.5% and 1.2% of total soluble protein respectively in mature tobacco leaves. Transplastomic CTB-ESAT6 lettuce plants accumulated up to 0.75% of total leaf protein. Western blot analysis of lyophilized lettuce leaves stored at room temperature for up to six months showed that the CTB-ESAT6 fusion protein was stable and preserved proper folding, disulfide bonds and assembly into pentamers for prolonged periods. Also, antigen concentration per gram of leaf tissue was increased 22 fold after lyophilization. Hemolysis assay with purified CTB-ESAT6 protein showed partial hemolysis of red blood cells and confirmed functionality of the ESAT-6 antigen. GM1-binding assay demonstrated that the CTB-ESAT6 fusion protein formed pentamers to bind with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. The expression of functional Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in transplastomic plants should facilitate development of a cost-effective and orally deliverable TB booster vaccine with potential for long

  19. Multicentre, randomized, open-label study of on-demand treatment with two prophylaxis regimens of recombinant coagulation factor IX in haemophilia B subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, L A; Rusen, L; Elezovic, I; Smith, L M; Korth-Bradley, J M; Rendo, P

    2014-05-01

    Few randomized studies have reported on the use of factor IX (FIX) for secondary prophylaxis in haemophilia B patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two secondary prophylaxis regimens of recombinant coagulation FIX, nonacog alfa, compared with on-demand therapy. Male subjects aged 6-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B (FIX:C ≤ 2, n = 50) and ≥12 bleeding episodes (including ≥6 haemarthroses episodes) within 12 months of study participation were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open-label, four-period crossover trial. The primary measure was the annualized bleeding rate (ABR) of two prophylactic regimens vs. on-demand therapy. In the intent-to-treat group, mean ABR values were 35.1, 2.6 and 4.6 for the first on-demand period, the 50 IU kg(-1) twice-weekly period, and the 100 IU kg(-1) once-weekly period respectively. Differences in ABR between the first on-demand period and both prophylaxis regimens were significant (P < 0.0001); no significant differences were observed between prophylaxis regimens (P = 0.22). Seven serious adverse events occurred in five subjects, none related to study drug. Results demonstrated that secondary prophylaxis therapy with nonacog alfa 50 IU kg(-1) twice weekly or 100 IU kg(-1) once weekly reduced ABR by 89.4% relative to on-demand treatment. Both prophylaxis regimens demonstrated favourable safety profiles in subjects with haemophilia B.

  20. Serum Proteome Signature of Radiation Response: Upregulation of Inflammation-Related Factors and Downregulation of Apolipoproteins and Coagulation Factors in Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy—A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widlak, Piotr, E-mail: widlak@io.gliwice.pl [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Jelonek, Karol; Wojakowska, Anna; Pietrowska, Monika [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Polanska, Joanna [Institute of Automatics Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Marczak, Łukasz [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Miszczyk, Leszek; Składowski, Krzysztof [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    features of serum proteome. The signature included upregulation of factors involved in acute or inflammatory response but also downregulation of plasma apolipoproteins and factors involved in blood coagulation.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF COAGULATION PROCESS FOR THE PRUT RIVER WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Postolachi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented research was to optimize the treatment process of the Prut River water. In order to realize the proposed goal, there were studied the following factors which can improve the process of coagulation: (i the influence of stirring speed during coagulation and (ii the influence of the concentration of the coagulant solution added in the process of coagulation. The optimal conditions of coagulation were established using the Jar-test method. Application of the recommended procedure contribute to the reduction of the coagulant dose, the contact time, the aluminum concentration in water and the expenses for water treatment.

  2. Test and Analysis of Coagulation Time of Four Kinds of Coagulation Factors in Captive Bred Tree Shrew and Rhesus Monkey%人工饲养树鼩和猕猴的部分凝血因子凝集时间的测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璋琼; 代解杰; 孙晓梅; 李辛斌; 高家红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test and analyze the coagulation time of four kinds of coagulation factors in healthy , captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey, and to establish the reference values range of coagulation factors values in the two animals. Methods Prothrombin time ( PT) , activated partial thromboplastin time ( APTT) , fibrinogen time ( FIB) , and thrombin time ( TT) of captive bred tree shrews and rhesus monkeys were tested by using the Sysmex CA-510 automated blood coagulation analyzer, then the data were analyzed in using the statistics analysis software SPSS vl7. 0. Results In Tree shrew and Rhesus monkey, TT was respectively 19. 27 s and 20. 81 s;PT was respectively 17.34 s and 9.82 s; FIB was respectively 30.51 s and 18.73s; APPT was respectively 27. 88 s and 33. 56 s. The differences in PT and FIB were highly significant(P <0. 01) between captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey;and the differences in TT and APTT were also statistical significant(P <0. 05) between the captive bred tree shrew and the rhesus monkey. Conclusion There were significant differences in coagulation time of the four kinds of coagulation factors between animals, but there had no differencees in the different gender of same species.%目的 目前有关人工饲养树鼩与猕猴部分凝血因子凝集时间的资料甚少,拟初步建立这两种动物部分凝血因子凝集时间的参考值范围.方法采用全自动血凝仪测定树鼩、猕猴的血浆凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶原时间(PT).结果树鼩的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为19.27、17.34、30.51和27.88s.猕猴的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为20.81、9.82、18.73和33.56 s.人工饲养树鼩与猕猴的PT值、Fib值存在显著性差异(P<0.01),APTT值、TT值存在差异(P<0.05).结论人工饲养树鼩和猕猴部分凝血因子的凝集时间存在一定差异,同一物种雌雄个体间部分凝血因子的凝集时间没有明显差异.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which systemic activation of coagulation without a specific localization occurs, resulting in extensive formation of intravascular fibrin, particularly in small and midsize vessels. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may lead to several altered coagulation parameters, including a low platelet count, abnormal global clotting assays, low levels of physiological anticoagulant proteases, or increased fibrin degradation products. Also, more complex assays for activation of coagulation factors or pathways may indicate involvement of these molecules in DIC. None of these tests alone, however, can accurately ascertain or rebuff a diagnosis of DIC. Nonetheless, a combination of readily available routine assays may be instrumental in establishing a diagnosis of DIC and can also be useful to point to a subset of patients with DIC that may need definite, often costly, interventions in the hemostatic system. Current insights on relevant etiological pathways that may contribute to the occurrence of DIC have led to innovative therapeutic and adjunctive approaches to patient with DIC. Management options directed at the amelioration of hemostatic activation may tentatively be indicated and were found to be advantageous in experimental and clinical investigations. These treatments encompass elimination of tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation or restitution of normal anticoagulant function.

  4. Microrheological Coagulation Assay Exploiting Micromechanical Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Francesco; Duffy, James; Hegner, Martin

    2017-01-03

    Rheological measurements in biological liquids yield insights into homeostasis and provide information on important molecular processes that affect fluidity. We present a fully automated cantilever-based method for highly precise and sensitive measurements of microliter sample volumes of human blood plasma coagulation (0.009 cP for viscosity range 0.5-3 cP and 0.0012 g/cm(3) for density range 0.9-1.1 g/cm(3)). Microcantilever arrays are driven by a piezoelectric element, and resonance frequencies and quality factors of sensors that change over time are evaluated. A highly accurate approximation of the hydrodynamic function is introduced that correlates resonance frequency and quality factor of cantilever beams immersed in a fluid to the viscosity and density of that fluid. The theoretical model was validated using glycerol reference solutions. We present a surface functionalization protocol that allows minimization of unspecific protein adsorption onto cantilevers. Adsorption leads to measurement distortions and incorrect estimation of the fluid parameters (viscosity and density). Two hydrophilic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) sensor surfaces are compared to a hydrophobic terminated SAM coating. As expected, the hydrophobic modified surfaces induced the highest mass adsorption and could promote conformational changes of the proteins and subsequent abnormal biological activity. Finally, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assay was performed, and the viscosity, density, and coagulation rate of human blood plasma were measured along with the standard coagulation time. The method could extend and improve current coagulation testing.

  5. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  6. Blood coagulation function change and influence factors in Cushing's syndrome and obesity%库欣综合征和肥胖症患者凝血功能的改变及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘之慧; 卢琳; 陈适; 潘慧; 朱惠娟; 龚凤英; 阳洪波; 王林杰; 邓侃

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较与分析库欣综合征(CS)和肥胖症(OB)凝血指标改变及影响因素,为改善其预后提供理论基础.方法 对北京协和医院在2012年10月至2015年8月就诊的250例CS和164例OB患者,进行外周血细胞、肝肾功能、血脂、皮质醇和凝血功能的检测.结果 CS和OB患者存在凝血指标异常的比例分别为80%(200/250)和52%(85/164),与OB者相比,CS患者各项凝血及纤溶指标数值明显降低,且活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)的缩短更为明显,而24 h尿游离皮质醇(24 hUFC)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)数值高于OB.此外,OB患者的BMI、空腹血糖(FBG)、TC、LDL-C与凝血指标异常有关;CS患者的丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、24 h UFC、白细胞、血小板与凝血指标异常有关.结论 可能由于体内更高的TC、LDL-C及皮质醇水平对凝血系统的影响,导致CS患者的高凝状态较OB显著,从而增加血栓形成的风险.%Objective To compare and analysis blood coagulation index change and influence factors in Cushing's syndrome (CS) and obesity (OB) patients to provide theoretical evidence for improving the prognosis of them.Methods A total of 250 patients with CS and 164 patients with obesity were collected from October 2012 to August 2015 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.Peripheral blood cells,liver and kidney function,blood lipid,24 h urine free cortisol (24 hUFC) and blood coagulation were tested.Results The proportion of patients with abnormal blood coagulation indexes were 80% (200/250) and 52% (85/164) respectively in CS and OB patients.Compared with OB patients,coagulation and fibrinolysis values decreased significantly in CS patients.In addition,the shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was more obvious in CS patients,while 24 hUFC,total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL

  7. Inflammation-associated activation of coagulation and immune regulation by the protein C pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    The inflammation-induced activation of the protein C pathway provides negative feedback inhibition of coagulation and exerts coagulation-independent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. The balance between these activities of aPC modulates the outcome of diverse inflammatory diseases such as encephalitis, diabetes, and sepsis; and is affected by naturally occurring aPC-resistance of coagulation factor V Leiden.

  8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in term and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Alex; Fischer, Doris; Nold, Marcel F; Wong, Flora Y

    2010-06-01

    Among critically ill patients, the risk of developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is probably highest in neonates. Low plasma reserves in pro- and anticoagulant coagulation factors, intravascular volume contraction after birth, and a high incidence of hypoxia and sepsis in critically ill newborns rapidly lead to a decompensation of the coagulation system in this population. Global coagulation tests and single-factor plasma levels have to be interpreted in the context of age-corrected normal ranges. Platelet consumption and reduced protein C plasma levels have diagnostic value; the latter also has prognostic potential in neonates with DIC and sepsis. Therapeutic success relies heavily on reversal of the underlying condition. Some coagulation-specific therapies have been explored in small studies and case series with varying success and sometimes conflicting results. Therefore, larger controlled trials in this common and serious condition are urgently needed.

  9. A simplified approach for solving coagulation-diffusion equation to estimate atmospheric background particle number loading factors contributed by emissions from localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2011-08-01

    Coagulation and condensation/evaporation combined with atmospheric dispersion are the main processes responsible for the evolution of aerosol particle size distributions and number concentrations emitted from localized sources. A crucial question is: what fraction of freshly emitted particles survive intra-coagulation effect to persist in the atmosphere and become available for further interaction with background aerosols?. The difficulty in estimating this quantity, designated as the number survival fraction, arises due chiefly to the joint action of atmospheric diffusion with nonlinear coagulation effects which are computationally intensive to handle. We provide a simplified approach to evaluate this quantity in the context of instantaneous (puff) and continuous (plume) releases based on a reduction of the respective coagulation-diffusion equations under the assumption of a constant coagulation kernel ( K). The condensation/evaporation processes, being number conserving, are not included in the study. The approach consists of constructing moment equations for the evolution of number concentration and variance of the spatial extension of puff or plume in terms of either time or downstream distance. The puff model, applicable to instantaneous releases is solved within a 3-D, spherically symmetric framework, under an additional assumption of a constant diffusion coefficient ( D) which renders itself amenable to a closed form solution that provides a benchmark for developing the solution to the plume model. The latter case, corresponding to continuous releases, is discussed within a 2-D framework under the assumptions of constant advection velocity ( U) and space dependent diffusion coefficient expressed in terms of turbulent energy dissipation rate ( ɛ). The study brings out the special effect of the coagulation-induced flattening of the spatial concentration profiles because of which particle sizes will be larger at the centre of a Gaussian puff. For a puff of

  10. 冷沉淀制备时间对凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量的影响%Influence of preparation time of cryoprecipitate on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of preparation time of cryoprecipitate on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Methods 93 samples of fresh frozen plasma collected from September of 2013 to December of 2012 were selected and divided into 3 groups, 31 samples in each group. The fresh frozen plasma in 3 groups were prepared cryoprecipitate at the 6th, 8th, 10th hours respectively. The contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen in 3 groups were detected and compared. Results The contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen in 3 groups had no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion The preparation time of cryoprecipitate within 10 hours after collecting the fresh frozen plasma had no influence on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen.%目的:分析冷沉淀制备时间对凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量的影响。方法选取2013年9月至2013年12月采集的93份新鲜冰冻血浆,均分为3组(各31份),分别于6h、8h、10h再将各组新鲜血浆制备成冷沉淀。对3组冷沉淀中纤维蛋白原及凝血Ⅷ因子含量进行测定并进行对比分析。结果制备时间分别为6h、8h、10h的3组冷沉淀中凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论全血采集后10h内不同时间点制备冷沉淀对其凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量无较大影响。

  11. Is there an effect of folic acid supplementation on the coagulation factors and C-reactive protein concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mierzecki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Folic acid (FA may delay the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Increased plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF are observed in cardiovascular disease, which leads to higher risk of thrombosis. Fibrinogen (Fb is a well-documented risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FA supplementation on the Fb, VWF and C-reactive protein (CRP plasma concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors.Material/Methods:The study enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, 64 F with atherosclerosis risk factors – family history of premature ischaemic stroke, arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia, overweight and obesity, cigarette smoking and low physical activity. The participants were asked to take FA in the low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for three months.Results:After FA supplementation a significant reduction of the VWF concentrations in females (76.6 vs 72.3�20p=0.028 and in males (75.5 vs 66.9�20p=0.001 was observed. Among women and men with dyslipidaemia concentrations of VWF decreased after FA supplementation (76.8�0vs 69.6�20p=0.003 and 76.7�0vs 67.8�20p=0.001 respectively. Among females and males with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 concentrations of VWF decreased only in men (77.6�0vs 66.5�20p=0.001. In female and male smokers supplementation of FA decreased VWF concentrations (82.5�0vs 74.4�20p=0.012 and 76.6�0vs 69.5�20p=0.036 respectively.Discussion:The results of our study suggest that there is an effect of FA supplementation on VWF concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors

  12. Ipomoea dasysperma seed gum: an effective natural coagulant for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Dixit, Awantika; Singh, Vandana

    2006-10-01

    An investigation of dye decolorization from synthetic dye solutions using the non-ionic, water-soluble, high molecular weight seed gums Ipomoea dasysperma and guar gum as coagulants was undertaken. The use of galactomannans derived from plants in this system presents a sustainable method of textile effluent treatment. These natural coagulants extracted from plants proved to be workable alternatives to conventional coagulants like polyaluminum chloride, as they are biodegradable, safe to human health, are cost effective when compared to imported chemicals and have a wider effective dosage range for flocculation of various colloidal suspensions. Coagulant dose and coagulation pH are important factors influencing the mechanism of coagulation. Also the type and chemical structure of the dye plays an important role in the coagulation process. The seed gums alone were found to be effective for decolorization of direct dye and in combination with PAC their coagulation efficiency was well extended even for reactive and acid dyes.

  13. 产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和治疗效果探讨%Discussion on the predisposing factors and clinical efficacy of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and predisposing factors of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.Methods:100 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation were selected.They were randomly divided into two equal groups according to the order of admission.Patients in the control group were given routine treatment. Patients in the experimental group received supportive treatment on the basis of the control group.We observed the predisposing factors of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation,and observed the clinical therapeutic effect of the two groups after treatment and the amount of bleeding.Results:Predisposing factors included amniotic fluid embolism,placental abruption,fetal death,postpartum hemorrhage and pregnancy induced hypertension.The amount of bleeding within 24 hours after treatment of the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group,the rescue efficiency was higher than the control group,the differences between the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Strengthen support for treatment on the basis of conventional therapy had significant effect on the treatment of obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation and reduce the bleeding.%目的:探讨产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和临床疗效。方法:收治弥散性血管内凝血患者100例,按照入院顺序随机均分为两组,对照组予以常规治疗,试验组在对照组的基础上予以支持治疗,观察产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素,治疗后观察两组的临床治疗效果与出血量。结果:诱发因素包括羊水栓塞、胎盘早剥、死胎、产后出血及妊娠期高血压。试验组患者治疗的24 h 内出血量明显少于对照组,抢救有效率也明显高于对照组,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:常规治疗基础上加强支持治疗对治疗产科弥散性血管内凝

  14. Laboratory testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relies on clinical signs and symptoms, identification of the underlying disease, the results of laboratory testing, and differentiation from other pathologies. The clinical features mainly depend on the underlying cause of the DIC. The laboratory diagnosis of DIC uses a combination of tests because no single test result alone can firmly establish or rule out the diagnosis. Global tests of hemostasis may initially provide evidence of coagulation activation and later in the process provide evidence of consumption of coagulation factors, but their individual diagnostic efficiency is limited. Fibrinolytic markers, in particular D-dimer, are reflective of activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis, so that a normal finding can be useful for ruling-out DIC. Decreased levels of the natural anticoagulants (in particular, antithrombin and protein C) are frequently observed in patients with DIC, but their measurement is not normally incorporated into standard diagnostic algorithms. New tests are being explored for utility in DIC, and some additional tests may be useful on a case-by-case basis, depending on the proposed cause of the DIC or their local availability. For example, clot waveform analysis is useful but currently limited to a single instrument. Also, procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that may be useful within the context of septic DIC, and activated factor X clotting time is an emerging test of procoagulant phospholipids that also seems to hold promise in DIC.

  15. 乳酸菌制剂牛奶凝固力实验的影响因素研究%Study on the Influence Factors of Milk Coagulation Experiments of Lactic Acid Bacteria Preparations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘永琦; 朱斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence factors of milk coagulation experiments of Lactic Acid Bacteria Preparations.Meth-ods:The solidification phenomenon, protein content and pH value of the culture media prepared by different sources of milk were test in different sterilization conditons.Results:The culture medium sample of sterile milk powder did not produce solidification phenome-non, and had nothing to do with the protein content and pH value.Conclusion:Different milk production and milk culture medium sterilization conditions are the main factors led to the differences in milk coagulation.%目的:考察乳酸菌制剂牛奶凝固力实验的影响因素。方法:测定不同来源牛奶培养基在不同灭菌条件下的凝固现象、蛋白质含量和pH值。结果:使用灭菌奶粉培养基的供试品不能正常凝固,且这一现象与蛋白质含量及pH值无关。结论:不同牛奶的生产工艺以及牛奶培养基的灭菌条件是导致牛奶凝固力实验现象存在差异的主要因素。

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of coagulation factor IX-binding protein from habu snake venom at pH 6.5 and 4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Shikamoto, Yasuo; Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: mizuno@affrc.go.jp [Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of habu coagulation factor IX-binding protein have been obtained at pH 6.5 and 4.6 and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Coagulation factor IX-binding protein isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (IX-bp) is a C-type lectin-like protein. It is an anticoagulant protein consisting of homologous subunits A and B. The subunits both contain a Ca{sup 2+}-binding site with differing affinity (K{sub d} values of 14 and 130 µM at pH 7.5). These binding characteristics are pH-dependent; under acidic conditions, the affinity of the low-affinity site was reduced considerably. In order to identify which site has high affinity and also to investigate the Ca{sup 2+}-releasing mechanism, IX-bp was crystallized at pH 6.5 and 4.6. The crystals at pH 6.5 and 4.6 diffracted to 1.72 and 2.29 Å resolution, respectively; the former crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.7, b = 63.5, c = 66.9 Å, β = 117.0°, while the latter belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with a = 134.1, b = 37.8, c = 55.8 Å, β = 110.4°.

  17. A short contemporary history of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to a widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. There is ample experimental and pathological evidence that the fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ failure. The massive and ongoing activation of coagulation may result in depletion of platelets and coagulation factors, which may cause bleeding (consumption coagulopathy). The syndrome of DIC is well known in the medical literature for centuries, although a more precise description of the underlying mechanisms had to await the 20th century. Initial ideas on a role of the contact activation system as the primary trigger for the systemic activation of coagulation as well as a presumed hyperfibrinolytic response in DIC have been found to be misconceptions. Experimental and clinical evidence now indicate that the initiation of coagulation in DIC is caused by tissue factor expression, which in combination with downregulated physiological anticoagulant pathways and impaired fibrinolysis leads to widespread fibrin deposition. In addition, an extensive bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammation may further contribute to the pathogenesis of DIC.

  18. The Influencing Factors and Quality Control of Emergency Four Items of Blood Coagulation Before Analysis%急诊凝血四项分析前的影响因素及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influencing factors and quality control of emergency four items of blood coagulation before analysis.Method:511 patients admitted to emergency department in our hospital from July 2012 to July 2014 were selected,the four items of blood coagulation were measured after venous blood collection,found the error results for repeated blood sampling and reviewed.Result:A total of 91 samples(17.8%) of blood appeared error,in which 27 samples(29.7%) of blood with anticoagulant ratio appeared error,compared with the original results,the PT,APTT,TT in the results of review reduced significantly,the FIB increased significantly,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05);and 45 samples(49.5%) of blood without mixing. Conclusion:The implementation of quality control before analysis from the blood collection,storage,inspection,medication and other aspects can improve the test quality of the four items of blood coagulation and give full play to the role of blood coagulation detection diagnosis.%目的:分析急诊凝血四项分析前的影响因素及质量控制。方法:选取2012年7月-2014年7月笔者所在医院急诊收治入院的511例患者,对其静脉采血后进行凝血四项的测定,找出误差结果重复采血并进行复查。结果:共有91份(17.8%)血样出现误差,其中27份(29.7%)血量与抗凝剂比例有误,其复查结果与原结果比较,PT、APTT、TT均明显减小,FIB明显增大,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);45份(49.5%)血样未混匀。结论:从血样采集、储存、送检、患者用药等多方面进行分析前质量控制,能提高凝血四项检验的质量,充分发挥凝血检测的诊断作用。

  19. Coagulation-Inflammatory Network: Anti-inflammatory Effect of Natural Coagulation Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺石林

    2001-01-01

    @@ Considerable evidence has accumulated to indicated that the serine protease in blood clotting process not only participate in the activation of coagulation factors,but also result in a series of cell responses particularly involved in inflammation process through appropriate receptors.

  20. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that may complicate a variety of diseases, including malignant disease. DIC is characterized by widespread, intravascular activation of coagulation (leading to intravascular fibrin deposition) and simultaneous consumption of coagulation fact

  2. 围产期不同高危因素对早产儿凝血功能的影响分析%Analysis of the influence of different perinatal high-risk factors on coagulation function in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of different perinatal risk factors on the coagulation function in premature infants. Methods:239 cases of premature infants with a single high risk factor for pregnancy were as the observation group.54 cases of premature infants with healthy mothers were as the control group.According to the different risk factors for pregnancy,the observation group was divided into 5 groups;the coagulation function of each group were compared.Results:The PT,TT,APTT,FDP and D-Dimer of the hypertensive group and the placental abruption group were higher than those in the control group;the FIB of the hypertensive group and the placental abruption group were lower than the control group (P<0.05).The APTT value of premature rupture of membrane group was higher than that of the control group;the gestational diabetes group and the placenta previa group;the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:Premature rupture of membrane,hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and placental abruption could aggravate the coagulation dysfunction in premature infants.%目的:分析围产期不同高危因素对早产儿凝血功能的影响。方法:收治妊娠期单一高危因素产妇所产的早产儿239例作为观察组及健康母亲所产的早产儿54例作为对照组。根据产妇妊娠期不同高危因素将观察组分为5组,比较各组的凝血功能。结果:妊娠高血压组、胎盘早剥组PT、TT、APTT、FDP、D-Dimer值高于对照组,妊娠高血压组、胎盘早剥组FIB低于对照组(P<0.05)。胎膜早破组APTT值高于对照组、妊娠期糖尿病组及前置胎盘组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:胎膜早破、妊娠期高血压、胎盘早剥均可加重早产儿的凝血功能障碍。

  3. The Diagnosis and Man Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flelcher B.; Taylor.Jr

    2003-01-01

    @@ This review describes disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) as a syndrome in which hemostatic factors are activated and products are generated. This syndrome ranges in severity from an obvious decompensated coagulopathy (overt-DIC) to the subclinical compensated activation of hemostatic factors(non-overt DIC). Ths first part of this review emphasizes two points: First, activation of the hemostatic system is controlled by a vast network of capillaries and venules through anticoagulant and antiinflammatory regulatory factors that operate from the endothelium( e. G. , protein C and thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor).

  4. Effect of different time on coagulation factors in fresh frozen plasma after thawing%不同放置时间对融化后新鲜冰冻血浆中凝血因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐会芹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different time on coagulation factors in fresh frozen plasma after thawing.Methods The medicine blood by ACD B anticoagulated whole blood separation, preparation and fresh frozen plasma30,37℃ water bath melting and melt after 0,6,12,24h determination of prothrombin time (PT),activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT),fibrinogen(FIB),thrombin time (TT),coagulation factor FⅦ、FⅧ、FⅨ activity level.ResultsAfter the fresh frozen plasma,the PT,APTT,FIB,TT at different time points of the test results were not statistically different in 24 hours(P>0.05).Coagulation factor FⅦ and FⅧ changed with time and significantly decreased with the passage of time attenuation and blood immediate difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). FIX only when 12 hours had decreased,again after 24 hours.ConclusionFresh frozen plasma should be infused immediately after thawing,so as to guarantee the biological activity of coagulation factor and guarantee the effect of treatment.%目的:探讨不同放置时间对融化后新鲜冰冻血浆中凝血因子的影响。方法选择本院血站经ACD-B抗凝全血分离制备而成的新鲜冰冻血浆30份,37℃水浴融化,于融化后0、6、12、24h测定凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、纤维蛋白(FIB)、凝血酶时间(TT)、凝血因子FⅦ、FⅧ、FⅨ活性水平。结果新鲜冷冻血浆融化后,PT、APTT、FIB、TT在24h内不同时间点测定结果,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。凝血因子FⅦ及FⅧ随时间的改变而有明显的降低,随着时间的推移衰减,与抽血即刻比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。而FⅨ仅在12h的时候有一过性的下降,24h后又恢复。结论新鲜冰冻血浆在融化后应该立即输注,以保证凝血因子生物学活性,进一步保证治疗的效果。

  5. Predisposing Factors and Treatment of Obstetric Patients With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Inquiry%产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和治疗效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明媛; 袁玉华; 方雯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To probe the predisposing factors and treatment effect of obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation.MethodsSelected 25 patients who were suffer from obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation and treated in our hospital from the date of June 2014 to the date of June 2015 as the experimental group, selected 20 patients who had the same situation with the patients who we were refer to as above from the date of January 2012 to the date of January 2013 as an collate group to compare and analyze with the other group which were treated with comprehensive methods of treatment. The experimental group adopted comprehensive treatment, but the other group adopted conventional treatment.Results The survival rate of experimental group was 95.8%, it was 80% signiifcantly higher than the other group (P<0.05).ConclusionIt is better to adopt comprehensive treatment for the patients who are obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation.%目的:探讨引发产科弥散性血管内凝血的诱发因素和临床治疗效果。方法选取2014年6月~2015年6月于我院治疗的的25例产科弥散性血管内凝血患者作为实验组,选取2012年1月~2013年1月在我院治疗的20例产科弥散性血管内凝血患者资料为对照组进行分析,实验组给予综合性治疗方法,对照组给予常规治疗方法。结果实验组抢救成功率为95.8%,高于对照组的80%(P<0.05)。结论对产科弥散性血管内凝血患者采用综合性方法进行治疗效果良好。

  6. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies....

  7. Numerical study of instability of nanofluids: the coagulation effect and sedimentation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Yu; Fan JianRen; Hu YaCai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study is a numerical study on the coagulation as well as the sedimentation effect of nanofluids using the Brownian dynamics method. Three cases are simulated, focusing on the effects of the sizes, volume fraction, and ζ potentials of nano-particles on the formation of coagulation and sedimentation of nanofluids. The rms fluctuation of the particle number concentration, as well as the flatness factor of it, is employed to study the formation and variation of the coagulation ...

  8. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  9. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  10. Heparanase—A Link between Coagulation, Angiogenesis, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Nadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparanase that was cloned from and is abundant in the placenta is implicated in cell invasion, tumor metastasis, and angiogenesis. Recently we have demonstrated that heparanase may also affect the hemostatic system in a non-enzymatic manner. Heparanase was shown to up-regulate tissue factor (TF expression and interact with tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI on the cell surface, leading to dissociation of TFPI from the cell membrane of endothelial and tumor cells, resulting in increased cell surface coagulation activity. More recently, we have shown that heparanase directly enhances TF activity, resulting in increased factor Xa production and activation of the coagulation system. Data indicate increased levels and possible involvement of heparanase in vascular complications in pregnancy. Taking into account the prometastatic and proangiogenic functions of heparanase, overexpression in human malignancies, and abundance in platelets and placenta, its involvement in the coagulation machinery is an intriguing novel arena for further research.

  11. Splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis. Role of coagulation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavé, P; Guillaumes, S; Blanco, I; Martínez de Hurtado, J; Esquius, J; Marruecos, L; Fontcuberta, J; Pérez, C; Farré, A; Lluís, F

    1992-08-01

    Splenic hematomas are infrequent complications of acute pancreatitis. In some cases, local factors that may play a role in the pathogenesis of the hematoma (thrombosis of the splenic artery or veins, intrasplenic pseudocysts, perisplenic adhesions, enzymatic digestion) are found. In the absence of local factors, the etiology of splenic hemorrhage remains unknown. We report two cases of splenic hematoma occurring during an acute necro-hemorrhagic pancreatitis associated with renal failure that required renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis). In both cases, more than half of splenic parenchyma was affected by multiple infarctions. No local factors responsible for the splenic abnormalities were detected in either case. Thrombosis of the splenic arterial microcirculation and a coagulation disorder consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation was detected in one patient. In the second patient, coagulation disorders secondary to either liver disease, pancreatitis and its septic complications, or extracorporeal circuit heparinization for renal replacement therapy were present. Coagulation disorders should be considered whenever a splenic hematoma is found in a patient with acute pancreatitis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may be the etiology of a splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis.

  12. Recent acquisitions in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippi Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is a disorder characterized by both acute generalized, widespread activation of coagulation, which results in thrombotic complications due to the intravascular formation of fibrin, and diffuse hemorrhages, due to the consumption of platelets and coagulation factors. Systemic activation of coagulation may occur in a variety of disorders, including sepsis, severe infections, malignancies, obstetric or vascular disorders, and severe toxic or immunological reactions. In this review, we briefly report the present knowledge about the pathophysiology and diagnosis of DIC. Particular attention is also given to the current standard and experimental therapies of overt DIC.

  13. Randomized study of coagulation and fibrinolysis during and after gasless and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J F; Ejstrud, P; Svendsen, F;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum may be an important pathophysiological factor stimulating the coagulation system during conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that gasless laparoscopy produces smaller changes in the coagulation...... and fibrinolytic system than carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients were allocated randomly to conventional (n = 26) or gasless (n = 24) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Blood samples were obtained on admission, after induction of anaesthesia...... increased significantly in both groups (P coagulation and fibrinolysis associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are activated during and after gasless as well...

  14. The influence of coagulation factors in cord blood%新生儿脐带血凝血因子活性水平影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖冬波; 林慧玲; 叶铁真; 朱欢欢; 李彦媚; 江利宜; 雷玉娇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence on levels of coagulation factors in cord blood,included the physiological and pathological status of mater and the newborn.Methods We Detected the levels of F Ⅱ 、FⅤ 、FⅦ 、FⅧ 、FⅨ 、FⅩ 、FⅪ and FⅫ in cord blood by CA-1500 Automatic blood coagulation analyzer and related reagents,group results by impact factors and compared them statistically.Results (1) Factors of newborn:every coagulation factor between the male group and the female group was no statistical difference(P >0.05) ;F Ⅱ,F Ⅴ,FⅨ and FⅪ in the group of premature infant were less active than the normal (P =0.031,0.037,0.000,0.002) ;FⅡ and FⅦ in the group of birth weight >4.0 kg were more active than the normal (P =0.043,0.043) ; FⅧ in the group of cesarean section was less active than the normal (P =0.004) ; FⅧ,FⅨ and FⅪ in the group of twin pregnancy were less active than the normal (P =0.002,0.000,0.028) ;F Ⅱ and F Ⅷ in the group of intrauterine hypoxia were less active than the normal (P =0.032,0.012).(2) Factors of mater:F Ⅱ and FⅨ in the group of≥35-year-old mothers with first delivery were more active than the normal (P =0.009,0.028).Every coagulation factor between the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group and the not GDM group was no statistical difference(P >0.05) ;FⅧ in the group of pregnancy associated with gynecologic diseases was less active than the normal (P =0.043),F Ⅱ,Ⅶ and F Ⅹ were more active than the normal (P =0.032,0.024,0.022).Conclusion Premature birth,cesarean,twins,intrauterine hypoxia,perinatal infection and other factors have greater impact on the levels of FⅡ,FⅧ,FⅨ and FⅪ in cord blood.To prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn,we should avoid the factors mentioned above.%目的 探讨孕母妊娠期情况及新生儿出生时的生理及病理状况对脐带血凝血因子活性水平的影响.方法 采用全自动凝血分析仪及其配套试剂检测新

  15. The Present Situation on Disseminated Intravascular. Coagulation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽霖

    2001-01-01

    @@ DIC is not a clinical entity in itself. Instead, it always occurs secondary to a broad spectrum of various diseases. DIC may be defined as an acquired syndrome characterized by the activation of intravascular coagulation up to intravascular fibrin formation. Although the trigger for the activation of the coagulation system may vary depending on the underlying condition, it is usually mediated by several cytokines. Thrombin generation proceeds via the (extrinsic) tissue factor/factor Ⅶ a route and simultaneous depression of inhibitory mechanisms, such as the protein C and protein S system. In addition, impaired fibrin degradation, dur to high circulating levels of PAI-1, contributes to enhanced introvascular fibrin deposition.

  16. [Modern coagulation management reduces the transfusion rate of allogenic blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christian Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    Evaluating the patient's individual bleeding history with a standardized questionnaire, using "point-of-care" - methods for coagulation analyses and providing autologous transfusion techniques are preconditions of a modern coagulation management. Therapy of coagulopathic patients should be based on structured hemotherapy algorithms. Surgical haemostasis and the maintenance of the basic conditions for haemostasis are elementary requirements for an effective therapy. In cases of diffuse bleeding, early antifibrinolytic therapy should be considered. Coagulation factor deficiencies should be corrected "goal-directed" using coagulation factor concentrates. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma is only indicated in the clinical setting of massive transfusions. DDAVP and transfusion of platelet concentrates are options to optimize primary haemostasis. In cases of on-going bleeding, recombinant activated coagulation factor VII represents an option for "ultima-ratio" therapy.

  17. TACE序贯联合PMCT治疗原发性肝癌的预后因素分析%Prognostic factors affecting transarterial chemoembolization sequentially combined with percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪嘉延; 许林锋; 陈耀庭; 孙宏亮; 谭绮尹; 胡仁美

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the main prognostic factors affecting sequential transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT). Methods: A total of 97 hepatocellular carcinoma cases treated by sequential TACE combined with PMCT at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010 were selected. Univariate analysis was conducted followed by multivariate Cox regression analysis to determine the prognostic factors.Methods: A total of 97 he-patocellular carcinoma cases treated by sequential TACE combined with PMCT at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010 were selected. Univariate analysis was conducted followed by multivariate Cox regression analysis to determine the prognostic factors. Results: The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival rates were 68.2%, 43.2%, 28.8%, and 13.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified the following as factors: tumor size, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging, liver function grading by the Child-Pugh score, portal vein tumor thrombus, arteriovenous fistula, frequency of PMCT, and physical strength by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) standards. Prognostic factors determined by multivariate analysis using Cox stepwise regression included tumor size, BCLG staging, portal vein tumor thrombus, frequency of PMCT, and physical strength by the ECOG standards. Conclusion: Retreatment with PMCT under suitable physical conditions and liver function can prolong the survival time of liver cancer patients. Large hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein cancerous thrombus are the risk factors affecting the prognosis. The median survival time of the patients with massive liver tumor or portal vein tumor thrombus is markedly reduced.%  目的:分析影响动脉化疗栓塞术(transarterial chemoemlolization,TACE)序贯联合微波凝固消融(percutaneous micro⁃wave coagulation therapy,PMCT)治疗原发性肝癌预

  18. Depinning as a coagulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşeri, M.; Kaspar, D.; Mungan, M.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a one-dimensional model that describes the depinning of an elastic string of particles in a strongly pinning, phase-disordered periodic environment under a slowly increasing force. The evolution towards depinning occurs by the triggering of avalanches in regions of activity which are at first isolated, but later grow and merge. For large system sizes the dynamically critical behavior is dominated by the coagulation of these active regions. Our analysis and numerical simulations show that the evolution of the sizes of active regions is well described by a Smoluchowski coagulation equation, allowing us to predict correlation lengths and avalanche sizes in terms of certain moments of the size distribution.

  19. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Imran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO42, aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO42, calcium carbonate (CaCO3, sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7. The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The quantity of various pollutants present in waste water was reduced after treatment. The optimized dose and pH for maximum decrease in EC and TDS were 5g/L and 7, respectively. The maximum reduction in the amount of sulphates and chlorides present in tannery wastewater was observed at dosage of 0.5g/L and pH 7. A dosage of 5g/L and pH 7 was also found most favorable for maximum reduction in values of COD, phenolphtalein and total alkalinity. The chromium concentrations in tannery wastewater before and after treatment were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A reduction in chromium concentration was observed after treatment. The promising results of the present study demonstrate that immobilization of chemical coagulants can make them more effective for wastewater treatment.

  20. Coagulant activity and cellular origin of circulating tissue factor exposing microparticles in cancer patients - two forms of TF-exposing microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Boing, A. N.; Di Nisio, M.; Twint, D.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Nanayakkara, P.; Buller, H. R.; Nieuwland, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Because plasma of cancer patients presenting with venous thrombosis contains high numbers of tissue factor (TF)-exposing microparticles (TF-MP1), TF-MP have been causally linked to the occurrence of venous thrombosis in cancer patients. The relationship between numbers of TF-exposing MP

  1. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of apple juice on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol, 1% cholesterol supplemented with 5 ml apple juice (low dose and 1% cholesterol supplemented with 10 ml apple juice (high dose for 2 month. The C-reactive protein (CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, total cholesterol(TC and factor VII were measured before the experiment and by the end of period. At the end of study, fatty streak formation in right and left coronary arteries were determined using Chekanov method in all groups. Results Both doses of apple juice significantly were decreased TC, TG, CRP, fibrinogen, factor VII levels, atherosclerotic lesion in right and left coronary arteries and increased nitrite and nitrate compared to cholesterolemic diet. Also using 10 ml apple juice caused significant reduce in LDL-C and increase HDL-C, but 5 ml apple juice did not change these factors. Significant differences were observed between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups by LDL-C. No significant difference was found between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups with regard to CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, factor VII, TG, HDL-C and TC concentrations. Conclusion Apple juice can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of apple juice.

  2. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-06

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  4. Interactions outside the proteinase-binding loop contribute significantly to the inhibition of activated coagulation factor XII by its canonical inhibitor from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Vera A; Trubetskov, Mikhail M; Korshunova, Alena V; Lushchekina, Sofya V; Kolyadko, Vladimir N; Sergienko, Olga V; Lunin, Vladimir G; Panteleev, Mikhail A; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I

    2014-05-16

    Activated factor XII (FXIIa) is selectively inhibited by corn Hageman factor inhibitor (CHFI) among other plasma proteases. CHFI is considered a canonical serine protease inhibitor that interacts with FXIIa through its protease-binding loop. Here we examined whether the protease-binding loop alone is sufficient for the selective inhibition of serine proteases or whether other regions of a canonical inhibitor are involved. Six CHFI mutants lacking different N- and C-terminal portions were generated. CHFI-234, which lacks the first and fifth disulfide bonds and 11 and 19 amino acid residues at the N and C termini, respectively, exhibited no significant changes in FXIIa inhibition (Ki = 3.2 ± 0.4 nm). CHFI-123, which lacks 34 amino acid residues at the C terminus and the fourth and fifth disulfide bridges, inhibited FXIIa with a Ki of 116 ± 16 nm. To exclude interactions outside the FXIIa active site, a synthetic cyclic peptide was tested. The peptide contained residues 20-45 (Protein Data Bank code 1BEA), and a C29D substitution was included to avoid unwanted disulfide bond formation between unpaired cysteines. Surprisingly, the isolated protease-binding loop failed to inhibit FXIIa but retained partial inhibition of trypsin (Ki = 11.7 ± 1.2 μm) and activated factor XI (Ki = 94 ± 11 μm). Full-length CHFI inhibited trypsin with a Ki of 1.3 ± 0.2 nm and activated factor XI with a Ki of 5.4 ± 0.2 μm. Our results suggest that the protease-binding loop is not sufficient for the interaction between FXIIa and CHFI; other regions of the inhibitor also contribute to specific inhibition.

  5. [Traumatic abruption of the placenta with disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, R; Malär, A-U; Benz-Wörner, J; Scherer, M; Hodel, M; Gähler, A; Haberthür, C; Konrad, C

    2012-10-01

    Trauma in pregnancy is infrequent and a systematic primary strategy constitutes a real challenge for the interdisciplinary team. With a high fetal mortality rate and a substantial maternal mortality rate traumatic placental abruption is a severe emergency which every anesthetist should be aware of. After hemodynamic stabilization of the mother and control of the viability of the fetus the therapy of traumatic placental abruption consists mostly of an immediate caesarean section. Coagulopathy by depletion of coagulation factors as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have to be expected and consequently a massive blood loss must be anticipated. Thrombelastography provides assistance for fast differential diagnosis and goal-directed treatment of the disturbed sections of the coagulation cascade.

  6. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  7. Thrombocytopenia affects plasmatic coagulation as measured by thrombelastography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeloffzen, Wilfried W. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Mulder, Andre B.; de Wolf, Joost Th. M.

    2010-01-01

    Thrombelastography (TEG) is used as a point-of-care test of hemostasis. Different components of the test tracing are considered to reflect various parts of the hemostatic system and to distinguish low platelet count, platelet dysfunction or both from lack of plasmatic coagulation factors. To analyze

  8. Role of tissue factor positive microparticles in coagulation and thrombosis%组织因子阳性微粒在凝血及血栓形成中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 孟文彤

    2016-01-01

    微粒是真核细胞活化或凋亡时释放的直径约为0.1~1.0 μm的双层脂质膜囊泡,来源于血小板、白细胞、红细胞、单核细胞、内皮细胞及肿瘤细胞等.组织因子(TF)是一种跨膜糖蛋白,是体内凝血途径的启动因子.TF主要以在微粒上表达的形式存在,这种微粒称为组织因子阳性微粒(TF+MPs).TF+ MPs具有较高的促凝活性,其表达水平可在血栓性疾病和相关凝血性疾病中升高.因此,测定TF+MPs可能作为血栓性疾病的有效监测指标.%Microparticles are small intact membrane-bound vesicles measuring 0.1-1.0 μm derived from the plasma membrane during cellular activation and apoptosis.Microparticles were generated by several cell types,including platelets,erythrocytes,monocytes,leucocytes,endothelial cells and cancer cells.Tissue factor (TF) is a transmenbrane glycoprotein that is the primary cellular activator of the clotting cascade.TF mainly expressed on microparticles,as called tissue factor positive microparticles(TF+ MPs).TF+ MPs presents a high anticoagulant activity and increase in disorders related thrombosis and coagulation.Therefore,TF+ MPs are useful indicator for monitor the risk of thrombotic diseases.

  9. SAR and X-ray Structures of Enantiopure 1,2-cis-(1R,2S)-cyclopentyldiamine and Cyclohexyldiamine Derivativies as Inhibitors of Coagulation Factor Xa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao,J.; Chang, C.; Cheney, D.; Morin, D.; Wang, P.; King, G.; Wang, S.; Rendina, T.; Luettgen, A.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    In the search of Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors structurally different from the pyrazole-based series, we identified a viable series of enantiopure cis-(1R,2S)-cycloalkyldiamine derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of FXa. Among them, cyclohexyldiamide 7 and cyclopentyldiamide 9 were the most potent neutral compounds, and had good anticoagulant activity comparable to the pyrazole-based analogs. Crystal structures of 7-FXa and 9-FXa illustrate binding similarities and differences between the five- and the six-membered core systems, and provide rationales for the observed SAR of P1 and linker moieties.

  10. Successful immune tolerance induction with low-dose coagulation factor VIII in a patient with hemophilia A from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Yilmaz; Ersin, Toret; Yesim, Oymak; Hilkay, Karapinar Tuba; Dilek, Ince; Gulcihan, Ozek; Ahmet, Koc

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitor development is the most frequent and serious complication of the treatment in patients with hemophilia. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the only option of treatment for the eradication of factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitor. We would like to present our case with hemophilia whose FVIII inhibitor eradication was done by a low-dose ITI regimen. Our patient has been applied on-demand therapy until 8 years of age. Secondary prophylaxis was began because of having hemophilic arthropathy. A low titer of FVIII inhibitor (4.2 BU/ml) was detected in the fifth month of the prophylaxis. The peak inhibitor titer of patient was 4.6 BU/ml, and there was no decrease in inhibitor titer in the follow-up duration. The low-dose ITI (50 IU/kg, 3 days a week) was started. His inhibitor level was detected negative and the recovery test was ameliorated in the 15th of the ITI therapy. High-dose regimen ITI could not be given particularly in developing countries such as Turkey in view of the high cost of treatment. Patients who had good risk factors might be successfully treated by using low-dose ITI regimen as effective as high-dose ITI regimen.

  11. Genotype–phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayashree Shanker; Ganapathy Perumal; Arindam Maitra; Veena S. Rao; B. K. Natesha; Shibu John; Sridhar Hebbagodi; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed significantly across R353Q genotype ($P \\lt 0.0001$). Frequency of subjects with RR and QQ genotypes were higher in 4th quartile and 1st quartile of FVII.c activity, respectively ($P \\lt 0.0001$). F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score $-1.82$; $P = 0.002$). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506–2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679–3.641), respectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  12. Fatores associados à incoagulabilidade sangüínea no envenenamento por serpentes do gênero Bothrops Risk factors associated with coagulation abnormalities in Bothrops envenoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer fatores associados à incoagulabilidade sangüínea no envenenamento botrópico, foram obtidas informações de 2.991 prontuários médicos de pacientes atendidos no Instituto Butantan de 1981 a 1990. Associaram-se positivamente à incoagulabilidade sangüínea (p0,05: horário do acidente; presença de presa recém-deglutida no tubo digestivo da serpente; sexo e idade do paciente; ocorrência de bolha, necrose, abscesso e incisão local, amputação, insuficiência renal e óbito. Pode-se concluir que, embora a incoagulabilidade sangüínea apresente associação com manifestações precoces do envenenamento, não tem boa associação com a evolução clínica do paciente.This study aimed at assessing, in the envenoming by Bothrops, factors that are associated with blood incoagulability. Information was obtained from the charts of 2,991 patients admitted to Instituto Butantan, from 1981 to 1990. Factors positively associated with blood incoagulability (p0.05 were: time of the bite; presence of recently swallowed prey in the snake gut; gender and age of the patient; blister, necrosis, and abscess at the bite site; occurrence of amputation, renal failure and death; presence of an incision at the bite site. We conclude that although blood incoagulability is associated with early manifestations of Bothrops envenoming, it is not associated with the clinical outcome.

  13. Numerical study of instability of nanofluids: the coagulation effect and sedimentation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yu; Fan, Jianren; Hu, Yacai

    2011-02-28

    This study is a numerical study on the coagulation as well as the sedimentation effect of nanofluids using the Brownian dynamics method. Three cases are simulated, focusing on the effects of the sizes, volume fraction, and ζ potentials of nano-particles on the formation of coagulation and sedimentation of nanofluids. The rms fluctuation of the particle number concentration, as well as the flatness factor of it, is employed to study the formation and variation of the coagulation process. The results indicate a superposition of coagulation and sedimentation effect of small nano-particles. Moreover, it is stable of nanofluids with the volume fraction of particles below the limit of "resolution" of the fluids. In addition, the effect of ζ potentials is against the formation of coagulation and positive to the stability of nanofluids.

  14. Numerical study of instability of nanofluids: the coagulation effect and sedimentation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is a numerical study on the coagulation as well as the sedimentation effect of nanofluids using the Brownian dynamics method. Three cases are simulated, focusing on the effects of the sizes, volume fraction, and ζ potentials of nano-particles on the formation of coagulation and sedimentation of nanofluids. The rms fluctuation of the particle number concentration, as well as the flatness factor of it, is employed to study the formation and variation of the coagulation process. The results indicate a superposition of coagulation and sedimentation effect of small nano-particles. Moreover, it is stable of nanofluids with the volume fraction of particles below the limit of "resolution" of the fluids. In addition, the effect of ζ potentials is against the formation of coagulation and positive to the stability of nanofluids.

  15. Numerical study of instability of nanofluids: the coagulation effect and sedimentation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yu; Fan, Jianren; Hu, Yacai

    2011-12-01

    This study is a numerical study on the coagulation as well as the sedimentation effect of nanofluids using the Brownian dynamics method. Three cases are simulated, focusing on the effects of the sizes, volume fraction, and ζ potentials of nano-particles on the formation of coagulation and sedimentation of nanofluids. The rms fluctuation of the particle number concentration, as well as the flatness factor of it, is employed to study the formation and variation of the coagulation process. The results indicate a superposition of coagulation and sedimentation effect of small nano-particles. Moreover, it is stable of nanofluids with the volume fraction of particles below the limit of "resolution" of the fluids. In addition, the effect of ζ potentials is against the formation of coagulation and positive to the stability of nanofluids.

  16. Influences of fresh frozen plasma with different melting temperatures on coagulation factor and fibrinogen activity%新鲜冰冻血浆不同融解温度对凝血因子及纤维蛋白原活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨不同融解温度对新鲜冰冻血浆凝血因子及纤维蛋白原活性的影响。方法随机选取40份新鲜冰冻血浆,分别在37℃、42℃、45℃水浴中充分进行融解,检测纤维蛋白原(FIB)、凝血Ⅷ因子、总蛋白(TP)含量,进行统计学分析。结果42℃组与37℃组新鲜冰冻血浆凝血Ⅷ因子、FIB、TP差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。45℃组与37℃组新鲜冰冻血浆FIB、TP差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),45℃融解新鲜冰冻血浆凝血Ⅷ因子水平较37℃低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论随着融解温度升高,新鲜冰冻血浆凝血因子活性呈降低趋势,37℃为较佳融解温度。%Objective To explore the influences of fresh frozen plasma with different melting temperatures on coagulation factor and fibrinogen activity. Methods 40 samples of fresh frozen plasma were selected and sufficiently melted at 37℃, 42℃, 45℃ water bath respectively. The contents of fibrinogen (FIB), coagulation factor VIII, total protein (TP) were detected and statistically analyzed. Results There wad no difference in contents of FIB, coagulation factor VIII, TP between 42℃ group and 37℃ group (P>0.05). There wad no difference in contents of FIB, TP between 45℃ group and 37℃ group (P>0.05). The content of coagulation factor VIII in 45℃ group was lower than that in 37℃ group (P<0.05). Conclusion The coagulation factor activity of fresh frozen plasma was decreased when the melting temperature increased. 37℃ was the better choice of melting temperature.

  17. 出生后24 h凝血功能异常新生儿临床表现及影响因素分析%Clinical features and influencing factors in neonatal coagulant function abnormality in the first 24 hours after birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红卫; 丁盛; 陈红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and inlfuencing factors in the newborns with coagulant function abnormality in the ifrst 24 hours after birth. Methods The coagulation test results and clinical data of 169 newborns in our hospital were studied. Children receiving anticoagulant therapy were assigned as coagulation abnormalities group (n=76) and other healthy newborns were assigned as control group (n=93). The differences of coagulation function between the two groups were analyzed and the inlfuencing factors of coagulation abnormalities were explored. Results The proportions of fetal distress, pneumonia, acidosis and hypothermia of coagulation abnormalities group were signiifcantly higher than that of the control group (χ2=6.18–38.01, P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that fetal distress (OR=12.06, 95%CI:3.71–39.25), pneumonia (OR=4.10, 95%CI: 1.43–11.74) were the high risk factors for coagulant function abnormality, and the differences were statistically signiifcant (both P<0.05). Conclusions Fetal distress, pneumonia were the high risk factors for coagulant function abnormality. Early prevention can help to reduce the incidence of neonatal hemorrhagic disease.%目的:分析出生后24 h凝血功能异常新生儿的临床表现及影响因素。方法收集169例住院新生儿的凝血功能检查结果及临床资料,其中符合接受抗凝治疗的患儿共76例,另93例新生儿作为对照,分析凝血功能异常组与对照组凝血功能的差异,并分析凝血障碍相关危险因素。结果凝血功能异常组的宫内窘迫、肺炎、酸中毒及低体温的比例均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(χ2=6.18~38.01,P<0.05)。多元logistic回归分析显示,宫内窘迫(OR=12.06,95%CI:3.71~39.25)、肺炎(OR=4.10,95%CI:1.43~11.74)为新生儿凝血功能异常发生的独立危险因素(P均<0.05)。结论宫内窘迫、肺炎是新生儿凝血功能异常的危

  18. Monocytes regulate systemic coagulation and inflammation in abdominal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Braun, Oscar Ö; Zhang, Su; Norström, Eva; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal sepsis is associated with significant changes in systemic inflammation and coagulation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of peripheral blood monocytes for systemic coagulation, including thrombin generation and consumption of coagulation factors. Abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6 mice. Plasma and lung levels of IL-6 and C-X-C motif (CXC) chemokines [chemokine CXC ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL2, and CXCL5], pulmonary activity of myeloperoxidase, thrombin generation, and coagulation factors were determined 6 h after CLP induction. Administration of clodronate liposomes decreased circulating levels of monocytes by 96%. Time to peak thrombin formation was increased and peak and total thrombin generation was decreased in plasma from CLP animals. Monocyte depletion decreased time to peak formation of thrombin and increased peak and total generation of thrombin in septic animals. In addition, monocyte depletion decreased the CLP-induced increase in the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes in plasma. Depletion of monocytes increased plasma levels of prothrombin, factor V, factor X, and protein C in septic mice. Moreover, depletion of monocytes decreased CLP-induced levels of IL-6 and CXC chemokines in the plasma and lung by >59% and 20%, respectively. CLP-induced myeloperoxidase activity in the lung was attenuated by 44% in animals depleted of monocytes. Taken together, our findings show, for the first time, that peripheral blood monocytes regulate systemic coagulation. The results of our study improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis and encourage further attempts to target innate immune cell functions in abdominal sepsis.

  19. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Voort Danielle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of the risk of atherothrombotic complications. We distinguish two phases in atherosclerosis: In the first phase, atherosclerosis develops under influence of "classical" risk factors, i.e. both genetic and acquired forces. While fibrinogen/fibrin molecules participate in early plaque lesions, increased activity of systemic coagulation is of no major influence on the risk of arterial thrombosis, except in rare cases where a number of specific procoagulant forces collide. Despite the presence of tissue factorfactor VII complex it is unlikely that all fibrin in the atherosclerotic plaque is the direct result from local clotting activity. The dominant effect of coagulation in this phase is anticoagulant, i.e. thrombin enhances protein C activation through its binding to endothelial thrombomodulin. The second phase is characterized by advancing atherosclerosis, with greater impact of inflammation as indicated by an elevated level of plasma C-reactive protein, the result of increased production influenced by interleukin-6. Inflammation overwhelms protective anticoagulant forces, which in itself may have become less efficient due to down regulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR expression. In this phase, the inflammatory drive leads to recurrent induction of tissue factor and assembly of catalytic complexes on aggregated cells and on microparticles, maintaining a certain level of thrombin production and fibrin formation. In advanced

  20. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  1. Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruasi, Nisa

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, generation of thrombin, and leading to disturbance of the microvasculature. In this article, definition and diagnostic criteria of DIC depend on the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of DIC, only low quality evidence is used in general practice. Many diagnostic tests and repeated measurement are required. For the treatment of DIC, there is no good quality evidence. The most important treatment for DIC is the specific treatment of the conditions associated DIC. Platelets and/or plasma transfusion may be also necessary if indicated. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of DIC, we use only low quality evidence in general practice.

  2. L-arginine activates expression of endogenous coagulation factor Ⅷ in human normal liver cells%L-精氨酸对人肝细胞中内源凝血因子Ⅷ表达的激活作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱重阳; 李鑫; 温泉; 张军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨L-精氨酸对人肝细胞LO2中内源凝血因子Ⅷ(Coagulation factorⅧ,FⅧ)表达的激活作用.方法 将LO2细胞分为试验组和对照组,试验组加入L-精氨酸(终浓度为10 mmol/L)分别培养24、36、48和60 h,对照组用等体积的灭菌水取代L-精氨酸培养.采用RT-PCR法检测LO2细胞中人FⅧ基因mRNA的转录水平并测序鉴定,一期法检测细胞培养上清液中人FⅧ的促凝活性(FⅧ:C),Western blot检测24、48 h时相点LO2细胞中人FⅧ蛋白的表达,免疫荧光染色结合激光共聚焦显微镜观察L-精氨酸作用48 h后LO2细胞中人FⅧ的表达.结果 加入L-精氨酸培养36、48、60 h后,LO2细胞中有人FⅧ基因mRNA的转录,而对照组未出现人FⅧ基因mRNA的转录;各时相点两组细胞培养上清液中人FⅧ:C的水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);Western blot及激光共聚焦均观察到加L-精氨酸培养48 h后LO2细胞中出现人FⅧ的表达,而对照组细胞中均无人FⅧ的表达.结论 L-精氨酸可激活人正常肝细胞中内源FⅧ的表达.%Objective To explore the activating effect of L-arginine on expression of endogenous coagulation factor Ⅷ (Ⅷ) in human normal liver LO2 cells. Methods LO2 cells were divided into test and control groups. The cells in test group were treated with L-arginine (at afinal concentration of 10 mmol/L) for 24, 36, 48 and 60 h respectively, while those in control group with physiological saline. The transcription level of FⅧ mRNA in LO2 cells was determined by RT-PCR, and the PCR product was sequenced. The cell culture supernatant was collected and determined for clotting activity of human FⅧ (FⅧ : C) by one-stage method. The expressions of Ⅷ in LO2 cells 24 and 48 h after treatment were determined by Western blot, and that 48 h after treatment by IFA combined with laser confocal microscopy. Results Transcription of FⅧ mRNA was observed in the cells 36, 48 and 60 h after treatment with L

  3. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Huazhong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Chang, J., Jin, J., Lollar, P. et al., Changing residue 338 in human factor IX from arginine to alanine causes an increase in catalytic activity, J. Bio. Chem., 1998, 273 (20): 12089-12094.[2]Lai, L., Chen, L., Zhou, H. et al., Clinical phenotype and genetic stability of factor IX gene knock out mice, J. Fudan Uni., 1999, 38 (4): 435-438.[3]Wu, Z. J., Wu, X. B., Hou, Y. D., Generation of a recombinant herps simplex virus which can provide packaging function for recombinant adeno-associated virus, Chinese Sci. Bull., 1999, 44 (8): 715-719.[4]Snyder, R. O., Miao, C. H., Patijn, G. A. et al., Persistent and therapeutic concentrations of human factor IX in mice after hepatic gene transfer of recombinant AAV vectors, Nat. Genet., 1997, 16 (3): 270-276.[5]Lai, L. H., Chen, L., Wang, J. M. et al., Skeletal muscle-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor IX rescues factor IX deficiency mouse by AAV-mediated gene transfer, Science in China, Ser. C, 1999, 42 (6): 628-634.[6]Snyder, R. O., Miao, C., Meuse, L. et al., Correction of hemophilia B in canine and murine models using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors, Nat. Med., 1999, 5 (1): 64-70.[7]Kung, S. H., Hagstrom, J. N., Cass, D. et al., Human factor IX corrects the bleeding diathesis of mice with hemophilia B, Blood, 1998, 91(3): 784-790.[8]Hirt, B., Selective extraction of polyoma DNA from infected mouse cell culture, J. Mol. Biol., 1967, 26: 365-369.[9]Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E., Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989, 6, 20-21.[10]Chao, H., Samulski, R. J., Bellinger, D. A. et al., Persistent expression of canine factor IX in hemophilia B canines, Gene Ther., 1999, 6: 1695-1704.[11]Kaufman, R. J., Advances toward gene therapy for hemophilia at the millennium, Hum. Gene Ther., 1999, 10 (13): 2091-2107.[12]Lu, D. R., Zhou, J. M., Zheng, B. et al., Stage I clinical trial of gene

  4. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties using a novel zirconium coagulant against traditional ferric and alum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter; Sharp, Emma; Pidou, Marc; Molinder, Roger; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Coagulation in drinking water treatment has relied upon iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) salts throughout the last century to provide the bulk removal of contaminants from source waters containing natural organic matter (NOM). However, there is now a need for improved treatment of these waters as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve. Alternative coagulant chemicals offer a simple and inexpensive way of doing this. In this work a novel zirconium (Zr) coagulant was compared against traditional Fe and Al coagulants. The Zr coagulant was able to provide between 46 and 150% lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) residual in comparison to the best traditional coagulant (Fe). In addition floc properties were significantly improved with larger and stronger flocs forming when the Zr coagulant was used with the median floc sizes being 930 μm for Zr; 710 μm for Fe and 450 μm for Al. In pilot scale experiments, a similar improved NOM and particle removal was observed. The results show that when optimised for combined DOC removal and low residual turbidity, the Zr coagulant out-performed the other coagulants tested at both bench and pilot scale.

  5. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  6. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  7. Optimizing the coagulation process in a drinking water treatment plant -- comparison between traditional and statistical experimental design jar tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal-Abideen, M; Aris, A; Yusof, F; Abdul-Majid, Z; Selamat, A; Omar, S I

    2012-01-01

    In this study of coagulation operation, a comparison was made between the optimum jar test values for pH, coagulant and coagulant aid obtained from traditional methods (an adjusted one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method) and with central composite design (the standard design of response surface methodology (RSM)). Alum (coagulant) and polymer (coagulant aid) were used to treat a water source with very low pH and high aluminium concentration at Sri-Gading water treatment plant (WTP) Malaysia. The optimum conditions for these factors were chosen when the final turbidity, pH after coagulation and residual aluminium were within 0-5 NTU, 6.5-7.5 and 0-0.20 mg/l respectively. Traditional and RSM jar tests were conducted to find their respective optimum coagulation conditions. It was observed that the optimum dose for alum obtained through the traditional method was 12 mg/l, while the value for polymer was set constant at 0.020 mg/l. Through RSM optimization, the optimum dose for alum was 7 mg/l and for polymer was 0.004 mg/l. Optimum pH for the coagulation operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6. The final turbidity, pH after coagulation and residual aluminium recorded were all within acceptable limits. The RSM method was demonstrated to be an appropriate approach for the optimization and was validated by a further test.

  8. The gangue preparation coagulant (PFASS) experiment research and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing-hua; LIU Zhi-bin; LUO Ke-Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to design a new technological process system to take the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate(PFASS) and to apply it in wastewater processing, the chemical composition analysis was carried on to the Fuxin gangue, adopted the orthogonal experiment method to obtain optimum response condition of with the acid pickling taking the aluminum in the gangue and with alkali extracting taking the silicon in the gangue,The experiments indicate that the sample chemistry content which tests elect completely conform to the preparation inorganic polymer water treatment coagulant request standard.Used the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate results in which with the system take as the coagulant of treatment wastewater, used the mercerizing degree, the wastewater pH value, the coagulation time, the coagulant throws increment factors and so on to test and verify its influence on the waste water processing. The result indicates that by using this craft production PFASS in waste water processing, after the processed waste water achieves the emission standard, the processing effect is good.

  9. 人血浆凝血因子Ⅶ单克隆抗体的制备与应用初探%Preparation and purification of monoclonal antibody against human coagulation factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世洲; 肖玲; 肖小璞; 赵青蓉; 侯玉香; 林方昭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare hybridoma cell lines which can secrete monoclonal antibody against human coagulation factor Ⅶ ( FⅦ ) and to purify the monoclonal antibodys against FⅦ. Methods ( 1 ) BALB/c mice were immunized with purified human FⅦ. Hybridoma cell lines which were able to secrete monoclonal antibody against FⅦ were prepared by hybridoma technique. Hybridoma cells were injected to the abdominal cavity of BALB/c mice for induction of ascites. Monoclonal antibodies were purified from ascites fluid with ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-affi-gel-blue chromatography. Then the purity and subclasses of the monoclonal antibody were identified. The characteristics of these antibodies were studied,including the cross reaction between the monoclonal antibody and coagulation factor Ⅱ (FⅡ), factor Ⅸ (FⅨ), and factor Ⅹ (F Ⅹ) ,and the effeet of divalent metal ion on the combination between monoclonal antibody and FⅦ. (2)The purified monoclonal antibodies were coupled to GoldMag-@ magnetic particulate and the efficiency of couple reaction was detected. The antibodies coupled to magnetic particulate reacted with FⅦ, and then the bound FⅦ was eluted from the surface of magnetic particulate with the buffer containing bivalent metal ion. The feasibility of purifying FⅦ with the monoclonal antibody was evaluated. Results ( 1 ) 22 hybridoma cell lines were obtained and named as HFⅦ-001 to HFⅦ-022. Six monoclonal antibodies were purified from ascites which were induced by six selected hybridoma cell lines( HFⅦ-002 ,004 ,005 ,013 ,014 ,021 ). And all the six antibodies had no cross reactions with FⅡ,FⅨ ,and FⅩ. An antibody(HFⅦ-005) could inhibit the clotting activity of FⅦ in plasma. Zn2+ could remarkably restrain the combination of FⅦ with three antibodies against FⅦ(HFⅦ-002,004,005 ). (2) The six antibodies were efficiently coupled with GoldMag-@ magnetic particulate. The binding rates were 24.0%~94.7%. Three

  10. 重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX的质量研究%Quality control of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 王军志; 饶春明; 吴小兵

    2003-01-01

    目的研究并建立重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX(recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX,rAAV-2/hFIX)的质量标准.方法采用PCR法确认病毒所携带的重组核酸结构和测定辅助病毒(helper virus)和野生型腺相关病毒(wtAAV)的残留片段.SDS-PAGE电泳测定病毒外壳蛋白分子量及纯度,TSK gel SP-NPR阳离子交换柱系统测定病毒颗粒纯度.以斑点杂交法测定病毒颗粒数.一期法于IX因子基因剔除小鼠体内测定rAAV-2/hFIX生物学活性,并通过ELISA法测定感染BHK-21细胞后hFIX的表达量.结果 PCR法确证病毒的重组核酸结构与构建预期相同;在1×107 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,残留辅助病毒的基因片段数少于1个拷贝;在1×108 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,野生型AAV-2基因片段数少于1个拷贝.病毒颗粒及外壳蛋白纯度均大于98%,病毒颗粒数大于1.0×1015 VG*L-1(virus genome*L-1).IX因子剔除小鼠肌肉注射病毒后21 d,小鼠血液中人凝血因子IX活性达到大于正常人因子IX活性的15%,IX因子的体外表达水平大于20.0 μg*L-1.其他各项检测指标均符合规定.结论建立了rAAV-2/hFIX的质量标准,用于控制产品质量.

  11. Factors Influencing the Quality of Natural Rubber Produced Experimenlally with Bio--coagulation%生物凝固法天然橡胶试生产的质量因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海燕; 阮林光

    2012-01-01

    We took a trial rubber production by the method of bio-coagulation. Comparing six performances from two kinds of the rubber. We find that storage periods will affect the Po and PRI of the rubber. We also analyze and discuss the reason of affecting the bio-coagulation liquid and latex solidification. The result shows that six performances of bio-coagulation are good. Its Po is higher than the Po of formic acid. And the PRI of the two kinds of the rubber is similar. So, by the theoretical calculation, the charge of the bio-coagulation is cheaper with 41 --43.5 yuan per ton than that of the formic acid%对生物凝固法进行试生产,对比研究2种胶的6项性能,贮存时间对天然橡胶Po和PRI值的影响,并对影响生物凝固液及胶乳凝固效果的因素进行分析与讨论。结果表明:生物凝固胶的6项性能较好,生物凝固胶的Po值比甲酸凝固胶的Po值高,两种胶的PRI值较相似。从理论计算可看出,生物凝固直接费用比甲酸凝固直接费用每吨干胶可节约41~43.5元。

  12. Use of Combined Coagulation-Adsorption Process as Pretreatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekrishnaperumal Thanga Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment.

  13. Use of combined coagulation-adsorption process as pretreatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, Rajan; Durai, Nalladurai Jegan; Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Ramesh, Sreekrishnaperumal Thanga; Kanmani, Subramaniam

    2013-03-21

    Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption) for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment.

  14. Coagulation is more affected by quick than slow bleeding in patients with massive blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Yang, Dejuan; Zheng, Dongyou

    2017-03-01

    Profuse blood loss affects blood coagulation to various degrees. However, whether bleeding speed affects coagulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bleeding speed on coagulation function. A total of 141 patients in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of our hospital were evaluated between January 2007 and February 2014. There are two groups of patients, those who received decortication for chronic encapsulated empyema were called the slow-bleeding group, and those who received thoracoscopic upper lobectomy were called the fast bleeding group; each group was further subdivided into three: group A, 1000 ml ≤ bleeding amount coagulation function was assessed in all patients before and during surgery and at 1, 2, and 24 h after surgery, measuring prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets. Bleeding duration was overtly longer in the slow-bleeding group than that in quick bleeding individuals (2.3 ± 0.25 h vs. 0.41 ± 0.13 h, P coagulation indices at each time point and bleeding amounts had significant differences in the quick bleeding group.Increased consumption of coagulation factors in quick bleeding may have greater impact on coagulation function.

  15. Blood coagulation reactions on nanoscale membrane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureza, Vincent S.

    Blood coagulation requires the assembly of several membrane-bound protein complexes composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits. The biomembranes involved in these reactions not only provide a platform for these procoagulant proteins, but can also affect their function. Increased exposure of acidic phospholipids on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane can dramatically modulate the catalytic efficiencies of such membrane-bound enzymes. Under physiologic conditions, however, these phospholipids spontaneously cluster into a patchwork of membrane microdomains upon which membrane binding proteins may preferentially assemble. As a result, the membrane composition surrounding these proteins is largely unknown. Through the development and use of a nanometer-scale bilayer system that provides rigorous control of the phospholipid membrane environment, I investigated the role of phosphatidylserine, an acidic phospholipid, in the direct vicinity (within nanometers) of two critical membrane-bound procoagulant protein complexes and their respective natural substrates. Here, I present how the assembly and function of the tissue factor˙factor VIIa and factor Va˙factor Xa complexes, the first and final cofactor˙enzyme complexes of the blood clotting cascade, respectively, are mediated by changes in their immediate phospholipid environments.

  16. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  17. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  18. Coagulation and fibrinolysis during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahr, H B; Fabrin, K; Larsen, J F;

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery appears to be less traumatic to the patient than open surgery, but its influence upon coagulation and fibrinolysis is incompletely elucidated. Our aim was to measure markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis before, during. and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Blood...

  19. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  20. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which the intersp......Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which....... nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  1. Effects of Paliperidone Palmitate on Coagulation: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Demirel Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a new antipsychotic drug paliperidone palmitate on hemogram and coagulation parameters in rats. Materials and Methods. Experiments were performed on 22 female albino Wistar rats (8–12 weeks old. Control group was given drinking water as vehicle (0.3 mL. PAL-1 rats were given 1 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage once a day for ten days and PAL-3 rats received 3 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage for ten days. Blood samples were drawn from the heart 24 hours after the last drug dose, and hemogram and coagulation parameters were measured with automated analyzers. Results. Hemogram did not change in the paliperidone treated groups compared to the controls. Factor VIII levels decreased in the PAL-1 and PAL-3 groups; and this decrease was significantly greater in the PAL-3. Factor IX levels decreased in PAL-3 rats, but its levels also increased in PAL-1 rats compared to the control. Discussion. Paliperidone has led to changes in the serum levels of coagulation factors VIII and IX in rats. As a result, paliperidone may be causing thromboembolism or bleeding in a dose-independent manner.

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Meindl-Böhmer, Alexandra; Nowak, Götz; Moennig, Volker

    2013-03-23

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a multi-systemic disease that can be accompanied by severe haemorrhagic lesions. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still far from being understood, though disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was discussed as a major factor. In the presented study, the direct thrombin inhibitor hirudin was used in an attempt to elucidate the role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of CSF-induced haemorrhagic lesions. Two groups of piglets (n=5) were infected with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain CSF0634. One group underwent daily treatment with hirudin, the other served as untreated challenge infection control. Assessment of clinical signs using a clinical score system, coagulation tests, and blood counts were performed daily. Both groups developed acute-lethal CSF with haemorrhagic lesions. Although changes in the coagulation system were seen in the late stages of CSFV infection, our results strongly suggest that DIC does not present the crucial event in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic lesions.

  3. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; Ni, Jinren; Chow, Christopher W K

    2008-04-01

    Conventional coagulation is not an effective treatment option to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in water with high alkalinity/pH. For this type of water, enhanced coagulation is currently proposed as one of the available treatment options and is implemented by acidifying the raw water and applying increased doses of hydrolyzing coagulants. Both of these methods have some disadvantages such as increasing the corrosive tendency of water and increasing cost of treatment. In this paper, an improved version of enhanced coagulation through coagulant optimization to treat this kind of water is demonstrated. A novel coagulant, a composite polyaluminum chloride (HPAC), was developed with both the advantages of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and the additive coagulant aids: PACl contains significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products, which is less affected by the pH of the raw water than traditional coagulants (alum and ferric salts); the additives can enhance both the charge neutralization and bridging abilities of PACl. HPAC exhibited 30% more efficiency than alum and ferric salts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and was very effective in turbidity removal. This result was confirmed by pilot-scale testing, where particles and organic matter were removed synergistically with HPAC as coagulant by sequential water treatment steps including pre-ozonation, coagulation, flotation and sand filtration.

  4. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  5. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  6. 儿童血友病A抑制物产生相关因素横断面分析%A cross-sectional survey of coagulation factor Ⅷ inhibitor in children with hemophilia A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琪琪; 李刚; 唐凌; 陈振萍; 甄英姿; 吴心怡; 张宁宁; 张纪水; 于国霞

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解儿童血友病A抑制物发生情况,探讨抑制物发生的相关因素,为制定防控策略提供依据.方法 收集2012年11月至2013年5月就诊于北京儿童医院血友病门j诊的血友病A患儿的临床资料,并进行抑制物筛查,分析抑制物发生的相关因素.结果 共纳入血友病A患儿102例,其中轻型5例,中间型32例,重型65例;筛查时的中位年龄为55.5(3.0 ~200.0)个月;抑制物阳性19例(18.6%):低滴度9例(8.8%),高滴度10例(9.8%).因首次出血即为危及生命的大出血而进行凝血因子Ⅷ替代治疗是抑制物形成的相关因素(P=0.03),OR值为4.10(95%CI:1.17 ~14.32);20个暴露日以内为产生抑制物的高风险期(P=0.04),OR值为3.32(95% CI:1.02~10.86).短期内接受高强度因子暴露是导致高滴度抑制物发生的相关因素(P=0.01),OR值为5.25(95% CI:1.45 ~21.92).结论 本组患儿血友病A抑制物总体发生率及高、低滴度抑制物发生率与国外报道相似,危重症抢救所接受的高强度因子治疗是抑制物以及高滴度抑制物产生的相关因素.%Objective To study the current situation of coagulation factor Ⅷ (F Ⅷ) inhibitor development in children with hemophilia A (HA) through a cross-sectional survey,and to explore the risk factors of inhibitor development in order to provide evidence for further prevention and management strategies.Method The clinical data of outpatients with hemophilia A in Beijing Children's Hospital seen from November 2012 to May 2013 were collected,FⅧ inhibitor was screened and analyzed its risk factors.Result A total of 102 HA children were enrolled,5 were mild cases,32 were moderate,and 65 were severe cases ; the median age on enrollment was 55.5 (3.0-200.0) months:19 (18.6%) of patients had inhibitors and 9 (8.8%) had low-titer inhibitors,10 (9.8%) had high-titer inhibitors.Receiving FⅧ treatment for life-threatening bleeding(P =0.03),OR 4.10 (95% Cl:1.17-14.32) was a

  7. 获得性凝血因子Ⅹ缺乏症三例报告并文献复习%Acquired coagulation factor Ⅹ deficiency: three cases report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文洁; 宣旻; 薛峰; 杨仁池

    2014-01-01

    目的 加深对获得性凝血因子Ⅹ缺乏症的认识.方法 对3例获得性凝血因子Ⅹ缺乏症患者的临床资料进行分析,并复习相关文献.结果 例1,男,57岁,诊断为多发性骨髓瘤轻链型、继发性淀粉样变、获得性凝血因子Ⅹ缺乏症,表现为自发性皮肤黏膜出血,凝血因子Ⅹ活性(FⅩ∶C)1.8%,予以MP(马法兰+曲安西龙)方案联合沙利度胺及对症治疗,FⅩ∶C未见升高,因原发病进展死亡.例2,男,41岁,以颅内出血入院,FⅩ∶C 26.8%,予以补充叶酸、维生素B12、维生素K,并输注红细胞、血小板及新鲜冰冻血浆治疗,颅内出血好转.例3,女,63岁,因反复发作四肢关节出血4个月入院,FⅩ∶C 6.1%,给予凝血酶原复合物、甲泼尼龙、硫唑嘌呤、利妥昔单抗治疗,FⅩ∶C未见明显升高,关节腔出血仍反复发作.结论 获得性凝血因子Ⅹ缺乏症临床表现具有异质性,诊断依赖病史和实验室检查,治疗包括控制出血和治疗原发病,预后与患者基础疾病相关.%Objective To deepen the understanding of acquired coagulation factor Ⅹ (F Ⅹ) deficiency.Methods The clinical data of 3 patients were analyzed and related literature were reviewed.Results Case 1,a 57-year-old male,secondary to multiple myeloma and amyloidosis,was presented with spontaneous mucous hemorrhage with the level of F Ⅹ ∶ C 1.8%,which kept unchanged after chemotherapy with melphalan,glucocorticoid,and thalidomide,and died of primary disease progression.Case 2,a 41-year-old male with psoriasis,was presented with cerebral and retinal hemorrhage with the level of F Ⅹ ∶ C 26.8%.The signs of hemorrhage were alleviated after the supplement of folic acid,vitamin B12,and vitamin K,and transfusion with red blood cells,platelets,and fresh frozen plasma.Case 3,a 63-year-old female,associated with high level of lupus anticoagulant,was presented with repeated ecchymosis and haemarthrosis with the level of F Ⅹ ∶C 6.1

  8. The use of chitosan as a coagulant in the pre-treatment of turbid sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Hossam

    2012-09-30

    One of the problems that encounters desalination industry is the fouling that takes place due to the poor quality of the sea water received, especially when it rains. In such a situation, the sea water reaches the desalination plant having high turbidity. Chitosan was tested as a coagulant in the removal of the turbidity of sea water to replace inorganic coagulants having hazardous effects. Jar test was performed to test some factors that may affect the coagulation process. The factors tested were dose of coagulant (0-370 mg/L), initial pH (2-11), type of coagulant (chitosan versus metal coagulants), and the chitosan solvent. Chitosan's turbidity removal efficiency was found to be greater than ferrous sulfate and comparable to that of alum. While most researches emphasize the use of chitosan in acidic or neutral media, it worked well in the alkaline pH. The highest turbidity removal efficiency of 97.5% was obtained at initial pH of 8.1. The optimum dose was found to be 18 mg/L. Chitosan dissolved in HCl was found to perform better than that dissolved in acetic acid. Comparable turbidity removal efficiencies were obtained using alum and chitosan. However, much higher doses were used when using alum which implies higher cost and increase of residual aluminum concentration in treated water.

  9. The structure of dust aggregates in hierarchical coagulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dominik, Carsten; Borel, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Dust coagulation in interstellar space and protoplanetary disks is usually treated as one of 2 extreme cases: Particle-Cluster Aggregation and Cluster-Cluster Aggregation. In this paper we study the process of hierarchical growth, where aggregates are built from significantly smaller aggregates (but not monomers). We show that this process can be understood as a modified, PCA-like process that produces porous, but non-fractal particles whose filling factor is chiefly determined by the porosity of the building blocks. We also show that in a coagulation environment where relative velocities are driven by turbulence, a logarithmically flat mass distribution (equal mass per mass decade) as it is typically found in environments where fragmentation replenishes small grains, leads to a situation where small particles and aggregates dominate the growth of large ones. Therefore, in such environments, hierarchical growth should be seen as the norm. Consequently, we predict that the aggregates in such environments are n...

  10. Restoration of the coagulation cascade on CPB: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, K J; Pirundini, P A; Fox, A A; Body, S C; Shaw, C; Rizzo, R J

    2014-05-01

    Coagulopathy can sometimes be observed when CPB times are prolonged. Correction of coagulopathy post CPB can present the surgical team with a number of challenges, including right ventricular volume overload, hemodilution, anemia and excessive cell salvage with further loss of coagulation factors. Restoration of the coagulation cascade on CPB may help to avoid these issues. This case report is of a 64-year-old male with a delayed diagnosis of aortic dissection. The patient presented to the cardiac surgery operating room with hepatic and renal shock/failure, with the resulting coagulopathy. The described technique is representative of a technique that we sometimes employ to restore the clotting mechanism before separating from bypass.

  11. New evidence for intrinsic blood coagulation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, J A; Hamilton, P B

    1981-01-01

    Coagulation of blood in chickens is considered the result of an extrinsic clotting system initiated, as in mammals, by tissue thromboplastin released from injured tissues. Blood coagulation in mammals depends principally on an intrinsic mechanism in which thromboplastin is generated from blood itself. Only a negligible role, if any, has been ascribed to an intrinsic system in chickens. A reevaluation of intrinsic coagulation in chickens was undertaken in this study. Whole blood of chickens was found to clot over 30% faster when contacted by suitable surface activators such as kaolin or glass than when such contact was omitted. Plasma recalcification times were significantly (P less than .02) shortened by contact activators. Clotting functions were measurable both by partial thromboplastin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, tests that bypass extrinsic factors. Intrinsic thromboplastin could be generated from dilute whole chicken blood although at a slower rate than that reported for human blood. Modification of whole blood thromboplastin generation techniques permitted measurement of activities that seem analogous to human intrinsic factors VIII and IX but not XI or XII. These data provide evidence of a functioning intrinsic clotting mechanism in chickens. A complete description and role for this mechanism remains to be defined.

  12. SEPSIS-ASSOCIATED DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION AND THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Semeraro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is almost invariably associated with haemostatic abnormalities ranging from subclinical activation of blood coagulation (hypercoagulability, which may contribute to localized venous thromboembolism, to acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, characterized by massive thrombin formation and widespread microvascular thrombosis, partly responsible of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, and subsequent consumption of platelets and coagulation proteins causing, in most severe cases, bleeding manifestations. There is general agreement that the key event underlying this life-threatening sepsis complication is the overwhelming inflammatory host response to the infectious agent leading to the overexpression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistically, the latter, together with the micro-organism and its derivatives, causes DIC by 1 up-regulation of procoagulant molecules, primarily tissue factor (TF, which is produced mainly by stimulated monocytes-macrophages and by specific cells in target tissues; 2 impairment of physiological anticoagulant pathways (antithrombin, protein C pathway, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, which is orchestrated mainly by dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs; and 3 suppression of fibrinolysis due to increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 by ECs and likely also to thrombin-mediated  activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI. Notably, clotting enzymes non only lead to microvascular thrombosis but can also elicit cellular responses that amplify the inflammatory reactions. Inflammatory mediators can also cause, directly or indirectly, cell apoptosis or necrosis and recent evidence indicates that products released from dead cells, such as nuclear proteins (particularly extracellular histones, are able to propagate further inflammation, coagulation, cell death and MODS. These insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of DIC and MODS may have important implications for the

  13. Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:Effects of pH and coagulant dosage☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wei; Zhongguo Zhang; Dan Liu; Yue Wu; Jun Wang; Qunhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation mechanisms of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) at various dosages were studied using a conventional jar test at different final and initial pH values during treating kaolin suspension. The optimal final pH and dosages for PACl were obtained based on residual turbidity and zeta potential of flocs. The coagulation zones at various PACl dosages and solution pH values were developed and compared with those of alum. It is found that the optimal mechanism under acidic condition is charge neutralization, while alkaline condition wil facilitate the coagulation of PACl. Both charge neutralization coagulation and sweep coagulation can achieve high coagulation efficiency under the alkaline condition ranging from final pH 7.0 to 10.0. Stabilization, charge neutralization destabilization, restabilization and sweep zones occur successively with increasing PACl dosages with the final pH values fixed at 7.0 and 8.0, but restabilization zone disappears at final pH 10.0. When the final pH is not controlled and consequently decreases with increasing PACl dosage, no typical sweep zone can be observed and the coagulant efficiency decreases at high PACl dosage. It seems that the final pH is more meaningful than the initial pH for coagulation. Charge neutralization coagulation efficiency is dominated by zeta potential of flocs and PACl precipitates. The charge neutralization and sweep coagulation zones of PACl are broader in the ranges of coagulant dosage and pH than those of alum. The results are helpful for us to treat water and wastewa-ter using PACl and to understand the coagulation process of PACl.

  14. Phase III study on surface construction and biocompatibility of polymer materials as cardiovascular devices:coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bao-lin; Wang Dong-an

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the cardiovascular device, biomaterials applied under the blood-contact conditions should have anti-thrombotic, anti-biodegradable and anti-infective properties. OBJECTIVE: To develop novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering and to explore the biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. METHODS:We retrieved PubMed and WanFang databases for relevant articles publishing from 1983 to 2014. The key words were "biocompatibility, blood compatibility, biomedical materials, biomedical polymer materials" in English and Chinese, respectively. Those unrelated, outdated and repetitive papers were excluded. Literatures addressing the blood compatibility of biomedical polymer materials were summarized. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The blood-implant interaction and the anti-coagulant surface modification of biomaterials were analyzed. The biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials were determined based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. The coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification of polymer biomaterials and the research on their biocompatibility and endothelial cel compatibility are crucial for developing novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Through in-depth studies of the types and applications of polymer biomaterials, cardiovascular medical devices and implantable soft tissue substitutes, the differences between the surface and the body wil be reflected in the many layers of molecules extending from the surface to the body. Two major factors, surface energy and molecular mobility, determine the body/surface behaviors that include body/surface differences and phase separation. Considering the difference between the body/surface composition

  15. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated...... intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion...

  16. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  17. Effects of pre-ozonation on organic matter removal by coagulation with IPF-PACI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-long; WANG Dong-sheng; SHI Bao-you; WANG Min; TANG Hong-xiao

    2006-01-01

    Ozone plays an important role as a disinfectant and oxidant in potable water treatment practice and is increasingly being used as a pre-oxidant before coagulation. The purpose of this study is to obtain insight into the mechanisms that are operative in pre-ozonized coagulation. Effects ofpre-ozonation on organic matter removal during coagulation with IPF-PACl were investigated by using PDA (photometric disperse analysis), apparent molecular weight distribution and chemical fractionation. The dynamic formation of flocs during coagulation process was detected. Changes of aquatic organic matter (AOM) structure resulted from the influence of pre-ozonation were evaluated. Results show that dosage of O3 and characteristics of AOM are two of the major factors influencing the performance of O3 on coagulation. No significant coagulation-aid effect of O3 was observed for all experiments using either AlCl3 or PACl. On the contrary, with the application of pre-ozonation, the coagulation efficiency of AlCl3 was significantly deteriorated,reflected by the retardation of floc formation, and the removal decreases of turbidity, DOC, and UV254. However, if PACl was used instead of AlCl3, the adverse effects of pre-ozonation were mitigated obviously, particularly when the O3 dosage was less than 0.69(mg O3/mg TOC). The difference between removals of UV254 and DOC indicated that pre-ozonation greatly changed the molecular structure of AOM, but its capability of mineralization was not remarkable. Only 5% or so DOC was removed by pre-ozonation at0.6-0.8 mg/L alone. Fractionation results showed that the organic products of pre-ozonation exhibited lower molecular weight and more hydrophilicity, which impaired the removal of DOC in the following coagulation process.

  18. 混凝法处理二次纤维废水的研究%Research on Coagulation Treatment of two Fiber Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史长伟; 嵇岿然; 田永斌

    2013-01-01

    We researched result of coagulation treatment of secondary fiber papermaking wastewater. We De-termined influence of coagulant type, coagulant dosage, coagulant aid dosage and pH wtih the orthogonal exper-iment. The result showed that the key factors affecting deinking wastewater coagulation effect included coagu-lant type, coagulant dosage and coagulant aid. PAC had the best removal rate, coagulant dosage of PAC was 200mg/L and coagulant aid dosage of PAM was 3mg/L.%研究了混凝法处理二次废水的效果。利用正交实验确定混凝剂种类、混凝剂投加量、助凝剂投加量、 pH四因素的影响;结果表明,混凝剂种类、投药量、助凝剂均为影响脱墨废水混凝效果的关键因素, PAC去除效果最好,混凝剂PAC投加量200mg/L,助凝剂PAM投加量3mg/L。

  19. Coagulation and complement system in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, H; Stephan, B; Pindur, G

    2015-01-01

    Activation of coagulation and inflammatory response including the complement system play a major role in the pathogenesis of critical illness. However, only limited data are available addressing the relationship of both pathways and its assessment of a predictive value for the clinical outcome in intense care medicine. Therefore, parameters of the coagulation and complement system were studied in patients with septicaemia and multiple trauma regarded as being exemplary for critical illness. 34 patients (mean age: 51.38 years (±16.57), 15 females, 19 males) were investigated at day 1 of admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). Leukocytes, complement factors C3a and C5a were significantly (p complement system as part of the inflammatory response is a significant mechanism in septicaemia, whereas loss and consumption of blood components including parts of the coagulation and complement system is more characteristic for multiple trauma. Protein C in case of severe reduction might be of special concern for surviving in sepsis. Activation of haemostasis was occurring in both diseases, however, overt DIC was not confirmed in this study to be a leading mechanism in critically ill patients. MOF score, lactate, C1-inhibitor and prothrombin time have been the only statistically significant predictors for lethal outcome suggesting that organ function, microcirculation, haemostasis and inflammatory response are essential elements of the pathomechanism and clinical course of diseases among critically ill patients.

  20. Avaliação de anticoagulantes naturais e de fatores da coagulação em pacientes com distúrbios congênitos de glicosilação (DCG tipo I An evaluation of natural anticoagulants and coagulation factors in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Letícia Soares

    2010-01-01

    with neurologic symptoms that include psychomotor retardation, ataxia, hypotonia and stroke-like episodes. Many haemostatic system proteins only present biological activity after glycosylation. The aim of this study was to evaluate coagulation inhibitors (free protein S, protein C and antithrombin and coagulation factors (VIII, IX and XI in CDG type I patients. Eleven patients with CDG type I (three males and eight females with a mean age of 5.6 years old, and eight patients without CDG (four males and four females with a mean age of 4.5 years old (control group were evaluated. The diagnoses of CDG type I were confirmed by isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin. When coagulation inhibitors were evaluated, decreased activity of free protein S and protein C, and a pronounced reduction of antithrombin were observed compared to the control group. There was no significant difference for coagulation factors VIII and IX but a markedly decrease in factor XI. The present results suggest that a combined deficiency of coagulation inhibitors is responsible for the pro-thrombotic state observed in CDG patients. We recommend that a haemostatic analysis should be performed in CDG patients with clinical haemostatic manifestations before invasive procedures are performed.

  1. Coagulation-flocculation pretreatment of oil sands process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrezaei, P.; El-Din, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation addressed the issue of water use in the oil sands industry and efforts to use this limited resource more efficiently. Three wastewater treatment schemes for oil sands tailings ponds were proposed, notably primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment involves the removal of suspended solids using physical-chemical treatments. Secondary treatment involves the removal of dissolved solids and organics using chemical oxidation, ultrafiltration or nanofiltration. Tertiary treatment involves removal of residual organics/solids using biological activated carbon filtration, sand filtration or reverse osmosis. The composition of oil sands process water (OSPW) was also discussed with reference to suspended solids, salts, hydrocarbons, other dissolved organics (such as naphthenic acids and phenols), ammonia, inorganic compounds and trace elements. The conventional coagulation/flocculation process is essential in industrial wastewater treatment. It is cost effective, easy to operate and energy efficient. The process is used because small suspended and colloidal particles and dissolved constituents cannot be removed quickly by sedimentation. A chemical method must be used. Coagulation/flocculation brings small suspended and colloidal particles into contact so that they collide, stick and grow to a size that settles readily. Alum is the predominant and least expensive water treatment coagulant used for the coagulation/flocculation process. It provides positively charged ions to neutralize the negative charge of colloidal particles resulting in aggregation. It creates big settling flocs that enmesh colloids as it settles. The factors affecting the process include pH, chemical type, chemical concentration, rapid mixing intensity, slow mixing intensity and time. tabs., figs.

  2. The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loof, Torsten G; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit.

  3. Coagulation on biomaterials in flowing blood: some theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadjian, D; Sefton, M V; Baldwin, S A

    1997-12-01

    Are truly inert biomaterials feasible? Recent mathematical models of coagulation which are reviewed here suggest that such materials are impossible. This conclusion, which is certainly consistent with our collective experimental evidence, arises from the calculation that conversion of Factor XI to XIa never drops to zero even at the highest flow rates and with virtually no Factor XIIa bound to a surface. Residual amounts of XIa are still formed which can in principle kick-off the coagulation cascade. Furthermore, if the flow rates and corresponding mass transfer coefficients are low and in spite of these near-vanishing levels of the initiating coagulants, the surprising result is that substantial amounts of thrombin are produced. On the contrary, under slightly higher flow conditions, there can be more substantial levels of initiating coagulants, yet paradoxically thrombin production is near zero. This article presents a theoretical understanding of the events which take place during the interaction of biomaterials with flowing blood. We follow these events from the time of first contact to the final production of thrombin. The effect of flow and surface activity on the contact phase reactions is examined in detail and the two are found to be intertwined. The common pathway is also examined and here the main feature is the existence of three flow dependent regions which produce either high or very low levels of thrombin, as well as multiple thrombin steady states. In a final analysis we link the two segments of the cascade and consider the events which result. In addition, we note that multiple steady states arise only in the presence of two (thrombin) feedback loops. Single loops or the bare cascade will produce only single steady states. With some imagination one can attribute to the feedback loops the role of providing the cascade with a mechanism to produce high thrombin levels in case of acute need (e.g. bleeding) or to allow levels to subside to 'stand

  4. Postoperative bleeding in a patient with normal screening coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Eva; Anvari, Reza; D'cunha, Nicholas; Thaxton, Lauren; Malik, Asim; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A 54-year-old man was brought to the emergency room after a head-on collision. He had multiple fractures in his lower extremities and required immediate surgery. After surgery, the patient had a persistent drop in hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets despite red blood cell transfusions. Laboratory studies included normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, normal plasminogen functional activity, negative antiplatelet antibodies, normal platelet functional analysis and negative disseminated intravascular coagulation screen. Factor XIII antigen levels were 25% of predicted, and the diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was made. The patient was treated with cryoprecipitate, and the bleeding stopped. Patients with factor XIII deficiency have either a rare congenital or acquired coagulation disorder. Both presentations have normal standard laboratory clotting tests, and the diagnosis requires an assay measuring factor XIII activity or antigen levels. The usual treatment includes cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma or recombinant factor XIII. This deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained spontaneous, traumatic or postoperative bleeding.

  5. DYNAMIC MODEL AND SIMULATION OF THE PLATELETS' ROLE IN BLOOD COAGULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传青; 曾衍钧; Hans Grgersen

    2002-01-01

    In order to confirm which process is the most important in the blood coagulation cascade, a dynamic model on the function of platelets in blood coagulation is presented based on biochemical experiments. Based on qualitative analysis and mathematical simulation, a series of conclusions about the influence of the activation rate of factor Ⅷ and factor Ⅸ on the generation of thrombin (Ⅱa) are drawn. It is evident that the pro-coagulation stimulus must exceed a threshold value to initiate the coagulation cascade. The value is related to the binding constant d2 of the platelet.The stability of the equilibrium value is also related to the pro-coagulation stimulus.This article also evaluates the influence of the stimulus strength and the activated rate parameter of platelets on thrombin. The proportion of platelets activated at any given time is designated c. To each c, we obtain a maximum concentration of thrombin. It is evident that when the level of factor IX is below 1% of the normal level, the rate of thrombin generation reduces dramatically, resulting in severe bleeding tendency.

  6. Biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from coagulation factor Ⅸ knockout mice%凝血因子Ⅸ基因敲除对小鼠骨髓间充质干细胞生物学特性无直接影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏敏; 林鸿刚; 周光前

    2011-01-01

    背景:凝血因子Ⅸ基因敲除有可能通过影响造血系统的稳定性从而影响骨髓造血微环境中骨髓间充质干细胞的生物学特性.目的:鉴定凝血因子Ⅸ基因敲除C57BL/6J-F9 tm1.Dws小鼠骨髓间充质干细胞的生物学特征.方法:采用改进的全骨髓贴壁细胞分离法分离培养凝血因子Ⅸ基因敲除C57BL/6J-F9 tm1.Dws小鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,流式细胞术鉴定其表面标记的表达,以特殊诱导培养基诱导骨髓间充质干细胞干向成骨细胞,脂肪细胞,软骨细胞方向分化.结果与结论:分离的骨髓间充质干细胞形态均一为梭形,增殖能力和自我更新能力强.流式细胞术检测细胞表面标识CD44、CD56、CD73、CD90、CD105、CD106、CD166及CD271表达呈阳性,CD34、CD11b表达呈阴性.分离的骨髓间充质干细胞具有向成骨细胞,脂肪细胞,软骨细胞方向分化的能力.说明凝血因子Ⅸ基因敲除C57BL/6J-F9 tm1.Dws小鼠的骨髓间充质干细胞仍具备良好的干细胞的生物学特性,初步确定,凝血因子Ⅸ基因敲除对骨髓间充质干细胞的生物学特性并无直接影响.%Coacgulation factor Ⅸ knockout may affect the biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of the bone marrow microenvironment by affecting the hematopoietic system stability. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the biological properties of BMSCs derived from coagulation factor Ⅸ knockout mice. METHODS: BMSCs were isolated from coagulation factor Ⅸ knockout mice C57BL/6J-F9 tm1 Dws by using a modified adherent culture method. The cells were detected for their expression of general MSCs surface markers by using flow cytometry. The functionality was assessed for their multipotency to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes upon certain induction conditions.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The BMSCs showed spindle-shape morphology and high capacity for proliferation and self-renewal. The cells were

  7. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya, E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  8. Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use.

  9. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl2 to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The "MPI value" was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  10. Coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hang-yan; XIU Dian-rong; LI Zhi-fei; WANG Gang

    2009-01-01

    Background The coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma is abnormal and the reason is not very clear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma.Methods From June 2004 to December 2007, 132 patients received diagnosis and treatment in our hospital. The coagulative parameters including the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen levels were collected and studied retrospectively.Results The average fibrinogen levels in patients with pancreatic carcinoma, (476.21±142.05) mg/dl, were significantly higher than in patients with cholangiolithiasis, (403.28±126.41) mg/dl (P 0.05).Conclusions The level of fibrinogen in patients with pancreatic carcinoma was elevated. The elevated fibrinogen level may be associated with invasiveness and lymphatic metastasis. Using vitamin K in perioperation management did not reduce intraoperative blood loss.

  11. Monitoring Thermal Coagulation with Ultrasonic Textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei; ZHANG Su; CHEN Ya-zhu; CHEN Lei; HU Bing; MA Wei-yin

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of using B-mode ultrasound image textures and pattern recognition technique to characterize the thermal coagulation in vitro during radiofrequency ablation was investigated.The changes of ultrasonic textures in the different regions of samples varied with the heating time in the in-vitro experiments, which would result in that the coagulated and noncoagulated regions of tissue had different ultrasonic textures.Using support vector machine to extract the ultrasonic texture features and characterize the state of tissue, the size and boundaries of thermal lesions could be detected and measured more exactly than only using the gray scale information of B-mode ultrasound image.The proposed method would be applied to the image-guided radiofrequency ablation (IGRA) procedure for monitoring the thermal coagulation.

  12. The investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants extracted from different strains of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation by adding chemicals are the methods that are usually used for removal of water turbidity. This study is concerned with the coagulation activity of extracts of various strains of bean. The aim was to ascertain if bean varieties influence coagulation activity. Active components were extracted from 1 g of ground sample with 100 ml distilled water. Contents of dry matter and nitrogen were specified in the solid samples, and the content of soluble nitrogen was determined in the extracts. These data were used to calculate the efficiency of extraction of nitrogen-containing compounds. The coagulation activity was assessed by jar test using synthetic turbid water, of the initial pH 9 and turbidity 35 NTU. The jar test was carried out by adding different amounts of extracts to model water, and stirring the content. After sedimentation for 1 h, residual turbidity was determined by turbidimeter and coagulation activity was calculated. The increment of organic matter concentration after the coagulation was also determined. These experiments confirmed that extracts of all investigated strains of bean could be used successfully as natural coagulants.

  13. An assessment of the utility of unselected coagulation screening in general hospital practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Johnny

    2011-03-01

    Coagulation screening using prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is widely used. We performed an audit of coagulation screening in an Irish teaching hospital. We analysed PT and\\/or APTT results received during normal working hours during a 1-week period in our hospital. Abnormal results due to anticoagulants were excluded from further study. In samples with PT longer than 15.5 s and\\/or APTT longer than 42 s, we proceeded to 1: 1 mixing studies if the PT was prolonged and 1: 1 mixing studies, factor XII assay and lupus screen if the APTT was prolonged. We also obtained referral source for all samples and clinical details for abnormal samples. Six hundred and seventy-one coagulation requests were received during the study period. Three hundred and eighteen of 671 (47.4%) coagulation requests were for monitoring of anticoagulation. Three hundred and fifty-three of 671 (52.6%) requests were for coagulation screening rather than anticoagulant monitoring. In the coagulation screens received, PT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). PT was longer than 20 s in four of 353 cases (1.1%). APTT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). APTT was longer than 50 s in four of 353 (1.1%). No patients with abnormal PT or APTT had any bleeding sequelae during the study period. Unregulated coagulation screening has a low yield of abnormal results; the majority of these abnormal results show mild prolongation of PT or APTT with no evidence that they are associated with an increased bleeding risk.

  14. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion......Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated.......7 ng/ml; P blood was evaluated by TEG. Circulating ADP induces hypocoagulation without signs of increased fibrinolysis as evaluated by TEG. The potential...

  15. [The implantation of bipolar coagulation to remove endometriosis foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkiewicz, S; Palatyński, A; Salata, I

    2001-05-01

    The paper compares the results of bipolar coagulation bey means of ERBE ICC 300 diatermy coagulator and WISAP endocoagulator. The results of both types of coagulation were assessed with reference to the changes occurring on peritoneum ligamenti sacro-uterini, Douglas pouch and ovary. The best results of endometriosis foci coagulation were obtained with bipolar ball at 20-30 W; no side effects or feelings of malaise were observed in patients just after the operation or over a longer period of convalescence.

  16. The relationship between inflammation and the coagulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Goda; Schultz, Marcus J; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation and coagulation play pivotal roles in host defence. As phylogenetically old responses, there is extensive cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation in enabling an adequate immune response against potentially injurious stimuli. Immune cells are important in the initiation of coagul

  17. Administration of Coagulation-Altering Therapy in the Patient Presenting for Oral Health and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaszynski, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    Oral health care providers are concerned with how to manage patients prescribed coagulation-altering therapy during the perioperative/periprocedural period for dental and oral surgery interventions. Management and recommendation can be based on medication pharmacology and the clinical relevance of coagulation factor levels/deficiencies. Caution should be used with concurrent use of medications that affect other components of the clotting mechanisms; prompt diagnosis and any necessary intervention to optimize outcome is warranted. However, evidence-based data on management of anticoagulation therapy during oral and maxillofacial surgery/interventions is lacking. Therefore, clinical understanding and judgment are needed along with appropriate guidelines matching patient- and intervention-specific recommendations.

  18. Diagnosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically Ill adults by Sonoclot coagulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Tong, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xing-Qin; Duan, Peng-Kai; Tang, You-Qing; Su, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnosis is hampered by the limited availability of reliable clinical or laboratory tests. Currently available tests are time consuming and expensive. We investigated whether coagulation and platelet function analyses using the Sonoclot system were suitable for overt DIC diagnosis in critically ill adults. This was an observational diagnostic study performed in 498 patients presenting with an underlying disorder associated with DIC. Overt DIC patients were identified according to an International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) score of >5. Coagulation and platelet parameters were analyzed using the Sonoclot system, and compared with ISTH as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves were used to evaluate the value of the Sonoclot parameters. There were no differences for age or gender between the groups. Significant correlations were observed between activated clotting time (ACT) and ISTH score (r = 0.7; P coagulation dysfunction in patients with overt DIC.

  19. On-line optical determination of floc size of Fe( Ⅲ ) coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; GAO Bao-yu; YUE Qin-yan; ZHOU Wei-zhi; CHU Yong-bao

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the floc aggregation, average floc size, floc size variance and floc growth velocity when ferric chloride (FeCl3) and polyferric chloride (PFC) were used to treat the simulated water samples. The factors including coagulant dose, ionic strength and solution pH, which affect the floc aggregation, were studied. Experiments were carried out in a bench-scale reactor using photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA). Results showed that there were great differences between the floc aggregation of PFC and FeCl3.The average floc size and floc growth velocity of PFC were much larger than those of FeCl3. Compared with FeCl3, PFC gave a better coagulation performance in wider range of pH, dosage and ionic strength. It was also found that the coagulation efficiency of PFC did not depend on average floc size but on floc growth velocity.

  20. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  1. Brownian coagulation at high particle concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of Brownian coagulation, whereby particles are brought together by thermal motion and grow by collisions, is one of the most fundamental processes influencing the final properties of particulate matter in a variety of technically important systems. It is of importance in colloids, emulsi

  2. Genetically determined coagulation disorders in ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.J. van Goor (Marie-Louise)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the research described in this thesis was to investigate the role of genetically determined coagulation disorders in ischemic stroke. We therefore performed several retrospective studies and one prospective case-control study of patients with recent ischemic stroke (the COCOS

  3. Blood coagulation: hemostasis and thrombin regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi A; Key, Nigel S; Levy, Jerrold H

    2009-05-01

    Perioperative bleeding is a major challenge particularly because of increasing clinical use of potent antithrombotic drugs. Understanding current concepts of coagulation is important in determining the preoperative bleeding risk of patients, and in managing hemostatic therapy perioperatively. The serine protease thrombin plays pivotal roles in the activation of additional serine protease zymogens (inactive enzymatic precursors), cofactors, and cell-surface receptors. Thrombin generation is closely regulated to locally achieve rapid hemostasis after injury without causing uncontrolled systemic thrombosis. During surgery, there are major disturbances in coagulation and inflammatory systems because of hemorrhage/hemodilution, blood transfusion, and surgical stresses. Postoperative bleeding often requires allogeneic blood transfusions, which support thrombin generation and hemostasis. However, procoagulant activity and inflammation are increased postoperatively; thus, antithrombotic therapy may be required to prevent perioperative thrombotic complications. There have been significant advances in the management of perioperative hemostasis and thrombosis because of the introduction of novel hemostatic and antithrombotic drugs. However, a limitation of current treatment is that conventional clotting tests do not reflect the entire physiological processes of coagulation making optimal pharmacologic therapy difficult. Understanding the in vivo regulatory mechanisms and pharmacologic modulation of thrombin generation may help control bleeding without potentially increasing prothrombotic risks. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombin generation using multiple, simplified models of coagulation.

  4. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Pigs are often used as animal models in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The usefulness of the assays applied within this field, and the knowledge of reference intervals are therefore essential and of utmost importance. In the study reported here, we investigated the applicability...... time, tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, factor VII, protein C, protein S, prothrombin fragment 1+2, antithrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, soluble fibrin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasmin inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and D-dimer. We found...... that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must...

  5. Characterization of the intracellular signalling capacity of natural FXa mutants with reduced pro-coagulant activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Monti; K.S. Borensztajn; M. Pinotti; A. Canella; A. Branchini; G. Marchetti; P.H. Reitsma; F. Bernardi; C.A. Spek

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Factor X (FX) is a serine-protease playing a crucial role in the blood coagulation pathway and triggering intracellular signalling in a variety of cells via protease-activated receptors (PARs). By exploiting naturally occurring variants (V342A and G381D, catalytic domain; E19A, gamma-c

  6. Structural and functional characterization of protein complexes in the blood coagulation cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson

    In this dissertation, components of coagulation factor (F)X-activating (tenase; fXase) complexes are studied using computational biophysics and the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The main focus is on structure-function relationships of the two central tenase complexes with respect to activation...

  7. Neprilysin Inhibits Coagulation through Proteolytic Inactivation of Fibrinogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Burrell

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP is an endogenous protease that degrades a wide range of peptides including amyloid beta (Aβ, the main pathological component of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We have engineered NEP as a potential therapeutic for AD but found in pre-clinical safety testing that this variant increased prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of wild type NEP and the engineered variant on coagulation and define the mechanism by which this effect is mediated. PT and APTT were measured in cynomolgus monkeys and rats dosed with a human serum albumin fusion with an engineered variant of NEP (HSA-NEPv as well as in control plasma spiked with wild type or variant enzyme. The coagulation factor targeted by NEP was determined using in vitro prothrombinase, calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT and fibrin formation assays as well as N-terminal sequencing of fibrinogen treated with the enzyme. We demonstrate that HSA-NEP wild type and HSA-NEPv unexpectedly impaired coagulation, increasing PT and APTT in plasma samples and abolishing fibrin formation from fibrinogen. This effect was mediated through cleavage of the N-termini of the Aα- and Bβ-chains of fibrinogen thereby significantly impairing initiation of fibrin formation by thrombin. Fibrinogen has therefore been identified for the first time as a substrate for NEP wild type suggesting that the enzyme may have a role in regulating fibrin formation. Reductions in NEP levels observed in AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy may contribute to neurovascular degeneration observed in these conditions.

  8. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals.

  9. Optimized coagulation of high alkalinity, low temperature and particle water: pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianfeng; Wang, Dongsheng; Yan, Mingquan; Ye, Changqing; Yang, Min; Ge, Xiaopeng

    2007-08-01

    The Yellow River in winter as source water is characterized as high alkalinity, low temperature and low particle concentrations, which have brought many difficulties to water treatment plants. This study fully examines the optimized coagulation process of the Yellow River by conventional and pre-polymerized metal coagulants, pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as the primary coagulants or coagulant aids. For all the metal coagulants, polyaluminum chlorides are superior to traditional metal coagulants due to their stable polymeric species and low consumption of alkalinity. The removal of natural organic matter by monomeric metal coagulants can be improved through pH adjustment, which is in accordance with the higher concentration of polymeric species formed at corresponding pH value. With the addition of polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids, the coagulation performance is significantly improved. The effective removal of dissolved organic matter is consistent with high charge density, while molecular weight is relatively important for removing particles, which is consistent with polyelectrolytes as primary coagulants. These results suggest that the coagulation mechanisms in the removal of dissolved organic matter and particles are different, which may be exploited for optimized coagulation for the typical source water in practice.

  10. Study on the removal of acid dyes using chitosan as a natural coagulant/coagulant aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonoozi, M H; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan was selected as a natural coagulating agent for the removal of acid dyes (Acid Blue 292; AB292, and Acid Red 398; AR398) from dye-containing solutions. The study was organised in two phases. In phase 1, chitosan was used alone as a natural coagulant for the removal of the dyes. For this purpose, the effect of different parameters including pH, chitosan dosage and initial dye concentration on the dye removal efficiency was examined. In phase 2 of the study, the application of chitosan as a natural coagulant aid in conjunction with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was assessed. According to the results of phase 1, the best removal efficiencies occurred in an acidic pH range (less than 6) for both of the dyes. Also, excellent dye removal results (about 90%) were achieved with relatively low dosages of chitosan (30-35 mg L(-1) for AB292 and 50-60 mg L(-1) for AR398). However, the initial concentration of the dyes severely influenced the coagulation performance of chitosan, which can constrain the performance of chitosan as a natural coagulant. On the basis of the results of phase 2, chitosan, as a natural coagulant aid, noticeably enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC, especially in the case of AB292. Small amounts of chitosan (3 or 5 mg L(-1)) enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC up to 2.5 times for AB292.

  11. Improvement of paint effluents coagulation using natural and synthetic coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulhassan, M A; Souabi, S; Yaacoubi, A; Baudu, M

    2006-11-01

    The coagulant iron chloride and the flocculants Polysep 3000 (PO), Superfloc A-1820 (SU) and Praestol 2515 TR (PR) have been used in this study to show the efficiency of coagulation flocculation process in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of organic and colouring matters from the paint industry wastewater. This study also includes the amount of produced sludge. The results indicate that FeCl(3) is efficient at pH range 8-9 and at optimal dose of 650 mgl(-1). Iron chloride allows the removal of 82% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 94% of colour. However, sequential addition of coagulant and polymeric additives enhance clearly pollutant removal and produces less decanted sludge compared to the results obtained when the coagulant is used alone. The removal efficiency of COD reaches 91% and that of colour 99%. Coagulation-biflocculation process is more effective than the coagulation-monoflocculation one. The sequential addition of iron chloride, Polysep 3000 (cationic flocculant) and Praestol 2515 TR (anionic flocculant) seems to be the most suitable combination for the treatment of the paint industry wastewaters.

  12. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on coagulation and anticoagulation systems in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Javan, Atefeh Ordoei; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Shahroodian, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Saffron showed some effects on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In a clinical trial with a limited number volunteers, saffron tablets influenced on bleeding time. In this study, the effect of saffron on plasma level of fibrinogen, factor VII (as coagulant agent), C and S protein (as anti-coagulant agent), PT and PTT in a larger sample size was evaluated. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study consisting of 1 week treatment with 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets. Sixty healthy volunteers (age range 20-50 years) were selected for the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 received placebo; Groups 2 and 3 received 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days (1 tablet per day). Before and after 7 days treatment and also 1 month after that, blood samples were taken. The plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, C and S protein, PT and PTT were evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no difference between groups for any of evaluated factors. This study rejected any effect of saffron with dose of 200 and 400 mg for 1 week on coagulant and anticoagulant system.

  13. [Characteristics of the indicators of the blood coagulation and fibrinolysis systems in the pre-clinical stage of ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenko, G V; Panchenko, V M; Lisina, A N; Liutova, L V

    1978-10-01

    Signs of dysfunction of the coagulation system and fibrinolysis were determined in 45 healthy young individuals who had such risk factors in relation to ischemic heart disease as arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, aggravated heredity, permanent emotional overstress, etc. These signs were manifested by a tendency to augmentation of blood coagulation and compensatory activation of fibrinolysis. Ischemic-type changes were detected on the ECG after a physical load. It is assumed that dysfunction of the coagulation system and fibrinolysis is an additional risk factor in relation to ischemic heart disease, while derangement of compensatory fibrinolysis tension with the subsequent tension of its components may lead to the development of coronary thrombosis.

  14. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  15. Coagulability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Liak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common disorder that affects both quality of life and cardiovascular health. The causal link between OSA and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality remains elusive. One possible explanation is that repeated episodes of nocturnal hypoxia lead to a hypercoagulable state that predisposes patients to thrombotic events. There is evidence supporting a wide array of hematological changes that affect hemostasis (eg, increased hematocrit, blood viscosity, platelet activation, clotting factors and decreased fibrinolytic activity.

  16. 1-[3-Aminobenzisoxazol-5'-yl]-3-trifluoromethyl-6-[2'-(3-(R)-hydroxy-N-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-[1,1']-biphen-4-yl]-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrazolo-[3,4-c]-pyridin-7-one (BMS-740808) a highly potent, selective, efficacious, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Donald J P; Orwat, Michael J; Quan, Mimi L; Han, Qi; Galemmo, Robert A; Amparo, Eugene; Wells, Brian; Ellis, Christopher; He, Ming Y; Alexander, Richard S; Rossi, Karen A; Smallwood, Angela; Wong, Pancras C; Luettgen, Joseph M; Rendina, Alan R; Knabb, Robert M; Mersinger, Lawrence; Kettner, Charles; Bai, Steven; He, Kan; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S

    2006-08-01

    Attempts to further optimize the pyrazole factor Xa inhibitors centered on masking the aryl aniline P4 moiety. Scaffold optimization resulted in the identification of a novel bicyclic pyrazolo-pyridinone scaffold which retained fXa potency. The novel bicyclic scaffold preserved all binding interactions observed with the monocyclic counterpart and importantly the carboxamido moiety was integrated within the scaffold making it less susceptible to hydrolysis. These efforts led to the identification of 1-[3-aminobenzisoxazol-5'-yl]-3-trifluoromethyl-6-[2'-(3-(R)-hydroxy-N-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-[1,1']-biphen-4-yl]-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrazolo-[3,4-c]-pyridin-7-one 6f (BMS-740808), a highly potent (fXa Ki=30 pM) with a rapid onset of inhibition (2.7x10(7) M-1 s-1) in vitro, selective (>1000-fold over other proteases), efficacious in the AVShunt thrombosis model, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa.

  17. Coagulation of dust particles in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic charge of small dust grains in a plasma in which the temperature varies in time is discussed, pointing out that secondary electron emission might introduce charge separation. If the sign of the charge on small grains is opposite to that on big ones, enhanced coagulation can occur which will affect the size distribution of grains in a plasma. Two scenarios where this process might be relevant are considered: a hot plasma environment with temperature fluctuations and a cold plasma environment with transient heating events. The importance of the enhanced coagulation is uncertain, because the plasma parameters in grain-producing environments such as a molecular cloud or a protoplanetary disk are not known. It is possible, however, that this process is the most efficient mechanism for the growth of grains in the size range of 0.1-500 microns.

  18. Can dust coagulation trigger streaming instability?

    CERN Document Server

    Drazkowska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Streaming instability can be a very efficient way of overcoming growth and drift barriers to planetesimal formation. However, it was shown that strong clumping, which leads to planetesimal formation, requires a considerable number of large grains. State-of-the-art streaming instability models do not take into account realistic size distributions resulting from the collisional evolution of dust. We investigate whether a sufficient quantity of large aggregates can be produced by sticking and what the interplay of dust coagulation and planetesimal formation is. We develop a semi-analytical prescription of planetesimal formation by streaming instability and implement it in our dust coagulation code based on the Monte Carlo algorithm with the representative particles approach. We find that planetesimal formation by streaming instability may preferentially work outside the snow line, where sticky icy aggregates are present. The efficiency of the process depends strongly on local dust abundance and radial pressure g...

  19. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    daily anticoagulant therapy. The therapy necessitates close monitoring of coagulant activity, since excess doses of anticoagulant medicine may lead to life-threatening bleedings. Traditionally, patients on OAT are required to pay regular visits to a physician, who decides on drug dosage adjustments...... of the new concept is the training and continuous support and monitoring of the patients, and a center with these purposes has been established at Skejby Sygehus. The main instrument for monitoring the coagulant activity is the prothrombin time (PT). This is the time until clotting can be observed...... central aspects of the INR system, such as the inaccuracy of INR estimates based on a given path of calibrations. The main result states that, under weak regularity conditions, log (log (estimated INR)) is approximately normally distributed with mean log (log (true INR)). The variance is a function...

  20. Self-similar behavior for multicomponent coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曼丽; 卢志明; 刘宇陆

    2014-01-01

    Self-similar behavior for the multicomponent coagulation system is investi-gated analytically in this paper. Asymptotic self-similar solutions for the constant ker-nel, sum kernel, and product kernel are achieved by introduction of different generating functions. In these solutions, two size-scale variables are introduced to characterize the asymptotic distribution of total mass and individual masses. The result of product kernel (gelling kernel) is consistent with the Vigli-Ziff conjecture to some extent. Furthermore, the steady-state solution with injection for the constant kernel is obtained, which is again the product of a normal distribution and the scaling solution for the single variable coag-ulation.

  1. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  2. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  3. Use of naturalized coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactant using various unit processes in lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Mariraj

    2014-04-01

    This lab-scale experiment is aimed at demonstrating a treatment system for purification and reuse of laundry rinsing water generated from households. The main objective of the study is to compare the efficiencies of various natural coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactants and other major pollutants from the laundry rinsing water. The treatment system consists of Coagulation-Flocculation, Sand filtration and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) adsorption. Four experiments were conducted in batch process by varying the coagulants (Nirmali seed and Pectin extracted from pith of Orange peel). Coagulants have been selected due to their local availability at affordable cost and technical feasibility. From the study it is concluded that laundry rinsing water polluted with high turbidity and anionic surfactant treated with Nirmali seeds as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h gives the best results. The treatment system where Orange peel pectin is used as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h is found to be the most efficient one based on the weighted factor. Hence the treatment of laundry rinsing water by aforesaid combination results in better water quality.

  4. Modelling Coagulation Systems: A Stochastic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, V V

    2011-01-01

    A general stochastic approach to the description of coagulating aerosol system is developed. As the object of description one can consider arbitrary mesoscopic values (number of aerosol clusters, their size etc). The birth-and-death formalism for a number of clusters can be regarded as a partial case of the generalized storage model. An application of the storage model to the number of monomers in a cluster is discussed.

  5. Rennet coagulation of heated milk concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Regina; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The high temperature heating of cheese milk is a useful tool for preventing late fermentation during cheese ripening if the renneting properties remain unchanged. The aim of the investigations was to find heating conditions which guarantee the inactivation of clostridia spores but still enable rennet coagulation of the heated milk and milk concentrates respectively. The gel strength of the rennet gels increased the more the casein content increased. The native whey pro...

  6. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, François Régis; Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Moussaid, Yassine; Schernberg, Antoine; Bidard, François-Clément; Pavic, Michel; Khenifer, Safia; Stoclin, Annabelle

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex abnormality of hemostasis with dramatic consequences and long described as associated with tumors. Yet the diagnosis and management of paraneoplastic DIC are poorly defined. The purpose of this paper is to review DIC associated with solid tumors, at the pathophysiological and therapeutic levels in particular. We also report data from a recent retrospective series of patients with DIC in the context of a solid tumor, to illustrate the epidemiological, clinical and prognostic.

  7. Pathogenesis and management of peripartum coagulopathic calamities (disseminated intravascular coagulation and amniotic fluid embolism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Acute coagulopathic peripartum calamities are relatively rare but contribute importantly to maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Abruptio placenta, amniotic fluid embolism, and retained fetal or placental material may lead to fulminant intravascular activation of coagulation which results in thromboembolic complications and consumption coagulopathy causing severe hemorrhage. The central underlying pathophysiological pathway in the coagulopathy associated with these syndromes is the occurrence of tissue factor, released from the placenta and amniotic fluid, in the circulation, in combination with low levels of physiological anticoagulant factors during pregnancy. The diagnosis of DIC may be made trough conventional composite scoring systems employing routine coagulation tests, whereas for the diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism measurement of insulin like growth factor binding protein-1 seems promising. Therapy is aimed at removing the precipitating factor combined with supportive adjunctive treatment options.

  8. The role of platelets in coagulation dysfunction in xenotransplantation, and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Hayato; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B; Ekser, Burcin; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation could resolve the increasing discrepancy between the availability of deceased human donor organs and the demand for transplantation. Most advances in this field have resulted from the introduction of genetically engineered pigs, e.g., α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pigs transgenic for one or more human complement-regulatory proteins (e.g., CD55, CD46, CD59). Failure of these grafts has not been associated with the classical features of acute humoral xenograft rejection, but with the development of thrombotic microangiopathy in the graft and/or consumptive coagulopathy in the recipient. Although the precise mechanisms of coagulation dysregulation remain unclear, molecular incompatibilities between primate coagulation factors and pig natural anticoagulants exacerbate the thrombotic state within the xenograft vasculature. Platelets play a crucial role in thrombosis and contribute to the coagulation disorder in xenotransplantation. They are therefore important targets if this barrier is to be overcome. Further genetic manipulation of the organ-source pigs, such as pigs that express one or more coagulation-regulatory genes (e.g., thrombomodulin, endothelial protein C receptor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, CD39), is anticipated to inhibit platelet activation and the generation of thrombus. In addition, adjunctive pharmacologic anti-platelet therapy may be required. The genetic manipulations that are currently being tested are reviewed, as are the potential pharmacologic agents that may prove beneficial.

  9. Electrocoagulation versus chemical coagulation: coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and resulting floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harif, Tali; Khai, Moti; Adin, Avner

    2012-06-15

    Electrocoagulation (EC) and chemical coagulation (CC) are employed in water treatment for particle removal. Although both are used for similar purposes, they differ in their dosing method - in EC the coagulant is added by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material, while in CC dissolution of a chemical coagulant is used. These different methods in fact induce different chemical environments, which should impact coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and subsequent floc formation. Hence, the process implications when choosing which to apply should be significant. This study elucidates differences in coagulation/flocculation mechanisms in EC versus CC and their subsequent effect on floc growth kinetics and structural evolution. A buffered kaolin suspension served as a representative solution that underwent EC and CC by applying aluminum via additive dosing regime in batch mode. In EC an aluminum anode generated the active species while in CC, commercial alum was used. Aluminum equivalent doses were applied, at initial pH values of 5, 6.5 and 8, while samples were taken over pre-determined time intervals, and analyzed for pH, particle size distribution, ζ potential, and structural properties. EC generated fragile flocs, compared to CC, over a wider pH range, at a substantially higher growth rate, that were prone to restructuring and compaction. The results suggest that the flocculation mechanism governing EC in sweep floc conditions is of Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation (DCLA) nature, versus a Reaction Limited Cluster Aggregation (RLCA) type in CC. The implications of these differences are discussed.

  10. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: testing and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Hatada, Tsuyoshi

    2014-09-25

    Abnormalities of the hemostatic system in patients with DIC result from the sum of vectors for hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis. DIC is classified into hyperfibrinolysis, hypercoagulation, massive bleeding or nonsymptomatic types according to the balance of the two vectors. Both the antithrombin (AT) and protein C (PC) levels are significantly low in patients with septic DIC, and reduced amounts of AT and PC result in the lack of inhibition of thrombin and activated FVIII, respectively. Thrombin activates FVIII, while activated FVIII accelerates the coagulation pathway to generate thrombin; thus activation of the coagulation system persists. Three sets of diagnostic criteria have been established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis and Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, respectively. Although these three diagnostic criteria score hemostatic abnormalities using similar global coagulation tests, the sensitivity and/or specificity for death differ. Treatment with AT or activated PC may not improve the outcomes of patients with sepsis at the early stage, although they may improve the outcomes in those with DIC. Therefore, new diagnostic criteria for determining the appropriate time to initiate anticoagulant treatment are required.

  11. Treatment of Leachate by Coagulation-Flocculation using different Coagulants and Polymer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mao Rui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate will be treated by using coagulation-flocculation. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in a number of diverse disciplines, including biochemistry, cheese manufacturing, rubber manufacturing, and in water and waste water treatment. It is effective for removing high concentration organic pollutant and heavy metals in wastewater. However, coagulationflocculation examined the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PAC1  as well as the use of synthetic polymers on the removal of suspended solid (SS, color, COD and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3N from leachate. The coagulant dosage has typically been determined through jar test, which requires a long experiment time in a field water treatment plant.

  12. Non-Gravitational Effects with Density-Matching in Evaluating the Influence of Sedimentation on Colloidal Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jie; SUN Zhi-Wei; AA Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The method of density matching between the solid and liquid phases is often adopted to effectively eliminate the effect of sedimentation of suspensions in studies on dynamic behaviour of a colloidal system. However, the associated changes in the solvent composition may bring side effects to the properties investigated and therefore might lead to a faulty conclusion if the relevant correction is not made. To illustrate the importance of this side effect, we present an example of the sedimentation influence on the coagulation rate of suspensions of 2μm (diameter) polystyrene. The liquid mixtures, in the proper proportions of water (H2 O), deuterium oxide (D2 O)and methanol (MeOH) as the liquid phase, density-matched and unmatched experiments are performed. Besides the influence of viscosity, the presence of methanol in solvent media, used to enhance the sedimentation effect,causes significant changes (reduction) in rapid coagulation rates compared to that in pure water. Without the relevant corrections for those non-gravitational factors it seems that gravitational sedimentation would retard the coagulation. The magnitude of the contribution from the non-gravitational factor is quantitatively determined,making the relevant correction possible. After necessary corrections for all factors, our experiments show that the influence of the sedimentation on coagulation rates at the initial stage of the coagulation is not observable.

  13. Multiple response optimization of the coagulation process for upgrading the quality of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J.; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To meet the high quality standard of receiving water, the coagulation process using polyferric chloride (PFC) was used to further improve the water quality of effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Uniform design (UD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to assess the effects of the main influence factors: coagulant dosage, pH and basicity, on the removal of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+-N and PO43--P. A desirability function approach was used to effectively optimize the coagulation process for the comprehensive removal of TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P to upgrade the effluent quality in practical application. The optimized operating conditions were: dosage 28 mg/L, pH 8.5 and basicity 0.001. The corresponding removal efficiencies for TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P were 77.2%, 94.6% and 20.8%, respectively. More importantly, the effluent quality could upgrade to surface water Class V of China through coagulation under optimal region. In addition, grey relational analysis (GRA) prioritized these three factors as: pH > basicity > dosage (for TOC), basicity > dosage > pH (for NH4+-N), pH > dosage > basicity (for PO43--P), which would help identify the most important factor to control the treatment efficiency of various effluent quality indexes by PFC coagulation.

  14. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华中; 陈立; 王红卫; 伍志坚; 吴小兵; 王学峰; 王鸿利; 卢大儒; 邱信芳; 薛京伦

    2001-01-01

    A mutant human factor IX with arginine at 338 residual changed to alanine (hFIXR338A) by site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into AAV vectors, and a recombinant adeno-associ- ated viral vector containing hFIXR338A, prepared by rHSV/AAV hybrid helper virus system, was directly introduced to the hind leg muscle of factor IX knock out mice. The expression and the biological activity of human factor IX mutant, hFIXR338A, and the immune response against it in the treated mice were assayed and detected. The results showed that (i) the high-level expression of human factor IX mutant protein, hFIXR338A, has been detected in rAAV-hFIXR338A treated hemophilia B mice and lasted more than 15 weeks; (ii) the clotting activity of hFIXR338A in plasma is 34.2%± 5.23%, which is remarkably higher than that of (14.27% ± 3.4%) of wild type hFIX treated mice in the activated partial thromboplastin assay; (iii) immune response against factor IX R338A was absent, with no factor IX mutant protein (hFIXR338A) inhibitors development in the treated mice; and (iv) no local or systemic side-effects and toxicity associated with the gene transfer were found. It demonstrated the potential use of treating hemophilia B by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors with mutant hFIXR338A gene, an alternative strategy for hemophilia B gene therapy to wild-type human factor IX.

  15. Intein-Fused Lucine Zippers Increase Plasma Coagulation Activity by Improving Protein Trans-Splicing in Dual-Vector Factor Ⅷ Gene Delivered Mice%亮氨酸拉链提高小鼠血浆中剪接的凝血因子Ⅷ凝血活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱甫祥; 刘泽隆; 缪静; 屈慧鸽; 迟晓艳

    2012-01-01

    培养细胞实验表明,亮氨酸拉链通过改善内含肽(intein)的蛋白质剪接效率,提高双载体转B区缺失型凝血因子Ⅷ(BDD-FⅧ)基因细胞剪接FⅧ蛋白的分泌量和活性.本文从C57BL/6小鼠门静脉注射含亮氨酸拉链和Ssp DnaB内含肽融合的BDD-FⅧ的重链和轻链基因双表达载体,48 h后,检测到血浆的重链分泌量和FⅧ活性分别为(298±67) μg/L和(1.15±0.29) U/mL,明显高于不含亮氨酸拉链的双载体转BDD-FⅧ基因对照小鼠((179±59) μg/L和(0.58±0.19) U/mL).结果表明,亮氨酸拉链通过改善蛋白质反式剪接,提高基于蛋白质剪接的双载体转BDD-FⅧ基因小鼠血浆的凝血活性,为进一步双腺相关病毒(AAV)载体转BDD-FⅧ基因的甲型血友病基因治疗研究提供了依据.%We previously demonstrated that leucine zippers fused to intein could increase secretion of spliced B-domain-deleted coagulation factor Ⅷ (BDD-FⅧ) protein and activity by dual-vector based BDD-Ⅷ gene transfected cell in vitro through improving protein trans -splicing. In this study, a pair of plasmid vectors expressing human BDD-FⅧ heavy and light chain fused with lucine zipper and split Ssp DnaB intein was co-injected into C57BL/6 mice via the portal vein. Fourty-eight hours post-injection, the level of heavy chain and FⅧ coagulation activity in collected plasma were determined and shown as (298±67)μg/L and (1.15±0.29) U/ml respectively, greater than that of control mice injected with both vectors without leucine zippers ((179±59) μg/L and (0.58±0.19) U/ml). It demonstrated that leucine zippers fused intein could increase FⅧ coagulation activity in plasma of mice with intein-based dual-vector BDD-FⅧ gene delivery through improved protein trans -splicing. It provided evidence for ongoing hemophilia A gene therapy using dual-AAV vecors.

  16. 自身免疫性感音神经性聋患者候选基因——凝血因子C同源物突变筛查%A candidate gene screening of coagulation factor C homology in patients with autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勍; 于飞; 刘新; 康东洋; 张昕; 戴朴; 袁慧军; 韩东一

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过对22例自身免疫性感音神经性聋(autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss,ASNHL)患者进行凝血因子C同源物基因(coagulation factor C homology,COCH)全序列分析,探索自身免疫性感音神经性聋与COCH突变的相关性.方法 应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)产物直接测序方法对22例自身免疫性感音神经性聋患者进行COCH全序列分析.结果 在22例自身免疫性感音神经性聋病例中未发现COCH突变和多态.结论 初步探索了ASNHL与COCH突变的相关性,未发现COCH突变和多态,还需进一步收集临床病例来证实.

  17. The PIVKA II test: the first reliable coagulation test for autopsy investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Woolley, A; Brookfield, C; Shepherd, F; Kitchen, S

    2003-06-01

    To date there is no routinely used reliable diagnostic test that can be performed in the post-mortem period to investigate whether a deceased had a coagulation disorder. This paper describes a series of experiments to assess the use of an antigen-based method to investigate the vitamin K-dependent factor II function in the deceased. It illustrates that by using this approach the functional status of factor II can be investigated in the post-mortem period. The abnormal proteins that are investigated by this method appear to remain stable for at least 72 h and potentially up to at least 7 days. The method that is illustrated could thus be reliably used in the post-mortem period to identify a natural or drug-induced factor II abnormality. The potential for other protein components of the coagulation cascade to be investigated by similar antigen-based methodology is suggested.

  18. [Study of the polymorphism R353Q in the coagulation factor VII gene and the N700S in the thrombospondin-1 gene in young patients with acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valades-Mejía, María Guadalupe; Domínguez-López, María Lilia; Aceves-Chimal, José Luis; Miranda, Alfredo Leaños; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Isordia-Salas, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el infarto agudo de miocardio es la principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo, y resulta de la combinación de factores modificables y genéticos. Se ha propuesto que el polimorfismo R353Q en el gen del factor VII de la coagulación representa un factor protector en contra del infarto agudo de miocardio, mientras que el polimorfismo N700S en el gen de la trombospondina-1 (TSP- 1) incrementa el riesgo; sin embargo, los resultados aún suscitan controversia. Objetivo: determinar la posible asociación de los polimorfismos R353Q y del N700S con el infarto agudo de miocardio en pacientes mexicanos menores de 45 años. Material y métodos: estudio de casos y controles que incluyó 252 pacientes con diagnóstico de infarto agudo de miocardio y 252 individuos aparentemente sanos sin antecedentes de enfermedad coronaria, pareados por edad y sexo. Los polimorfismos R353Q N700S se determinaron en todos los participantes por medio de PCR-RFLP. Resultados: no se observó diferencia estadística en la distribución genotípica del polimorfismo R353Q del FVII entre los grupos con infarto agudo de miocardio y el grupo control (p = 0.06). Se encontró una distribución genotípica similar del polimorfismo N700S en ambos grupos (p = 0.50). Se identificaron como factores de riesgo independiente para infarto agudo de miocardio: hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, antecedentes heredofamiliares para enfermedad coronaria y dislipidemia. Conclusiones: los polimorfismos R353Q y N700S no representan un factor protector o de riesgo, respectivamente, para infarto agudo de miocardio en pacientes jóvenes mexicanos. Palabras clave: factor VII de la coagulación, trombospondina-1, infarto agudo de miocardio, polimorfismo.

  19. Factor X assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ... Laboratory evaluation of hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ...

  20. Factor XII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ... Laboratory evaluation of hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ...

  1. Recovery of struvite via coagulation and flocculation using natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    One of the major setbacks of struvite recovery processes is the difficulty in harvesting struvite crystals. This study evaluates the use of different coagulants to improve precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H20) crystals. Chitosan and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (Poly-DADMAC) as a coagulant-flocculent and alginate and bentonite as a coagulant aid have been examined in jar tests. Also, a continuous three-phase process, i.e., struvite crystallization, coagulation/flocculation and precipitation process, was set up for real wastewater. Addition of chitosan as the coagulant and bentonite as the coagulant aid was significantly more efficient in forming struvite flocs in comparison to Poly-DADMAC alone or with coagulant aid, which did not show any positive effect. The calculated average settling velocity of struvite with chitosan-bentonite addition in synthetic and in real wastewater increased by approximately 5.3 and 2.8 folds, respectively, compared with that of no coagulant/flocculent addition. Phosphorus recovery of over 70% was achieved by the continuous process. Findings in this study clearly confirmed the possibility of using chitosan and bentonite as an efficient coagulant-flocculent to enhance the recovery of struvite crystals.

  2. Coagulation disorders in the patients with deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE Venous thromboembolism is a relevant social and health care problem for its high incidence, pulmonary embolism-related mortality and long-term sequelae which may be disabling (post-thrombotic syndrome and ulceration. PROCEDURES The aim of our work was to establish the presence of coagulation disorders (hypercoagulable states in the patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT of the leg. Prospectively we have analyzed a group of 30 patients with echosono-graphicaly verified DVT of the leg who were admitted to the department of vascular surgery from August 1st 2000 to July 31st 2001.The following parameters were monitored: prothrombin time (PT partial thromboplastin time (PTT, fibrinogen (Fib, alpha 2 antiplasmin (A-2 AP, D-dimer (DD, antithrombin III (AT III and factor VII. FINDINGS Activation of the coagulation process was registered. The values of monitored coagulation parameters are shown in table 1. Plasma levels of monitored parameters in the patients with DVT of the leg were significantly higher than in the control subjects. CONCLUSION In patients with a DVT a hypercoagulable state is common finding. Some parameters of coagulation activity such as D-dimer might be of great interest in the diagnostic strategy of DVT.

  3. Ovine blood: establishment of a list of reference values relevant for blood coagulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Mathias H; Tiede, Andreas; Teebken, Omke E; Bisdas, Theodosios; Haverich, Axel; Mischke, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Ovine animal models are widely used to conduct preclinical studies, e.g., to evaluate cardiovascular prostheses intended to be applied in man. However, although analyzed in many of those studies, information about ovine blood reference values is scanty. The aim of this study is to establish a reference list of ovine blood parameters relevant for blood coagulation. A cohort of 47 mature ewes was evaluated. Parameters comprised the following: cells and cellular components-platelet, red, and white cell counts (including subsets), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MCH concentration (MCHC); global tests of coagulation-prothrombin time (Quick's time) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); and parameters relevant for blood coagulation-fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), and von Willebrand Factor. After explorative data analysis, a list of ovine reference values was established. Interestingly, a comparison with human reference values revealed some interspecies differences between sheep and man, i.e., much higher ovine ranges for some cell counts (neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets) but lower values for some other parameters (Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, AT, and Quick's test). We established a reference list of ovine blood count and blood coagulation parameters. Because of some peculiarities of the ovine blood, this list may have implications for the interpretation of experimental data.

  4. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis: results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); J.P. Vandenbroucke; F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); B. van Hoek (Bart); J.R. Meinardi; F.P. Vleggaar (Frank); S.H. van Uum; E.B. Haagsma (Els); F.J.M. van der Meer; J. van Hattum (Jan); R.A. Chamuleau; R.P.R. Adang (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosi

  5. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the accuracy of the prothrombin time assay of plasma coagulation factor II plus VII plus X activity in subjects infused with the drug. Influence of time and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S.; Teisner, A.; Jensen, S.A.;

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The prothrombin time (PT) assay of factor II+VII+X activity is an important predictor of liver damage in paracetamol poisoned patients. It complicates interpretation of results that the antidote, acetylcysteine (NAC) depresses this activity. The aim was to investigate if NAC influences...

  6. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the accuracy of the prothrombin time assay of plasma coagulation factor II+VII+X activity in subjects infused with the drug. Influence of time and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sixtus; Teisner, Ane; Jensen, Søren Astrup;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prothrombin time (PT) assay of factor II+VII+X activity is an important predictor of liver damage in paracetamol poisoned patients. It complicates interpretation of results that the antidote, acetylcysteine (NAC) depresses this activity. The aim was to investigate if NAC influences...

  7. Different Recovery Profiles of Coagulation Factors, Thrombin Generation, and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhagic Shock in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    automated water delivery system. On day 2, the animals were tranquilized with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly) before being transferred to the study room...Comparative efficacy of fibrinogen and platelet supplementation on the in vitro reversibility of competitive glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (alphaIIb/beta3

  8. Effect of Vitamin K1 on Perioperative Blood Coagulation Factors During Open Heart Surgery in Children%维生素K1对小儿心内直视手术围术期凝血机制的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小东; 龙村; 姚亚丽; 姚忠喜

    2001-01-01

    目的 小儿心内直视手术中应用维生素K1(Vitamin K1, Vit K1),观察其对凝血因子的作用。 方法 30例心脏手术患者分为3组,A组:动脉导管未闭患者;B组:使用Vit K1治疗;C组:未使用Vit K1治疗。每组各10例。分别检测A组术前、术后,B组、C组术前24小时、麻醉后开胸前、鱼精蛋白中和后10分钟、术毕、术后6小时、1天、3天和5天的血浆凝血酶原时间(PT)、激活部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、X因子活性、纤维蛋白原含量和红细胞压积。 结果 鱼精蛋白中和后10分钟血浆凝血酶原时间、激活部分凝血活酶时间、凝血酶时间最长,X因子活性、纤维蛋白原含量最低。与C组相比,B组术后24小时内血浆凝血酶原时间明显缩短,X因子活性明显升高。 结论 术前应用Vit K1可明显提高患者术后早期凝血因子水平,有利于减少术后出血的发生。%Objective To assess the effect of vitamin K1 (Vit K1) on blood coagulation factors during open heart operation in children. Methods Thirty patients undergoing cardiac operation were assigned to three groups:group A: patent ductus arteriosus patients(n=10); group B:patients with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) plus Vit K1 therapy(n=10); group C: patients with CPB, with no Vit K1 administered (n=10). Blood sample were obtained for the measurement of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, factor X activity, plasma fibrinogen concentration and haematocrit. Results Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time are the longest, factor X activity and plasma fibrinogen concentration is the lowest on 10 minutes after injected protamine. Prothrombin time of group B was significantly shortening and factor X activity of it was increased than group C in 24 hours postoperation. Conclusion Activity of coagulation factors can be increased and maintained at a higher

  9. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  10. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manjunatha Kini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation.

  11. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  12. Study on coagulation property of metal-polysilicate coagulants in low turbidity water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 崔福义; 赵庆良; 马超

    2004-01-01

    In order to remove the low turbidity present in surface water, a novel metal-polysilicate coagulant was used to treat the raw water taken from Tanjiang River in Guangdong Province. This study on the effects of A1/Fe molar ratio on the performance of a complex compound formed by polysilicic acid, aluminium and ferric salt (PAFS) showed that PAFS with A1/Fe ratio of 10:3 seemed to have the best coagulation performance in removing turbidity and color. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of polymerization time of 15 d, sedimentation time of 12 min, and pH of 6-8,PAFS with A1/Fe molar ratio of 10:3 had the best coagulation efficiency and lowest residual A1 concentration. The turbidity decreased from 23.8 NTU to 3.23 NTU and the residual A1 concentration was only 0.165 mg/L in the product water. It could be speculated that colloidal impurities and particulate A1 were removed by adsorption bridging and electrical neutralization of long chain inorganic polymer coagulants.

  13. Study on coagulation property of metal-polysilicate coagulants in low turbidity water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 崔福义; 赵庆良; 马超

    2004-01-01

    In order to remove the low turbidity present in surface water, a novel metal-polysilicate coagulant was used to treat the raw water taken from Tanjiang River in Guangdong Province. This study on the effects of Al/Fe molar ratio on the performance of a complex compound formed by polysilicic acid, aluminium and ferric salt (PAFS) showed that PAFS with Al/Fe ratio of 10:3 seemed to have the best coagulation performance in removing turbidity and color. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of polymerization time of 15 d, sedimentation time of 12 min, and pH of 6(8, PAFS with Al/Fe molar ratio of 10:3 had the best coagulation efficiency and lowest residual Al concentration. The turbidity decreased from 23.8 NTU to 3.23 NTU and the residual Al concentration was only 0.165 mg/L in the product water. It could be speculated that colloidal impurities and particulate Al were removed by adsorption bridging and electrical neutralization of long chain inorganic polymer coagulants.

  14. Size-dependent effects of nanoparticles on enzymes in the blood coagulation cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfins, Elodie; Augustsson, Cecilia; Dahlbäck, Björn; Linse, Sara; Cedervall, Tommy

    2014-08-13

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in diagnostic and drug delivery. After entering the bloodstream, a protein corona will form around NPs. The size and curvature of NPs is one of the major characteristics affecting the composition of bound protein in the corona. Key initiators of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, the contact activation complex, (Kallikrein, Factor XII, and high molecular weight Kininogen) have previously been identified on NPs surfaces. We show that the functional impact of carboxyl-modified polystyrene NPs on these initiators of the intrinsic pathway is size dependent. NPs with high curvature affect the enzymatic activity differently from NPs with low curvature. The size dependency is evident in full blood plasma as well as in solutions of single coagulation factors. NPs induce significant alteration of the enzymatic activity in a size-dependent manner, and enzyme kinetics studies show a critical role for NPs surface area and curvature.

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation or acute coagulopathy of trauma shock early after trauma? A prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated...... activation and had an arterial cannula inserted. Blood was sampled a median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury. Data on demography, biochemistry, injury severity score (ISS) and mortality were recorded. Plasma/serum was analyzed for biomarkers reflecting tissue/endothelial cell/glycocalyx damage (histone......-complexed DNA fragments, Annexin V, thrombomodulin, syndecan-1), coagulation activation/inhibition (prothrombinfragment 1+2, thrombin/antithrombin-complexes, antithrombin, protein C, activated protein C, endothelial protein C receptor, protein S, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, vWF), factor consumption...

  16. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine on murine coagulation gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Salloum-Asfar

    Full Text Available Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 production. Under these conditions, the impact of exogenous T3 on plasma coagulation, and hepatic and vessel-wall-associated coagulation gene transcription was studied in a short- (4 hours and long-term (14 days setting. Comparing euthyroid conditions (normal mice, with hypothyroidism (conditions of a shortage of thyroid hormone and those with replacement by incremental doses of T3, dosages of 0 and 0.5 μg T3/mouse/day were selected to study the impact of T3 on coagulation gene transcription. Under these conditions, a single injection of T3 injection increased strongly hepatic transcript levels of the well-characterized T3-responsive genes deiodinase type 1 (Dio1 and Spot14 within 4 hours. This coincided with significantly reduced mRNA levels of Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, and Serpin10, and the reduction of the latter three persisted upon daily treatment with T3 for 14 days. Prolonged T3 treatment induced a significant down-regulation in factor (F 2, F9 and F10 transcript levels, while F11 and F12 levels increased. Activity levels in plasma largely paralleled these mRNA changes. Thbd transcript levels in the lung (vessel-wall-associated coagulation were significantly up-regulated after a single T3 injection, and persisted upon prolonged T3 exposure. Two-week T3 administration also resulted in increased Vwf and Tfpi mRNA levels, whereas Tf levels decreased. These data showed that T3 has specific effects on coagulation, with Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, Serpin10 and Thbd responding rapidly, making these likely direct thyroid hormone receptor targets. F2, F9, F10, F11, F12, Vwf, Tf and Tfpi are late responding genes and probably

  17. Monte Carlo models of dust coagulation

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the first stage of planet formation, namely dust coagulation from micron to millimeter sizes in circumstellar disks. For the first time, we collect and compile the recent laboratory experiments on dust aggregates into a collision model that can be implemented into dust coagulation models. We put this model into a Monte Carlo code that uses representative particles to simulate dust evolution. Simulations are performed using three different disk models in a local box (0D) located at 1 AU distance from the central star. We find that the dust evolution does not follow the previously assumed growth-fragmentation cycle, but growth is halted by bouncing before the fragmentation regime is reached. We call this the bouncing barrier which is an additional obstacle during the already complex formation process of planetesimals. The absence of the growth-fragmentation cycle and the halted growth has two important consequences for planet formation. 1) It is observed that disk atmospheres are dusty thr...

  18. Coagulation mechanisms--nano- and microprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licsko, I

    2004-01-01

    Possible coagulation mechanisms were studied in relatively high alkalinity model systems and surface waters. On the basis of available information, original laboratory experiments and simple calculation were performed in order to show that the adsorption of Al3+ and Fe3+ ions is not the dominant process in decreasing the stability of suspended particles. The ions of the feeding coagulants hydrolyse within short time and form positively charged water soluble aluminium- or ferric hydroxides. Adsorption of these water soluble hydroxides onto the surface of colloids and quasi-colloid particles are restricted because of the quick completion of the hydrolysis process in relatively high alkalinity (>1.2 mmol/L) water. The result of complete hydrolysis of Al3+ or Fe3+ ions are slightly positively charged poorly water soluble aluminium or ferric hydroxide sols. The positively charged hydroxides and the associated water molecules are connected to each other by hydrogen bonds, providing a stabile structure. The hydrogen bonds provide the aggregation of slightly positively charged sol aggregation into flocs. Considering the repulsing forces among the sols, high numbers of individual sol particles (having nm sizes) are able adsorb onto the surface of suspended particles, changing their electrical charge and decreasing the stability of the colloids and quasi-colloid particles. This process is dominant in the destabilisation of suspended particles.

  19. Nanoparticle assisted coagulation of aqueous alumina suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fatih Çetinel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal processing of ceramics offers a high potential to achieve homogeneous microstructures with improved material properties. In this study, a novel forming method is investigated, which was already applied successfully for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites (CMC, but is also considered to be a suitable direct casting technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties. The so-called nanoparticle assisted coagulation method (NPAC represents a modification of the hydrolysis-assisted solidification (HAS technique. It promises green components with high green strength, uniform density as well as homogeneous and tailored microstructure. Electrostatically stabilized colloidal suspensions with high solid loadings were produced by dispersing various fractions of submicron alumina powder and aluminium hydroxide nano-powder in water without use of any organic binder. Rheology and coagulation kinetics of suspensions and green part properties were studied regarding to modifications of pH value, setting temperature, amount of setting agent, amount of nano-powder, solids loading and process parameters like ultrasound treatment. It could be revealed that the homogeneous core-shell arrangement of submicron and nanoparticles in the colloidal state can be transmitted to the green state, which improves the microstructure and green density of the green parts. For this, the NPAC method is seen as a promising technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties.

  20. Characteristics of particle coagulation in an underground parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Kato, Shinsuke; Zhao, Jianing

    2015-12-01

    Particles in vehicle exhaust plumes in underground parking lots have adverse health effects due to the enclosed environment in which they are released and the temperature difference between the tailpipe and ambient environment; at the same time, particle coagulation might be obvious near the tailpipe in an underground parking lot. In the present study, airflow and temperature fields were calculated using the Realizable k-ε model, and the Eulerian particle transport model was selected in the numerical simulation of particle concentration dispersion. Polydisperse thermal coagulation due to Brownian collisions was employed to calculate the particle coagulation. The results show that particle coagulation rate and half-time were significant within 1 m from the tailpipe. The variations in the particle coagulation rate and half-time were similar, but their directions were opposite. Air exhaust time was nearly four times longer than averaged half-time and 40 times longer than minimum half-time. The peak particle diameter increased approximately 1.43 times due to coagulation. A double particle concentration at the tailpipe caused the fourfold rise in the particle coagulation rate in the distance ranging less than 1 m from the tailpipe. An increase in exhaust velocity at the tailpipe could shorten the obvious range of particle coagulation along the centerline of the tailpipe from 1 to 0.8 m in the study.

  1. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER USING NATURAL COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Pise

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural river surface water for domestic use. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the river is treated include Moringa oleifera seed powder only, Alum coagulant only and blended Moringa oleifera seeds and alum in different combinations. When Moringa oleifera seed powder is used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum as a coagulant aid. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.

  2. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallas, M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Kaart, T.; Parna, K.; Kiiman, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E30)] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somati

  3. Influence of blood flow on the coagulation cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The influence of diffusion and convetive flows on the blood coagulation cascade is investigated for a controlled perfusion experiment. We present a cartoon model and reaction schemes for parts of the coagulation cascade with sunsequent set up of a mathematical model in two space dimensions plus one...

  4. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, V.; Srinivas, N.; Srikanth Vuppala, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Natural coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the chemical coagulants. Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70-100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity.

  5. Disinfection of an infrared coagulation device used to treat hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2012-02-01

    Infrared coagulation devices are used to treat internal hemorrhoids, and as semicritical items should undergo high-level disinfection between patients. We developed and validated a method for disinfecting an infrared coagulation device that cannot be immersed in disinfectant solution.

  6. Metals in airpollution particles decrease whole blood coagulation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanism underlying the pro-coagulative effect of air pollution particle exposure is not known. We tested the postulate that 1) the soluble fraction ofan air pollution particle can affect whole blood coagulation time and 2) metals included in the soluble fraction are respons...

  7. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  8. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  9. Performance and characterization of a new tannin-based coagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Gómez-Muñoz, C.

    2012-09-01

    Diethanolamine and formaldehyde were employed to cationize tannins from black wattle. This novel coagulant called CDF was functionally characterized in removing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (anionic surfactant) and Palatine Fast Black WAN (azoic dye). Refined tannin-derived commercial coagulants exhibited similar efficiency, while CDF presented higher coagulant ability than alum, a usual coagulant agent. Low doses of CDF (ca. 100 mg L-1) were able to remove more than 70 % of surfactant and more than 85 % of dye (initial pollutant concentration of ca. 100 mg L-1) and it presented no temperature affection and worked at a relatively wide pH range. Surfactant and dye removal responded to the classical coagulant-and-adsorption models, such as Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim or Gu and Zhu in the case of surfactant, and Langmuir and Freundlich in the case of dye.

  10. Effect of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy on Cytokines, Hemorheology and Coagulation Function of Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cui-ge; LI Lian-xiang; LIU Xiao-qin; SHI Jian-yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) on the cytokines, hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women. Methods: A total of 43 singleton pregnant women with ICP delivered in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, and 45 singleton healthy pregnant women accompanied by indications of cesarean section were selected as control group. Automatic Viscometer was used to detect the hematological indexes, Automatic Coagulometer to detect the indexes related to coagulation function and radioimmunoassay to determine the levels of cell inflammatory factors, and the pregnancy outcomes were closely observed. Results:The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high and low shear rates of whole blood viscosity, hematokrit, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in observation group were all dramatically higher than those in control group, and all the differences were statistically signiifcant (P0.05). When compared with control group, the levels of D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB) in observation group increased dramatically (P0.05). Conclusion: Both the hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women with ICP manifest signiifcantly high viscosity and hypercoagulability, and the release of cell inlfammatory factors increases, which all exert adverse inlfuence on pregnancy outcome.

  11. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material.

  12. [Besides fibrinogen, are haemostatic, coagulation and/or fibrinolytic parameters predictors or markers of the risk of cardiovascular events?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, Ludovic; Bal dit Sollier, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Most cardiovascular events result from a thrombotic complication of atherosclerotic lesions. In arterial vessels such as the coronary bed, an interrelationship of haemostatic, coagulation and fibrinolytic factors is implicated. While it can be demonstrated that fibrinogen is a risk factor/marker, the role of other factors is not well established. Under arterial flow conditions, platelets are predominantly involved in the thrombotic reaction. Yet, apart from a large increase in the platelet count, the involvement of platelet parameters in cardiovascular risk is not clearly evident. The lack of definitive platelet markers is at least partly due to the difficulty of studying platelet function ex vivo. Several polymorphisms of platelet glycoproteins carrying a moderate increase in risk have been reported, but only in younger patients. One potentially important factor for coagulation is the fibrin structure, which is dependent on fibrinogen, the rate of thrombin generation, the activity of factor XIII and the interrelationship of the cells concerned, all of which act on its sensitivity to thrombosis. Coagulation factors largely affect the rate of thrombin generation. The activity of the fibrinolytic system (and principally any deficiency) has a role in the cardiovascular risk. General markers of cardiovascular risk such as D-dimers are potentially useful, but they increase with thrombin generation and are decreased by a deficiency in fibrinolysis. Furthermore, possibly because they are not indicative of the fibrin structure, they are poorly correlated with clinical events. The poor significance of the available haemostatic, coagulation and/or fibrinolytic parameters is probably due to their lack of representativeness, since haemostatic, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are all involved in the thrombotic response (and some in atherogenesis itself). Atherogenesis is a multifactorial process and numerous moderate risk factors act in association. Better predictability

  13. Improving the Efficiency of a Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment of the Semiconductor Industry through Zeta Potential Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a key factor for assessing the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes based on the optimum dosages and windows for polyelectrolytes coagulation-flocculation effectiveness. In this paper, strategic pH variations allowed the prediction of the dosage of polyelectrolyte on wastewater from real electroplating baths, including the isoelectric point (IEP of the dispersions of water and commercial polyelectrolytes used in typical semiconductor industries. The results showed that there is a difference between polyelectrolyte demand required for the removal of suspended solids, turbidity, and organic matter from wastewater (23.4 mg/L and 67 mg/L, resp.. It was also concluded that the dose of polyelectrolytes and coagulation-flocculation window to achieve compliance with national and international regulations as EPA in USA and SEMARNAT in Mexico is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of the dispersions and treatment conditions (pH and polyelectrolyte dosing strategy.

  14. The loss of homeostasis in hemostasis: new approaches in treating and understanding acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Karen M; Abrams, Charles S

    2012-02-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) profoundly increases the morbidity and mortality of patients who have sepsis. Both laboratory and clinical research advanced the understanding of the biology and pathophysiology of DIC. This, in turn, gave rise to improved therapies and patient outcomes. Beginning with a stimulus causing disruption of vascular integrity, cytokines and chemokines cause activation of systemic coagulation and inflammation. Seemingly paradoxically, the interplay between coagulation and inflammation also inhibits endogenous anticoagulants, fibrinolytics, and antiinflammatory pathways. The earliest documented and best-studied microbial cause of DIC is the lipopolysaccharide endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria. Extensive microvascular thrombi emerge in the systemic vasculature due to dysregulation of coagulation. The result of this unrestrained, widespread small vessel thromboses multiorgan system failure. Consumption of platelets and coagulation factors during this process can lead to an elevated risk of hemorrhage. The management of these patients with simultaneous hemorrhage and thrombosis is complex and challenging. Definitive treatment of DIC, and attenuation of end-organ damage, requires control of the inciting cause. Currently, activated protein C is the only approved therapy in the United States for sepsis complicated by DIC. Further research is needed in this area to improve clinical outcomes for patients with sepsis.

  15. [Seasonal changes in the blood coagulating and anticoagulating system indices in men at the preclinical stage of ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenko, G V; Panchenko, V M; Liutova, L V; Lisina, A N; Karabasova, M A

    1980-03-01

    Examination of 52 males (aged 23 to 40 years) in the preclinical stage of ischemic heart disease revealed seasonal differences in the values of the blood coagulation and anticoagulation systems: in the spring, there was an increase in blood coagulation activity displayed by growth of the concentration of fibrinogen and soluble fibrin and a reduction in the amount of the plasminogen activator. The authors suggest conducting preventive treatment of patients in the spring, the most unfavourable season in respect of the effect of the pathogenetic factors.

  16. A comparison of nano-electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization linear time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the characterization of the recombinant coagulation glycoprotein von Willebrand factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemptner, Jasmin; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Müller, Roland; Ivens, Andreas; Turecek, Peter; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Allmaier, Günter

    2010-03-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF), an adhesive glycoprotein with an approximate molecular weight (MW) of the monomer of 260 kDa, circulates in human blood plasma as a series of multimers ranging in size up to 20.000 kDa; thus the determination of the accurate MW of the monomer is of great importance and due to its high MW quite challenging. In this study accurate MW determination of intact recombinant VWF monomer (rVWF) was performed with GEMMA (gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analysis) and MALDI TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization linear time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Three rVWF preparations with differing buffer systems and glycoprotein concentrations were analyzed. First investigations directed towards heterogeneity determination by means of capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE)-on-the-chip with a laser-induced fluorescence detector revealed two compounds (MW of 277 kDa (migration time 44.3 s) and 341 kDa (migration time 49.5 s)) present in each sample to varying extents, namely mature and pro-rVWF. MALDI MS analysis in the linear positive ion mode allowed the detection of mature rVWF with an exact MW of 256.1 kDa (+/-0.8%) and pro-rVWF with a MW of 349.8 kDa (+/-0.8%). Two samples containing pro-rVWF in very minor concentration resulted in GEMMA detection of the mature rVWF with a MW of 227.4 kDa (+/-2.5%), derived from the measured globular size of 10.9 nm. For one sample containing both rVWF species in almost equal concentrations no differentiation of the two species was possible with GEMMA. Due to its lower resolution only a peak representing a mixture of both species at 11.8 nm could be observed, yielding a MW of 298.8 kDa (+/-1.6%).

  17. EPCR-dependent PAR2 activation by the blood coagulation initiation complex regulates LPS-triggered interferon responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Hernandez, Irene; Basu, Sreemanti; Zogg, Mark; Botros, Fady; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Griffin, John H; Ruf, Wolfram; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-04-30

    Infection and inflammation are invariably associated with activation of the blood coagulation mechanism, secondary to the inflammation-induced expression of the coagulation initiator tissue factor (TF) on innate immune cells. By investigating the role of cell-surface receptors for coagulation factors in mouse endotoxemia, we found that the protein C receptor (ProcR; EPCR) was required for the normal in vivo and in vitro induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-regulated gene expression. In cultured bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and in monocytic RAW264.7 cells, the LPS-induced expression of functionally active TF, assembly of the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa initiation complex of blood coagulation, and the EPCR-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa complex were required for the normal LPS induction of messenger RNAs encoding the TLR3/4 signaling adaptor protein Pellino-1 and the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8. In response to in vivo challenge with LPS, mice lacking EPCR or PAR2 failed to fully initiate an interferon-regulated gene expression program that included the Irf8 target genes Lif, Iigp1, Gbp2, Gbp3, and Gbp6. The inflammation-induced expression of TF and crosstalk with EPCR, PAR2, and TLR4 therefore appear necessary for the normal evolution of interferon-regulated host responses.

  18. EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES CONDITION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD COAGULABILITY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in children with blood pathology (100%. Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is the risk of bleeding during both home oral hygiene and professional hygiene. Exogenous prevention (fluoride-containing gels, varnishes, solutions, sealants also has its own peculiarities in these children. On the other hand, the impossibility of preventive measures implementation is the significant factor in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and subsequently periodontitis in children with disorders of blood coagulability. Aim. To examine the status of oral hygiene in children with blood coagulability disorders. To examine the severity of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To investigate timing and frequency of oral hygiene implementation in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To reveal the interrelations between the intensity, prevalence of periodontal tissues disorders in children with blood coagulability pathology and the periods of tooth development, taking into account the influence of risk factors and frequency of oral hygiene. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood coagulability disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into following age groups: I – 2-5 years old (40 children, II – 6-10 years old (40 children, III – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Hygiene index value was determined according to

  19. EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES CONDITION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD COAGULABILITY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of periodontal tissues inflammatory diseases in children with blood pathology (100%. Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is risk of bleeding during both home oral hygiene and professional hygiene. Exogenous prevention (fluoride-containing gels, varnishes, solutions, sealants also has its own peculiarities in these children. On the other hand, the impossibility of preventive measures implementation is the significant factor in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and subsequently periodontitis in children with disorders of blood coagulability. Aim. To examine the status of oral hygiene in children with blood coagulability disorders. To examine the severity of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To investigate timing and frequency of oral hygiene implementation in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To reveal the interrelations between the intensity, prevalence of periodontal tissues disorders in children with blood coagulability pathology and the periods of tooth development, taking into account the influence of risk factors and frequency of oral hygiene. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood coagulability disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into following age groups: I – 2-5 years old (40 children, II – 6-10 years old (40 children, III – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Hygiene index value was determined according to Fedorov and

  20. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Abed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence.

  1. Preparation of PFS coagulant by sectionalized reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation rate of ferrous sulfate is investigated for the preparation of polyferric sulfate(PFS) coagulant.It is proved that this reaction is zero order with respect to Fe2 +,first order with respect to NO2 (g),and first order with respect to the interface area between gas phase and liquid phase.According to this mechanism,sectionalized reactor(SR) is used in place of traditional reactor(TR),and the liquid of reaction mixture is recycled by pump.As a result,not only the flow path of reaction liquid is prolonged,but also gas-liquid contact area enlarged,and the reaction distinctly accelerated,compared with traditional reactor.The effects of parameters including temperature,acidity and others on the reaction rate are also discussed.

  2. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0% of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was treated with different doses of coagulants like alum, ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate at constant contact duration (4 hours and room temperature (300 K. Percentage reduction (maximum corresponds to 80.2, 74.0 and 84.9% was obtained for removal of COD, BOD and color respectively.

  3. Using chloramine as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation of Yellow River water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Considering that contaminated raw water mostly contains high Ammonia-N and a majority of water treatment plants use prechlorination process in China, efficiency of chloramines as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation was investigated by Jar stirring and pilot-scale tests, using Yellow River water containing high concentration of natural organic matters (NOM) and bromide in winter. The jar tests results showed that, compared with no preoxidation, preformed chloramine apparently decreased the turbidity of settled and filtered water with low dosage (2.0 mg/L), and the aid-coagulation efficiency was further enhanced with the increase of chlorine (Cl2) to Ammonia-N (N) ratio. Pilot-scale studies indicated that, in comparison to the case without preoxidation, the turbidity removal efficiency of flotation and filtration effluent water was significantly improved, the particle counts of filtered water were decreased 63.4%, the average rate of filter head loss was reduced 18.2%, and filter run time was prolonged 15.7%. Therefore, chloramine preoxidation may substantially enhance the particle separation efficiency.

  4. Effect of coagulation pretreatment on the fouling of ultrafiltration membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bing-zhi; CHEN Yan; GAO Nai-yun; FAN Jin-chu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect and mechanism of preventing membrane fouling,by coagulation pretreatment,in terms of fractional component and molecular weight of natural organic matter(NOM).A relatively higher molecular weight(MW)of hydrophobic compounds was responsible for a rapid decline in the ultrafiltration flux.Coagulation could effectively remove the hydrophobic organics.resulting in the increase of flux.It was found that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds,which could remove inadequately by coagulation.was responsible for tlle slow declining flux.The fluxes in the filtration of coagulated water and supematant water were compared and the results showed that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds remained in the supernatant water after coagulation could be rejected by a membrane,resulting in fouling.It was also found that the coagulated flocs could absorb neutral hydrophilic compounds effectively.Therefore,with the coagulated flocs formed on the membrane surface,the flux decline could be improved.

  5. Fuzzy Based Auto-coagulation Control Through Photometric Dispersion Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦; 李圭白

    2004-01-01

    The main role of water treatment plants is to supply high-quality safe drinking water. Coagulation is one of the most important stages of surface water treatment. The photometric dispersion analyzer(PDA) is a new optical method for flocculation monitoring, and is feasible to realize coagulation feedback control. The on line modification of the coagulation control system' s set point( or optimum dosing coagulant) has influenced the application of this technology in water treatment plant for a long time. A fuzzy control system incorporating the photometric dispersion analyzer was utilized in this coagulation control system. Proposed is a fuzzy logic inference control system by using Takagi and Sugeno' s fuzzy if-then rule for the self-correction of set point on line. Programmed is the dosing rate fuzzy control system in SIEMENS small-scale programmable logic controller. A 400 L/min middle-scale water treatment plant was utilized to simulate the reaction. With the changes of raw water quality, the set point was modified correctly in time, as well as coagulant dosing rate, and residual turbility before filtration was eligible and stable. Results show that this fuzzy inference and control system performs well on the coagulation control system through PDA.

  6. Thromboelastometry in patients with severe sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Mirka; Pettilä, Ville; Niemi, Tomi T; Varpula, Marjut; Kuitunen, Anne H

    2009-09-01

    Severe sepsis induces coagulopathy, which may lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Thromboelastometry is a point-of-care whole blood coagulation monitor, which has been validated in human endotoxemia model. We assessed thromboelastometry in severe sepsis and overt DIC and investigated its applicability in differentiating sepsis-related coagulation disturbances. Thromboelastometry (EXTEM and FIBTEM tests) and traditional coagulation assays were analyzed in 28 patients with severe sepsis, 12 of who fulfilled the criteria of overt DIC on admission. Ten healthy persons served as controls. Coagulation parameters, clotting time, clot formation time (CFT), alpha angle, maximal clot firmness (MCF) and lysis index at 60 min, were registered. In patients with overt DIC, EXTEM MCF, CFT and alpha angle differed from that in both healthy controls and patients without DIC, indicating hypocoagulation (MCF 52, 63 and 68 mm; CFT 184, 88 and 73 s; and alpha angle 58, 72 and 76 degrees , respectively, P coagulation assays showed progressively worsening coagulopathy from controls to septic patients without DIC and further to those with overt DIC. We conclude that thromboelastometry may be a valuable tool in assessing whole blood coagulation capacity in patients with severe sepsis with and without overt DIC.

  7. Development of coagulation regulatory proteins in the fetal and neonatal lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J; Jacobson, Linda J; Hacker, Michele R; Townsend, Susan F; Murphy, James; Hay, William

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the development of coagulation regulatory proteins-protein C (PC), protein S (PS), and antithrombin (AT)-in relationship to the procoagulant protein factor X (FX), a chronically catheterized fetal ovine model was used. Infusion and sampling catheters were placed into pregnant ewes and their fetuses and maintained from mid-gestation. From a total of 110 fetuses, 17 lambs, and 63 ewes that were studied on one to 15 occasions, 212 fetal, 88 neonatal, and 157 maternal samples were obtained. Liver tissue was obtained from 31 fetuses and 15 ewes. Plasma levels of all proteins studied were higher in the ewe than in the fetus (p 0.05). This study suggests that fetal regulation of coagulation proteins follows characteristic patterns relative to the vitamin K dependence of the protein rather than its role as a procoagulant versus regulatory protein.

  8. Evaluation and performance characteristics of the Q Hemostasis Analyzer, an automated coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulon, Pierre; Fischer, Florence; Appert-Flory, Anny; Jambou, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The Q Hemostasis Analyzer (Grifols, Barcelona, Spain) is a fully-automated random-access multiparameter analyzer, designed to perform coagulation, chromogenic and immunologic assays. It is equipped with a cap-piercing system. The instrument was evaluated in a hemostasis laboratory of a University Hospital with respect to its technical features in the determination of coagulation i.e. prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, fibrinogen and single coagulation factors V (FV) and VIII (FVIII), chromogenic [antithrombin (AT) and protein C activity] and immunologic assays [von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) concentration], using reagents from the analyzer manufacturer. Total precision (evaluated as the coefficient of variation) was below 6% for most parameters both in normal and in pathological ranges, except for FV, FVIII, AT and vWF:Ag both in the normal and pathological samples. No carryover was detected in alternating aPTT measurement in a pool of normal plasma samples and in the same pool spiked with unfractionated heparin (>1.5 IU/mL). The effective throughput was 154 PT, 66 PT/aPTT, 42 PT/aPTT/fibrinogen, and 38 PT/aPTT/AT per hour, leading to 154 to 114 tests performed per hour, depending of the tested panel. Test results obtained on the Q Hemostasis Analyzer were well correlated with those obtained on the ACL TOP analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory), with r between 0.862 and 0.989. In conclusion, routine coagulation testing can be performed on the Q Hemostasis Analyzer with satisfactory precision and the same apply to more specialized and specific tests.

  9. Differing coagulation profiles of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Maeve P; Crowely, Maeve P; Quinn, Shane; Coleman, Eoin; Eustace, Joseph A; Gilligan, Oonagh M; O'Shea, Susan I; Shea, Susan I O

    2015-02-01

    The link between myeloma and thrombosis is well established. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has also been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. It was recently demonstrated that patients with myeloma display changes in thromboelastometry that may indicate a prothrombotic state. There is little data with regard to changes in thromboelastography in patients with myeloma or MGUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the differing coagulation profiles of patients of patients with myeloma and MGUS by means of conventional coagulation tests and thromboelastography. Blood was taken by direct venepuncture from patients with myeloma, MGUS and normal controls. Routine coagulation tests were performed in an accredited hospital laboratory. Thromboelastography (TEG(®)) was performed as per the manufacturer's protocol. Eight patients were recruited in each group. Patients with myeloma had a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level than patients with MGUS or normal controls (p < 0.001). Patients with myeloma had a significantly more prolonged mean prothrombin time than normal controls (p = 0.018) but not patients with MGUS. Patients with myeloma had significantly higher median D-dimer levels than normal controls (p = 0.025), as did patients with MGUS (p = 0.017). Patients with myeloma had a significantly higher mean factor VIII level than normal controls (p = 0.009) and there was a non-significant trend towards patients with MGUS having higher factor VIII levels than normal controls (p = 0.059). There was no significant difference in thromboelastographic parameters between the three groups. Patients with MGUS appear to have a distinct coagulation profile which is intermediate between patients with myeloma and normal controls.

  10. Activation of Blood Coagulation in Two Prototypic Autoimmune Skin Diseases: A Possible Link with Thrombotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cugno

    Full Text Available Coagulation activation has been demonstrated in two prototypic autoimmune skin diseases, chronic autoimmune urticaria and bullous pemphigoid, but only the latter is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Two markers of coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and fibrin fragment D-dimer were measured by immunoenzymatic methods in plasma samples from 30 patients with active chronic autoimmune urticaria, positive for autologous serum skin test, 30 patients with active bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy subjects. In skin biopsies, tissue factor expression was evaluated by both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. F1+2 and D-dimer levels were higher in active chronic autoimmune urticaria (276.5±89.8 pmol/L and 5.56±4.40 nmol/L, respectively than in controls (145.2±38.0 pmol/L and 1.06±0.25 nmol/L; P=0.029 and P=0.011 and were much higher in active bullous pemphigoid (691.7±318.7 pmol/L and 15.24±9.09 nmol/L, respectively (P<0.0001. Tissue factor positivity was evident in skin biopsies of both disorders with higher intensity in bullous pemphigoid. F1+2 and D-dimer, during remission, were markedly reduced in both disorders. These findings support the involvement of coagulation activation in the pathophysiology of both diseases. The strong systemic activation of coagulation in bullous pemphigoid may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk and provides the rationale for clinical trials on anticoagulant treatments in this disease.

  11. Implementation of a microcontroller-based semi-automatic coagulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K; Kirumira, A; Elkateeb, A

    2001-01-01

    The coagulator is an instrument used in hospitals to detect clot formation as a function of time. Generally, these coagulators are very expensive and therefore not affordable by a doctors' office and small clinics. The objective of this project is to design and implement a low cost semi-automatic coagulator (SAC) prototype. The SAC is capable of assaying up to 12 samples and can perform the following tests: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and PT/APTT combination. The prototype has been tested successfully.

  12. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, Jecko; Toh, Cheng Hock

    2012-04-01

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is a clinicopathological syndrome where widespread intravascular coagulation occurs in response to an inciting process. The pathophysiology for this disorder is complex with an important role for thrombin, the central regulator of the coagulation process. Since the clinical spectrum of DIC is variable due to its dynamic nature, the laboratory diagnosis should ideally be not based on a single marker or an isolated set of results. The treatment should primary focus on the management of the underlying triggering condition with blood products used as resuscitative measures. Newer therapeutic modalities have been recently tried with success although the management of DIC still remains a major challenge.

  13. Changes in the human blood coagulating system during prolonged hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, L. M.; Anashkin, O. D.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the coagulating system of the blood were studied in six subjects during prolonged hypokinesia. Thrombogenic properties of the blood rose in all cases on the 8th day. These changes are explained by stress reaction due to unusual conditions for a healthy person. Changes in the blood coagulating system in the group subjected to physical exercise and without it ran a practically parallel course. Apparently physical exercise is insufficient to prevent such changes that appear in the coagulating system of the blood during prolonged hypokinesia.

  14. Calculation of the rate of coagulation of hydrophobic colloids in the non-steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebersen, G.J.; Wiersema, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    In accurate coagulation measurements, the observed coagulation rate should be extrapolated to time zero to find the rate of formation of doublets from singlet particles. In the theoretical calculation of coagulation rates, generally a steady state is assumed. At the onset of coagulation, however, a

  15. Removal of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by coagulation: effects of coagulants, typical ions, alkalinity and natural organic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Ye, Y Y; Qi, J; Li, F T; Tang, Y L

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of removing titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) from water by coagulation, as well as to find the optimal coagulant and experimental conditions for TiO2 NP removal, four types of coagulant were adopted: polyferric sulfate (PFS), ferric chloride (FeCl3), polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and alum (Al2(SO4)3). It was found that the removal of TiO2 NPs by coagulation was affected by ionic strength, alkalinity, as well as types and dosages of coagulants. PFS and FeCl3 achieved much higher removal efficiency of TiO2 NPs than PACl and Al2(SO4)3 did. For 30 mg/L TiO2 NPs, a dosage of 0.3 mM PFS (as Fe) achieved 84% removal after coagulation followed by 30 min settlement. Optimal ionic strength (0.1 M NaCl or 0.03 M CaCl2) is of vital importance for the performance of PFS. Na2SO4 is unfavorable for the performance of PFS. Optimal alkalinity (0.01-0.03 M NaHCO3) is necessary for FeCl3 to remove TiO2 NPs. Natural organic matter, as represented by humic acid (HA) up to 11 mg/L, reduces the removal of TiO2 NPs by coagulation. These findings indicate that coagulation is a good option for the removal of TiO2 NPs from water, and more attention should be paid to the effects of water quality when using coagulation to remove TiO2 NPs from aqueous matrices. This provides a possible solution to alleviate the potential hazard caused by TiO2 NPs.

  16. Influence of natural coagulants on isoflavones and antioxidant activity of tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C R; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-08-01

    Tofu (instead of preparing using synthetic coagulant) was prepared using coagulants of plant origin (Citrus limonum, Garcinia indica, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus acidus and Passiflora edulis). Total crude protein and fat contents were highest in tofu prepared using G. indica and T. indica (72.5% dbw) compared to synthetic coagulant. Tofu prepared with natural coagulants had signifi cantly higher antioxidant activity compared to synthetic coagulant. Bioconversion of isoflavone glucosides (daidzin and genistin) into their corresponding bioactive aglycones (daidzein and genistein) was observed in tofu. The difference between glucosides and aglycones contents in soy milk was significant but there was not much difference in tofu coagulated with synthetic and natural coagulants.

  17. Discriminação alélica do fator V da coagulação por PCR em tempo real: diagnóstico simples e preciso Allelic discrimination of coagulation factor V by real time PCR: a simple and accurate diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir B. Oliveira Filho

    2009-02-01

    thrombosis is 50 to 100 times higher that in normal patients, while in heterozygotic patients the risk is 5 to 10 times higher. Based on the need of evaluation and follow up of patients with venous thrombosis and prevention in their respective families, a simple method of allelic discrimination of coagulation V factor was developed using real time PCR. Sixty-seven patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 51 individuals without venous thrombosis were selected for this study. First, identification of the factor V allele was achieved through conventional PCR followed by enzymatic digestion (Mnl. Subsequently, diagnosis was attained by real time PCR. Both the methods investigated the G1691A polymorphism using VIC and FAM fluorophores to mark nucleotides G and A, respectively. By PCR-RFLP, 95 individuals were diagnosed as normal homozygotes, 21 as heterozygotes and 2 as homozygotic factor V Leiden individuals. The same results were obtained using real time PCR. Maximum similarity between the results of real time PCR and PCR-RFLP indicates high precision of the new method for allelic identification and visualization of factor V Leiden.

  18. Impacts of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine on coagulation performance and membrane fouling in coagulation/ultrafiltration combined process with different Al-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Ruihua; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-09-01

    Two kinds of aluminum-based coagulants and epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) were used in the treatment of humic acid-kaolin simulated water by coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) hybrid process. Coagulation performance, floc characteristics, including floc size, compact degree, and strength were investigated in this study. Ultrafiltration experiments were conducted by a dead-end batch unit to implement the resistance analyses to explore the membrane fouling mechanisms. Results showed that DAM-ECH aid significantly increased the UV254 and DOC removal efficiencies and contributed to the formation of larger and stronger flocs with a looser structure. Aluminum chloride (Al) gave rise to better coagulation performance with DAM-ECH compared with poly aluminum chloride (PACl). The consequences of ultrafiltration experiments showed that DAM-ECH aid could reduce the membrane fouling mainly by decreasing the cake layer resistance. The flux reductions for PACl, Al/DAM-ECH (dosing both Al and DAM-ECH) and PACl/DAM-ECH (dosing both PACl and DAM-ECH) were 62%, 56% and 44%, respectively. Results of this study would be beneficial for the application of PACl/DAM-ECH and Al/DAM-ECH composite coagulants in water treatment processes.

  19. Reduced efficacy of marine cloud brightening geoengineering due to in-plume aerosol coagulation: parameterization and global implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Stuart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships (marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a possible method to control anthropogenic global warming; however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to, amongst other factors, uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. A major assumption used in recent cloud- and climate-modeling studies is that all sea spray was emitted uniformly into some oceanic grid boxes, and thus these studies did not account for subgrid aerosol coagulation within the sea-spray plumes. We explore the evolution of these sea-salt plumes using a multi-shelled Gaussian plume model with size-resolved aerosol coagulation. We determine how the final number of particles depends on meteorological conditions, including wind speed and boundary-layer stability, as well as the emission rate and size distribution of aerosol emitted. Under previously proposed injection rates and typical marine conditions, we find that the number of aerosol particles is reduced by over 50%, but this reduction varies from under 10% to over 90% depending on the conditions. We provide a computationally efficient parameterization for cloud-resolving and global-scale models to account for subgrid-scale coagulation, and we implement this parameterization in a global-scale aerosol-climate model. While designed to address subgrid-scale coagulation of sea-salt particles, the parameterization is generally applicable for coagulation of subgrid-scale aerosol from point sources. We find that accounting for this subgrid-scale coagulation reduces cloud droplet number concentrations by 46% over emission regions, and reduces the global mean radiative flux perturbation from −1.5 W m−2 to −0.8 W m−2.

  20. Thrombomodulin: A Bifunctional Modulator of Inflammation and Coagulation in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulated interplay between inflammation and coagulation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Therapeutic approaches that simultaneously target both inflammation and coagulation hold great promise for the treatment of sepsis. Thrombomodulin is an endogenous anticoagulant protein that, in cooperation with protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, serves to maintain the endothelial microenvironment in an anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant state. A recombinant soluble form of thrombomodulin has been approved to treat patients suffering from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and has thus far shown greater therapeutic potential than heparin. A phase II clinical trial is currently underway in the USA to study the efficacy of thrombomodulin for the treatment of sepsis with DIC complications. This paper focuses on the critical roles that thrombomodulin plays at the intersection of inflammation and coagulation and proposes the possible existence of interactions with integrins via protein C. Finally, we provide a rationale for the clinical application of thrombomodulin for alleviating sepsis.

  1. PARTICLE ELECTROSTATIC COAGULATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DUST CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾强; 刘炳江

    1995-01-01

    Fine particulates instead of others create particulate pollution and they are easier to escape from almost all conventional collectors of low-or medium-efficiency. It is of practical significance to take full advantages of particle coagulation by electrostatic forces to upgrade the collentors' performance. This paper investigates the main mechanisms of coagulation, an possiboie trostatic forces existing in the collectors and their effects on the particle coagulation. To make particle kinetic coagulation electrostaticaUy enhanced be a step of the conventional collectors' operations,certain conditions should be created through some modifications of the collectors. Based on that, the authors suggest that a precharger electro-cyclone technique be applied to improve the performance of common cyclones still widely used in many places. And a preliminary semi-industrial test has been carried out at Jiawang Power Station, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, and the results show that the modified cyclone increases its efficiency from about 800% to. 92-94%.

  2. CARDIOVASCULAR AND BLOOD COAGULATION EFFECTS OF PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily, from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Mal...

  3. Surgical Coagulator With Carbon Dioxide Laser For Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Wieslaw; Kazmirowski, Antoni; Korobowicz, Witold; Olborski, Zbigniew

    1987-10-01

    The technical data and parameters of the CO2 surgical laser for gynecology are given. Coagulator was designed and constructed in Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw Technical University.

  4. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    -, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. RESULTS: Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority...

  5. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  6. Differential action of medically important Indian BIG FOUR snake venoms on rodent blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Vilas; Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Savitha, M N; Urs Amog, Prathap; Rudresha, G V; Yariswamy, M; Vishwanath, B S

    2016-02-01

    Snakebite is a global health problem affecting millions of people. According to WHO, India has the highest mortality and/or morbidity due to snakebite. In spite of commendable research on Indian BIG FOUR venomous species; Naja naja and Bungarus caeruleus (elapid); Daboia russelii and Echis carinatus (viperid), no significant progress has been achieved in terms of diagnosis and management of biting species with appropriate anti-snake venom. Major hurdle is identification of offending species. Present study aims at differentiation of Indian BIG FOUR snake venoms based on their distinguish action on rodent blood coagulation. Assessment of coagulation alterations by elapid venoms showed negligible effect on re-calcification time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and factors assay (I, II, V, VIII and X) both in vitro and in vivo. However, viperid venoms demonstrated significant anticoagulant status due to their remarkable fibrinogen degradation potentials as supported by fibrinogenolytic activity, fibrinogen zymography and rotational thromboelastometry. Though results provide hint on probable alterations of Indian BIG FOUR snake venoms on blood coagulation, the study however needs validation from human victim's samples to ascertain its reliability for identification of biting snake species.

  7. Hyperprolactinemia during antipsychotics treatment increases the level of coagulation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishioka M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Ishioka, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Norio Sugawara, Hanako Furukori, Shuhei Kudo, Kazuhiko Nakamura Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Objective: The strong association between psychiatric patients who receive antipsychotics and the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE is known. Although previous reports suggest that hyperprolactinemia often increases markers of activated coagulation, few studies have examined the direct relationship between the prolactin level elevated by antipsychotics and activated markers of activated coagulation.Method: The participants included 182 patients with schizophrenia (male =89, female =93 who received antipsychotic treatments for at least 3 months. Markers of VTE (D-dimer, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, and thrombin–antithrombin complex and serum prolactin concentrations were measured.Results: Prolactin levels were significantly correlated with the logarithmic transformation of the D-dimer (r=0.320, P=0.002 and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product levels (r=0.236, P=0.026 but not of the thrombin–antithrombin complex level (r=0.117, ns among men. However, no correlations were found between the VTE markers and prolactin levels among women. These results were confirmed using multiple regression analyses that included demographic factors and antipsychotic dosages. Conclusion: The current study indicates that hyperprolactinemia is associated with an increase in markers of activated coagulation among men receiving antipsychotics. This finding clinically implies that monitoring and modulating prolactin levels among men are important to decrease the risk of VTE. Keywords: prolactin, antipsychotics, venous thromboembolism

  8. Crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation in mastitis and metritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowiec, Ryszard; Wessely-Szponder, Joanna; Hola, Piotr

    2009-06-01

    Coagulation and inflammation are closely related as part of the mechanisms of host defence during a severe infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between thrombin as a factor in both the coagulative and inflammatory processes and neutrophil secretory function on the basis of lactoferrin (LF), elastase and myeloperoxidase release in the course of mastitis and metritis in cows. Thrombin generation was measured on the basis of hydrolysis of SAR-PRO-ARG-pNA and lactoferrin concentration was estimated by an ELISA method. The greatest thrombin generation was observed in the metritis group (1.18 +/- 0.62 IU). The level of LF was the highest in the group of cows with mastitis (0.74 +/- 0.55 mg/ml) in the first phase of the disease. In the second phase of the diseases the level of serum LF in cows with mastitis diminished to the value of 0.41 +/- 0.16 mg/ml, whereas in cows with metritis the level of LF increased to 0.51 +/- 0.17 mg/ml. This study reveals that the excessive production of thrombin not only causes hypercoagulatory disorders but also exaggerates neutrophil function by the release of some enzymes which may play a destructive role during disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These enzymes also inhibit anticoagulative systems, thus potentially worsening the course of the disease.

  9. Current Pathological and Laboratory Considerations in the Diagnosis of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng Hock; Alhamdi, Yasir; Abrams, Simon T

    2016-11-01

    Systemically sustained thrombin generation in vivo is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Typically, this is in response to a progressing disease state that is associated with significant cellular injury. The etiology could be infectious or noninfectious, with the main pathophysiological mechanisms involving cross-activation among coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammatory responses. This leads to consumption of both pro- and anticoagulant factors as well as endothelial dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis at the blood vessel wall interface. In addition to the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) following cellular activation and damage, respectively, there is the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as extracellular histones and cell-free DNA. Extracellular histones are increasingly recognized as significantly pathogenic in critical illnesses through direct cell toxicity, the promotion of thrombin generation, and the induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Clinically, high circulating levels of histones and histone-DNA complexes are associated with multiorgan failure, DIC, and adverse patient outcomes. Their measurements as well as that of other DAMPs and molecular markers of thrombin generation are not yet applicable in the routine diagnostic laboratory. To provide a practical diagnostic tool for acute DIC, a composite scoring system using rapidly available coagulation tests is recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Its usefulness and limitations are discussed alongside the advances and unanswered questions in DIC pathogenesis.

  10. Serum pharmacokinetics and coagulation aberration induced by sodium dehydroacetate in male and female Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumei; Ying, Donglai; Liu, Hao; Yu, Zengrong; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Xie, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is used as a preservative in food, animal feeds and cosmetics. Severe haemorrhage in organs and prolongation of coagulation factors in Sprague–Dawley rats has been reported upon oral administration of Na-DHA. We investigated alterations in coagulation parameters and serum pharmacokinetics upon Na-DHA administration. Wistar rats were administered Na-DHA (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.). Weight gain, food consumption, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum levels of Vitamin k (Vk)1, and serum levels of Na-DHA were measured, and histopathology undertaken. Significant reductions in body weight, food consumption and serum levels of Vk1, as well as prolonged PT and APTT, were observed. Females were significantly different from males in terms of serum Na-DHA concentration. Congestion in hepatic sinusoids, renal tubules and spleen, as well as haemorrhage in lung alveoli, gastric mucosa, intestinal mucosa and cardiac muscle cells, were observed by histopathological analyses. Correlation of serum Na-DHA via PT and APTT, as well as serum Vk1 via PT and APTT, in females was better than that in males. Female rats are more sensitive than males to Na-DHA. Hence, Na-DHA can induce coagulation aberration in Wistar rats, with higher sensitivity seen in females than males. PMID:28387309

  11. Effects of pH value and coagulant dosage on contact filtration of humic substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋绍阶; 刘宗源; 梁建军

    2009-01-01

    Humic substances (especially fulvic acid (FA)) are the major components of natural organic matter (NOM) that widely exist in drinking water source. Due to their potential effects on public health,the removal of FA was one of the main concerns during the water treatment. Therefore,the contact filtration of FA by using aluminum sulfate as coagulant on the basis of jar tests was carried out. The effects of pH and coagulant dosage on the FA removal and the development of head loss were investigated. The results show that the range of pH value during the FA contact filtration can be effectively influenced by the dosage of aluminum sulfate,and the high aluminum sulfate dosage is an important factor that can result in early filter breakthrough. The FA filtration by deep-bed filtration or by membrane filtration is sometimes disparate under the same coagulation conditions. The choice of aluminum sulfate dosage by the method of membrane filtration,i.e. the "true color measurement",may result in inappropriate filter run,whereas it can be determined with simple jar tests by observing the formation of micro flocs. Considering the effects of pH on aluminum sulfate dosage and FA removal,the optimal pH range of 5.5?6.0 is suggested.

  12. GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo simulation of particle coagulation based on the inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Kruis, F. E.

    2013-09-01

    Simulating particle coagulation using Monte Carlo methods is in general a challenging computational task due to its numerical complexity and the computing cost. Currently, the lowest computing costs are obtained when applying a graphic processing unit (GPU) originally developed for speeding up graphic processing in the consumer market. In this article we present an implementation of accelerating a Monte Carlo method based on the Inverse scheme for simulating particle coagulation on the GPU. The abundant data parallelism embedded within the Monte Carlo method is explained as it will allow an efficient parallelization of the MC code on the GPU. Furthermore, the computation accuracy of the MC on GPU was validated with a benchmark, a CPU-based discrete-sectional method. To evaluate the performance gains by using the GPU, the computing time on the GPU against its sequential counterpart on the CPU were compared. The measured speedups show that the GPU can accelerate the execution of the MC code by a factor 10-100, depending on the chosen particle number of simulation particles. The algorithm shows a linear dependence of computing time with the number of simulation particles, which is a remarkable result in view of the n2 dependence of the coagulation.

  13. Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Deng, Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2014-02-01

    A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 (2-)/Al3 (+) mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 10(5) to 20 × 10(5) Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r=0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L(-1)), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L(-1) +20 mg L(-1)). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.

  14. Modeling of particle coagulation in low pressure PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandarkar, U.; Kortshagen, U.

    1998-10-01

    Contaminant particles generated in plasmas used to manufacture semiconductor devices can potentially destroy micro-electronic circuits. Particles of micrometer-size in a plasma are usually negatively charged due to the higher mobility of electrons. Like charges on the particles should inhibit growth by coagulation. However, the coagulation rates of nanometer-sized particles observed experimentally are even higher than the thermal coagulation rates of uncharged particles. This observation implies the presence of positively charged nano-particles along with the negative ones such that the mutual attraction enhances coagulation. We propose photo-detachment of electrons due to UV radiation as a potential path for the generation of positively charged particles. We have developed a self-consistent plasma-coagulation model based on the General Dynamic Equation which is well-known from aerosol research. Plasma properties are determined self-consistently using a global plasma model. The particle charge distribution is calculated using a charging module which also accounts for UV photo-detachment. Preliminary results of this model yield coagulation rates consistent with those observed experimentally.

  15. Removal of dispersant-stabilized carbon nanotubes by regular coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Liu; Changli Liu; Jing Zhang; Daohui Lin

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation followed by sedimentation,as a conventional technique in the water treatment plant,can be the first line of defense against exposures of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)to aquatic organisms and human beings,which has been rarely documented.This study investigated the removal of dispersant-stabilized CNT suspensions by poly aluminum chloride(PAC1)and KAI(SO4)2·12H2O (alum),with a focus on the effects of dispersant type,coagulant type and dosage.PAC1 performed better than alum in the removal of tannic acid-,humic acid-,and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate-stabilized CNTs,but worse for polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether(TX100)-stabilized CNTs.Neither coagulant could effectively precipitate cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-stabilized CNTs.The removal by PAC1 first increased up to a plateau and then decreased with the continued increase of coagulant dosage.However,the removal rates leveled off but did not decrease after achieving their highest level with the continued addition of alum.The coagulation and flocculation of the CNT suspensions by PAC1 could be regulated mainly by the mechanism of adsorption charge neutralization,whereas the coagulation by alum mainly involved electrical double-layer compression.

  16. The effects of coagulants on the structure of PBO materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-huan; HUANG Yu-dong; MENG Lin

    2006-01-01

    PBO materials possess super mechanical properties and high thermal and chemical resistance due to their special rigid-rod backbones with heterocyclic chemical structure and supermolecular microstructure. But these structures may be affected by a series of preparing technologies, among which the coagulant is even more important. In this paper the chemical and microstructure changes of PBO materials coagulated with different solvents were investigated. Analyses of molecular weight and chemical structure of PBO coagulated indicate that the heterocyclic ring of PBO will experience cleavage in coagulation and in this stage water plays an important role. The final structure of PBO materials may involve several intermediate structures lying between benzoxazole and the open ring. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) 2θ scans and scanning probe microscope (SPM) show that the microstructure of PBO materials coagulated in solvents with different properties will change a lot and those coagulants with the smaller rate of diffusion like methanol can cause more ordered molecule alignment containing fewer voids.

  17. Does whole blood coagulation analysis reflect developmental haemostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Hanne Berg; Andreasen, Jo Bnding; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-07-27

    Developmental haemostasis has been well documented over the last 3 decades and age-dependent reference ranges have been reported for a number of plasmatic coagulation parameters. With the increasing use of whole blood point-of-care tests like rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and platelet function tests, an evaluation of age-dependent changes is warranted for these tests as well. We obtained blood samples from 149 children, aged 1 day to 5.9 years, and analysed conventional plasmatic coagulation tests, including activated partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen (functional). Whole blood samples were analysed using ROTEM to assess overall coagulation capacity and Multiplate analyzer to evaluate platelet aggregation. Age-dependent changes were analysed for all variables. We found age-dependent differences in all conventional coagulation tests (all P values coagulation assessment when applying ROTEM, apart from clotting time in the EXTEM assay (P coagulation test. However, these age-dependent changes were not displayed in whole blood monitoring using ROTEM or Multiplate analyzer. Type of anticoagulant had a significant influence on platelet aggregation across all age groups.

  18. Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using modified micro sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldiri, Nur Hanani; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is considered as highly polluted wastewater, without any treatment, discharging into water system will cause underground water and surface water pollutions. This study was to investigate the treatability of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate via coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), cationic polymer, and modified micro sand. Leachate was collected from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) located in Penang, Malaysia. Coagulation-flocculation was performed by using jar test equipment and the effect of pH, dose of coagulant and dose of polymer toward removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and suspended solid (SS) were examined. Micro sand was also used in this study to compare settling time of coagulation-flocculation process. The optimum pH, dose of coagulant (PAC) and dose of polymer (cationic) achieved were 7.0, 1000 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The dose of micro sand used for the settling time process was 300 mg/L. Results showed that 52.66% removal of COD, 97.16% removal of SS and 96.44% removal of color were achieved under optimum condition. The settling times for the settling down of the sludge or particles that formed during coagulation-flocculation process were 1 min with modified sand, 20 min with raw micro sand and 45 min without micro sand.

  19. Purification and partial characterizations of coagulant protein Fla from Daboia russelli siamensis (Myanmar) venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-huan SUN; Qi CHEN; Xi LIN; Jia-shu CHEN; Peng-xin QIU; Guang-mei YAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To purify and characterize the coagulant protein FIa from Daboia russelli siamensis (Myanmar) venom. Methods: FIa was purified from Daboia russellisiamensis (Myanmar) venom by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and a Superdex 75 column. The hemostatic activity of FIa was determined by the method of Williams and Esnouf. The specific chromogenic substrates were used respectively to determine the activation of factor X and prothrombin. The fibrinogen-clotting activity of FIa was determined by the method of Gao et al. Normal saline was used as a negative control while factor Xa and thrombin were used as positive controls, respectively.Results: FIa, a coagulant protein, was achieved by ion-exchange chromatogra-phy and gel filtration with a molecular weight of 34 479 and an isoelectric point of 7.2. FIa was shown to have strong hemostatic activity. The hemostatic activity of 0.5 mg FIa was equal to that of 1.5625 u thrombin. FIa primarily activated factor X,however, had no influence on prothromhin, nor did it cleave or clot fibrinogen.Conclusion: FIa is a factor X-activating enzyme, which could activate factor X to factor Xa, but has no effect on prothrombin and fibrinogen.

  20. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  1. Audiological and vestibular evaluation of new coagulation factor C homology mutation carriers in a Chinese family%中国一家系凝血因子C同源物基因新突变携带者听力学及前庭功能特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勍; 张昕; 刘新; 戴朴; 袁慧军; 韩东一; 谢溯江; 丰雷; 王玉凤; 许剑; 仇春燕; 陈艾婷; 冀飞; 康东洋

    2007-01-01

    目的 分析携带凝血因子C同源物(coagulation factor C homology,COCH)基因新突变的中国常染色体显性遗传非综合征型聋(autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss,DFNA)9家系成员的听力学及前庭功能特点.方法 对家系成员进行纯音测听、听性脑干反应、耳蜗电图等听力学及计算机动态姿势描记、前庭诱发性肌源性电位、视眼动、前庭眼动等前庭功能检查.结果 听力学检查提示该家系患者20~50岁出现以高频下降为主的进行性感音神经性聋,60~70岁进展为重至极重度全频听力损失.前庭功能检查提示随意抽取的家系中耳聋患者计算机动态姿势描记、视眼动、温度试验正常;前庭诱发性肌源性电位检查提示耳聋患者耳石功能异常;速度阶梯试验时间常数异常、正弦谐波试验增益和相位异常,提示耳聋患者水平半规管功能减弱.结论 中国DFNA9家系的所有耳聋患者均无前庭功能损害的主诉,通过详尽的前庭功能检查提示位于COCH非胶原结构糖蛋白A型2结构域上的突变所导致的前庭功能损害明显轻于位于LCCL结构域上的突变.中国DFNA9家系的临床资料分析首次表明DFNA9存在基因型和表现型的相关性.

  2. Preliminary study on preparation of human coagulation factor Ⅷ using ion exchange chromatography with FG TMAE%以强阴离子交换剂FG TMAE为介质的离子交换层析制备人凝血因子Ⅷ的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梅芳; 是翡; 吴志韡; 吴云涛; 夏祯; 许静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore preparation of human coagulation factor Ⅷ (FⅧ)using ion exchange chromatography (ICE) with a strong anion exchanger FG TMAE as separating medium.Methods The initial conditions of ICE were identified by linear gradient elution using eluent containing different concentrations of NaCl.Ionic strength and pH value of the wash solution and eluentand and temperature of the sample were optimized to finally identify the optimum conditions of ICE with FG TMAE.Results When ICE was carried out using wash solution containing 220 mmol/L NaCl and eluent containing 450 mmol/L NaCl at pH7.0 in room temperature (20-25 ℃),recoveries (77.53%) and specific activity (24.67 IU/mg) of FⅧ were both high.Conclusion FⅧ preparation using ICE with FG TMAE is feasible.%目的 初步探索以强阴离子交换剂FG TMAE为介质进行离子交换层析来制备人凝血因子Ⅷ.方法 以含不同氯化钠浓度的洗脱液进行线性梯度来初步确定离子交换层析的条件,并优化离子交换层析的洗涤液和洗脱液的离子强度和pH值以及样品的温度,最终确定以强阴离子交换剂FGTMAE为介质进行离子交换层析的最适条件.结果 在室温(20~25℃)条件下,以pH 7.0的含220 mmol/L氯化钠的洗涤液和pH 7.0的含450 mmol/L氯化钠的洗脱液进行离子交换层析,可使人凝血因子Ⅷ的回收率(77.53%)和比活性(24.67 IU/mg)均较高.结论 以强阴离子交换剂FG TMAE为介质进行离子交换层析制备人凝血因子Ⅷ是可行的.

  3. Study on changes of coagulation factors activity in fresh frozen plasma(FFP) after thawed at different time and temperatures%新鲜冰冻血浆融化后保存环境对凝血因子指标变化的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯军

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨新鲜冰冻血浆( FFP)融化后,不同保存时间及温度环境下凝血因子活性的变化,全面监控FFP品质,为科学高效安全输血提供依据和指导。方法:随机抽取-25℃以下保存FFP 20份,融化后分别保存于4℃~22℃环境,在0~24小时内分为4个时间段,采用美国贝克曼公司产全血动凝血分析仪及专用配套试剂。测定凝血酶原时间( PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间( APTT)、纤维蛋白原( FIB)、凝血酶时间( TT)、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅶ、Ⅷ、Ⅸ( FⅤ、FⅦ、FⅧ、FⅨ)活性水平。结果:FFP融化后4℃与22℃不同时间不同温度无明显改变的为PT、FIB (P>0.05)。其他指标在不同时间不同温度各有明显的改变(P0. 05) from 4℃ to 22℃ after thawed. Others had changed markedly at different time quantum and saving temperatures (P<0. 05). FVIII:c was changed from 6 hours at 22℃. Furthermore, FVIII:C reduced marked-ly after 12 to24 hours. And half-time period of FVIII was 12 to 24 hours. Conclusion:Reductions of coagulation activites were observed in some agulation factors in FFP placed from 4℃ to 22℃ after thawed. FVIII:C decreased significantly and the reduction rate was 40. 9% at 4℃ and 12 hour. Thus,, FFP should be transfused as soon as possible after thawed for safe blood transfusion.

  4. A Comparison Study of the Effects Injectable Contraceptive Cyclofem on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹利; 卢凤英; 陈爱军; 沈康元; 蒋海瑛; 童琮

    1995-01-01

    Forty-six healthy women received Cyclofem (25mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5mg estradiol cypionate) and other forty-five women, as control, received oral contraceptive pill (Orttm-Novum 1/35, containing norethisterone enantate 1mg and estradiol valerate 35μg) for nine months. Blood samples were taken during the follicular and luteal phases of pre- treatment, and for Cyclofem group, immediately prior to the 3rd and 9th injections and 1 and 3 weeks after the 3rd and 9th injections; for Ortho-Novum group, blood samples were taken on the irst day of the 3rd and 9th pill cycles and 1 and 3 weeks later in both cycles. For both groups after at least 3 months nonhormonal method of contraception, blood sampling was repeated at follicular and luteal phases of a normal mentrual cycle. Coagulation and fibrinolysis parameter were detected including hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time, APTT, fibrinogen, factor Ⅶ, factor Ⅹ, plasminogen, t-PAL AT Ⅲ(functional and immunological assays) and protein C. In the Cyclofem group, hemoglobin, platelet count, fibrinogen and factor Ⅹ were not changed. Factor Ⅶ significantly reduced. Prothrombin time and APTT showed minor changes. Plasminogen and protein C decreased while t-PAI aad AT Ⅲ increased. These changes showed a dynamic balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. In Ortho-Novum 1/35 group, platelet count, factor Ⅹ and fibrinogen increased and prothrombin time and APTT accelerated. In fibrinolysis and anticoagutation system, plasminogen increased as well as protein C, but AT Ⅲ declined. Those changes showed a tendency of hyper-eoagutability state, fibrinolysis and anticoagulation were enhanced to a certain extent.The result of our study is that there are slight changes on coagulation and fibrinolysis in Cyclofem injectable contraceptive users.

  5. Inflammation and coagulation in urticaria and angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Massimo; Asero, Riccardo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Lazzari, Riccardo; Marzano, Angelo V

    2012-09-01

    Urticaria is a skin disease characterised by short-lived surface swellings of the dermis (wheals) frequently accompanied by itching. It is classified as acute or chronic depending on whether the wheal recurrence occurs for less or more than six weeks. Acute urticaria is often due to a hypersensitivity reaction, whereas about 50% of the cases of chronic urticaria are regarded as autoimmune. Urticaria may occur alone or in association with a deeper swelling (angioedema) involving the subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues, and last from hours to a few days. Angioedema can also develop alone, and may be idiopathic or be caused by allergies, inherited or acquired deficiencies of C1-inhibitor protein, or adverse drug reactions. An interplay between inflammation and coagulation has been proposed as a pathomechanism in urticaria and urticaria-associated angioedema (in which histamine and thrombin are involved), as well as in angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency, which involves various biological systems. An increase in the plasma markers of thrombin generation, fibrinolysis and inflammation has been documented during exacerbations of urticaria and angioedema, with the marker levels decreasing to normal during remission. However, the hypercoagulable state in chronic urticaria and angioedema has not been reported to be associated with any increased risk of thrombosis, although there have been a number of reports of cardiovascular events occurring during episodes of acute urticaria. These observations have provided the rationale for the clinical evaluation of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic drugs, the efficacy of which has sometimes been demonstrated.

  6. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group, or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group, or only immersion in seawater (I group, or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group. The circulating endothelial cell (CEC count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P<0.05. The von Willebrand factor (vWF activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2 to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  7. Coagulation of humic waters for diffused pollution control and the influence of coagulant type on DOC fractions removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of organic coagulants for treatment of typically humic peat extraction runoff water by comparing their performance with that of ferric sulphate (FS). The influence of coagulant type on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions removed was analysed in detail using LC-OCD-OND (size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and organic nitrogen detection) fractionation techniques. In general, lower coagulant dosage was needed under acidic (pH 4.5) than neutral (pH 6.5) conditions. Chitosan (Chit) and poly (diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDMAC) required significantly lower dosage (40-55%) than FS for acceptable purification, while a tannin-based coagulant (Tan2) required substantially higher dosage (55-75%) independent of water pH. FS demonstrated the best removal of DOC (polymers demonstrated satisfactory overall performance, achieving purification rates mostly inside the requirements set by Finnish environmental authorities.

  8. Molecular Basis of Enhanced Activity in Factor VIIa-Trypsin Variants Conveys Insights into Tissue Factor-mediated Allosteric Regulation of Factor VIIa Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Anders B.; Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Svensson, L. Anders;

    2016-01-01

    The complex of coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa), a trypsin-like serine protease, and membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) initiates blood coagulation upon vascular injury. Binding of TF to FVIIa promotes allosteric conformational changes in the FVIIa protease domain and improves its catalytic propert...

  9. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  10. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  11. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-05

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity.

  12. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-01

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity. PMID:26731441

  13. Purification and characterization of a heteromultimeric glycoprotein from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex with an inhibitory effect on human blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2011-01-01

    Plant latex has many health benefits and has been used in folk medicine. In this study, the biological effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) latex on human blood coagulation was investigated. By a combination of heat precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, a heat stable heteromultimeric glycoprotein (HSGPL1) was purified from jackfruit milky latex. The apparent molecular masses of the monomeric proteins on SDS/PAGE were 33, 31 and 29 kDa. The isoelectric points (pIs) of the monomers were 6.63, 6.63 and 6.93, respectively. Glycosylation and deglycosylation tests confirmed that each subunit of HSGPL1 formed the native multimer by sugar-based interaction. Moreover, the multimer of HSGPL1 also resisted 2-mercaptoethanol action. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis indicated that HSGPL1 was a complex protein related to Hsps/chaperones. HSGPL1 has an effect on intrinsic pathways of the human blood coagulation system by significantly prolonging the activated partial thrombin time (APTT). In contrast, it has no effect on the human extrinsic blood coagulation system using the prothrombin time (PT) test. The prolonged APTT resulted from the serine protease inhibitor property of HSGPL1, since it reduced activity of human blood coagulation factors XI(a) and α-XII(a).

  14. Comparative Study on the Effects of Two Contraceptive Injections (Mesigyna, Cyclofem) on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of consecutively using the contraceptive injections (Mesigyna or Cy clofem) on both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis were evaluated on 94 Chinese women who had been injected with one of these two injections once a month for 9 months. To provide the evidences on the safety of long-term use, relevant parame ters were observed before the treatment, after the injection 3 and 9, as well as 3 months after drug withdrawing. The results were as follows: Among those who had been injected with Mesigyna, the levels of factor VII and factor X declined signifi cantly during treatment. The activity of AT- Ⅲ, plasminogen and the concentration of protein C also decreased. Moreover, the corresponding parameters did not recov ered to the normal level after stopping treatment. Prothrombin time (PT) and acti vated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were prolonged in the early period of treatment, but recovered to the normal at week 47 (injection withdrawn). No or slight change was observed in other parameters. Among the woman injected with Cy clofem, the concentrations of factor VII and plasminogen decreased over time, while the tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (t-PAD levels increased after the 9th injec tion and recovered to normal at week 47 after discontinuation of treatment. The re sults suggested that some significant parameter changes of coagulation and of fibri nolysis could be detected among long-term users, but their impact on the fibrinolysis system was not obvious. The observed phenomenon did not show a tendency to facili tate thromboembolism and possibility of being harmful to the users. Thus, the ob served changes should be regarded as the reactions to keep the equilibrium between coagulation and fibrinolysis and had no marked clinical pathological significance on the users.

  15. Platelet-localized FXI promotes a vascular coagulation-inflammatory circuit in arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossmann, Sabine; Lagrange, Jeremy; Jäckel, Sven; Jurk, Kerstin; Ehlken, Moritz; Schönfelder, Tanja; Weihert, Yvonne; Knorr, Maike; Brandt, Moritz; Xia, Ning; Li, Huige; Daiber, Andreas; Oelze, Matthias; Reinhardt, Christoph; Lackner, Karl; Gruber, Andras; Monia, Brett; Karbach, Susanne H; Walter, Ulrich; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Renné, Thomas; Ruf, Wolfram; Münzel, Thomas; Wenzel, Philip

    2017-02-01

    Multicellular interactions of platelets, leukocytes, and the blood vessel wall support coagulation and precipitate arterial and venous thrombosis. High levels of angiotensin II cause arterial hypertension by a complex vascular inflammatory pathway that requires leukocyte recruitment and reactive oxygen species production and is followed by vascular dysfunction. We delineate a previously undescribed, proinflammatory coagulation-vascular circuit that is a major regulator of vascular tone, blood pressure, and endothelial function. In mice with angiotensin II-induced hypertension, tissue factor was up-regulated, as was thrombin-dependent endothelial cell vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and integrin αMβ2- and platelet-dependent leukocyte adhesion to arterial vessels. The resulting vascular inflammation and dysfunction was mediated by activation of thrombin-driven factor XI (FXI) feedback, independent of factor XII. The FXI receptor glycoprotein Ibα on platelets was required for this thrombin feedback activation in angiotensin II-infused mice. Inhibition of FXI synthesis with an antisense oligonucleotide was sufficient to prevent thrombin propagation on platelets, vascular leukocyte infiltration, angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction, and arterial hypertension in mice and rats. Antisense oligonucleotide against FXI also reduced the increased blood pressure and attenuated vascular and kidney dysfunction in rats with established arterial hypertension. Further, platelet-localized thrombin generation was amplified in an FXI-dependent manner in patients with uncontrolled arterial hypertension, suggesting that platelet-localized thrombin generation may serve as an inflammatory marker of high blood pressure. Our results outline a coagulation-inflammation circuit that promotes vascular dysfunction, and highlight the possible utility of FXI-targeted anticoagulants in treating hypertension, beyond their application as antithrombotic agents in

  16. 高压尾静脉注射和位点特异性整合介导的人凝血因子Ⅸ基因治疗血友病B小鼠%Human coagulation factor Ⅸ gene therapy in murine hemophilia B by hydrodynamic delivery and site-specific genomic integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 顾东生; 杜伟廷; 刘鹏霞; 卢士红; 杨仁池

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过高压尾静脉注射将携带attB和人凝血因子Ⅸ(hFⅨ)的质粒与表达phiC31的质粒共同导入血友病B小鼠肝脏细胞,检测目的 质粒能否整合入小鼠基因组并持续表达.方法 ①构建表达hFⅨ并携带attB核心序列的真核表达载体attB-hFⅨ-pIRES2-EGFP,并在体外验证该载体能否表达目的 基因.②用高压尾静脉注射法将该载体与表达phiC31的质粒CMV-int共注入血友病B小鼠,attB-hFⅨ-pIRES2-EGFP单独注射为对照.③ELISA的方法检测hFⅨ在其体内的表达;用出血时间评价血友病小鼠出血症状是否改善;用巢式PCR检测attB-hFⅨ-pIRES2-EGFP是否整合到基因组的整合热点mpsL1(mouse pseudo-site from liver 1)位点.结果 经鉴定,attB-hFⅨ-pIRES2-EGFP载体构建成功,并在体外表达hFⅨ.高压尾静脉注入血友病B小鼠24 h后,hFⅨ血清水平达到最高值为(1533±239)ng/ml,此时小鼠的出血症状明显改善.但是不论是否与CMV-int共注射,此后hFⅨ水平迅速下降,在注射后10 d内降到本底水平.巢式PCR的结果证实,attB-hFⅨ-pIRES2-EGFP整合到小鼠肝脏基因组的mpsL1位点.结论 phiC31可以将34 bp的attB最短序列整合到小鼠基因组的整合热点mpsL1;由CMV启动hFⅨ的能够瞬间高表达并有效改善血友病小鼠的出血症状;但是外来DNA进入细胞后,无论是否整合到基因组均被迅速沉默,说明肺脏和肝脏对整合入基因组的CMV启动子表达调控的机制不尽相同,因此对用于基因治疗的裸DNA进行改进使其适合在靶器官表达是十分必要的.%Objective To investigate whether the plasmid bearing attB and huamn coagulation factor Ⅸ (hFⅨ) coding sequence could insert into hemophilia B mice genome and persistently express hFⅨ with co-injected integrase. Methods The plasmid attB-hF Ⅸ-pIRES2-EGFP was constructed, which bore attB site and hFⅨ coding sequence and was proved in vitro to express hFⅨ . The plasmid and CMV

  17. Nanoparticle coagulation in a planar jet via moment method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large eddy simulations of nanoparticle coagulation in an incompressible planar jet were performed. The particle is described using a moment method to approximate the particle general dynamics equations. The time-averaged results based on 3000 time steps for every case were obtained to explore the influence of the Schmidt number and the Damkohler number on the nanoparticle dynamics. The results show that the changes of Schmidt number have the influence on the number concentration of nanoparticles only when the particle diameter is less than 1 nm for the fixed gas parameters. The number concentration of particles for small particles decreases more rapidly along the flow direction, and the nanoparticles with larger Schmidt number have a narrower distribution along the transverse direction. The smaller nanoparticles coagulate and disperse easily,grow rapidly hence show a stronger polydispersity. The smaller coagulation time scale can enhance the particle collision and coagulation. Frequented collision and coagulation bring a great increase in particle size. The larger the Damkohler number is, the higher the particle polydispersity is.

  18. Coagulation-flocculation process for combined sewage in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Tian-yin; XIA Si-qing; WU Zhi-ping; YIN Ming; LU Fen; ZHAO Jian-fu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the coagulation-flocculation process using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and its aids on the removal of organics and nutrient in the combined sewage from Shanghai Zhuyuan First Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant are studied,The coagulant aids include cationic polyacrylamide (PAM), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), activated silica (AS) and a kind of polyelectrolyte called AN prepared by the authors. The coagulating solution was added to the glass jar holding 1 L wastewater and stirred to a uniform mixture which was stilled to let the supernatant turn out. The supernatant was analyzed to see the removal efficiencies of suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD), total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphate (PO43--P). It is found that PAC is efficient in reducing those five matters, PAM, PVA and AN each faciliates the reduction of TP, SS, COD and S-COD and has little contribution to the removal of ammonia nitrigen and orthophosphate, and AS is noneffective at all. The coagulation-flocculation process with PAC has demonstrated applicable to the treatment of combined sewage in Shanghai, and it involves mainly the sweep coagulation mechanism and maybe some more complicated mechanism as well.

  19. Changing common sense: Anti-platelet/coagulation therapyagainst cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, anti-platelet/coagulation therapy hadnot been recommended for patients with cirrhosis.Although venous thrombosis is one of the representativecomplications of cirrhosis and ischemic disordersassociated with atherosclerosis are not infrequent incirrhotic patients, many clinicians have tended to hesitateto introduce anti-platelet/coagulation therapy to theirpatients. Undoubtedly, this is due to the increased riskof hemorrhagic diathesis in cirrhotic patients. However,accumulating evidence has revealed the benefits ofanti-platelet/coagulation therapy for cirrhotic patients.In addition to the safety of the therapy carried outagainst cardiovascular diseases in cirrhotic patients,some clinical data have indicated its preventive effecton venous thrombosis. Moreover, the efficacy of antiplatelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis itself hasbeen demonstrated both clinically and experimentally.The conceptual basis for application of anti-platelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis was constructedthrough two pathologic studies on intrahepatic thrombosisin cirrhotic livers. It may be better to use thrombopoietinreceptoragonists, which have been tested as a treatmentfor cirrhosis-related thrombocytopenia, in combinationwith anti-platelet drugs to reduce the risk of venousthrombosis. During the last decade, the World Journalof Gastroenterology , a sister journal of World Journal ofHepatology , has been one of the main platforms of activediscussion of this theme.

  20. Improvement of wastewater treatment by use of natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Prodanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge and other organic sludges from wastewater treatment processes are usually anaerobically digested prior to application on land. The purpose of digestion is to convert bulky, odorous sludges to relatively inert material that can be rapidly dewatering. The important benefit of this process is a biogas production, too. It is proper to enlarge primary sludge production in a primary settler by adding some coagulation aids, with aim to increase a biogas production, as much as possible. The most common coagulant is alum, but presence of large quantities of aluminum salts in sludge has a harmful impact on digestion and digested sludge application. Some natural coagulants, that have a numerous advantages, can be used instead of alum. Natural coagulants could be extracted from a different plant material, and considering the fact that they are of organic nature, the biogas yield can be enhanced by their presence. A plant material that remains after extraction can be used as a feed. The aim of this paper is a consideration of potential environmental benefits of substitution of alum by natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in sewage wastewater treatment process.

  1. WATER PURIFICATION BY COAGULATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRASONIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera Borisovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experiments on the in-fluence of ultrasound on the subsidence of suspended materials. The efficiency of coagulation process in wa-ter purification in ultrasound field is estimated. The influence of ultrasound on the water with suspended materials before introducing coagulant was a condition of the experiment. The magnetostriction method for obtaining ultrasound oscillations with the help of ultra-sound generator of batch production was applied. The samples were chosen and the coagulation process was controlled using standard procedures. The experimental data was obtained which estimate the efficiency in-crease in the subsidence of suspended materials de-pending on the duration of ultrasound processing. Dur-ing one minute of ultrasound processing the following results were obtained: the subsidence efficiency in-creased by 25.83 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 2.5 mg/l; the subsidence efficiency increased by 23.70 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 5.0 mg/l.

  2. Back to the future: testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng-Hock; Downey, Colin

    2005-11-01

    Following on from the first clinical observations on disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the nineteenth century, the dawn of laboratory testing for DIC began with the availability of assays that characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation. Markedly increased clotting times were the hallmark of DIC. As the understanding of the biochemistry of haemostasis and thrombosis improved, new tests were developed based on the molecular players that participate in the process. However, many are non-specific for DIC and/or are unwieldy in performance to keep apace with the demands of the acute clinical setting. The renewed emphasis in DIC for the modern laboratory of the twenty-first century has seen a return to the simple, rapid and practical global tests of coagulation within scoring systems that also capture the pathophysiological continuum by trend analysis. Additionally, new technologies based on these simple tests of coagulation hold promise in also indicating the in vivo interplay between coagulation and inflammation during DIC.

  3. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  4. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  5. The realm of vitamin K dependent proteins: shifting from coagulation toward calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Brecht A G; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J

    2014-08-01

    In the past few decades vitamin K has emerged from a single-function "haemostasis vitamin" to a "multi-function vitamin." The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) inevitably showed that the inhibition was not restricted to vitamin K dependent coagulation factors but also synthesis of functional extrahepatic vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs), thereby eliciting undesired side effects. Vascular calcification is one of the recently revealed detrimental effects of VKA. The discovery that VKDPs are involved in vascular calcification has propelled our mechanistic understanding of this process and has opened novel avenues for diagnosis and treatment. This review addresses mechanisms of VKDPs and their significance for physiological and pathological calcification.

  6. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  7. An analysis of the contact phase of blood coagulation: effects of shear rate and surface are intertwined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K; Basmadjian, D

    1994-01-01

    This work analyzes, for the first time, the combined role of blood flow, protein transport and the reaction network of the contact phase up to the "common pathway" of the blood coagulation cascade. The model is comprised of a set of 20 dominant reactions with 11 components. Systems of ODEs reducible to 4 coupled equations describe rigorously the dynamic behavior, while systems of algebraic equations, reducible to a single polynomial equation, model the steady state concentrations of the coagulants. The analysis showed that there is never more than one stable steady state. This is in contrast to the analysis of common pathway that gives rise to multiple concentration states. It also revealed a general robustness of the system to changes in procoagulant concentrations, inhibition rates and most activation rate constants. The system is largely impervious to the level of activated Factor XII, given that a trace (non-zero) level is present. In contrast, the system displays a dual response to flow and surface activity: A change in either of these factors alone can promote, have no effect on, or (in the case of flow) impede the progress of coagulation, depending on the value of the other factor. Their effects must therefore be examined in unison. These results may help resolve contradictory findings attributed to one or the other factor alone.

  8. Clinical Profile of Patients with Rare Inherited Coagulation Disorders: A Retrospective Analysis of 67 Patients from Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Suman; Seth, Tulika; Mishra, Pravas; Agrawal, Narendra; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Avinash Kumar; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Tyagi, Seema; Pati, Haraprasad; Saxena, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Inherited bleeding disorders are characterized by the absence or reduced level of clotting factors, and the clinical manifestations vary according to the type and magnitude of the deficient factor. Aim To study the clinical presentation of the rare inherited coagulation factor disorders in a tertiary care hospital and to compare the data from those reported in other populations. Methods Sixty-seven patients, who presented to the Department of Hematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were evaluated retrospectively from 2005 to 2011. The tests performed included platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), factors assay and clot solubility test in 5 M urea. Factor XI assays were aPTT based while factors V, VII and X assays were PT based. Results Male to female ratio was 2:1. The median age of onset of the first episode of bleeding was at 6 months (range, from birth to 20 years) whereas the median age of presentation to our hospital was 9 years (range, 2 months to 54 years). The most common deficient factor was factor X (43%), followed by factor XIII (27%) and factor VII (10%). Conclusion There is a wide gap between the initial manifestation of the bleeding disorders and first presentation to the tertiary care hospital for assessment and treatment. Factor X deficiency is the most common among these rare coagulation disorders in our population, whereas factor VII deficiency is more common in Iranian and North American population. PMID:23170186

  9. Solving the Coagulation Equation by the Moments Method

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an approach to solving the coagulation equation that involves using a finite number of moments of the particle size distribution. This approach is particularly useful when only general properties of the distribution, and their time evolution, are needed. The numerical solution to the integro-differential Smoluchowski coagulation equation at every time step, for every particle size, and at every spatial location is computationally expensive, and serves as the primary bottleneck in running evolutionary models over long periods of time. The advantage of using the moments method comes in the computational time savings gained from only tracking the time rate of change of the moments, as opposed to tracking the entire mass histogram which can contain hundreds or thousands of bins depending on the desired accuracy. The collision kernels of the coagulation equation contain all the necessary information about particle relative velocities, cross-sections, and sticking coefficients. We show how arbitrary ...

  10. Combined coagulation flocculation pre treatment unit for municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Ismail

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentials of using the hydraulic technique in combined unit for municipal wastewater treatment were studied. A combined unit in which processes of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation, has been designed utilizing hydraulic mixing instead of mechanical mixing. A jar test treatability study has been conducted to locate the optimum dose of the coagulants to be used. Alum, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulfates, and mixture of lime and ferrous sulfate were all tested. A pilot unit was constructed in the existing wastewater treatment plant at El Mansoura governorate located in north Egypt. The optimum dose of coagulants used in the combined unit gives removal efficiencies for COD, BOD, and total phosphorous as 65%, 55%, and 83%, respectively.

  11. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raveendra; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2005-03-01

    Seeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml(-1), and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml(-1)), with seeds of S. potatorum or M. oleifera as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in its aesthetic and microbiological quality (turbidity 0.3-1.5 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 5-20 cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms 5-10 MPN 100 ml(-1)). The method appears suitable for home water treatment in rural areas of developing countries. These natural coagulants produce a 'low risk' water; however, additional disinfection or boiling should be practised during localised outbreaks/epidemics of enteric infections.

  12. Effect of coagulation of nodes in an evolving complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Wataru; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2012-04-20

    We propose a new type of stochastic network evolution model based on annihilation, creation, and coagulation of nodes, together with the preferential attachment rule. The system reaches a unique quasistatistically steady state in which the distribution of links follows a power law, lifetime of nodes follows an exponential distribution, and the mean number of links grows exponentially with time. The master equation of the model is solved analytically by applying Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for aerosols. The results indicate that coagulation of nodes in complex networks and mean field analysis of aerosols are similar in both the growth dynamics with irreversible processes and in the steady state statistics. We confirm that the basic properties of the model are consistent with the empirical results of a business transaction network having about 1×10(6) firms.

  13. Coagulation-flocculation of marine Chlorella sp. for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyano, Naruetsawan; Chetpattananondh, Pakamas; Chongkhong, Sininart

    2013-11-01

    Harvesting of marine Chlorella sp. by autoflocculation and flocculation by addition of coagulant with pH adjustment was investigated in this study. Autoflocculation provided low efficiency. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the coagulant dosage and pH for flocculation. Aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride were investigated coagulants. The empirical models from RSM are in a good agreement with the experimental results. The optimum flocculation was achieved at ferric chloride dosage 143 mg/L, pH 8.1 and settling time 40 min. Biomass concentration also presented the significant effect on harvesting efficiency. Lipid extracted from marine Chlorella sp. cultivated in urea fertilizer medium with hexane as a solvent is suitable to produce biodiesel according to it contains high proportion of saturated fatty acids. The crude lipid should be purified to remove some impurities before making biodiesel. As the free fatty acid content was higher than 1% a two-step biodiesel production is recommended.

  14. Multifrequency acoustics as a probe of mesoscopic blood coagulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Rajendran, Gokulnath; Ercole, Ari; Seshia, Ashwin

    2016-08-01

    Coagulation is a complex enzymatic polymerisation cascade. Disordered coagulation is common in medicine and may be life-threatening yet clinical assays are typically bulky and/or provide an incomplete picture of clot mechanical evolution. We present the adaptation of an in-plane acoustic wave device: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation at multiple harmonics to determine the time-evolution of mesoscale mechanical properties of clot formation in vitro. This approach is sensitive to changes in surface and bulk clot structure in various models of induced coagulopathy. Furthermore, we are able to show that clot formation at surfaces has different kinetics and mechanical strength to that in the bulk, which may have implications for the design of bioprosthetic materials. The "Multifrequency acoustics" approach thus enables unique capability to portray biological processes concerning blood coagulation.

  15. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbal, F.; Camci, S. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was investigated. Chemical coagulation was performed using either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, whereas electrocoagulation was done in an electrolytic cell using aluminum or iron electrodes. By chemical coagulation, Cu-, Cr-, and Ni-removal of 99.9 % was achieved with aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride dosages of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Removal of metals by electrocoagulation was affected by the electrode material, wastewater pH, current density, number of electrodes, and electrocoagulation time. Electrocoagulation with iron electrodes at a current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}, electrocoagulation time of 20 min, and pH 3.0 resulted in 99.9 % Cu-, 99.9 % Cr-, and 98 % Ni-removal. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Characteristics of meso-particles formed in coagulation process causing irreversible membrane fouling in the coagulation-microfiltration water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q; Yamamura, H; Murata, N; Aoki, N; Yonekawa, H; Hafuka, A; Watanabe, Y

    2016-09-15

    In coagulation-membrane filtration water treatment processes, it is still difficult to determine the optimal coagulation condition to minimize irreversible membrane fouling. In microfiltration (MF), meso-particles (i.e., 20 nm-0.5 μm) are thought to play an important role in irreversible membrane fouling, especially their characteristics of particle number (PN) and zeta potential (ZP). In this study, a new nanoparticle tracker combined a high-output violet laser with a microscope was developed to identify the physicochemical characteristics of these microscopic and widely dispersed meso-particles. The effects of pH and coagulant dose on ZP and PN of micro-particles (i.e., >0.5 μm) and meso-particles were investigated, and then coagulation-MF tests were conducted. As the result, irreversible membrane fouling was best controlled for both types of membranes, while meso-particle ZP approached zero at around pH 5.5 for both types of natural water. Since PN was greatest under these conditions, ZP is more important in determining the extent of irreversible membrane fouling than PN. However, the acidic condition to neutralize meso-particles is not suitable for actual operation, as considering residual aluminum concentration, pipe corrosion, and chlorination efficiency. It is therefore necessary to investigate coagulants or other methods for the appropriate modification of meso-particle characteristics.

  17. Effect on changes of blood coagulation function, cytokines and immune function in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Qi Liu; Shao-Jun Yang; Jie-Qing Chen; Ru-Kui Su; Zhong Huang; Yin-Zhuo Qi

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes of coagulation function, cytokines and T lymphocyte in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and its clinical significance.Methods: 40 cases of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients and 40 cases of open radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients in our hospital were selected to detect and investigate the perioperative coagulation function [APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time), FIB (fibrinogen), and PLT (platelet)], cytokines [CRP (C reactive protein), IL-6 (IL-6) and TNF-alpha (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha)] and T lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+) changes and clinical meaning of patients in the two groups.Results: The coagulation function related indicators, cytokines and T lymphocytes of the two groups before treatment did not change significantly (P>0.05). 1 d after operation, blood coagulation, TNF-alpha, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ levels were significantly lower than that before operation in two groups of patients (P<0.05), while IL-6, CRP and CD8+ were significantly higher than that before the operation (P<0.05), and the index change in open group was more obvious. 3 d after surgery, the APTT, IL-6, CRP, CD4+, CD8+ and PLT levels in two group patients were significantly lower than that 1 d after surgery, while FIB, TNF-alpha and CD4+/CD8+ were significantly higher than that 1 d after surgery; blood coagulation index, TNF-alpha and CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ were significantly lower in the laparotomy group patients than in laparoscopic group, while IL-6, CRP and CD8+ were significantly higher than the laparoscopic group (P<0.05). 5 d after operation, the APTT, TNF-alpha, FIB, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ and PLT in two groups were significantly higher than that 3 d after surgery (P<0.05), while IL-6, CRP and CD8+ levels were significantly lower than that of 3 d after surgery (P<0.05); blood coagulation index, TNF-alpha and CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ in the laparotomy group patients were

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban using a computer model for blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Burghaus

    Full Text Available Rivaroxaban is an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor approved in the European Union and several other countries for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery and is in advanced clinical development for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Its mechanism of action is antithrombin independent and differs from that of other anticoagulants, such as warfarin (a vitamin K antagonist, enoxaparin (an indirect thrombin/Factor Xa inhibitor and dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor. A blood coagulation computer model has been developed, based on several published models and preclinical and clinical data. Unlike previous models, the current model takes into account both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade, and possesses some unique features, including a blood flow component and a portfolio of drug action mechanisms. This study aimed to use the model to compare the mechanism of action of rivaroxaban with that of warfarin, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different rivaroxaban doses with other anticoagulants included in the model. Rather than reproducing known standard clinical measurements, such as the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time clotting tests, the anticoagulant benchmarking was based on a simulation of physiologically plausible clotting scenarios. Compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban showed a favourable sensitivity for tissue factor concentration inducing clotting, and a steep concentration-effect relationship, rapidly flattening towards higher inhibitor concentrations, both suggesting a broad therapeutic window. The predicted dosing window is highly accordant with the final dose recommendation based upon extensive clinical studies.

  19. 一种致遗传性凝血因子Ⅶ缺陷症的新突变(Ser250Phe)的鉴定与功能分析%Identification and functional analysis of a novel missense mutation Ser250Phe underlying congenital coagulation factor Ⅶ deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江明华; 王兆钺; 余自强; 苏健; 曹丽娟; 张威

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨Ser250Phe突变致遗传性凝血因子Ⅶ(coagulation factorⅦ,FⅦ)缺陷的分子机制.方法 用STA-R全自动血凝分析仪检测先证者及家系成员的凝血酶原时间(prothrombin time,PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(activated partial thrombinoplastin time,APTT)、纤维蛋白原(fibrinogen,FIB)及凝血酶时间(thrombin time,TT);一步法及ELISA分别检测先证者及家系成员凝血因子Ⅶ活性及抗原;PCR扩增先证者及其家系成员因子7基因(factor 7 gene,F7)所有外显子及侧翼序列,直接测序分析;PCR介导质粒DNA定点诱变法构建F7 Ser250Phe突变表达质粒,将表达质粒瞬时转染HEK293细胞,一步法测定培养上清FⅦ活性及ELISA及Western印迹测定培养上清及细胞裂解液FⅦ抗原;同时将F7表达质粒与高尔基体或内质网定位的荧光质粒共转染CHO细胞进行亚细胞定位分析.结果 先证者及家系成员APTT、TT及FIB均正常,而先证者PT、FⅦ活性及抗原分别为36.5 s、4.0%及130.2 ng/mL;测序发现先证者F7基因存在g.15975G>A(IVS6-1 G>A)与g.16750 C> T(Ser250Phe)双杂合突变,其父亲为g.16750 C>T杂合子,母亲为g.15975G>A杂合子,妹妹不携带这两种突变;HEK293细胞上清中FⅦ250Phe活性为(4.12±0.61)%(以FⅦ250Ser载体转染细胞培养上清FⅦ活性作为100%),培养上清中FⅦ250Ser与FⅦ250Phe抗原水平分别为(37.77±2.30)ng/mL和(4.02±0.52) ng/mL;而细胞裂解液中FⅦ250Ser与FⅦ250Phe抗原水平分别为(172.45±2.25) ng/mL和(130.51±2.32) ng/mL;Western印迹分析示转染了FⅦ250Phe载体的HEK293细胞培养上清无可检测FⅦ抗原,而在细胞裂解液中检测到FⅦ抗原,与ELISA检测结果一致;在CHO细胞表达的重组FⅦ250Phe绿色荧光信号能与核周内质网红色荧光信号重合,而且也与高尔基体红色信号重合,与重组FⅦ250Ser一致.结论 复合IVS6-1G>A与Ser250Phe突变是导致患者遗传性凝血因

  20. Extremely refractory Kawasaki disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Yeong Bong

    2017-03-07

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.

  1. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  2. Reincarnation of ancient links between coagulation and complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E M

    2015-06-01

    Throughout evolution, organisms have developed means to contain wounds by simultaneously limiting bleeding and eliminating pathogens and damaged host cells via the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. Disease emerges when there is unchecked activation of innate immune and/or coagulation responses. A key component of innate immunity is the complement system. Concurrent excess activation of coagulation and complement - two major blood-borne proteolytic pathways - is evident in numerous diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, venous thromboembolic disease, thrombotic microangiopathies, arthritis, cancer, and infectious diseases. Delineating the cross-talk between these two cascades will uncover novel therapeutic insights.

  3. Pregelation Behaviour of Coagulation Processes with the Constant-Reaction-Number Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; CHEN Xiao-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose an irreversible binary coagulation model with a constant-reaction-number kernel, in which, among all the possible binary coagulation reactions, only p reactions are permitted to take place at every time.

  4. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  5. The Coagulant Type Influence on Removal Efficiency of 5- and 6-Ring Pahs During Water Coagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results on investigation of the removal efficiency of selected 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene from water during coagulation and sedimentation process. Two pre-hydrolyzed aluminum coagulants: PAX XL 19H and FLOKOR 105V were chosen for research. Process was carried out at optimum process parameters: rapid-mixing - 3 min at the rotational speed of 200 rpm, slow mixing - 10 min at 30 rpm, sedimentation - 60 min. The removal effectiveness was dependant on coagulant type and its composition. Better results in the removal of 5-and 6-ring PAHs were obtained after application of FLOKOR 105V (lower aluminum content than after using PAX XL 19H.

  6. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    OKUDA, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  7. Severe bleeding tendency caused by a rare complication of excessive fibrinolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation in a 51-year-old Japanese man with prostate cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Disseminated intravascular coagulation causes thrombotic tendency leading to multiple organ failure and occurs in a wide variety of diseases including malignancy. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a latent complication in people with prostate cancer. Case presentation A 51-year-old Japanese man with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer was admitted to our hospital because of extensive purpura and severe anemia. Prolonged plasma coagulation time, hypofibrinogenemia and normal platelet count suggested that a decrease in fibrinogen induced a bleeding tendency causing purpura. However, elevated plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex, fibrin and/or fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimers, with positive fibrin monomer test, manifested disseminated intravascular coagulation and subsequent fibrinolysis. Plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex, fibrin and/or fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimers decreased after administration of low-molecular-weight heparin. However, low fibrinogen and α2-antiplasmin levels were not improved and plasmin-antiplasmin complex did not decrease, which revealed excessive fibrinolysis complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. We suspected that prostate cancer cell-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator caused excessive fibrinolysis. Administration of tranexamic acid for fibrinogenolysis was added together with high-dose anti-androgen therapy (fosfestrol for prostate cancer. Thereafter, prostate-specific antigen and plasmin-antiplasmin complex decreased, followed by normalized fibrinogen and α2-antiplasmin levels, and the patient eventually recovered from the bleeding tendency. Immunohistochemical staining of the biopsied prostate tissue exhibited that the prostate cancer cells produced tissue factor, the coagulation initiator, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Conclusion This patient with rare complications of disseminated

  8. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation... Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification. A multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting of one automated or...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  10. Demonstration of the Coagulation and Diffusion of Homemade Slime Prepared under Acidic Conditions without Borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, Naho; Fueda, Kazuki; Miyagawa, Korin; Kanno, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precipitates in many kinds of aqueous salt solutions. While sodium sulfate, a coagulant for PVA fiber, precipitates PVA to yield a white rigid gel, coagulation of PVA with aluminum sulfate, a coagulant for water treatment, yields a slime-like viscoelastic fluid. One type of homemade slime is prepared under basic…

  11. MULTI-MONTE-CARLO METHOD FOR GENERAL DYNAMIC EQUATION CONSIDERING PARTICLE COAGULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-bo; ZHENG Chu-guang; XU Ming-hou

    2005-01-01

    Monte-Carlo (MC) method is widely adopted to take into account general dynamic equation (GDE) for particle coagulation, however popular MC method has high computation cost and statistical fatigue. A new Multi-Monte-Carlo (MMC)method, which has characteristics of time-driven MC method, constant number method and constant volume method, was promoted to solve GDE for coagulation. Firstly MMC method was described in details, including the introduction of weighted fictitious particle, the scheme of MMC method, the setting of time step, the judgment of the occurrence of coagulation event, the choice of coagulation partner and the consequential treatment of coagulation event. Secondly MMC method was validated by five special coagulation cases in which analytical solutions exist. The good agreement between the simulation results of MMC method and analytical solutions shows MMC method conserves high computation precision and has low computation cost. Lastly the different influence of different kinds of coagulation kernel on the process of coagulation was analyzed: constant coagulation kernel and Brownian coagulation kernel in continuum regime affect small particles much more than linear and quadratic coagulation kernel,whereas affect big particles much less than linear and quadratic coagulation kernel.

  12. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and... Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter is a device used to perform female sterilization and...

  13. Blood coagulation profiling in patients using optical thromboelastography (OTEG) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Tshikudi, Diane M.; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2016-02-01

    Impaired blood coagulation is often associated with increased postoperative mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular patients. The capability for blood coagulation profiling rapidly at the bedside will enable the timely detection of coagulation defects and open the opportunity for tailoring therapy to correct specific coagulation deficits Optical Thromboelastography (OTEG), is an optical approach to quantify blood coagulation status within minutes using a few drops of whole blood. The goal of the current study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of OTEG for rapid coagulation profiling in patients. In OTEG, temporal laser speckle intensity fluctuations from a drop of clotting blood are measured using a CMOS camera. To quantify coagulation status, the speckle intensity autocorrelation function is measured, the mean square displacement of scattering particles is extracted, and viscoelastic modulus (G), during coagulation is measured via the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation. By quantifying time-resolved changes in G, the coagulation parameters, reaction time (R), clot progression time (K), clot progression rate (Angle), and maximum clot strength (MA) are derived. In this study, the above coagulation parameters were measured using OTEG in 269 patients and compared with standard mechanical Thromboelastography (TEG). Our results showed a strong correlation between OTEG and TEG measurements for all parameters: R-time (R=0.80, pblood coagulation status to potentially improve clinical capability for identifying impaired coagulation in cardiovascular patients at the point of care.

  14. Treatment of wastewater effluents from paper-recycling plants by coagulation process and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Noushin; Younesi, Habibollah; Bahramifar, Nader

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a coagulation process was used to treat paper-recycling wastewater with alum coupled with poly aluminum chloride (PACl) as coagulants. The effect of each four factors, viz. the dosages of alum and PACl, pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD), on the treatment efficiency was investigated. The influence of these four parameters was described using response surface methodology under central composite design. The efficiency of reducing turbidity, COD and the sludge volume index (SVI) were considered the responses. The optimum conditions for high treatment efficiency of paper-recycling wastewater under experimental conditions were reached with numerical optimization of coagulant doses and pH, with 1,550 mg/l alum and 1,314 mg/l PACl and 9.5, respectively, where the values for reduction of 80.02 % in COD, 83.23 % in turbidity, and 140 ml/g in SVI were obtained.

  15. Influence of different treatment condition on biopolymer yield production for coagulation-flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, I. S.; Murshed, M. F.; Norli, I.

    2016-06-01

    Two different agro wastes (banana pseudostem and rice straw) were utilized in order to extract biopolymer (pectin) known as coagulant aid in water and wastewater treatment. Factors such as pH, temperature and time were chosen due to the critical role in hot acid extraction process. The yield of biopolymer extraction from banana pseudostem was found to be higher at 28% meanwhile only 18% from rice straw was manage to produce from the dry weight 10 g, respectively. It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the most important factors influencing the biopolymer yield which increased with temperature and time or decreasing pH. Based on two level factorial design, the same condition of pH 1.5, temperature 90 oC and 4 hours extraction time can produce high amount of extracted biopolymer. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect the existence of functional group which helps in the coagulation-flocculation process. Result indicates a similar functional group of biopolymer were detected for both difference agro wastes.

  16. Removal of Heavy Metals in Effluent by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting LI; Xia LI; Bing Ru ZHANG; Qing Hua OUYANG

    2004-01-01

    The silicate colloids with an average diameter 100 nm, were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TES), NH4OH (30%) and then modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane ( APS). The colloids can adsorb heavy metals such as Pb and Cr in effluent and after adsorption the colloids can be separated by coagulation of aluminum sulfate. The removal of heavy metals is up to 99%.

  17. Classical non mass preserving solutions of coagulation equations

    CERN Document Server

    Escobedo, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct classical solutions of a family of coagulation equations with homogeneous kernels that exhibit the behaviour known as gelation. This behaviour consists in the loss of mass due to the fact that some of the particles can become infinitely large in finite time.

  18. Coagulation changes following traumatic brain injury and shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In these studies, we have shown that coagulation and innate immunity pathways respond to trauma within minutes. Furthermore, the appearance of dysfunction of platelets as well as activation of the endothelium is rapidly manifested. Interestingly, many of these changes were attenuated by treatment...

  19. Coagulation-flocculation studies of waste-waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although coagulation-flocculation processes have been practiced world-wide for almost a century in water treatment, several problems both in the theoretical and in the applied field have not been resolved yet. Especially interpretation of practical results with respect to governing coagulationfloccu

  20. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  1. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  2. Nanofiltration based water reclamation from tannery effluent following coagulation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, J; Mondal, D; Chakraborty, S; Sikder, J; Curcio, S; Arafat, H A

    2015-11-01

    Coagulation-nanofiltration based integrated treatment scheme was employed in the present study to maximize the removal of toxic Cr(VI) species from tannery effluents. The coagulation pretreatment step using aluminium sulphate hexadecahydrate (alum) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A nanofiltration unit was integrated with this coagulation pre-treatment unit and the resulting flux decline and permeate quality were investigated. Herein, the coagulation was conducted under response surface-optimized operating conditions. The hybrid process demonstrated high chromium(VI) removal efficiency over 98%. Besides, fouling of two of the tested nanofiltration membranes (NF1 and NF3) was relatively mitigated after feed pretreatment. Nanofiltration permeation fluxes as high as 80-100L/m(2)h were thereby obtained. The resulting permeate stream quality post nanofiltration (NF3) was found to be suitable for effective reuse in tanneries, keeping the Cr(VI) concentration (0.13mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (65mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (142mg/L), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (108mg/L), Total Solids (TS) (86mg/L) and conductivity levels (14mho/cm) in perspective. The process water reclaiming ability of nanofiltration was thereby substantiated and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid system was thus affirmed.

  3. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  4. Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md; Fakhruddin, A N M; Hossain, Md Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed.

  5. Diagnostic criteria and laboratory tests for disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Hatada, Tuyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Three diagnostic criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have been established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine. The diagnostic criteria involving global coagulation tests, such as the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare criteria and the ISTH overt diagnostic criteria, are first-generation DIC diagnostic criteria, those involving global coagulation tests and changes in these tests such as the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine criteria, are second-generation DIC diagnostic criteria, and those including non-overt DIC diagnostic criteria involving global coagulation tests, changes in these tests and hemostatic molecular markers will be the future (third-generation) DIC diagnostic criteria. There are no significant differences in the three diagnostic criteria with respect to predicting poor outcomes. Therefore, the third generation of diagnostic criteria including hemostatic molecular markers is expected to be established. Standardization and the determination of adequate cutoff values should be required for each laboratory test.

  6. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in malaria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laltanpuii Sailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC.

  7. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  8. Dead Zones in protoplanetary disks : accumulation and coagulation of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of micronic dust to macroscopical sizes (>meter) in a turbulent protoplanetary disk is still largely debated. In particular the dust coagulation process must go through two barriers imposed by their coupling with the gas: the "meter" barrier due to an efficient radial migration of dust when their Stokes number is about one and the "fragmentation barrier" implied by the critical fragmentation velocity (around cm/s) preventing any further growth of particle when they reach a macroscopic size due to the two fast relative velocities of particles. So, paradoxically, a protoplanetary disks may seem quite a hostile place for dust-growth, despite the frequent detection of exoplanets showing that planetary formation is in fact an efficient process. We then explore a new possibility suggested by the stratified nature of a protoplanetary disk. Protoplanetary disks are expected to harbour nonionized regions in their mid-plane, the so called "dead zone" inside which the gas flow should be laminar. Dust coagulation in these regions could be quite effective and in addition, since they are regions of low diffusivity, they are expected to be able to accumulate efficiently dust. Using hybrid numerical simulations, coupling dustgrowth and dust dynamics, we explore how dust penetrate a dead-zone and how dust coagulate up to macroscopic sizes and compare it to coagulation efficiency in the active layers of the disk, subject to turbulence. Different disk structures will be explored and discussed. Implication for observations by ALMA will be also presented.

  9. Comparison of coagulation activity tests in vitro for selected biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeveren, W; Haan, J; Lagerman, P; Schoen, T

    2002-01-01

    Testing of coagulation induced by external communicating medical devices is an International Standardisation Organization (ISO) requirement for products exposed to human blood. Four categories of tests are indicated by ISO 10993/4: a clotting test (partial thromboplastin time; PTT), thrombin generat

  10. Electrosurgical device for both mechanical cutting and coagulation of bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, James D. (Los Alamos, NM); McCabe, Charles W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    Bipolar electrical coagulation of tissue using radio-frequency energy is combined with the functions of conventional surgical pressure tissue cutting instruments without significant modification thereof in a single instrument with the result that a surgeon can perform both procedures without having to redirect his attention from the area of the surgery.

  11. Electrosurgical device for both mechanical cutting and coagulation of bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, J.D.; McCabe, C.W.

    1985-02-08

    Bipolar electrical coagulation of tissue using radiofrequency energy is combined with the functions of conventional surgical pressure tissue cutting instruments without significant modification thereof in a single instrument with the result that a surgeon can perform both procedures without having to redirect his attention from the area of the surgery. 4 figs.

  12. Shattering and coagulation of dust grains in interstellar turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigate shattering and coagulation of dust grains in turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The typical velocity of dust grain as a function of grain size has been calculated for various ISM phases based on a theory of grain dynamics in compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, we develop a scheme of grain shattering and coagulation and apply it to turbulent ISM by using the grain velocities predicted by the above turbulence theory. Since large grains tend to acquire large velocity dispersions as shown by earlier studies, large grains tend to be shattered. Large shattering effects are indeed seen in warm ionized medium (WIM) within a few Myr for grains with radius $a\\ga 10^{-6}$ cm. We also show that shattering in warm neutral medium (WNM) can limit the largest grain size in ISM ($a\\sim 2\\times 10^{-5} \\mathrm{cm}$). On the other hand, coagulation tends to modify small grains since it only occurs when the grain velocity is small enough. Coagulation significantly modifies the grain size ...

  13. Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermotherapy using optoacoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larin, Kirill V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Larina, Irina V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Esenaliev, Rinat O [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    In this paper we have applied the laser optoacoustic technique for real time noninvasive monitoring of thermal damage in tissues. Changes in tissue optical properties during coagulation were detected by measuring and analysing amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic signals. Coagulation of liver, myocardium and prostate was induced by interstitial continuous wave Nd : YAG laser irradiation of the samples or by conductive heating. Real time detection of thermally-induced changes in optical properties was performed with sensitive wide-band acoustic transducers. Combination of optoacoustic and diffuse reflectance technique was applied for determination of tissue optical properties: effective attenuation, total diffuse reflectance, reduced scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The optical properties did not change up to temperature of coagulation (about 53{sup 0}C) and sharply increased during heating up to 70{sup 0}C. Monitoring of the expansion of interstitial coagulation front within freshly excised canine tissues was performed in real time with spatial resolution of about 0.6 mm. The results of our study suggest that this technique can potentially be used for real time precise thermotherapy of malignant and benign lesions at depths of the order of the centimetre.

  14. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallas, M; Bovenhuis, H; Kaart, T; Pärna, K; Kiiman, H; Pärna, E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E(30))] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somatic cell count, pH) in first-lactation Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 17,577 test-day records from 4,191 Estonian Holstein cows in 73 herds across the country were collected during routine milk recordings. Measurements of RCT and E(30) determined with the Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frepillon, France) are based on an optical signal in the near-infrared region. The cows had at least 3 measurements taken during the period from April 2005 to January 2009. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. There was substantial variation in milk coagulation traits with a coefficient of variation of 27% for E(30) and 9% for the log-transformed RCT. The percentage of variation explained by herd was 3% for E(30) and 4% for RCT, suggesting that milk coagulation traits are not strongly affected by herd conditions (e.g., feeding). Heritability was 0.28 for RCT and 0.41 for E(30), and repeatability estimates were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlation between both milk coagulation traits was negligible, suggesting that RCT and E(30) have genetically different foundations. Milk coagulation time had a moderately high positive genetic (0.69) and phenotypic (0.61) correlation with milk pH indicating that a high pH is related to a less favorable RCT. Curd firmness had a moderate positive genetic (0.48) and phenotypic (0.45) correlation with the protein percentage. Therefore, a high protein percentage is associated with favorable curd firmness. All reported genetic parameters were statistically significantly different from zero. Additional univariate random regression analysis for milk coagulation traits yielded slightly higher average heritabilities of 0.38 and 0

  15. Sonoclot coagulation analysis: a useful tool to predict mortality in overt disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Yu, Min; Qian, Min; Tong, Huasheng; Su, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) contributes to high mortality. The study was performed to investigate Sonoclot as a potential predictor of 30-day survival in overt DIC. This cohort included 237 consecutive critically ill patients with overt DIC, admitted to a 15-bed multidisciplinary ICU between July 2010 and July 2013. Hemostasis was analyzed with Sonoclot, including activated clotting time (ACT), clot rate, and platelet function, as well as routine clotting test at admission to the critical care center. Sonoclot variables differed in survivors and nonsurvivors. Mean ACT was prolonged (289.9 ± 200.5 vs. 194.8 ± 126.6 s; P < 0.001) and platelet function (1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 1.6 ± 1.2; P = 0.010) was reduced in nonsurvivors. The clot rate was not different. Cox proportional-hazard model showed that ACT and platelet function correlated independently with survival (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis suggested that patients with one pathological Sonoclot findings have better outcome (P < 0.05). After ACT and platelet function were introduced, the receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve of model achieved 0.876 (P < 0.05), with a specificity of 82.6% and a sensitivity of 80.5% in prediction of 30-day survival by multivariate analyses. Our data suggest that the Sonoclot can predict mortality in critically ill patients with overt DIC.

  16. 21 CFR 864.7290 - Factor deficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... defects, to monitor certain types of therapy, to detect coagulation inhibitors, and to detect a carrier state (a person carrying both a recessive gene for a coagulation factor deficiency such as hemophilia and the corresponding normal gene). (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  17. Effects of dairy factory, milk casein content and titratable acidity on coagulation properties in Trentingrana dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Mauro; Toffanin, Valentina; Cologna, Nicola; Cassandro, Martino; De Marchi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, milk casein content and titratable acidity on milk coagulation properties (MCP) of samples routinely collected in the Trento province (northeast Italy) under field conditions. Rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k20, min) and curd firmness (a30, mm) were determined by Formagraph on 14 971 samples from 635 herds associated to 17 dairy factories. Besides MCP, fat, protein, and casein percentages, titratable acidity (TA), and somatic cell and bacterial counts were available. A standardised index of milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC) was derived using information of RCT and a30. An analysis of variance was conducted on MCP and IAC using a fixed effects linear model. Approximately 3% of milk samples did not form a curd within the testing time (30 min) and k20 was missing for 26% of milks. The percentage of samples without information on k20 largely differed among dairy factories (1·7-20·9%). Significant differences were estimated between the best and the worst dairy factory for RCT (-2 min), k20 (-1·2 min), a30 (+3·4 mm) and IAC (+2·6 points). Milk casein content and TA were important factors in explaining the variation of MCP and IAC, supporting the central role of these two traits on technological properties. The Trento province is heterogeneous in terms of dairy systems and this could explain the differences among dairy factories.

  18. Monitoring the effects of fibrinogen concentration on blood coagulation using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and its comparison with thromboelastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Efremov, Vitaly; Cullen, Sinéad; Byrne, Barry; Killard, Anthony J.

    2013-05-01

    Fibrinogen has been identified as a major risk factor in cardiovascular disorders. Fibrinogen (340 kDa) is a soluble dimeric glycoprotein found in plasma and is a major component of the coagulation cascade. It has been identified as a major risk factor in cardiovascular disorders. The time taken for its conversion to fibrin is usually used as an "endpoint" in most clot-based assays, without any information on dynamic changes in physical properties or kinetics of a forming clot. A global coagulation profile as measured by Thromboelastography® (TEG®) provides information on both the time and kinetics of changes in physical property of the forming clot. In this work, Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which is a piezoelectric resonator has been used to study coagulation of plasma and compared with TEG. The changes in resonant frequency (Δf) and half width at half maximum (HWHM or ΔΓ) were used to evaluate effect of fibrinogen concentration. It has been shown that TEG is less sensitive to low concentrations of fibrinogen and dilution while QCM is able to monitor clot formation in both the circumstances.

  19. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliaritsi, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece); Zoumpoulakis, L. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Simitzis, J. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Vassiliou, P. [Iaso General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Hristoforou, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece)]. E-mail: eh@metal.ntua.gr

    2006-04-15

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications.

  20. Ozonation and/or Coagulation - Ceramic Membrane Hybrid for Filtration of Impaired-Quality Source Waters

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Changwon

    2013-09-01

    When microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltrati