WorldWideScience

Sample records for biodynamics

  1. An overview of the biodynamic wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellini A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Castellini,1 Christine Mauracher,2 Stefania Troiano3 1Department of Agricultural Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 2Department of Management, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Venice, 3Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Abstract: The wine industry is currently shifting toward more sustainable production practices. Due to the growing globalized wine market and the increasing environmental impacts, producers have begun to pay more attention to organic and biodynamic products. Using a systematic literature review, this review aims to investigate the biodynamic production system in the viticulture and winemaking process. In particular, the review examines, 1 the biodynamic practice and its main characteristics including the certification system; 2 the biodynamic market characteristics and the recent trends, the production costs and the marketing strategies adopted by wineries; 3 the demand attributes and wine consumers’ perception on sustainable practices and “green products” such as biodynamic products; and 4 the association between the biodynamic wine chain and the environment. The review highlights the research progress in this field and reflects on the potentiality and needs of the biodynamic viticulture and wine sector. The literature clearly indicates the lack of knowledge regarding, mainly, the biodynamic farming concept and the label. Moreover, while it is clear that consumers are willing to spend more for an organic wine than for a conventional one, there are no data about the willingness to pay for biodynamic wines. Finally, the review concludes with implications and suggestions for further research. Keywords: biodynamic, viticulture, wine, environment, market analysis, consumer

  2. Comparison of Biodynamic and Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Çakır

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern agricultural applications contain various biologic physical and chemical process steps to maximize the durability and fertility of the products. Because of the apprehensions that come out as a result of increase in usage of chemical input in these processes, some alternative concepts have been come to exist for modern agricultural applications. Even these approaches match with traditional applications, they differ by their some outstanding features. By the help of industrial devolution in 18TH century, the increasing popularity and global warming caused the people to notice the ecologic deformation on the earth and accordingly saving the ecology and the earth became one of the main topics of current issues. The biodynamic agriculture system is founded in 1924 by Rudolf Steiner (philosopher and E. Pfeiffer (agronomist and built on an anthropologic theory that based on human-nature-universe concept. Biodynamic agriculture is familiar with organic agriculture. Mainly both of them are originated by oppositional perspective on using chemical input (manure, pesticide, herbicide, hormone e.g.. The main dissimilitude of biodynamic agriculture with organic apart from philosophical and historical aspects is, using the biodynamic preparations includes some minerals or specific herbs those are fermented with animal organs. In this review study, the differences between organic and biodynamic agriculture are analysed by emphasizing the main advantages of biodynamic agriculture.

  3. Chemical Biodynamics Division. Annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Chemical Biodynamics Division of LBL continues to conduct basic research on the dynamics of living cells and on the interaction of radiant energy with organic matter. Many aspects of this basic research are related to problems of environmental and health effects of fossil fuel combustion, solar energy conversion and chemical/ viral carcinogenesis.

  4. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the end of generation four. The biodynamic seed peppers, created and applied as described here, had no effect on seed production or viability, and did not effectively inhibit reproduction of the targeted species over the course of four consecutive treatments.

  5. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  6. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  7. Recent advances in biodynamics of human hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ren G; Wu, John Z; Welcome, Daniel E

    2005-07-01

    The biodynamics of human hand-arm system is one of the most important foundations for the measurement, evaluation, and risk assessment of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) exposure. This paper presents a new conceptual model relating factors influencing cause-effect relationships for HTV exposure, a new study strategy, and a comprehensive review of the recent advances in the biodynamics closely associated with HTV exposure. The review covers the following five aspects: theoretical modeling of biodynamic responses, vibration transmissibility, driving-point biodynamic responses, evaluation of anti-vibration gloves, and applied forces. This review finds that some significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in the recent years. Several important issues and problems in the biodynamic measurement have been identified and resolved, which has significantly helped improve the reliability and accuracy of the experimental data. The results reported in recent years suggest that, from the point of view of biodynamics, the frequency weighting specified in ISO 5349-1 (2001) overestimates the low frequency effect but underestimates the high frequency effect on the fingers and hand. The major problems, issues, and topics for further studies are also outlined in this paper. It is anticipated that the further studies of the biodynamics of the system will eventually lead to establishment of a robust vibration exposure theory. Although this review focuses on the biodynamics of the hand-arm system, the fundamental concepts and some methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for the study of whole-body vibration exposure.

  8. Construction of a biodynamic model for Cry protein production studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mtz, Ana Karin; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical models have been used from growth kinetic simulation to gen regulatory networks prediction for B. thuringiensis culture. However, this culture is a time dependent dynamic process where cells physiology suffers several changes depending on the changes in the cell environment. Therefore, through its culture, B. thuringiensis presents three phases related with the predominance of three major metabolic pathways: vegetative growth (Embded-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway), transition (γ-aminobutiric cycle) and sporulation (tricarboxylic acid cycle). There is not available a mathematical model that relates the different stages of cultivation with the metabolic pathway active on each one of them. Therefore, in the present study, and based on published data, a biodynamic model was generated to describe the dynamic of the three different phases based on their major metabolic pathways. The biodynamic model is used to study the interrelation between the different culture phases and their relationship with the Cry protein production. The model consists of three interconnected modules where each module represents one culture phase and its principal metabolic pathway. For model validation four new fermentations were done showing that the model constructed describes reasonably well the dynamic of the three phases. The main results of this model imply that poly-β-hydroxybutyrate is crucial for endospore and Cry protein production. According to the yields of dipicolinic acid and Cry from poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, calculated with the model, the endospore and Cry protein production are not just simultaneous and parallel processes they are also competitive processes.

  9. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  10. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  11. Rudolf Steiner's Koberwitz (Kobierzyce, Poland) - Birthplace of Biodynamic Agriculture - A Photographic Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2014-01-01

    A Photographic Exhibition of Rudolf Steiner's Koberwitz. Rudolf Steiner, in the eight lectures of his Agriculture Course presented at Koberwitz (Kobierzyce) in the summer of 1924, laid down the foundations for the development of biodynamic agriculture and organic farming.

  12. Biodynamic Assessment of Pilot Knee-Board Configurations During Simulated T-38 Catapult Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Aircrew Biodynamics and Protection ( ABP ) Team of AFRL (711 HPW/RHCPT) and their in-house technical support contractor, Infoscitex, conducted a short series...Protection ( ABP ) Team of AFRL (711 HPW/RHCPT) and their in-house technical support contractor, Infoscitex, conducted a short series of tests to support an...command assumed risk The Aircrew Biodynamics and Protection ( ABP ) Team of AFRL (711 HPW/RHCPT) conducted a short series of tests to support an

  13. Differences in the Financial Management of Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlašicová Eliška

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The financial management of conventional, organic, and biodynamic farms was evaluated and compared. It is a highly specific issue filling in the gap namely in the area of economic research of biodynamic agriculture. Biodynamic agriculture is a less widespread concept of agriculture, the management of which meets the requirements of organic agriculture. Organic agriculture has still been gaining in importance in the Czech Republic, the number of organic farms has been growing, and availability of organic products has increased, too. Of the Czech farms receiving subsidies from the EU or state subsidies in 2007-2012, a total of 389 were selected for analysis (273 of which were conventional farms, 112 organic farms, and 4 farms were engaged in biodynamic agriculture. Subsidies, Total Costs, Operating Revenue, Profit and Gross Value Added indicators were selected for evaluation. The individual indicators within groups of companies were compared by means of a t-test. The analysis revealed significant differences in the economic indicators of individual types of farms. It was observed that organic enterprises have better economic results than conventional and biodynamic businesses. Subsidies help all types of farms achieve better results. We may hence assume dependence of these farms on subsidies.

  14. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  15. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Parr

    Full Text Available The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day and unfavourable (Root day for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine's perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers' calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation.

  16. Soil response to biodynamic farming practices in estevia -Stevia Rebaudiana- (Extremadura, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Colmenares, Ricardo; Sánchez, Eduardo; Creus, Juan; García, Nieves; Blázquez, Jaime; Moreno, Marta M.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of the evolution of an organic-biodynamic cultivation of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) in Extremadura (Spain) are shown here. The organic-biodynamic approach permits experimentally for a more holistic view of the crop development process what means the understanding and quantification of its evolution at different scales. The research methodology applied includes not only quantitative individual parameters of the crop development but also global parameters which make a contribution of very relevant information concerning unbalances between growth and differentiation processes, as well as other aspects linked to the product intrinsic quality. The crop cultivation has been done over a plot of 2.5 has, on acid soils (pH 5.18) and very poor organic matter content (0.5 %). On this first year of cultivation two cuts were given to the plant with an average total yield of 4,500 kg/ha without any supply of solid organic matter, only with the application of the biodynamic preparations. So far results regarding soil improvement and crop productivity, taking into consideration the practices used, let us introduce this pioneer crop in Extremadura, not only as an alternative crop to the current tobacco crop in this area, but also as a development resource for the rural environment of this region. Key words: Agroecology, Organic Biodynamic Agriculture, Stevia Rebaudiana

  17. Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of accumulated trace metal concentrations in the polychaete Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M. Carmen; Smith, Brian D.; DelValls, T. Angel; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biodynamic models to understand metal uptake directly from sediments by deposit-feeding organisms still represents a special challenge. In this study, accumulated concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ag predicted by biodynamic modelling in the lugworm Arenicola marina have been compared to measured concentrations in field populations in several UK estuaries. The biodynamic model predicted accumulated field Cd concentrations remarkably accurately, and predicted bioaccumulated Ag concentrations were in the range of those measured in lugworms collected from the field. For Zn the model showed less but still good comparability, accurately predicting Zn bioaccumulation in A. marina at high sediment concentrations but underestimating accumulated Zn in the worms from sites with low and intermediate levels of Zn sediment contamination. Therefore, it appears that the physiological parameters experimentally derived for A. marina are applicable to the conditions encountered in these environments and that the assumptions made in the model are plausible. - Biodynamic modelling predicts accumulated field concentrations of Ag, Cd and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina.

  18. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  19. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: Biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, Adeline, E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Gourlay-France, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.gourlay@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Priadi, Cindy, E-mail: cindy.priadi@eng.ui.ac.id [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Ayrault@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Helene, E-mail: Marie-helene.tusseau@ifremer.fr [IFREMER Technopolis 40, 155 rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 92138 Issy-Les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-12-15

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. - Highlights: > Exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals. > Need for site-specific biodynamic parameters. > Field-determined AE provide a good fit between the biodynamic model predictions and bioaccumulation measurements. - The interpretation of metal bioaccumulation in transplanted zebra mussels with biodynamic modelling highlights the need for site-specific assimilation efficiencies of particulate metals.

  20. Conventional, organic and biodynamic farming: differences in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of Batavia lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Daniela; Vignolini, Pamela; Arfaioli, Paola; Isolani, Laura; Romani, Annalisa

    2012-02-01

    Lactuca sativa L. ssp. acephala L., cv. Batavia red Mohican plants were cultivated under intensive conventional, organic and biodynamic farming and were analyzed for their polyphenol content and antiradical activity in order to demonstrate the influence of farming on yield, polyphenol content and antiradical activity. The yield of plants from conventional farming was the highest (2.89 kg m⁻²), while polyphenol content, measured by spectrophotometry, of these plants was lower at P flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents. Flavonoid, hydroxycinnamic acid and anthocyan patterns were not affected by the type of cultivation, while quantitative differences were demonstrated and some differences were found between conventional farming and organic or biodynamic farming. The yield of conventionally grown salads was the highest. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D; Matei, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  2. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Matei, D [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  3. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Priadi, Cindy; Ayrault, Sophie; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mercury accumulation in marine bivalves: Influences of biodynamics and feeding niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Ke [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-10-15

    Differences in the accumulation of mercury (Hg) in five species of marine bivalves, including scallops Chlamys nobilis, clams Ruditapes philippinarum, oysters Saccostrea cucullata, green mussels Perna viridis, and black mussels Septifer virgatus, were investigated. The bivalves displayed different patterns of Hg accumulation in terms of the body concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total Hg (THg), as well as the ratio of MeHg to THg. Parameters of the biodynamics of the accumulation of Hg(II) and MeHg could reflect the species-dependent Hg concentrations in the bivalves. With the exception of black mussels, we found a significant relationship between the efflux rates of Hg(II) and the THg concentrations in the bivalves. The interspecific variations in the MeHg to THg ratio were largely controlled by the relative difference between the elimination rates of Hg(II) and MeHg. Stable isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C) analysis indicated that the five bivalve species had contrasting feeding niches, which may also affect the Hg accumulation. - Highlights: > Significant difference in Hg accumulation and MeHg:THg ratio in different bivalves. > THg concentrations in the bivalves were generally related to the efflux rates of Hg(II). > Elimination of Hg(II) and MeHg controlled the interspecific variation in MeHg:THg ratio. > MeHg and THg concentrations reflect the interaction of Hg biodynamics and food. - The species-specific body concentrations of MeHg and THg in bivalves reflect the complicated interaction between the biodynamics of Hg(II) and MeHg and the different food sources.

  5. Characterization of Conventional, Biodynamic, and Organic Purple Grape Juices by Chemical Markers, Antioxidant Capacity, and Instrumental Taste Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Margraf, T.; Brotzakis, I.; Capuano, E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and

  6. Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Clements, W.H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic insects often dominate lotic ecosystems, yet these organisms are under-represented in trace metal toxicity databases. Furthermore, toxicity data for aquatic insects do not appear to reflect their actual sensitivities to metals in nature, because the concentrations required to elicit toxicity in the laboratory are considerably higher than those found to impact insect communities in the field. New approaches are therefore needed to better understand how and why insects are differentially susceptible to metal exposures. Biodynamic modeling is a powerful tool for understanding interspecific differences in trace metal bioaccumulation. Because bioaccumulation alone does not necessarily correlate with toxicity, we combined biokinetic parameters associated with dissolved cadmium exposures with studies of the subcellular compartmentalization of accumulated Cd. This combination of physiological traits allowed us to make predictions of susceptibility differences to dissolved Cd in three aquatic insect taxa: Ephemerella excrucians, Rhithrogena morrisoni, and Rhyacophila sp. We compared these predictions with long-term field monitoring data and toxicity tests with closely related taxa: Ephemerella infrequens, Rhithrogena hageni, and Rhyacophila brunea. Kinetic parameters allowed us to estimate steady-state concentrations, the time required to reach steady state, and the concentrations of Cd projected to be in potentially toxic compartments for different species. Species-specific physiological traits identified using biodynamic models provided a means for better understanding why toxicity assays with insects have failed to provide meaningful estimates for metal concentrations that would be expected to be protective in nature. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  7. Limiting Performance Analysis of Underwater Shock Isolation of a System with Biodynamic Response Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic response of shipboard crew to underwater shock is of a major concern to navies. An underwater shock can produce very high accelerations, resulting in severe human injuries aboard a battleship. Protection of human bodies from underwater shock is implemented by installing onboard isolators. In this paper, the optimal underwater shock isolation to protect human bodies is studied. A simple shock-structure-isolator-human interaction model is first constructed. The model incorporates the effect of fluid-structure interaction, biodynamic response of human body, isolator influence. Based on this model, the optimum shock isolation is then formulated. The performance index and restriction are defined. Thirdly, GA (genetic algorithm is employed to solve the formulated optimization problem. GA is a powerful evolutionary optimization scheme suitable for large-scale and multi-variable optimization problems that are otherwise hard to be solved by conventional methods. A brief introduction to GA is given in the paper. Finally, the method is applied to an example problem and the limiting performance characteristic is obtained.

  8. On 4-degree-of-freedom biodynamic models of seated occupants: Lumped-parameter modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Xu, Shi-Xu; Cheng, Wei; Qian, Li-Jun

    2017-08-01

    It is useful to develop an effective biodynamic model of seated human occupants to help understand the human vibration exposure to transportation vehicle vibrations and to help design and improve the anti-vibration devices and/or test dummies. This study proposed and demonstrated a methodology for systematically identifying the best configuration or structure of a 4-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) human vibration model and for its parameter identification. First, an equivalent simplification expression for the models was made. Second, all of the possible 23 structural configurations of the models were identified. Third, each of them was calibrated using the frequency response functions recommended in a biodynamic standard. An improved version of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on Pareto optimization principle was used to determine the model parameters. Finally, a model evaluation criterion proposed in this study was used to assess the models and to identify the best one, which was based on both the goodness of curve fits and comprehensive goodness of the fits. The identified top configurations were better than those reported in the literature. This methodology may also be extended and used to develop the models with other DOFs.

  9. Chemical and sensory characterisation of Sangiovese red wines: comparison between biodynamic and organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Simoni, Marco; Versari, Andrea

    2015-01-15

    The effects of biodynamic production practices on composition and sensory attributes of Sangiovese wines were examined for 2 years (2009 and 2010) in a vineyard that was converted from organic (ORG) to biodynamic (BDN) viticulture. During the first year (2009), the BDN wines were characterised by low alcohol strength, colour intensity, total polyphenols, monomeric anthocyanins and catechin. Conversely, the second year BDN wines differed from the organic wines in terms of total polyphenols and phenolic compounds, including polymeric pigments, co-pigmentation, tannins and iron-reactive polyphenols. The effect of management practices, harvest and their interaction was analysed for each compound. Positive interaction was observed for total acidity, volatile acidity, cyanidin-3-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, quercetin and trans-resveratrol. ORG wine initially showed a more complex aroma profile; however, the differences were almost indistinguishable during the second year. Trained panellists highlighted differences in colour intensity between ORG and BDN wines although no preference was found by consumers. The concentrations of ochratoxin A and biogenic amines were far below the health-hazardous threshold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis--part I: theoretical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venrooij, Joost; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Mark; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Max; van der Helm, Frans C T; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) is a complex phenomenon, which has been studied for several decades. However, there is little consensus on how to approach the BDFT problem in terms of definitions, nomenclature, and mathematical descriptions. In this paper, a framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis is presented. The goal of this framework is two-fold. First, it provides some common ground between the seemingly large range of different approaches existing in the BDFT literature. Second, the framework itself allows for gaining new insights into BDFT phenomena. It will be shown how relevant signals can be obtained from measurement, how different BDFT dynamics can be derived from them, and how these different dynamics are related. Using the framework, BDFT can be dissected into several dynamical relationships, each relevant in understanding BDFT phenomena in more detail. The presentation of the BDFT framework is divided into two parts. This paper, Part I, addresses the theoretical foundations of the framework. Part II, which is also published in this issue, addresses the validation of the framework. The work is presented in two separate papers to allow for a detailed discussion of both the framework's theoretical background and its validation.

  11. Biodynamic feedback training to assure learning partial load bearing on forearm crutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Daniel; Wünnemann, Martin; Erlmann, Andre; Hölzchen, Timo; Mull, Melanie; Olivier, Norbert; Jöllenbeck, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    To examine how biodynamic feedback training affects the learning of prescribed partial load bearing (200N). Three pre-post experiments. Biomechanics laboratory in a German university. A volunteer sample of 98 uninjured subjects who had not used crutches recently. There were 24 subjects in experiment 1 (mean age, 23.2y); 64 in experiment 2 (mean age, 43.6y); and 10 in experiment 3 (mean age, 40.3y), parallelized by arm force. Video instruction and feedback training: In experiment 1, 2 varied instruction videos and reduced feedback frequency; in experiment 2, varied frequencies of changing tasks (contextual interference); and in experiment 3, feedback training (walking) and transfer (stair tasks). Vertical ground reaction force. Absolute error of practiced tasks was significantly reduced for all samples (Pstairs might be beneficial.

  12. Ernst Haeckel's biodynamics 1866 and the occult basis of organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One hundred and 50 years ago (Sept. 1866), Ernst Haeckel published a monograph entitled General Morphology of Organisms, wherein key terms, such as Protista, Monera, ontogeny, phylogeny, ecology and the ‘biogenetic law’ where introduced. In addition, Haeckel coined the word “biodynamics” as a synonym for “general physiology.” In contrast, Rudolf Steiner's “biodynamic agriculture,” which originated in 1924, and was promoted via Ehrenfried Pfeiffer's book of 1938 with the same title, is an occult pseudoscience still popular today. The misuse of Haeckel's term to legitimize disproven homeopathic principles and esoteric rules within the context of applied plant research is unacceptable. PMID:27322020

  13. Experimental investigation of biodynamic human body models subjected to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Yener; Hacioglu, Yuksel; Ortes, Faruk; Karabulut, Derya; Arslan, Yunus Ziya

    2018-02-06

    In this study, responses of biodynamic human body models to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride were investigated. Accelerations were acquired from three different body parts, such as the head, upper torso and lower torso, of 10 seated passengers during a car ride while two different road conditions were considered. The same multipurpose vehicle was used during all experiments. Additionally, by two widely used biodynamic models in the literature, a set of simulations were run to obtain theoretical accelerations of the models and were compared with those obtained experimentally. To sustain a quantified comparison between experimental and theoretical approaches, the root mean square acceleration and acceleration spectral density were calculated. Time and frequency responses of the models demonstrated that neither of the models showed the best prediction performance of the human body behaviour in all cases, indicating that further models are required for better prediction of the human body responses.

  14. Review and Evaluation of Hand–Arm Coordinate Systems for Measuring Vibration Exposure, Biodynamic Responses, and Hand Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren G. Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hand coordinate systems for measuring vibration exposures and biodynamic responses have been standardized, but they are not actually used in many studies. This contradicts the purpose of the standardization. The objectives of this study were to identify the major sources of this problem, and to help define or identify better coordinate systems for the standardization. This study systematically reviewed the principles and definition methods, and evaluated typical hand coordinate systems. This study confirms that, as accelerometers remain the major technology for vibration measurement, it is reasonable to standardize two types of coordinate systems: a tool-based basicentric (BC system and an anatomically based biodynamic (BD system. However, these coordinate systems are not well defined in the current standard. Definition of the standard BC system is confusing, and it can be interpreted differently; as a result, it has been inconsistently applied in various standards and studies. The standard hand BD system is defined using the orientation of the third metacarpal bone. It is neither convenient nor defined based on important biological or biodynamic features. This explains why it is rarely used in practice. To resolve these inconsistencies and deficiencies, we proposed a revised method for defining the realistic handle BC system and an alternative method for defining the hand BD system. A fingertip-based BD system for measuring the principal grip force is also proposed based on an important feature of the grip force confirmed in this study.

  15. Review and Evaluation of Hand–Arm Coordinate Systems for Measuring Vibration Exposure, Biodynamic Responses, and Hand Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ren G.; Sinsel, Erik W.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

    2015-01-01

    The hand coordinate systems for measuring vibration exposures and biodynamic responses have been standardized, but they are not actually used in many studies. This contradicts the purpose of the standardization. The objectives of this study were to identify the major sources of this problem, and to help define or identify better coordinate systems for the standardization. This study systematically reviewed the principles and definition methods, and evaluated typical hand coordinate systems. This study confirms that, as accelerometers remain the major technology for vibration measurement, it is reasonable to standardize two types of coordinate systems: a tool-based basicentric (BC) system and an anatomically based biodynamic (BD) system. However, these coordinate systems are not well defined in the current standard. Definition of the standard BC system is confusing, and it can be interpreted differently; as a result, it has been inconsistently applied in various standards and studies. The standard hand BD system is defined using the orientation of the third metacarpal bone. It is neither convenient nor defined based on important biological or biodynamic features. This explains why it is rarely used in practice. To resolve these inconsistencies and deficiencies, we proposed a revised method for defining the realistic handle BC system and an alternative method for defining the hand BD system. A fingertip-based BD system for measuring the principal grip force is also proposed based on an important feature of the grip force confirmed in this study. PMID:26929824

  16. Review and Evaluation of Hand-Arm Coordinate Systems for Measuring Vibration Exposure, Biodynamic Responses, and Hand Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ren G; Sinsel, Erik W; Welcome, Daniel E; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; McDowell, Thomas W; Wu, John Z

    2015-09-01

    The hand coordinate systems for measuring vibration exposures and biodynamic responses have been standardized, but they are not actually used in many studies. This contradicts the purpose of the standardization. The objectives of this study were to identify the major sources of this problem, and to help define or identify better coordinate systems for the standardization. This study systematically reviewed the principles and definition methods, and evaluated typical hand coordinate systems. This study confirms that, as accelerometers remain the major technology for vibration measurement, it is reasonable to standardize two types of coordinate systems: a tool-based basicentric (BC) system and an anatomically based biodynamic (BD) system. However, these coordinate systems are not well defined in the current standard. Definition of the standard BC system is confusing, and it can be interpreted differently; as a result, it has been inconsistently applied in various standards and studies. The standard hand BD system is defined using the orientation of the third metacarpal bone. It is neither convenient nor defined based on important biological or biodynamic features. This explains why it is rarely used in practice. To resolve these inconsistencies and deficiencies, we proposed a revised method for defining the realistic handle BC system and an alternative method for defining the hand BD system. A fingertip-based BD system for measuring the principal grip force is also proposed based on an important feature of the grip force confirmed in this study.

  17. Biodynamics circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Y C

    1984-01-01

    This book is a continuation of my Biomechanics.The first volume deals with the mechanical properties of living tissues. The present volume deals with the mechanics ofcirculation. A third volume willdeal with respiration, fluid balance, locomotion, growth, and strength. This volume is called Bio­ dynamics in order to distinguish it from the first volume. The same style is followed. My objective is to present the mechanical aspects ofphysiology in precise terms ofmechanics so that the subject can become as lucid as physics. The motivation of writing this series of books is, as I have said in the preface to the first volume, to bring biomechanics to students ofbioengineer­ ing, physiology, medicine, and mechanics. I have long felt a need for a set of books that willinform the students ofthe physiological and medical applica­ tions ofbiomechanics,and at the same time develop their training in mechan­ ics. In writing these books I have assumed that the reader already has some basic training in mechanics, to a ...

  18. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Granstedt, Artur

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  19. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  20. Chemical Biodynamics Division: Annual report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    The research in the Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics is almost entirely fundamental research. The biological research component is strongly dominated by a long term interest in two main themes which make up our Structural Biology Program. The first interest has to do with understanding the molecular dynamics of photosynthesis. The Laboratory's investigators are studying the various components that make up the photosynthetic reaction center complexes in many different organisms. This work not only involves understanding the kinetics of energy transfer and storage in plants, but also includes studies to work out how photosynthetic cells regulate the expression of genes encoding the photosynthetic apparatus. The second biological theme is a series of investigations into the relationship between structure and function in nucleic acids. Our basic mission in this program is to couple our chemical and biophysical expertise to understand how not only the primary structure of nucleic acids, but also higher levels of structure including interactions with proteins and other nucleic acids regulate the functional activity of genes. In the chemical sciences work in the Laboratory, our investigators are increasing our understanding of the fundamental chemistry of electronically excited molecules, a critical dimension of every photosynthetic energy storage process. We are developing approaches not only toward the utilization of sophisticated chemistry to store photon energy, but also to develop systems that can emulate the photosynthetic apparatus in the trapping and transfer of photosynthetic energy.

  1. Chemical Biodynamics Division: Annual report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The research in the Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics is almost entirely fundamental research. The biological research component is strongly dominated by a long term interest in two main themes which make up our Structural Biology Program. The first interest has to do with understanding the molecular dynamics of photosynthesis. The Laboratory's investigators are studying the various components that make up the photosynthetic reaction center complexes in many different organisms. This work not only involves understanding the kinetics of energy transfer and storage in plants, but also includes studies to work out how photosynthetic cells regulate the expression of genes encoding the photosynthetic apparatus. The second biological theme is a series of investigations into the relationship between structure and function in nucleic acids. Our basic mission in this program is to couple our chemical and biophysical expertise to understand how not only the primary structure of nucleic acids, but also higher levels of structure including interactions with proteins and other nucleic acids regulate the functional activity of genes. In the chemical sciences work in the Laboratory, our investigators are increasing our understanding of the fundamental chemistry of electronically excited molecules, a critical dimension of every photosynthetic energy storage process. We are developing approaches not only toward the utilization of sophisticated chemistry to store photon energy, but also to develop systems that can emulate the photosynthetic apparatus in the trapping and transfer of photosynthetic energy

  2. Human body modeling method to simulate the biodynamic characteristics of spine in vivo with different sitting postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui-Chun; Guo, Li-Xin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to model the computational model of seated whole human body including skeleton, muscle, viscera, ligament, intervertebral disc, and skin to predict effect of the factors (sitting postures, muscle and skin, buttocks, viscera, arms, gravity, and boundary conditions) on the biodynamic characteristics of spine. Two finite element models of seated whole body and a large number of finite element models of different ligamentous motion segments were developed and validated. Static, modal, and transient dynamic analyses were performed. The predicted vertical resonant frequency of seated body model was in the range of vertical natural frequency of 4 to 7 Hz. Muscle, buttocks, viscera, and the boundary conditions of buttocks have influence on the vertical resonant frequency of spine. Muscle played a very important role in biodynamic response of spine. Compared with the vertical posture, the posture of lean forward or backward led to an increase in stress on anterior or lateral posterior of lumbar intervertebral discs. This indicated that keeping correct posture could reduce the injury of vibration on lumbar intervertebral disc under whole-body vibration. The driving posture not only reduced the load of spine but also increased the resonant frequency of spine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and silver by the caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and H. pellucidula: A biodynamic modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awrahman, Zmnako A., E-mail: zmnako.awrahman@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Science, Jagiellonian University, Krakow 30-348 (Poland); Rainbow, Philip S.; Smith, Brian D. [Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Khan, Farhan R. [Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC), Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, PO Box 260, Roskilde DK-4000 (Denmark); Bury, Nicolas R. [Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London, Franklin–Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Fialkowski, Wojciech [Institute of Environmental Science, Jagiellonian University, Krakow 30-348 (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biodynamic models were used to predict steady state As and Ag concentrations. • Uptake and efflux rate constants for As and Ag were measured in caddisfly species. • Dietborne As was the predominant exposure route in two caddisfly species. • Diet was the only exposure route of bioaccumulated Ag in the investigated caddisflies. - Abstract: Biodynamic modeling was used to investigate the uptake and bioaccumulation of arsenic and silver from water and food by two Hydropsychid caddisfly larvae: Hydropsyche siltalai and Hydropsyche pellucidula. Radiotracer techniques determined the uptake rate constants of arsenic and silver from water, and assimilation efficiencies from food, and their subsequent loss rate constants after accumulation from either route. The uptake rate constants (±SE) of As and Ag from solution were 0.021 ± 0.005 and 0.350 ± 0.049 L g{sup −1} day{sup −1}, respectively, for H. siltalai, and 0.435 ± 0.054 and 0.277 ± 0.021 L g{sup −1} day{sup −1}, respectively, for H. pellucidula in moderately hard synthetic water at 10 °C. The assimilation efficiencies (±SE) of As and Ag from radiolabeled ingested food were 46.0 ± 7.7% and 75.7 ± 3.6%, respectively, for H. siltalai, and 61.0 ± 4.2% and 52.6 ± 8.6%, respectively, for H. pellucidula. Ag, but not As, AEs were significantly different between species. The AE of Ag differed from the AE of As in H. siltalai, but not in H. pellucidula. Mean efflux rate constants after accumulation of metals from solution or food ranged from 0.039 to 0.190 day{sup −1}. The efflux rate constants of As and Ag accumulated from solution were significantly lower than those of As and Ag assimilated from ingested food in both species. Experimentally derived k{sub u} and k{sub e} values were then used to predict As and Ag tissue concentrations in hydropsychids collected from 13 UK sites, including metal-contaminated streams in Cornwall. Arsenic and silver concentrations in environmental water

  4. Establishment of one-axis vibration test system for measurement of biodynamic response of human hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuyuki; Hosoya, Naoki; Maeda, Setsuo

    2008-12-01

    Prolonged exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) due to use of hand-held power tools leads to an increased occurrence of symptoms of disorders in the vascular, neurological, and osteo-articular systems of the upper limbs called hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Biodynamic responses of the hand-arm system to vibration can be suggestive parameters that give us better assessment of exposure to HAV and fundamental data for design of low-vibration-exposure power tools. Recently, a single axis hand-arm vibration system has been installed in the Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The aims of this study were to obtain the fundamental dynamic characteristics of an instrumented handle and to validate the performance and measurement accuracy of the system applied to dynamic response measurement. A pseudo-random vibration signal with a frequency range of 5-1,250 Hz and a power spectrum density of 1.0 (m/s2)2/Hz was used in this study. First the dynamic response of the instrumented handle without any weight was measured. After this measurement, the dynamic response measurement of the handle with weights mounted on the handle was performed. The apparent mass of a weight itself was obtained by using the mass cancellation method. The mass of the measuring cap on the instrumented handle was well compensated by using the mass cancellation method. Based on the 10% error tolerance, this handle can reliably measure the dynamic response represented by an apparent mass with a minimum weight of 2.0 g in a frequency range of 10.0 to 1,000 Hz. A marked increase in the AM magnitude of the weights of 15 g and 20 g in frequency ranges greater than 800 Hz is attributed not to the fundamental resonance frequency of the handle with weights, but to the fixation of the weight to the measuring cap. In this aspect, the peak of the AM magnitude can be reduced and hence should not be an obstacle to the biodynamic response measurement of the human hand-arm system. On the

  5. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, J.; Smith, B.D.; Bury, N.R.; Rainbow, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodynamic modelling is used to predict accumulation of Ag, As and Zn in S. plana. • Dissolved and sediment-associated metals contribute to total metal bioaccumulation. • Relative importance varies with water and sediment concentrations and geochemistries. - Abstract: Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954 ± 0.375 l g −1 d −1 ) followed by As (0.807 ± 0.129 l g −1 d −1 ) and Zn (0.103 ± 0.016 l g −1 d −1 ). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2 ± 1.3% (Ag), 31.7 ± 1.0% (Zn) and 25.3 ± 0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014–0.060 d −1 . By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66–99%, 50–97% and 52–98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries

  6. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: biodynamic responses to mechanical shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The biodynamic response of the seated human body has been investigated with 20 males exposed to upward and downward shocks at 13 fundamental frequencies (1-16 Hz) and 18 magnitudes (up to ±8.3 ms -2 ). For 1- and 2- degree-of-freedom models, the stiffness and damping coefficients were obtained by fitting seat acceleration waveforms predicted from the measured force to the measured seat acceleration waveform. Stiffness and damping coefficients were also obtained in the frequency domain with random vibration. The optimum stiffness and damping coefficients varied with the magnitude and the frequency of shocks. With both upward and downward shocks, the resonance frequency of the models decreased from 6.3 to 4 Hz as the vibration dose values of the shocks increased from 0.05 to 2.0 ms -1.75 . The stiffness and damping obtained from responses to shocks were correlated with, and similar to, the stiffness and damping obtained with random vibration. Practitioner Summary: When modelling the dynamic response of the seated human body to vertical acceleration less than 1 g, the relation between force and acceleration can be well represented by a single degree-of-freedom model although the optimum stiffness and damping depend on the magnitude and frequency of sinusoidal, random or shock motion.

  7. Evaluation on subcellular partitioning and biodynamics of pulse copper toxicity in tilapia reveals impacts of a major environmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Yang, Ying-Fei; Tsai, Jeng-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2017-07-01

    Fluctuation exposure of trace metal copper (Cu) is ubiquitous in aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of chronically pulsed exposure on biodynamics and subcellular partitioning of Cu in freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Long-term 28-day pulsed Cu exposure experiments were performed to explore subcellular partitioning and toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics of Cu in tilapia. Subcellular partitioning linking with a metal influx scheme was used to estimate detoxification and elimination rates. A biotic ligand model-based damage assessment model was used to take into account environmental effects and biological mechanisms of Cu toxicity. We demonstrated that the probability causing 50% of susceptibility risk in response to pulse Cu exposure in generic Taiwan aquaculture ponds was ~33% of Cu in adverse physiologically associated, metabolically active pool, implicating no significant susceptibility risk for tilapia. We suggest that our integrated ecotoxicological models linking chronic exposure measurements with subcellular partitioning can facilitate a risk assessment framework that provides a predictive tool for preventive susceptibility reduction strategies for freshwater fish exposed to pulse metal stressors.

  8. The Secrets of Koberwitz: The Diffusion of Rudolf Steiner’s Agriculture Course and the Founding of Biodynamic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rudolf Steiner presented his Agriculture Course to a group of 111, farmers and others, at Koberwitz (Kobierzyce, Poland in 1924. Steiner spoke of an agriculture to ‘heal the earth’ and he laid the philosophical and practical underpinnings for such a differentiated agriculture. Biodynamic agriculture is now practiced internationally as a specialist form of organic agriculture. The path from proposal to experimentation, to formalization, to implementation and promulgation played out over a decade and a half following the Course and in the absence of its progenitor. Archival material pertaining to the dissemination of the early printed editions of ‘The Agriculture Course’ reveals that within six years of the Course there was a team of more than 400 individuals of the Agricultural Experimental Circle (AEC, each signed a confidentiality agreement, and located throughout continental Europe, and also in Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and USA. Membership expanded to over 1000 AEC members (with a lower bound estimate of 1144 members who were committed to working collectively towards an evidence based, new and alternative agriculture, ‘for all farmers’, which was to be developed into a ‘suitable for publication’ form. That publication milestone was realized in 1938 with the release of Ehrenfried Pfeiffer’s ‘Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening’ which was published simultaneously in at least five languages: Dutch, English, French, German and Italian

  9. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  10. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Biodynamic modelling is used to predict accumulation of Ag, As and Zn in S. plana. • Dissolved and sediment-associated metals contribute to total metal bioaccumulation. • Relative importance varies with water and sediment concentrations and geochemistries. - Abstract: Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954 ± 0.375 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) followed by As (0.807 ± 0.129 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and Zn (0.103 ± 0.016 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2 ± 1.3% (Ag), 31.7 ± 1.0% (Zn) and 25.3 ± 0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014–0.060 d{sup −1}. By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66–99%, 50–97% and 52–98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries.

  11. A biodynamic understanding of dietborne and waterborne Ag uptake from Ag NPs in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe; Selck, Henriette; Croteau, Marie-Noele

    2018-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles (Me-NPs) are increasingly used in various products, such as inks and cosmetics, enhancing the likelihood of their release into aquatic environments. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling their bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity in aquatic biota will help support environmental risk assessment. Here we characterized unidirectional parameters for uptake and elimination of silver (Ag) in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete Tubifex tubifex after waterborne (0.01–47 nmol Ag/L) and dietborne (0.4–482 nmol Ag/g dw sed.) exposures to Ag NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Worms accumulated Ag from AgNO3more efficiently than from Ag NPs during waterborne exposure. The Ag uptake rate constants from water were 8.2 L/g/d for AgNO3 and 0.34 L/g/d for Ag NPs. Silver accumulated from both forms was efficiently retained in tissues, as no significant loss of Ag was detected after up to 20 days of depuration in clean media. High mortality (~50%) during depuration (i.e. after 17 days) was only observed for worms exposed to waterborne AgNO3 (3 nmol/L). Sediment exposures to both Ag forms resulted in low accumulation, i.e., the uptake rate constants were 0.002 and 0.005 g/g/d for AgNO3 and Ag NPs, respectively. Avoidance was only observed for worms exposed to sediment amended with AgNO3. Incorporation of the estimated rate constants into a biodynamic model predicted that sediment is likely the most important route of uptake for Ag in both forms in ecologically relevant aquatic environments. However, inference of bioavailability from our estimations of Ag assimilation efficiencies (AE) suggests that Ag (AE: 3–12% for AgNO3 and 0.1–0.8% for Ag NPs) is weakly bioavailable from sediment for this species. Thus, Ag amended to sediment as NPs might not pose greater problems than 'conventional' Ag for benthic organisms such as T. tubifex.

  12. Biodynamic Response to Windblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    750 noeuda. Lea rioultata atatistiquea globaux donnent -47 ijectiona inortellea (18 %), 209 of riusaies (82 %), il: pilate errivant vivant mu aol...On entend par 6jection riummie 1. fait quo ise pilot* arrive vivant au sob K sans tenir compto dos blemauroo 6ventuellos qulil priaents. Dana notre

  13. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete – Part I: Relative importance of water and sediment as exposure routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramskov, Tina, E-mail: tramskov@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Thit, Amalie, E-mail: athitj@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Croteau, Marie-Noële, E-mail: mcroteau@usgs.gov [US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Selck, Henriette, E-mail: selck@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Both aqueous and nanoparticulate Cu forms are available for uptake by L. variegatus. • Cu accumulation is driven by both water and sediment uptake. • Cu form weakly influences Cu biodynamics in L. variegatus. • Food ingestion rate is a sensitive endpoint for dietborne Cu exposure. • Stable isotope tracers allow detecting accumulation after environmentally relevant exposures. - Abstract: Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L. variegatus across a range of exposure concentrations, covering both realistic and worst-case levels of Cu contamination in the environment. Both aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq; administered as Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and nanoparticulate Cu (CuO NPs), whether dispersed in artificial moderately hard freshwater or mixed into sediment, were weakly accumulated by L. variegatus. Once incorporated into tissues, Cu elimination was negligible, i.e., elimination rate constants were in general not different from zero for either exposure route or either Cu form. Toxicity was only observed after waterborne exposure to Cu-Aq at very high concentration (305 μg L{sup −1}), where all worms died. There was no relationship between exposure route, Cu form or Cu exposure concentration on either worm survival or growth. Slow feeding rates and low Cu assimilation efficiency (approximately 30%) characterized the uptake of Cu from the sediment for both Cu forms. In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu

  14. Positive effects, side effects, and adverse events of clinical holistic medicine. A review of Gerda Boyesen's nonpharmaceutical mind-body medicine (biodynamic body-psychotherapy) at two centers in the United Kingdom and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmer, Charlotte; Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    To review adverse events of intensive, clinical holistic medicine (CHM) as it is practiced in holistic body-psychotherapy in England and Germany. Gerda Boyesen's "biodynamic body-psychotherapy" (BBP) is an intensive type of holistic mind-body medicine used by Boyesen at two centers. About 13,500 patients were treated during 1985-2005 period and studied for side effects and adverse events. The first author worked closely with Boyesen 1995-2005 with full insight in all aspects of the therapy and provided the data on side-effects. Therapy helped chronic patients with physical, psychological, sexual, psychiatric and existential problems to improve health, ability, and quality of life (NNT (number needed to treat) = 1-3). Effective in the treatment of mentally ill patients (schizophrenia, anxiety, poor mental health, low general ability). For retraumatization, brief reactive psychosis, depression, depersonalization and derealization, implanted memories, side effects from manipulations of the body, suicide/suicide attempts, hospitalization for physical and mental health problem during or 90 days after treatment, NNH (number needed to harm) > 13,500. Intensive, holistic non-drug medicine is helpful for physical, sexual, psychological, psychiatric and existential problems and is completely safe for the patient. The therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT > 5,000. Altogether about 18,000 patients treated with different subtypes of CHM in four different countries have now been evaluated for effects, side effects and adverse events, with similar results.

  15. Biokinetics and Biodynamics of Nanomaterial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    HEK viability. The medium from each treatment set of the dosed cells was removed, pooled into a microfuge tube , and quickly frozen to -80ºC until...Trump’s fixative at 4ºC. The cells were rinsed in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.2), pelleted in a microfuge tube , resuspended, and quickly pelleted in 3...formulation on in vitro human skin localized NP in the upper stratum corneum with minimal penetration (Cross et al., 2007) and microfine zinc oxide with a

  16. Perception and biodynamics in unalerted precrash response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGehee, Daniel V; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2010-01-01

    This research seeks to better understand unalerted driver response just prior to a serious vehicle crash. Few studies have been able to view a crash from the inside-with a camera focused on the driver and occupants. Four studies are examined: 1) a high-fidelity simulator study with an unalerted intersection incursion crash among 107 drivers; 2) four crashes from the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) 100 car study; 3) 58 crashes from vehicles equipped with an event triggered video recorder; and 4) a custom-designed high-fidelity simulator experiment that examined unalerted driver response to a head-on crash with a heavy truck. Analyses concentrate on decomposing driver perception, action, facial and postural changes with a focus on describing the neurophysiologic mechanisms designed to respond to danger. Results indicate that drivers involved in severe crashes generally have preview that an impact is about to occur. They respond first with vehicle control inputs (accelerator pedal release) along with facial state changes and withdrawal of the head back towards the head restraint. These responses frequently occur almost simultaneously, providing safety system designers with a number of reliable driver performance measures to monitor. Understanding such mechanisms may assist future advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), advanced restraints, model development of advanced anthropomorphic test dummies (ATDs), injury prediction and the integration of active and passive safety systems.

  17. Niche farm fresh products: organic and biodynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    There has been a general increase in demand for ‘organic’ or ‘biodynamic’ produce. As mineral nitrogen fertilizers are prohibited in organic farming, livestock manure often becomes the central fertilizer. Livestock manure is a known potential source of human pathogens, so it can be speculated...... that the observed increase in vegetable-associated foodborne outbreaks of pathogens is linked to its use. Legislation and guidelines vary regarding minimization of contamination risk in relation to use of livestock manure. An assessment of the effect of differences in management between organic and conventional...

  18. Head and Helmet Biodynamics and Tracking Performance in Vibration Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Suzanne D; Smith, Jeanne A

    2006-01-01

    ...) and Up (40" elevation, 0" azimuth)], and three helmet CCs were tested. The overall head, helmet, and helmet slippage displacement rotations, and rms tracking error and percent time-on-target were evaluated...

  19. A Survey of Biodynamic Test Devices and Methods,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    aca-a) *Cavfcr:.,: ( CncD : all tgat A~rply) Rane of Acceir!racion buration v.1 Sne __________ _________ _________ U.2. 1/2 Sn _______ _______ ______ e...State University. Dayton. Ohio 45435, USA. 12. )istribution Statement This document is distributed in accordance with A(VARI) policies and

  20. Biodynamics of attachments used in overdentures: experimental analysis with photoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaig, C; Marco, R; Fons, A; Selva, E J

    1997-03-01

    Treatment with overdentures is an alternative to conventional complete prostheses. Different types of attachments can be placed in natural teeth that act as retainers for overdentures. The photoelastic relationship between the design of the attachment and the distribution of occlusal forces among the abutment teeth and the distal alveolar ridges was examined. The results were used to develop a classification for clinical cases so that the correct attachment design can be selected.

  1. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  2. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  3. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Ramskov, Tina; Croteau, Marie-Noële Croteau

    2016-01-01

    the bioavailability and subcellular distribution of copper oxide (CuO) NPs and aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq) in the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Ten days (d) sediment exposure resulted in marginal Cu bioaccumulation in L. variegatus for both forms of Cu. Bioaccumulation was detected because isotopically...

  4. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Thit, Amalie; Croteau, Marie-Noelle

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely...... unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L....... In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu via both water and sediment. However, sediment progressively becomes the predominant exposure route for Cu in L. variegatus as Cu partitioning to sediment increases...

  5. Bibliography of Research Reports and Publications Issued by the Biodynamics and Bioengineering Division, 1944-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Ratino, R.K.H. Geber , A.A. Karl, D.R. Nelson, "OPTO Electronic Methodology Suitable for Electroretinographic Investigations During Environmental Stess...R.K.H. Geber , A.A. Karl, D.R. Nelson, "OPTO Electronic Methodology Suitable for Electroretinographic Investigations During Environmental Stess...6 Section M -Page 167 Author Index Gaudio, R. L-62, 67 Gawain,G.C.V. A-12 Geber ,R.K.H. G-42,H-22 Geer,R.L. F-92 Gehrich,J.L. A-273 Gell,C.F. D-33,F-97

  6. Microcomputer Enhancement of the Articulated Total Body (ATB) Biodynamic Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    products. In view of the broad market base, continued hardware and software support can be reasonably expected. The Intel family of microprocessors...time library. Their use became sufficiently widespread that "after- market " support libraries have been written for several devices, such as the...11,11,82,12,12,11,11,12) , NPRT4 HEDING 11 LOLD - FALSE. HED ING LNEW - .TRUE. HEDING GO TO 13 HEDING 12 LOLD - .TRUE. HEDING LNEW -FALSE. FIEDING 13 MT -20 HEDING NLINES

  7. Impedance spectroscopy in biodynamics: Detection of specific cells (pathogens using immune coated electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gheorghiu

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the theoretical and experimental approaches for monitoring the interfacial biomolecular reaction between immobilized antibody and the antigen binding partner (the analyte, or the targeted cell using Impedance Spectroscopy, IS. The key idea is to reveal the presence of the analyte by investigating the dynamics of the impedance changes at the interface between transducer and bulk during the process of antibody-antigen binding (coupling of specific compounds to sensor surface. In this work, antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag reaction was directly monitored using an impedance analyzer capable of ~ 1 measurement/second and covalent immobilization chemistry and modified electrodes in the absence of a redox probe. The proposed approach may be applicable to monitoring other surface interfacial reactions such as protein-protein interactions, DNA-DNA interactions, DNA-protein interactions and DNA-small molecule interactions.

  8. Chemical Biodynamics Division: Annual report, October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Investigators are studying the various components that make up the photosynthetic reaction center complexes in many different organisms. This work not only involves understanding the kinetics of energy transfer and storage in plants, but also includes studies to work out how photosynthetic cells regulate the expression of genes encoding the photosynthetic apparatus. The second biological theme is a series of investigations into the relationship between structure and function in nucleic acids. Our basic mission in this program is to couple our chemical and biophysical expertise to understand how not only the primary structure of nucleic acids, but also higher levels of structure including interactions with proteins and other nucleic acids regulate the functional activity of genes. In the chemical sciences investigators are increasing our understanding of the fundamental chemistry of electronically excited molecules, a critical dimension of every photosynthetic energy storage process. We are developing approaches not only toward the utilization of sophisticated chemistry to store photon energy, but also to develop systems that can emulate the photosynthetic apparatus in the trapping and transfer of photosynthetic energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  9. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete - Part II: Subcellular distribution following sediment exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thit, Amalie, E-mail: athitj@ruc.dk [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, Roskilde DK-4000 (Denmark); Ramskov, Tina, E-mail: tramskov@hotmail.com [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, Roskilde DK-4000 (Denmark); Croteau, Marie-Noële, E-mail: mcroteau@usgs.gov [Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, Roskilde DK-4000 (Denmark); Selck, Henriette [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, Roskilde DK-4000 (Denmark)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • L. variegatus was exposed to sediment spiked with either aqueous Cu or nanoparticulate CuO. • Both aqueous and nanoparticulate Cu were marginally accumulated by L. variegatus. • Elimination of Cu accumulated from both forms was limited. • The subcellular distribution of accumulated Cu varied between Cu forms. • The use of a tracer, greater exposure concentration and duration are recommended. - Abstract: The use and likely incidental release of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is steadily increasing. Despite the increasing amount of published literature on metal NP toxicity in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the biological fate of NPs after sediment exposures. Here, we compare the bioavailability and subcellular distribution of copper oxide (CuO) NPs and aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq) in the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Ten days (d) sediment exposure resulted in marginal Cu bioaccumulation in L. variegatus for both forms of Cu. Bioaccumulation was detected because isotopically enriched {sup 65}Cu was used as a tracer. Neither burrowing behavior or survival was affected by the exposure. Once incorporated into tissue, Cu loss was negligible over 10 d of elimination in clean sediment (Cu elimination rate constants were not different from zero). With the exception of day 10, differences in bioaccumulation and subcellular distribution between Cu forms were either not detectable or marginal. After 10 d of exposure to Cu-Aq, the accumulated Cu was primarily partitioned in the subcellular fraction containing metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP, ≈40%) and cellular debris (CD, ≈30%). Cu concentrations in these fractions were significantly higher than in controls. For worms exposed to CuO NPs for 10 d, most of the accumulated Cu was partitioned in the CD fraction (≈40%), which was the only subcellular fraction where the Cu concentration was significantly higher than for the control group. Our results indicate that L. variegatus handle the two Cu forms differently. However, longer-term exposures are suggested in order to clearly highlight differences in the subcellular distribution of these two Cu forms.

  10. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T T Yen Le

    Full Text Available Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub led to variations of around two orders of magnitude in the predictions. Therefore, further research is required to reduce uncertainty while characterising and parameterising the model for infected fish.

  11. A biodynamic model predicting waterborne lead bioaccumulation in Gammarus pulex: Influence of water chemistry and in situ validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urien, N.; Uher, E.; Billoir, E.; Geffard, O.; Fechner, L.C.; Lebrun, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Metals bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms are considered to be a good indicator of bioavailable metal contamination levels in freshwaters. However, bioaccumulation depends on the metal, the species, and the water chemistry that influences metal bioavailability. In the laboratory, a kinetic model was used to describe waterborne Pb bioaccumulated in Gammarus pulex. Uptake and elimination rate constants were successfully determined and the effect of Ca 2+ on Pb uptake was integrated into the model. Thereafter, accumulated Pb concentrations in organisms were predicted with the model and compared with those measured in native populations from the Seine watershed (France). The predictions had a good agreement with the bioaccumulation levels observed in native gammarids and particularly when the effect of calcium was considered. To conclude, kinetic parameters experimentally derived for Pb in G. pulex are applicable in environmental conditions. Moreover, the consideration of the water's chemistry is crucial for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation. - Highlights: • Kinetic model was used to describe waterborne Pb bioaccumulation in G. pulex. • Ca 2+ inhibits Pb uptake by G. pulex in the laboratory. • Model predictions were compared to bioaccumulated Pb in native G. pulex. • Model accurately predicts waterborne bioaccumulated Pb in gammarids. • Considering the influence of Ca 2+ improves the model predictions in the field. - An experimentally-derived kinetic model considering the effect of calcium was relevant to predict the waterborne Pb bioaccumulation in native Gammarus pulex

  12. BD scoort goed in Zwitserse proef.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, G.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In a 17-year experiment in Switzerland (DOK trial) biodynamic, organic/biologic (method Rusch/Mueller) and conventional agriculture were compared. Biodynamic agriculture led to a greater biological and chemical soil fertility

  13. Archiving and Databasing of Non-Human Primate Impact Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobie, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The National Biodynamics Laboratory (NBDL) of the University of New Orleans has preserved recoverable indirect impact acceleration data from non-human primate subject tests performed by the former Naval Biodynamics Laboratory...

  14. A physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model for estragole DNA binding in rat liver based on in vitro kinetic data and estragole DNA adduct formation in primary hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paini, A.; Punt, A.; Viton, F.; Scholz, G.; Delatour, T.; Marin-Kuan, M.; Schilter, B.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    Estragole has been shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodent species at high-dose levels. Translation of these results into the likelihood of formation of DNA adducts, mutation, and ultimately cancer upon more realistic low-dose exposures remains a challenge. Recently we have developed

  15. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete: Part I: relative importance of water and sediment as exposure routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Tina; Thit, Amalie; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Selck, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L. variegatus across a range of exposure concentrations, covering both realistic and worst-case levels of Cu contamination in the environment. Both aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq; administered as Cu(NO3)2) and nanoparticulate Cu (CuO NPs), whether dispersed in artificial moderately hard freshwater or mixed into sediment, were weakly accumulated by L. variegatus. Once incorporated into tissues, Cu elimination was negligible, i.e., elimination rate constants were in general not different from zero for either exposure route or either Cu form. Toxicity was only observed after waterborne exposure to Cu-Aq at very high concentration (305 µgL-1), where all worms died. There was no relationship between exposure route, Cu form or Cu exposure concentration on either worm survival or growth. Slow feeding rates and low Cu assimilation efficiency (approximately 30%) characterized the uptake of Cu from the sediment for both Cu forms. In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu via both water and sediment. However, sediment progressively becomes the predominant exposure route for Cu in L. variegatus as Cu partitioning to sediment increases.

  16. High Resolution Definition of Subsurface Heterogeneity for Understanding the Biodynamics of Natural Field Systems: Advancing the Ability for Scaling to Field Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, Ernest L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    1999-01-01

    This research is an integrated project which uses physical (geophysical and hydrologic) and innovative geophysical imaging and microbial characterization methods to identify key scales of physical heterogeneities that affect bioremediation. In the this effort data from controlled laboratory and in situ experiments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) site were used to determine the dominant physical characteristics (lithologic, structural, and hydrologic) that can be imaged in situ and correlated with flow and transport properties. Emphasis was placed on identifying fundamental scales of variation of physical parameters that control transport behavior relative to subsurface microbial dynamics that could be used to develop a predictive model. A key hypothesis of the work was that nutrient flux and transport properties are key factors in controlling microbial dynamics, and that geophysical techniques could be used to identify the critical physical properties and scales controlling transport. This hypothesis was essentially validated. The goal was not only to develop and apply methods to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of the bioremediation in fractured sites such as TAN, but also to develop methods applicable to a wider range of DOE sites. The outcome has been an improved understanding of the relationship between physical, chemical and microbial processes in heterogeneous environments, thus applicable to the design and monitoring of bioremediation strategies for a variety of environments. In this EMSP work we demonstrated that high resolution geophysical methods have considerable resolving power, especially when linked with modern advanced processing and interpretation. In terms of basic science, in addition to providing innovative methods for monitoring bioremediation, the work also provided a strong motivation for developing and extending high resolution geophysical methods

  17. Nutrient changes and biodynamics of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of water lettuce (Pistia sp.) biomass: a noxious weed of aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra; Pandey, Bhawna; Gusain, Rita; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Kumar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of vermicomposting of water lettuce biomass (WL) spiked with cow dung at ratios of 20, 40, 60, and 80 % employing Eisenia fetida. A total of four treatments were established and changes in chemical properties of mixtures were observed. Vermicomposting caused a decrease in pH, TOC, volatile solids, and C/N ratio by 1.01-1.08-fold, 0.85-0.92-fold, 0.94-0.96-fold, 0.56-0.70-fold, respectively, but increase in EC, tot N, tot P, tot K, tot Ca, tot Zn, tot Fe, and tot Cu, by 1.19-1.42-fold, 1.33-1.68-fold, 1.38-1.69-fold, 1.13-1.24-fold, 1.04-1.11-fold, 1.16-1.37-fold, 1.05-1.113-fold, 1.10-1.27-fold, respectively. Overall, the treatment with 60-80 % of WL showed the maximum decomposition and mineralization rates. The earthworm showed the growth and reproduction rate in considerable ranges in all treatment setups but setups with 60-80 % WL proportion exhibited the optimum results. Results reveal that biomass of water lettuce can be utilized effectively for production of valuable manure through vermicomposting system.

  18. Occupant Protection Data Mining and Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which...

  19. Compilation of Technical Papers Published Under Work Unit 72312501 (71844501) "Acceleration Performance in Advanced Operational Systems," 1985-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albery, William

    2001-01-01

    ... at the Dynamic Environment Simulator centrifuge, in the Biodynamics and Acceleration Branch (AFRL/HEPA), from 1985-2000. The papers are listed by first author and chronologically under ten different categories...

  20. 32nd IMAC Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayes, Randy; Rixen, Daniel; Catbas, Fikret; Atamturktur, H; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; Schoenherr, Tyler; Foss, Gary; Niezrecki, Christopher; Allemang, Randall; Kerschen, Gaetan

    2014-01-01

    This critical collection examines a range of topics in modal analysis, from experimental techniques to acoustics to biodynamics,  as presented in early findings and case studies from the Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. The collection includes papers in the following general technical research areas: Experimental Techniques, Processing Modal Data, Rotating Machinery, Acoustics, Adaptive Structures, Biodynamics, Damping

  1. Characterization of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    88ABW Cleared 08/02/2016; 88ABW-2016-3836. 1.0 OVERVIEW The Aircrew Biodynamics and Protection ( ABP ) Team of AFRL (711 HPW...88ABW Cleared 08/02/2016; 88ABW-2016-3836. 8.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The ABP Team conducted a research effort to identify the performance...Distribution is unlimited. 88ABW Cleared 08/02/2016; 88ABW-2016-3836. GLOSSARY ABP Aircrew Biodynamics and

  2. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  3. Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books. Special Reference Briefs: SRB 95-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD.

    Prepared by the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) staff and volunteers, this annotated bibliography provides a list of 85 recently published books pertaining to sustainable agriculture. AFSIC focuses on alternative farming systems (e.g., sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic, and organic) that maintain agricultural…

  4. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  5. Ecogeographical Amplitude and Habitat of Two Species of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic study involving phytogeography was carried out on two species of the genus-Terminalia in the Central Niger Delta Areas in River State. This research was aimed at establishing their biodynamic distribution and habitat in the study areas using the simple random sampling method based on standard procedure ...

  6. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  7. Geographical provenancing of purple grape juices from different farming systems by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using supervised statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic, biodynamic and conventional purple grape juices (PGJ; n = 79) produced in Brazil and Europe were characterized by volatile organic compounds (m/z 20-160) measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and classification models were built using supervised

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 418 of 418 ... Vol 4, No 2 (2015), Treatment of Sugar Industry Effluent using ... in Cold Starting To Reduce Automotive Emissions, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 1 (2013), Utilization of Biodynamic Farming to Improve Quality Attributes of ...

  9. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  10. The U.S. Army Study of the Human Dimension in the Future 2015-2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    all leaders and their people to overcome fear, hunger , deprivation, and fatigue. TRADOC Pam 525-3-7-01 56 Wars may be fought with weapons, but...environmental extremes, injury biodynamics-focused behaviors and equipment to reduce risk of injury, neuropsychology to address fatigue and psychiatric

  11. Loose smut of barley grown in three types of farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nedelcheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Over the period of 2014-2015, on the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture in Karnobat, Bulgaria, was set a field trial with twenty cultivars of barley – 15 two-row: Obzor, Emon, Perun, Orfey, Lardeya, Asparuh, Kuber, Zagorets, Imeon, Sayra, Devinya, Sitara, Krami, Vicky, Potok; 3 four-row: Veslets, Aheloy 2, Tamaris; and 2 six-row cultivars – IZ Bori and Bozhin. All the cultivars were grown in three types of farming: conventional, organic and biodynamic. In conventional farming were applied pesticides and nitrogen fertilization. In the organic production were not used pesticides, mineral and organic fertilizers; and in biodynamic farming was applied biodynamic compost prepared from manure and biodynamic preparations (also organic. In conventional farming, the seeds were disinfected before sowing with Kinto plus (Triticonazole 20 g/l + Prochloraz 60 g/l, at a rate of 150 ml/100 kg seeds. In organic and biodynamic farming were used nondisinfected seeds. In the phenophase of full maturity of barley was conducted monitoring survey for plants infected with loose smut in all 2 the trial variants, the number of infected plants per m were counted and the infection rates were calculated. Infected plants of Tamaris grown in the three types of farming underwent microscopic analysis and measurement of 100 teliospores from each variant. The aim of this experiment was to investigate varietal susceptibility of barley to Ustilago nuda, grown in three types of farming, and to establish if the growing method affects the size of the teliospores of the pathogen. With two-row barley were found plants of Lardeya, Kuber, Devinya, Krami and Vicky infected with Ustilago nuda. Krami manifested the lowest resistance in the three types of farming. With four-row barley, Tamaris was found to be highly susceptible and Veslets was poorly resistant. Both cultivars expressed weaker susceptibility in conventional and biodynamic farming and stronger in

  12. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bekiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO (2007 is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  13. Biological dynamic lighting in an office building; Biologisch dynamische verlichting in een kantoorgebouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, R. [Professional Lighting Designers' Association PLDA, Guetersloh (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of so-called biodynamic lighting systems is to influence human biological rhythms such that productivity, alertness, wellbeing and health are improved. In the office building of Grontmij in Amersfoort, Netherlands, experiments were carried out with biodynamic lighting systems. [Dutch] In de afgelopen jaren hebben verschillende fabrikanten biologisch dynamische verlichtingssystemen op de markt gebracht. Uitgangspunt voor dergelijke systemen is om biologische ritmen van de mens zodanig te beinvloeden dat productiviteit, alertheid, welbevinden en ook de gezondheid in meer of mindere mate verbeteren. Om ervaring in de kantooromgeving op te doen, is een aantal van deze systemen op diverse locaties in het gebouw van de Grontmij in Amersfoort aangebracht. Vervolgens is onderzoek gedaan naar de toepassingsmogelijkheden en eigenschappen ervan in de praktijk.

  14. Development of a Standard for the Health Hazard Assessment of Mechanical Shock and Repeated Impact in Army Vehicles, Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    military literature. The areas of focus were: epidemiology; subjective response; physiology; biochemistry ; muscle activity; biomechanics; biodynamic...which in turn cause a generalised stress response, and other specific outcomes as detailed in the Biochemistry Section. An increase in heart rate...by EMG and kinematic profiles. pp. 247-250. In: Electromyographical Kinesiology . Anderson, P.A., Hobart, D.J., and Danoff, J.V., Editors. Baltimore

  15. Control and postural thixotropy of the forearm muscles: changes caused by cold.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakie, M; Walsh, E G; Wright, G W

    1986-01-01

    The forearm was cooled in water at 5-10 degrees C while wrist biodynamics were investigated. Pronounced loosening following a perturbation (thixotropy) was no longer seen. The wrist became stiffer for large or moderate but not small movements; EMG activity did not increase. Cooling the wrist alone, or opposite forearm, was without effect. The ability to make rapid reciprocating movements was reduced and muscle relaxation time was increased. Single movements were not affected.

  16. Global existence of solutions for a viscous Cahn–Hilliard equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with p > 2, q > 2 and γi , i = 1, 2, 3, 4 being constants. Equation (1.1) includes many models. For example, if k1 = 0, k2 > 0, (1.1) reduces to the nonlinear Sobolev–Galpern equations which appear in the study of various prob- lems of biodynamics, thermodynamics and filtration theory (see [4,16,18]). Besides, when γ3 = γ4 = 0 ...

  17. Catalog of research projects at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Catalog has been created to aid in the transfer of technology from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to potential users in industry, government, universities, and the public. The projects are listed for the following LBL groups: Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Applied Science Division, Biology and Medicine Division, Center for Advanced Materials, Chemical Biodynamics Division, Computing Division, Earth Sciences Division, Engineering and Technical Services Division, Materials and Molecular Research Division, Nuclear Science Division, and Physics Division

  18. Catalog of research projects at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This Catalog has been created to aid in the transfer of technology from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to potential users in industry, government, universities, and the public. The projects are listed for the following LBL groups: Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Applied Science Division, Biology and Medicine Division, Center for Advanced Materials, Chemical Biodynamics Division, Computing Division, Earth Sciences Division, Engineering and Technical Services Division, Materials and Molecular Research Division, Nuclear Science Division, and Physics Division.

  19. Nutritional value of organic acid lime juice (Citrus latifolia T., cv. Tahiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Netto Rangel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid lime can be used as fresh fruit or as juice to increase the flavor of drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze organic acid lime nutritional composition in order to evaluate if there are important differences among those conventionally produced. No significant differences in total titrable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, sucrose, calcium, and zinc were found between the acid lime juice from organic biodynamic crops and conventional crops. However, the organic biodynamic fruits presented higher peel percentage than the conventional ones leading to lower juice yield. On the other hand, fructose, glucose, total soluble solids contents, potassium, manganese, iron, and copper were higher in the conventional samples. These results indicated few nutritional differences between organic and conventional acid lime juices in some constituents. Nevertheless, fruit juice from biodynamic crops could be a good choice since it is free from pesticides and other agents that cause problems to human health maintaining the levels similar to those of important nutritional compounds.

  20. Factors influencing power hand tool fastening accuracy and reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish O; Howery, Robert S; Fronczak, Frank J; Yen, Thomas Y; Subedi, Yashpal; Sesto, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory study investigated the relationship between power hand tool and task-related factors affecting threaded fastener torque accuracy and associated handle reaction force. We previously developed a biodynamic model to predict handle reaction forces. We hypothesized that torque accuracy was related to the same factors that affect operator capacity to react against impulsive tool forces, as predicted by the model. The independent variables included tool (pistol grip on a vertical surface, right angle on a horizontal surface), fastener torque rate (hard, soft), horizontal distance (30 cm and 60 cm), and vertical distance (80 cm, 110 cm, and 140 cm). Ten participants (five male and five female) fastened 12 similar bolts for each experimental condition. Average torque error (audited - target torque) was affected by fastener torque rate and operator position. Torque error decreased 33% for soft torque rates, whereas handle forces greatly increased (170%). Torque error also decreased for the far horizontal distance 7% to 14%, when vertical distance was in the middle or high, but handle force decreased slightly 3% to 5%. The evidence suggests that although both tool and task factors affect fastening accuracy, they each influence handle reaction forces differently. We conclude that these differences are attributed to different parameters each factor influences affecting the dynamics of threaded faster tool operation. Fastener torque rate affects the tool dynamics, whereas posture affects the spring-mass-damping biodynamic properties of the human operator. The prediction of handle reaction force using an operator biodynamic model may be useful for codifying complex and unobvious relationships between tool and task factors for minimizing torque error while controlling handle force.

  1. The Rachel Carson Letters and the Making of Silent Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environment, conservation, green, and kindred movements look back to Rachel Carson’s 1962 book Silent Spring as a milestone. The impact of the book, including on government, industry, and civil society, was immediate and substantial, and has been extensively described; however, the provenance of the book has been less thoroughly examined. Using Carson’s personal correspondence, this paper reveals that the primary source for Carson’s book was the extensive evidence and contacts compiled by two biodynamic farmers, Marjorie Spock and Mary T. Richards, of Long Island, New York. Their evidence was compiled for a suite of legal actions (1957-1960 against the U.S. Government and that contested the aerial spraying of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. During Rudolf Steiner’s lifetime, Spock and Richards both studied at Steiner’s Goetheanum, the headquarters of Anthroposophy, located in Dornach, Switzerland. Spock and Richards were prominent U.S. anthroposophists, and established a biodynamic farm under the tutelage of the leading biodynamics exponent of the time, Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. When their property was under threat from a government program of DDT spraying, they brought their case, eventually lost it, in the process spent US$100,000, and compiled the evidence that they then shared with Carson, who used it, and their extensive contacts and the trial transcripts, as the primary input for Silent Spring. Carson attributed to Spock, Richards, and Pfeiffer, no credit whatsoever in her book. As a consequence, the organics movement has not received the recognition, that is its due, as the primary impulse for Silent Spring, and it is, itself, unaware of this provenance.

  2. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  3. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  4. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and silver by the caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and H. pellucidula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awrahman, Zmnako; Rainbow, Philip S; Smith, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Biodynamic modeling was used to investigate the uptake and bioaccumulation of arsenic and silver from water and food by two Hydropsychid caddisfly larvae: Hydropsyche siltalai and Hydropsyche pellucidula. Radiotracer techniques determined the uptake rate constants of arsenic and silver from water...... solution were significantly lower than those of As and Ag assimilated from ingested food in both species. Experimentally derived ku and ke values were then used to predict As and Ag tissue concentrations in hydropsychids collected from 13 UK sites, including metal-contaminated streams in Cornwall. Arsenic...

  5. Quasi-potential and Two-Scale Large Deviation Theory for Gillespie Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-07

    The construction of energy landscape for bio-dynamics is attracting more and more attention recent years. In this talk, I will introduce the strategy to construct the landscape from the connection to rare events, which relies on the large deviation theory for Gillespie-type jump dynamics. In the application to a typical genetic switching model, the two-scale large deviation theory is developed to take into account the fast switching of DNA states. The comparison with other proposals are also discussed. We demonstrate different diffusive limits arise when considering different regimes for genetic translation and switching processes.

  6. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R ampersand D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R ampersand D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics

  7. Radionuclides in corals of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria M, L.G.; Banichevich, A.; Cortes, T.

    1998-01-01

    Using Low Level Spectrometry they have evaluated the activity (Kq/kg) of 40 K, the gamma emisor daugther of 238 U and 232 Th and the presence of arificial isotopes due to anthropogenic contamination. The probes used are coral as biodynamic captors. The results show a presence between low and mittel of natural isotopes compared to other accumulation processes like sedimentation in soil and agricultural production. The Caribbean side show a higher activity than the Pacific for 40 K and a similar for 226 Ra. Results show low activity for artificial radionuclides with short lif ( 137 Cs). (author) [es

  8. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990. Report on Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R&D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R&D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  9. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  10. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external...... (connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world...

  11. Osteobiology: newest bone organ topics and the platelet-rich plasma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias García Cardona

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The bone is a dynamic tissue taht provides mechanical support, physical protection, storage site for minerals, and enables genesis movement. The bone biology (osteobiology is regulated by the balance betqeen osteoblastic formation and osteoclatic resorption. the skeletal bone homeostasis is influenced by components of the bone marrow organ, neuroendocrine system and hemato-inmmune system. The purpose of this review is to describe the biodynamic of the bone organ, and actual terapeutics with platelet-rich plasma in guide bone regeneration, a co-surgical method employed to increase the quantity and quality of the bone.

  12. [Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O

    1996-08-01

    Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity.

  13. Sensory, yield and quality differences between organically and conventionally grown winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arncken, Christine M; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Weibel, Franco P

    2012-11-01

    Consumers expect organic produce to have higher environmental, health and sensory related qualities than conventional produce. In order to test sensory differences between bio-dynamically, bio-organically and conventionally grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Runal), we performed double-blinded triangle tests with two panels on dry wholemeal flour from the harvest years 2006, 2007 and 2009 and from two field replicates of the 'DOK' long-term farming system comparison field trial near Basel, Switzerland. Yield and quality parameters were also assessed. Significant farming system effects were found for yield (up to 42% reduction in the organic system), thousand kernel weight, hectolitre weight and crude protein content across the three years. In the triangle tests one out of 12 pair-wise farming system comparisons (PFSCs) on wholemeal flour made from the different wheat samples showed significant sensory differentiation (between bio-dynamically and conventionally grown wheat). When all data from the three harvest years and two panels were aggregated, a statistically significant effect (P = 0.045) of PFSCs on the number of correct answers became evident. Although testing of dry wholemeal flour was very challenging for panellists, we were able to show that sensory differences between farming systems can occur. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN THE ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The permaculture includes landscape shaping, terrace formation, establishment of raised planes and hilly beds. Sepp Holzer’s permaculture has been practices since 1962, having its followers in Columbia, Thailand, Brazil, the USA and Scotland, etc. Important specifics of the Fukuoka method consists of the requirement that the agricultural farm is close to nature, without any attempts to conquer or improve it, whence the method’s name “natural”, i.e. real or natural. In his book entitled “The One-Straw Revolution” the author examines the issues of natural agriculture. The Biodynamic French Intensive method of vegetable gardening combines two gardening traditions: biodynamics, created in the 1920s by Rudolph Steiner, and French intensive gardening, a method practiced by 19th century farmers on the outskirts of Paris. British horticulturist Alan Chadwick bought these methods to the United States in the 1960s and coined the term biointensive. This style of organic gardening focuses on sustainable, high productivity using minimal space.

  15. Modal analysis of human body vibration model for Indian subjects under sitting posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ishbir; Nigam, S P; Saran, V H

    2015-01-01

    Need and importance of modelling in human body vibration research studies are well established. The study of biodynamic responses of human beings can be classified into experimental and analytical methods. In the past few decades, plenty of mathematical models have been developed based on the diverse field measurements to describe the biodynamic responses of human beings. In this paper, a complete study on lumped parameter model derived from 50th percentile anthropometric data for a seated 54- kg Indian male subject without backrest support under free un-damped conditions has been carried out considering human body segments to be of ellipsoidal shape. Conventional lumped parameter modelling considers the human body as several rigid masses interconnected by springs and dampers. In this study, concept of mass of interconnecting springs has been incorporated and eigenvalues thus obtained are found to be closer to the values reported in the literature. Results obtained clearly establish decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft oscillations. The mathematical modelling of human body vibration studies help in validating the experimental investigations for ride comfort of a sitting subject. This study clearly establishes the decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft vibrations and helps in better understanding of possible human response to single and multi-axial excitations.

  16. Measurement and modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation from sediment for the marine polychaete neanthes arenaceodentata and response to sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.-L.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were characterized, including PCB uptake rates from water and sediment, and the effect of sorbent amendment to the sediment on PCB bioavailability, organism growth, and lipid content. Physiological parameters were incorporated into a biodynamic model to predict contaminant uptake. The results indicate rapid PCB uptake from contaminated sediment and significant organism growth dilution during time-series exposure studies. PCB uptake from the aqueous phase accounted for less than 3% of the total uptake for this deposit-feeder. Proportional increase of gut residence time and assimilation efficiency as a consequence of the organism's growth was assessed by PCB uptake and a reactor theory model of gut architecture. Pulse-chase feeding and multilabeled stable isotope tracing techniques proved high sediment ingestion rates (i.e., 6?10 times of dry body weight per day) indicating that such deposit-feeders are promising biological indicators for sediment risk assessment. Activated carbon amendment reduced PCB uptake by 95% in laboratory experiments with no observed adverse growth effects on the marine polychaete. Biodynamic modeling explained the observed PCB body burdens for N. arenaceodentata, with and without sorbent amendment. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Practices to identify and preclude adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings - A design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Marilena D.; Masarati, Pierangelo; Gennaretti, Massimo; Jump, Michael; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Lu, Linghai; Yilmaz, Deniz; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Ionita, Achim; Serafini, Jacopo

    2015-07-01

    Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings.

  18. Adapting the wine producers' offers in Muntenia Oltenia to the new market trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bărbulescu Oana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of transformation that affects the world wine industry is also felt at the level of the Romanian market. The article aims to address two of the directions this market evolves in. The aim of the paper is to outline the extent to which wine cellars know and use the biodynamic cultivation and vinification techniques and to measure their willingness to practice enotourism as a wine promotion measure. After a short presentation of the general context of the Romanian wine industry and of the latest developments in this sector, the author analyzes of the results of a qualitative research carried out with seven wine producers in the Muntenia Ol tenia area. The results of the research allow sketching some proposals that are in line with the trends on the international wine market and that contribute to the increase of the sales of Romanian producers'.

  19. Three year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Since 1977 research and development activities include various biotechnology systems: algal systems, microbial systems, water hyacinth utilization systems, pisciculture biogas systems; food, fodder and forestry systems (including algal systems), cattle feeding with water hyacinth, biodynamic-intensive vegetable gardening, hydroponic raft culture in stagnant water, small-lot energy-food forestry, and energy plantations; wind and solar energy systems including a bidirectional horizontal-axis down-wind sail-wing windmill, a horizontal-axis down-wind sail-wing windmill, solar crop and fish dryers, solar cookers and water sterilizers; appropriate-construction systems including pond-construction systems, passive solar-building techniques and pond roofing; and communication systems.

  20. Unobtrusive behavioral and activity-related multimodal biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosou, A; Ioannidis, D; Moustakas, K; Tzovaras, D

    2011-03-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  1. The Trofobiose Theory and organic agriculture: the active mobilization of nutrients and the use of rock powder as a tool for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner L. Polito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present paper is to link some relevant concepts on the use of ecological agricultural practices to the production of food crops. In a special topic the Trofobiose Theory, as well as the principle of Active Dissolution of Rocks are considered as important tools in improving the sustainability of Organic, Biodynamic and Process Agricultures.O objetivo principal deste trabalho é estabelecer relação entre alguns conceitos relevantes sobre o uso de práticas agro-ecológicas na produção de alimentos. Em um tópico especial, a Teoria da Trofobiose bem como os princípios da Dissolução Ativa de Rochas são considerados como importantes ferramentas na implementação da sustentabilidade no processo de Agriculturas Orgânica e Biodinâmica.

  2. Differences in Otolith and Abdominal Viscera Graviceptor Dynamics: Implications for Motion Sickness and Perceived Body Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonGierke, Henning E.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Human graviceptors, located in the trunk by Mittelstaedt probably transduce acceleration by abdominal viscera motion. As demonstrated previously in biodynamic vibration and impact tolerance research the thoraco-abdominal viscera exhibit a resonance at 4 to 6 Hz. Behavioral observations and mechanical models of otolith graviceptor response indicate a phase shift increasing with frequency between 0.01 and O.5 Hz. Consequently the potential exists for intermodality sensory conflict between vestibular and visceral graviceptor signals at least at the mechanical receptor level. The frequency range of this potential conflict corresponds with the primary frequency range for motion sickness incidence in transportation, in subjects rotated about Earth-horizontal axes (barbecue spit stimulation) and in periodic parabolic flight microgravity research and also for erroneous perception of vertical oscillations in helicopters. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for previous self motion perception research and suggestions for various future studies.

  3. Radiocarbon dating of soils, a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenseel, H.W.; Schiffmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of radiocarbon dating techniques for pedological purposes is reviewed in chronological sequence of its phases of introduction. Initially dating of charcoal and buried paleosols was dominating and accompanied by few soil dating attempts of recent soil formations on the basis of extracted humic acid-C. The following controversy regarding the potentialities and limitations of recent soil dating, still being involved in the intact turnover processes of modern biodynamics, led to intensive search for the relatively oldest, most favorable C-fraction, particularly a biologically inert C-fraction of the organic C-pool. Inclusion of C-14 dating in pedogenetic working concepts required soil profile date-scanning in order to reveal the age versus depth interdependence. (orig./HK) [de

  4. Sustainable viticulture and winery practices in California: What is it, and do customers care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Zucca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gary Zucca1,2, David E Smith3,4, Darryl J Mitry5,61National University, Stockton, CA, USA; 2Owner and Winemaker, Zucca Mountain Vineyards, Vallecito, CA, USA; 3National University, Costa Mesa, CA, USA; 4Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5Graduate School Faculty, Norwich University, Northfield, VT, USA; 6National University, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Producers in the wine industry are increasingly competing in the area of product differentiation. The focus of this article is product differentiation via sustainable viticulture and consumer perception. The authors report on their independent research, assess previous findings in the literature, and examine the industry trends. The study concludes with important observations on wine consumer perceptions of sustainable practices in the wine industry and implications for industry practices and product development.Keywords: California, biologique, organic, biodynamic, sustainable

  5. Characterisation of bioaccumulation dynamics of three differently coated silver nanoparticles and aqueous silver in a simple freshwater food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalman, Judit; Paul, Kai B.; Khan, Farhan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the bioaccumulation dynamics of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with different coatings (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol and citrate), in comparison with aqueous Ag (added as AgNO3), in a simplified freshwater food chain comprising the green alga Chlorella vulgaris...... and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Algal uptake rate constants (ku) and membrane transport characteristics (binding site density, transporter affinity and strength of binding) were determined after exposing algae to a range of either aqueous Ag or Ag NP concentrations. In general, higher ku values were related......). Ag NPs were only visualised in algal cells exposed to high Ag NP concentrations. To establish D. magna biodynamic model constants, organisms were fed Ag-contaminated algae and depurated for 96 h. Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 10 to 25 % and the elimination of accumulated Ag followed a two...

  6. Sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate complex. A stable, lyophilized radiopharmaceutical for skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvoric, J; Jovanovic, V; Bzenic, J [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stefanovic, Lj; Selir, Z [Institute for Tuberculosis and Pectoral Diseases, Radioisotope Applications, Sremska Kamenica (Yugoslavia)

    1978-01-01

    After a systematic investigation of the different phosphate polymers, viz. hexametaphosphate, tripolyphosphate, meta- and diphosphonate, pyrophosphate (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) was selected for sceletal scintigraphy. A procedure has been developed for obtaining a sup(99m)Tc-labelled Sn(II): PyP complex by addition of a sterile, apyrogenic pertechnetate solution from a sup(99m)Tc-generator to a lyophilized solution of Sn(II)-tetrasodium phosphate. ''Kit'' composition was determined on the basis of biodynamic data obtained when the Sn/pyrophosphate ratio, pH and other parameters were varied. In vivo distribution of different sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate complexes permitted the selection of the most suitable complex for sceletal scanning. The investigated complex is being successfully applied in human scintigraphy of bones in the Laboratory for Radioisotope Applications of the Institute for Tubercolosis and Pectoral Diseases in Sremska Kamenica.

  7. An overview of low back pain and occupational exposures to whole-body vibration and mechanical shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, Massimo; Schust, Marianne; Mauro, Marcella

    2017-12-14

    This paper offers an overview of the relation of low back pain (LBP) to occupational exposures to whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shocks. LBP is a condition of multifactorial origin and is a very common health problem in the general population. Among occupational risk factors, epidemiological studies of driving occupations have provided evidence for strong associations between LBP and occupational exposures to WBV and mechanical shocks. Since it is hard to separate the contribution of WBV exposure to disorders in the lower back from that of other individual, ergonomic or psychosocial risk factors, a quantitative exposure-response relationship for WBV cannot be outlined precisely. Experimental research has provided biodynamic support to the findings of epidemiological studies, showing that in controlled laboratory conditions exposure to WBV can cause mechanical overload to the human spine. The EU Directive on mechanical vibration has established daily exposure action and limit values to protect the workers against the risk from WBV. There is some evidence that the EU exposure limit values are excessive, so much so that an elevated risk of LBP has been found for WBV exposures beneath the EU limit values. In the Italian arm of the EU VIBRISKS prospective cohort study of professional drivers, measures of internal lumbar load (compressive and shear peak forces), calculated by means of anatomy-based finite-element models, were found better predictors of the occurrence over time of low back disorders than the metrics of external exposure suggested by the EU Directive on mechanical vibration. Further biodynamic and epidemiological studies are needed to validate the findings of the VIBRISKS study.

  8. Detection of chaotic dynamics in human gait signals from mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelMarco, Stephen; Deng, Yunbin

    2017-05-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices offers the opportunity to exploit device-generated signal data for biometric identification, health monitoring, and activity recognition. In particular, mobile devices contain an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that produces acceleration and rotational rate information from the IMU accelerometers and gyros. These signals reflect motion properties of the human carrier. It is well-known that the complexity of bio-dynamical systems gives rise to chaotic dynamics. Knowledge of chaotic properties of these systems has shown utility, for example, in detecting abnormal medical conditions and neurological disorders. Chaotic dynamics has been found, in the lab, in bio-dynamical systems data such as electrocardiogram (heart), electroencephalogram (brain), and gait data. In this paper, we investigate the following question: can we detect chaotic dynamics in human gait as measured by IMU acceleration and gyro data from mobile phones? To detect chaotic dynamics, we perform recurrence analysis on real gyro and accelerometer signal data obtained from mobile devices. We apply the delay coordinate embedding approach from Takens' theorem to reconstruct the phase space trajectory of the multi-dimensional gait dynamical system. We use mutual information properties of the signal to estimate the appropriate delay value, and the false nearest neighbor approach to determine the phase space embedding dimension. We use a correlation dimension-based approach together with estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent to make the chaotic dynamics detection decision. We investigate the ability to detect chaotic dynamics for the different one-dimensional IMU signals, across human subject and walking modes, and as a function of different phone locations on the human carrier.

  9. Differential bioaccumulation patterns of nanosized and dissolved silver in a land snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzhen; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Dang, Fei

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing application in antimicrobial products, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are inevitably released into the terrestrial environment, and pose potential risks to invertebrates such as land snails Achatina fulica, which take up AgNP from food and water. Here we differentiate Ag uptake biodynamic between Ag forms (i.e., PVP-AgNP vs. AgNO 3 ) and between exposure pathways. Snails assimilated Ag efficiently from lettuce leaves pre-exposed to AgNP, with assimilation efficiencies (AEs) averaging 62-85% and food ingestion rates of 0.11 ± 0.03 g g -1  d -1 . Dietary Ag bioavailability was independent on Ag forms, as revealed by comparable AEs between AgNP and AgNO 3 . However, the uptake rate constant from water was much lower for AgNP relative to AgNO 3 (2 × 10 -4 vs. 0.12 L g -1  d -1 ). The elimination rate constants were 0.0093 ± 0.0037 d -1 for AgNP and 0.019 ± 0.0077 d -1 for AgNO 3 . Biodynamic modeling further showed that dietary exposure was the dominant uptake pathway for AgNP in most circumstances, while for AgNO 3 the relative importance of waterborne and dietary exposure depended on Ag concentrations in food and water. Our findings highlight the importance of dietary uptake of AgNP during bioaccumulation, which should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Biomantle-Critical Zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Lin, H.

    2006-12-01

    It is a fact that established fields, like geomorphology, soil science, and pedology, which treat near surface and surface processes, are undergoing conceptual changes. Disciplinary self examinations are rife. New practitioners are joining these fields, bringing novel and interdisciplinary ideas. Such new names as "Earth's critical zone," "near surface geophysics," and "weathering engine" are being coined for research groups. Their agendas reflect an effort to integrate and reenergize established fields and break new ground. The new discipline "hydropedology" integrates soil science with hydrologic principles, and recent biodynamic investigations have spawned "biomantle" concepts and principles. One force behind these sea shifts may be retrospectives whereby disciplines periodically re-invent themselves to meet new challenges. Such retrospectives may be manifest in the recent Science issue on "Soils, The Final Frontier" (11 June, 2004), and in recent National Research Council reports that have set challenges to science for the next three decades (Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, and Grand Challenges for the Environmental Sciences, both published in 2001). In keeping with such changes, we advocate the integration of biomantle and critical zone concepts into a general model of Earth's soil. (The scope of the model automatically includes the domain of hydropedology.) Our justification is that the integration makes for a more appealing holistic, and realistic, model for the domain of Earth's soil at any scale. The focus is on the biodynamics of the biomantle and water flow within the critical zone. In this general model the biomantle is the epidermis of the critical zone, which extends to the base of the aquifer. We define soil as the outer layer of landforms on planets and similar bodies altered by biological, chemical, and/or physical agents. Because Earth is the only planet with biological agents, as far as we know, it is the only one that has all

  11. Soil zinc and cadmium availability and uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by long-term organic matter management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Roman; Costerousse, Benjamin; Mayer, Jochen; Mäder, Paul; Thonar, Cécile; Frossard, Emmanuel; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in human mineral nutrition. It is mainly caused by imbalanced diets with low contents of bioavailable Zn. This is in particular a problem in populations depending on cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a major source of this essential micronutrient element. Increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification) is therefore an important challenge. At the same time, increased uptake of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) must be prevented. Agronomic practises influence soil properties such as pH and soil organic carbon and thus also have an indirect effect on phytoavailable soil Zn and Cd concentrations and the uptake of these metals by wheat in addition to direct inputs with fertilizers and other amendments. This study investigated the effects of long-term organic matter management on the phytoavailability of soil Zn and Cd and their uptake by wheat on plots of two Swiss long-term field trials. In one trial (DOK), a farming system comparison trial established in 1978, we compared plots under conventional management with mineral fertilization either in combination or not with farmyard manure application to plots under biodynamic organic management and control plots with no fertilizer application. In the second trial (ZOFE), established in 1949, we compared different fertilizer regimes on conventionally managed plots, including plots with application of mineral fertilizers only, farmyard manure, or compost and control plots with no fertilizer application. Soil physico-chemical and biological properties were determined at the beginning of the growing season. Soil Zn and Cd availabilities were assessed by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) method and by DTPA extraction before and after wheat cultivation. Additionally, various wheat yield components and element concentrations in shoots and grains were measured at harvest. In the ZOFE trial, soil Zn and Cd concentrations were lowest in the mineral

  12. On-line measurement of ski-jumper trajectory: combining stereo vision and shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner, T.; Sidla, O.; Paar, G.; Nauschnegg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Ski jumping has continuously raised major public interest since the early 70s of the last century, mainly in Europe and Japan. The sport undergoes high-level analysis and development, among others, based on biodynamic measurements during the take-off and flight phase of the jumper. We report on a vision-based solution for such measurements that provides a full 3D trajectory of unique points on the jumper's shape. During the jump synchronized stereo images are taken by a calibrated camera system in video rate. Using methods stemming from video surveillance, the jumper is detected and localized in the individual stereo images, and learning-based deformable shape analysis identifies the jumper's silhouette. The 3D reconstruction of the trajectory takes place on standard stereo forward intersection of distinct shape points, such as helmet top or heel. In the reported study, the measurements are being verified by an independent GPS measurement mounted on top of the Jumper's helmet, synchronized to the timing of camera exposures. Preliminary estimations report an accuracy of +/-20 cm in 30 Hz imaging frequency within 40m trajectory. The system is ready for fully-automatic on-line application on ski-jumping sites that allow stereo camera views with an approximate base-distance ratio of 1:3 within the entire area of investigation.

  13. Means of Speed-Strength Abilities Development in Physical Training Classes with 10th Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. А. Пашкевич

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to determine the means of development of speed-strength abilities manifesting in jump-offs in jumping exercises in classes with the 10th graders in order to improve the compliance with the standards of physical preparedness. Materials and methods. Analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature, special preparedness testing, methods of mathematical statistics. The participants in the experiment were eight 10th-grade boys who turned fifteen or sixteen at the time of the experiment. Research results. During the experiment, we used the following tests: standing long jump, 30‑meter race from the standing start, standing triple jump. We suggested that the pupils perform special exercises: jumping on two legs and pulling up bent legs to the chest, repeated jumps on two legs over obstacles, jumping on two legs over the gymnastic bench while moving along the bench, jumping off a 60-70-cm height landing in half-squat, jumping off a 30-40-cm height onto two legs followed by a jump over obstacles (3-4 low barriers. Conclusions. When performing jumping exercises, it is necessary to create conditions for the reactive-ballistic type of muscle contractions. Experimental exercises were selected by the criteria of “the dynamic compliance principle” to correspond, fully or partly, to the nature of motor activity: motor structure, jump-off biodynamics, muscle tension regime, peculiarities of manifestation of speed-strength abilities.

  14. Adapting craniosacral therapy to treat horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kanik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniosacral therapy is an acknowledged therapeutic method used for treating humans. It derives from osteopathy, being a manual technique which uses a very gentle touch. It consists in balancing the fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid by applying appropriate holds that make it possible for the patientŐs organism to release tensions which have formed in tissues. The aim of the present work was to depict the possibility to adapt the method of craniosacral therapy used in humans to the therapy of horses. Thirteen therapeutic holds proposed for the treatment of horses were described and interpreted graphically on the basis of therapy of 62 horses with different disorders. A total of 241 craniosacral therapy treatments were performed. The adaptation of presented craniosacral therapy holds to equine therapy was developed by the first author on the basis of relevant holds used in the biodynamic craniosacral therapy in humans and in own therapeutic practice. The effects of own practice and data available in literature suggest that craniosacral therapy seems to be an effective method of improving the state of health of horses suffering from different complaints that may cause major difficulties in sport, breeding or private use of the animals. The use of thermography made it possible to record the effects of therapy and some processes accompanying it, which had been impossible before.

  15. Influence of food quality and salinity on dietary cadmium availability in Mytilus trossulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmeyer, Joline R. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail: joline_widmeyer@alumni.sfu.ca; Bendell-Young, Leah I. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2007-02-28

    Surficial sediments (a combination of re-suspended and suspended sediments denoted as RSS) were collected from two distinct marine intertidal habitats. The two habitats differed with respect to salinity (25 ppt versus 15 ppt) and RSS % organic carbon content (24% versus 15%). Feeding experiments were conducted simulating the conditions in the two habitats to determine if salinity and RSS % organic carbon content affected cadmium accumulation in the pacific blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Eleven different treatments including pure phytoplankton, collected RSS and control clay were radiolabeled with {sup 109}Cd and pulse-fed to M. trossulus under both high (25 ppt) and low salinities (15 ppt). Metal uptake and accumulation was determined using the DYMBAM biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Although M. trossulus ingestion rates (IR) were significantly higher at 25 ppt as compared to 15 ppt, assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and [{sup 109}Cd] tissue levels were significantly lower at high as compared to low salinity exposures. Of the abiotic and biotic parameters examined and in contrast to other studies, differences in salinity rather than ingestion rate or food quality (as defined by % organic carbon content) seemed to best define the observed differences in {sup 109}Cd AE by M. trossulus.

  16. Role of cellular adhesions in tissue dynamics spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Daniel A.; An, Ran; Turek, John; Nolte, David

    2014-02-01

    Cellular adhesions play a critical role in cell behavior, and modified expression of cellular adhesion compounds has been linked to various cancers. We tested the role of cellular adhesions in drug response by studying three cellular culture models: three-dimensional tumor spheroids with well-developed cellular adhesions and extracellular matrix (ECM), dense three-dimensional cell pellets with moderate numbers of adhesions, and dilute three-dimensional cell suspensions in agarose having few adhesions. Our technique for measuring the drug response for the spheroids and cell pellets was biodynamic imaging (BDI), and for the suspensions was quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS). We tested several cytoskeletal chemotherapeutic drugs (nocodazole, cytochalasin-D, paclitaxel, and colchicine) on three cancer cell lines chosen from human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human pancreatic carcinoma (MIA PaCa-2), and rat osteosarcoma (UMR-106) to exhibit differences in adhesion strength. Comparing tumor spheroid behavior to that of cell suspensions showed shifts in the spectral motion of the cancer tissues that match predictions based on different degrees of cell-cell contacts. The HT-29 cell line, which has the strongest adhesions in the spheroid model, exhibits anomalous behavior in some cases. These results highlight the importance of using three-dimensional tissue models in drug screening with cellular adhesions being a contributory factor in phenotypic differences between the drug responses of tissue and cells.

  17. The Role of Field Margins in Agro-biodiversity Management at the Farm Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lazzerini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The agroecosystem could be considered as a mosaic so large to involve fields with annual and perennial crops, pastures, spots of wildwood, semi-natural habitats, vegetation in the edges of fields. In the agroecosystem these ecological infrastructures have a positive effects on the crops because of the exchange among community of organisms, materials and energy. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of field margins on some biodiversity components (plant species and carabid beetles of four farms located in Val d’Orcia (Tuscany. We compared three types of field margins: 1. Cultivated margin strips; 2. Sown grass margin strips; 3. Wild margin strips with hedgerow. In a very simplified typology of farming system, like the one studied (Val d’Orcia, the presence of field margins (hedges, margin strips and semi-natural habitats associated with the boundary is very important for its ecological effects: it improves the planned biodiversity, gives habitat, refuge, food and corridors for the movement to the different species of organisms in the area. Applying the multivariate analysis to the experimental data, we can notice a positive effect of the presence of field margins on the trend of both components of biodiversity. This positive effect, which support the mechanisms of autoregulation of the agroecosystems, is very important especially for organic and biodynamic agriculture, where the use of pesticides is not allowed.

  18. [Towards a structuring fibrillar ontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimberteau, J-C

    2012-10-01

    Over previous decades and centuries, the difficulty encountered in the manner in which the tissue of our bodies is organised, and structured, is clearly explained by the impossibility of exploring it in detail. Since the creation of the microscope, the perception of the basic unity, which is the cell, has been essential in understanding the functioning of reproduction and of transmission, but has not been able to explain the notion of form; since the cells are not everywhere and are not distributed in an apparently balanced manner. The problems that remain are those of form and volume and also of connection. The concept of multifibrillar architecture, shaping the interfibrillar microvolumes in space, represents a solution to all these questions. The architectural structures revealed, made up of fibres, fibrils and microfibrils, from the mesoscopic to the microscopic level, provide the concept of a living form with structural rationalism that permits the association of psychochemical molecular biodynamics and quantum physics: the form can thus be described and interpreted, and a true structural ontology is elaborated from a basic functional unity, which is the microvacuole, the intra and interfibrillar volume of the fractal organisation, and the chaotic distribution. Naturally, new, less linear, less conclusive, and less specific concepts will be implied by this ontology, leading one to believe that the emergence of life takes place under submission to forces that the original form will have imposed and oriented the adaptive finality. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA. - Highlights: • Uptake of plastic additives after plastic ingestion was modeled for worms and fish. • This was done for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. • Uncertainty was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations. • It appeared that exposure by plastic ingestion was negligible for fish. • Plastic ingestion may occasionally be relevant for marine worms. - Leaching of nonylphenol and bisphenol A from ingested microplastic may be relevant for the lugworm, but is irrelevant for fish like cod

  20. Migration Component in the Contemporary Demographic Development of Rijeka and the Coastal Area of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The significance of migration in the contemporary demographic development of Rijeka and its coastal area is discussed in the paper. The analysis has shown that the City of Rijeka presents a demographically regressive area from which the deconcentration of population, mainly to suburban areas, is taking place. At the same time, the Littoral is the area of demographic growth as a result of high immigration rates, while natural demographic trends are negative; however, this does not have such intensity as in the case of the urban population of Rijeka. The comparison of vital index and migration data indicates a high degree of correlation between immigration and natural change in population so that settlements in the nearer gravitation area, being the space of strong in-migration between the 1990s and 2000s, shows distinct demographic growth and positive population bio-dynamics. Compared with them, settlements in the broader gravitational area have weaker intensity of permanent population resettlement as well as considerably unfavourable total and natural population trends. Based on the established demographic situation, population forecasts have been made for the years 2021 and 2031 indicating continued depopulation processes in the macro-regional centre of Rijeka and further demographic progression in the coastal area.

  1. Entropy as a method to investigate complex biological systems. An alternative view on the biological transition from healthy aging to frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Siciliano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is subject to a process of progressive deterioration of control mechanisms, which supervise the complex network of human physiological functions, reducing the individual ability to adapt to emerging situations of stress or change. In the light of results obtained during the last years, it appears that some of the tools of nonlinear dynamics, first developed for the physical sciences are well suited for studies of biological systems. We believe that, considering the level of order or complexity of the anatomical apparatus by measuring a physical quantity, which is the entropy, we can evaluate the health status or vice versa fragility of a biological system. In particular, a reduction in the entropy value, indicates modification of the structural order with a progressive reduction of functional reserve of the individual, which is associated with a failure to adapt to stress conditions, difficult to be analyzed and documented with a unique traditional biochemical or biomolecular vision. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that, conceptually combines complexity, disease and aging, alloys Poisson statistics, predictive of the personal level of health, to the entropy value indicating the status of bio-dynamic and functional body, seen as a complex and open thermodynamic system.

  2. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs.

  3. Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.; Wagner, J.J.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1993-08-01

    Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K d 's > 10 5 reach about 1 to 5 μg/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed

  4. From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM at Versailles, France, in 1972 set organic food and farming on a strong future trajectory. It was an initiative of France’s Nature et Progrès, and driven by its then President, Roland Chevriot. IFOAM was founded with the support of a small cluster of kindred organisations: Rodale Press of the USA; the Soil Association of the UK; the Soil Association of South Africa; and the Swedish Biodynamic Association. None of these five organisations bore the term ‘organic’ in their title, nevertheless, the choice of name acknowledged ‘organic’ as the term to signify their common cause. It secured ‘organic’ as the core narrative element and as the international descriptor of what is now a clearly identifiable and differentiated segment of the global food and farming sector. From the outset ‘biodynamic’ was accepted as a special case of ‘organic’. The formation of IFOAM created an entity which united the aspirations, the philosophies and the hopes of disparate groups each with roles primarily restricted to national advocacy. IFOAM has grown to a federation of 804 organisations from 111 counties. Organic production statistics are now reported by IFOAM from 154 countries and organic sector retail sales are reported to be US$51b annually. IFOAM is based in Bonn, Germany, and as the global umbrella advocacy group for the organic sector it is without peer.

  5. Influence of food quality and salinity on dietary cadmium availability in Mytilus trossulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmeyer, Joline R.; Bendell-Young, Leah I.

    2007-01-01

    Surficial sediments (a combination of re-suspended and suspended sediments denoted as RSS) were collected from two distinct marine intertidal habitats. The two habitats differed with respect to salinity (25 ppt versus 15 ppt) and RSS % organic carbon content (24% versus 15%). Feeding experiments were conducted simulating the conditions in the two habitats to determine if salinity and RSS % organic carbon content affected cadmium accumulation in the pacific blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Eleven different treatments including pure phytoplankton, collected RSS and control clay were radiolabeled with 109 Cd and pulse-fed to M. trossulus under both high (25 ppt) and low salinities (15 ppt). Metal uptake and accumulation was determined using the DYMBAM biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Although M. trossulus ingestion rates (IR) were significantly higher at 25 ppt as compared to 15 ppt, assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and [ 109 Cd] tissue levels were significantly lower at high as compared to low salinity exposures. Of the abiotic and biotic parameters examined and in contrast to other studies, differences in salinity rather than ingestion rate or food quality (as defined by % organic carbon content) seemed to best define the observed differences in 109 Cd AE by M. trossulus

  6. Computer aided surgery. Current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    This review describes topics in the title in the order of 3D model reconstruction and therapeutic planning based on images before surgery; registration of the actual images in virtual physical space of the patient who is under surgical operation, to the preoperative ones with use of 3D-position sensor, ultrasonics, endoscopy and X-diaphanoscopy; and their accuracy analysis. Images before surgery usually obtained with CT and MR are reconstructed in 3D for the purpose of therapeutic planning by segmentation of the target organ/site, surrounding organs, bones and blood vessels. Navigation system at the surgery functions to make the images obtained before and during operation to be integrated for their registration and displaying. Usually, the optical marker and camera both equipped in the endoscope, and position sensor (tracker) are used for integration in the operation coordinate system. For this, the actual pictures at liver operation are given. For accuracy analysis there is a theory of target registration error, which has been established on FDA demands. In future, development of technology concerned in this field like that of robot, bio-dynamics, biomaterials, sensor and high performance computing together with 4D document of surgery for feed-back to technology are desirable for the systematic growing of this surgical technology. (T.I.)

  7. Toxicity assessment of chemical contaminants;transition from in vitromethods to novel in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there areapproximately 80, 000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from ethical, economical and scientific perspectives. Therefore, increasing the number of available industrial chemicals andnew products has created a demand for alternatives to animal methods for better safety evaluation. Recent toxicity studies have demonstrated that in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemical contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of  more recent test methods developed for toxicity testing of chemical contaminants are discussed. Although  to be considered more broadly for risk assessment of human chemical exposures. In vitro methods,in vitro toxicology methods cannot exactly mimic the biodynamics of the whole body, in vitro  relationships (QSARs and physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK models have a potentialtest systems in combination with the knowledge of quantitative structure activity.

  8. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Maria Egerland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the perceived level of professional competence of Brazilian college coaches, considering the type of sports discipline and professional development cycles. The target population consisted of 92 sport coaches of both genders from various regions of Brazil, who worked in team or individual sports. An adapted version of the Self-Perception of Competence Scale was used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The coaches perceived themselves as competent in knowledge on the theory and methodology of sports training and sports biodynamics, as well as in the skills of sports planning and management. On the other hand, the coaches perceived fragility of knowledge on sports management and legislation. With respect to professional development cycles, more experienced coaches perceived themselves as more competent than those with a shorter coaching experience. When coaches of individual and team sports were compared, a significant difference (p = 0.04 was only observed for knowledge on sports management and legislation, with coaches of team sports perceiving themselves as more competent. Further studies are needed to improve the basic and continuing education of Brazilian sport coaches, as well as to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between career development and the acquisition of professional skills.

  9. Sustainability of Italian wines: Knowledge, understanding, and interest of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous consumption of resources and the progressive climatic changes have contributed to develop a new range of products with a “greener” vocation. After the shift to organic and biodynamic production, companies have started to promote products' sustainability. The wine sector has undergone a transformation connected with the emergence of several projects related to the concept of sustainability. But what the consumer knows and thinks of all this? In this regard, it was carried out a study about the perception of the consumer on issues related to sustainability. The goals are multiple: to define the concept of sustainability perceived by consumers, to evaluate the spread of eco-friendly products, to measure the interest and willingness in spending on these products and finally to assess the knowledge of the main brands that identify some sustainable projects. Thanks to this first part that fits into a larger study still in progress, it was possible to obtain an initial assessment of the motivations that influence the purchase of wine, learn more about the consumer on these issues and assess the prevalence of brands associated with each of these major projects on the Italian scene.

  10. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs

  11. Analysis of blood flow dynamics in the abdominal aorta based on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Koumei; Tsubota, Kenichi; Ryu, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Images of the abdominal aorta including peri-renal artery by PCMRA (phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography) were analyzed to calculate WSS (wall shear stress) and its OSI (oscillatory shear index) in order to visually elucidate the cause of aneurysm formation. PCMRA was conducted for acquisitions of vascular morphology in one cardiac cycle of a healthy male 30s with cardiac gating, and of blood flow rates from 3 directions. Images were median-filtered to reduce noises and regions of interest of rectangular parallelepiped were defined to involve the aorta. WSS, the parameter representing the intensity of friction stress to the vessel wall of blood flow, and OSI, the degree of oscillatory WSS change, were calculated firstly by the reported Snake model for the vessel morphology and then by applying its local information to blood flow rate information from 3 directions. Color-displayed images revealed that both WSS and OS were high at the highest incidental region of aortic aneurysm formation around the peri-renal artery. The finding was in good agreement with the result of computed bio-dynamic simulation that the strong WSS by elevated swirling of blood flow is generated at the region. Thus WSS and OS can be significant factors of aneurismal formation, which should be further confirmed from aspects of increased case number and precision. (T.T.)

  12. Unobtrusive Behavioral and Activity-Related Multimodal Biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drosou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  13. Delivering key signals to the machine: seeking the electric signal that muscles emanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A Y Bani; Maslan, M N; Izamshah, R; Mohamad, I S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the limitation of electric power generation in the human body, present human-machine interfaces have not been successful because of the nature of standard electronics circuit designs, which do not consider the specifications of signals that resulted from the skin. In general, the outcomes and applications of human-machine interfaces are limited to custom-designed subsystems, such as neuroprosthesis. We seek to model the bio dynamical of sub skin into equivalent mathematical definitions, descriptions, and theorems. Within the human skin, there are networks of nerves that permit the skin to function as a multi dimension transducer. We investigate the nature of structural skin. Apart from multiple networks of nerves, there are other segments within the skin such as minute muscles. We identify the segments that are active when there is an electromyography activity. When the nervous system is firing signals, the muscle is being stimulated. We evaluate the phenomena of biodynamic of the muscles that is concerned with the electromyography activity of the nervous system. In effect, we design a relationship between the human somatosensory and synthetic systems sensory as the union of a complete set of the new domain of the functional system. This classifies electromyogram waveforms linked to intent thought of an operator. The system will become the basis for delivering key signals to machine such that the machine is under operator's intent, hence slavery

  14. The perspective of organic wine in Brazil – trends, demands and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Marcos Vinícius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the productive reality and propose a panorama for the Brazilian organic wine production, from the perspective of producers, representatives of the sector, market and consumers, thus seeking to highlight the market perspectives and adequacy to the consumers' aspirations. This production that aims to meet a growing demand for sustainable products, which include organic, biodynamic and natural foods, combined with the growing Brazilian tendency to consume better quality wines. To prosecute this study, an exploratory research was developed, interviewing twenty consumers, one intermediary, one representative of the sector and four wineries. The data were analyzed crossing the information collected with these actors and bring out key contents. The results show that production is not aligned with consumer demand that it is still necessary to review the information made available to consumers, in addition to making it clearer, other values could be aggregated to those products or better communicated. On this way, it is possible to conclude that an intermediate product between organic and conventional, which has sustainable practices in its production could meet the current demand, so that in the future it can produce an organic product that corresponds to the consumer's demand.

  15. Omega "Ω" Pulley Plasty for Surgical Management of DeQuervain's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhach, Joseph; Chaya, Bachar; Papazian, Nazareth

    2018-06-01

    DeQuervain tenosynovitis, refractory to medical conservative treatment, has been traditionally treated by a simple division of the pulley, a procedure associated with several complications. Many authors attempted to prevent these complications by describing techniques of pulley reconstruction after its release necessitating suturing the different flaps and subsequently promoting extensor tendons adhesions. The authors present an alternative procedure for the first extensor compartment pulley decompression: "Omegaplasty". 25 Patients with 29 DeQuervain tenosynovitis cases were enrolled in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial from 2012 to 2016. At enrollment they were offered the option of Omegaplasty as a surgical treatment modality for their cases. The procedure is based on liberating the anterior attachment of the pulley from the anterior lip of the styloïd process while respecting its continuity with the periosteal flap as well as promoting expansion of the tunnel volume. All operated patients were evaluated using the "Opposition Kapandji Score". The authors present the results of 29 different "Omegaplasty" procedures. Based on the Kapandji opposition score, twenty cases scored 10/10 while the remaining nine cases yielded an 8/10 score each. The described technique is simple, reliable and respects the extensor tendons gliding physiology and biodynamics. By preserving the anatomical continuity of the first extensor compartment pulley at the wrist, the risk of adhesion formation is reduced. The preliminary results are encouraging and provide the "Ω" plasty the potential to be considered as a surgical option for treatment of De Quervain Tenosynovitis.

  16. Cross validation of bioelectrical impedance equations for men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the cross validity of bioimpedance equations (BIA on the estimation of the fat free mass (FFM of 44 men, with mean age of 24.98 ± 3.40 years and relative body fat (%BF of 17.15 ± 6.41%. A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used as a reference method for %BF and FFM. Total body resistance was assessed by the Biodynamics (Model 310. The equations analyzed in this study were: two equations (Eq.1 and 2 developed by Carvalho e Pires Neto (1998; one equation (Eq. 3 developed by Rising et al.(1991; one equation (Eq. 4 developed by Oppliger et al.(1991; two equations (Eq. 5 (%FM RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a validade concorrente de equações de impedância bioelétrica (IB para estimar a massa corporal livre de gordura (MLG, em 44 homens, com idade média de 24,98 ± 3,40 anos e gordura relativa (%G de 17,15 ± 6,41 %. A absortometria de raio-x de dupla energia foi usada como critério, para mensurar a %G e a MLG, e para obter estas variáveis decorrentes das equações de IB foi utilizado o Biodynamics (Modelo 310. As equações de IB analisadas neste estudo foram: duas equações (Eq. 1 e 2 de Carvalho e Pires Neto (1998; uma equação (Eq. 3 de Rising et al. (1991; uma equação (Eq. 4 de Oppliger et al.(1991; duas equações (Eq. 5 (%G < 20% e Eq. 6 (%G ≥ 20% de Segal et al. (1988. Os critérios adotados para validação foram os propostos por Lohman (1991. Todas as correlações foram altas e significativas, oscilando de 0,906 (Eq. 2 a 0,981 (Eq. 6. As equações 1 a 5 superestimaram de forma significativa (p < 0,001 a MLG, sendo que os erros constantes variaram de 1,32 kg (Eq. 5 a 5,90 kg (Eq. 4. A equação 6 atendeu a todos os critérios de validação, apresentando: correlação = 0,981; erro constante = -0,38 kg; erro total = 1,10 kg. Esta equação de Segal et al.(1988, para homens com gordura relativa ≥ 20% (Eq. 6 foi a única que apresentou validade concorrente, estimando

  17. Estimativa da composição corporal e análise de concordância entre analisadores de impedância bioelétrica bipolar e tetrapolar Body composition estimation and agreement analysis between bipolar and tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Jambassi Filho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as estimativas da composição corporal e a concordância das medidas produzidas por meio de dois diferentes analisadores de impedância bioelétrica em homens adultos jovens. Vinte e dois sujeitos (23,6 ± 2,9 anos; 73 ± 6,8kg; 177,6 ± 6,0cm; 23,1 ± 1,9kg/m², aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a medidas de impedância bioelétrica por meio dos analisadores tetrapolar de corpo inteiro (TCI, Biodynamic Body Composition Analyser, modelo 310 e bipolar para membros superiores (BMS, Omron tm, modelo HBF-306BL após jejum de 12h. Estimativas da gordura corporal relativa (%GC, massa livre de gordura (MLG e massa gorda (MG foram estabelecidas a partir das informações fornecidas pelos dois equipamentos. Nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante foi verificada para %GC (10,9 ± 4,3 vs. 10,0 ± 4,2%; P = 0,09, MG (8,1 ± 3,5 vs. 7,4 ± 3,5kg; P = 0,10 e MLG (64,9 ± 5,2 vs. 65,5 ± 4,9kg; P = 0,09 entre TCI e BMS, respectivamente. Correlações positivas e significantes (P The aim of this study was to analyze the body composition estimation and agreement of the measurements produced from two bioelectrical impedance analysers in young adult men. Twenty-two apparently healthy subjects (23.6 ± 2.9 yrs; 73.0 ± 6.8 kg; 177.6 ± 6.0 cm; 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m², were submitted to bioelectrical impedance measurements by tetra-polar whole body (TWB, Biodynamic Body Composition Analyser, model 310 and bipolar for upper body (BUB, OMRON TM, model HBF-306BL after 12 h fast. Relative body fat (%BF, lean body mass (LBM and fat mass (FM estimation were established from information supplied by two analysers. No significant difference was verified for %BF (10.9 ±4.3 vs. 10.0 ±4.2%; P = 0.09, FM (8.1 ±3.5 vs. 7.4 ±3.5 kg; P = 0.10 or LBM (64.9 ±5.2 vs. 65.5 ±4.9 kg; P = 0.09 between TWB and BUB, respectively. Positive significant correlations (P < 0.001 were found between both analysers for LBM (r = 0.948, FM (r

  18. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  19. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  20. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  1. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  2. Corneal Deformation Response and Ocular Geometry: A Non-invasive Diagnostic Strategy in Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, Lauren C.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Seven, Ibrahim; Ford, Matthew R.; Roy, Abhijit Sinha; Butler, Robert S.; Dupps, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate corneal air-puff deformation responses and ocular geometry as predictors of Marfan syndrome. Design Prospective observational clinical study Methods Sixteen investigator-derived, 4 standard Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), and geometric variables from corneal tomography and optical biometry using Oculus Pentacam and IOL Master were assessed for discriminative value in Marfan syndrome, measuring right eyes of 24 control and 13 Marfan syndrome subjects. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses Results Six investigator-derived ORA variables successfully discriminated Marfan syndrome. The best lone disease predictor was Concavity Min (Marfan syndrome 47.5 ± 20, control 69 ± 14, p = 0.003; AUROC = 0.80). Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor were decreased (Marfan syndrome CH 9.45 ± 1.62, control CH 11.24 ± 1.21, p = 0.01; Marfan syndrome CRF 9.77 ± 1.65, control CRF 11.03 ± 1.72, p = 0.01) and corneas were flatter in Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome Kmean 41.25 ± 2.09 D, control Kmean 42.70 ± 1.81 D, p = 0.046). No significant differences were observed in central corneal thickness, axial eye length, or intraocular pressure. A multivariate regression model incorporating corneal curvature and hysteresis loop area (HLA) provided the best predictive value for Marfan syndrome (AUROC = 0.85). Conclusions This study describes novel biodynamic features of corneal deformation responses in Marfan syndrome, including increased deformation, decreased bending resistance, and decreased energy dissipation capacity. A predictive model incorporating HLA and corneal curvature shows greatest potential for non-invasive clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. PMID:26432567

  3. Corneal Deformation Response and Ocular Geometry: A Noninvasive Diagnostic Strategy in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, Lauren C; Traboulsi, Elias I; Seven, Ibrahim; Ford, Matthew R; Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Butler, Robert S; Dupps, William J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate corneal air-puff deformation responses and ocular geometry as predictors of Marfan syndrome. Prospective observational clinical study. Sixteen investigator-derived, 4 standard Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), and geometric variables from corneal tomography and optical biometry using Oculus Pentacam and IOL Master were assessed for discriminative value in Marfan syndrome, measuring right eyes of 24 control and 13 Marfan syndrome subjects. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Six investigator-derived ORA variables successfully discriminated Marfan syndrome. The best lone disease predictor was Concavity Min (Marfan syndrome 47.5 ± 20, control 69 ± 14, P = .003; AUROC = 0.80). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were decreased (Marfan syndrome CH 9.45 ± 1.62, control CH 11.24 ± 1.21, P = .01; Marfan syndrome CRF 9.77 ± 1.65, control CRF 11.03 ± 1.72, P = .01) and corneas were flatter in Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome Kmean 41.25 ± 2.09 diopter, control Kmean 42.70 ± 1.81 diopter, P = .046). No significant differences were observed in central corneal thickness, axial eye length, or intraocular pressure. A multivariate regression model incorporating corneal curvature and hysteresis loop area (HLA) provided the best predictive value for Marfan syndrome (AUROC = 0.85). This study describes novel biodynamic features of corneal deformation responses in Marfan syndrome, including increased deformation, decreased bending resistance, and decreased energy dissipation capacity. A predictive model incorporating HLA and corneal curvature shows greatest potential for noninvasive clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of cysteine and humic acids on bioavailability of Ag from Ag nanoparticles to a freshwater snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Tasha Stoiber,; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Isabelle Romer,; Ruth Merrifeild,; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) will undergo transformations that will affect their bioavailability, toxicity and ecological risk when released to the environment, including interactions with dissolved organic material. The purpose of this paper is to determine how interactions with two different types of organic material affect the bioavailability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Silver uptake rates by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were determined after exposure to 25 nmol l-1 of Ag as PVP AgNPs, PEG AgNPs or AgNO3, in the presence of either Suwannee River humic acid or cysteine, a high-affinity thiol-rich organic ligand. Total uptake rate of Ag from the two NPs was either increased or not strongly affected in the presence of 1 – 10 mg 1-1 humic acid. Humic substances contain relatively few strong ligands for Ag explaining their limited effects on Ag uptake rate. In contrast, Ag uptake rate was substantially reduced by cysteine. Three components of uptake from the AgNPs were quantified in the presence of cysteine using a biodynamic modeling approach: uptake of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs, uptake of a polymer or large (>3kD) Ag-cysteine complex and uptake of the nanoparticle itself. Addition of 1:1 Ag:cysteine reduced concentrations of dissolved Ag, which contributed to, but did not fully explain the reductions in uptake. A bioavailable Ag-cysteine complex (> 3kD) appeared to be the dominant avenue of uptake from both PVP AgNPs and PEG AgNPs in the presence of cysteine. Quantifying the different avenues of uptake sets the stage for studies to assess toxicity unique to NPs.

  5. On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATION—THEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

    1998-08-01

    The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes

  6. Finite element modelling of the articular disc behaviour of the temporo-mandibular joint under dynamic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisson, Maxime; Lestriez, Philippe; Taiar, Redha; Debray, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The proposed biodynamic model of the articular disc joint has the ability to affect directly the complete chewing mechanism process and its related muscles defining its kinematics. When subjected to stresses from the mastication muscles, the disc absorbs one part and redistributes the other to become completely distorted. To develop a realistic model of this intricate joint a CT scan and MRI images from a patient were obtained to create sections (layers) and MRI images to create an anatomical joint CAD model, and its corresponding mesh element using a finite element method. The boundary conditions are described by the external forces applied to the joint model through a decomposition of the maximum muscular force developed by the same individual. In this study, the maximum force was operating at frequencies close to the actual chewing frequency measured through a cyclic loading condition. The reaction force at the glenoid fossa was found to be around 1035 N and is directly related to the frequency of indentation. It is also shown that over the years the areas of maximum stresses are located at the lateral portion of the disc and on its posterior rim. These forces can reach 13.2 MPa after a period of 32 seconds (s) at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. An important part of this study is to highlight resilience and the areas where stresses are at their maximum. This study provides a novel approach to improve the understanding of this complex joint, as well as to assess the different pathologies associated with the disc disease that would be difficult to study otherwise.

  7. La richesse de la flore comme levier pour maintenir la biodiversité dans le vignoble ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabolin Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of crop management have led to an impoverishment of the biological diversity, resulting in the loss of ecosystem services. In viticulture, flora could play an interesting role because it can compensate the negative impacts of vine monoculture. The flora biodiversity favours fauna biodiversity, sustaining especially the presence of pollinating insects in the grapevine inter row sown with grass or legumes and area around grapevine plots. These aspects have been poorly studied until now. A grapevine experiment set in Alsace at INRA Colmar in the frame of the DEPHY-EXPE PEPSVI project was used to address these questions. Between 2014 and 2016, floristic survey was carried out on 4 sites, within an area of 500 m2 within each plot. On those sites, different grapevine systems based on integrated, biological, or biodynamic production were tested. The “presence/absence” method implemented to characterize flora composition and richness on the grapevine row, the inter-row sown with grass, and the tilled inter-row. Results showed that Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae were the most represented flora families. Asteraceae and Fabaceae may provide pollination ecosystem services if they are well managed and allowed to flower. Moreover, Fabaceae family increases soil fertility by symbiotic fixation. The role of environmental factors, i.e., semi-natural area like hedge or forest edge close to vineyard, and anthropic factors, i.e., soil cover management, were also characterized and shown as impacted on flora composition and richness under grapevine rows and between inter- rows. Flora characterization will continue in 2017 and 2018 to validate the present results and to assess the evolution of flora composition and richness in different climatic conditions.

  8. To imagine the unimaginable or to cultivate our garden? Les Cahiers de Global Chance No 37 - June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, Michel; Barbut, Monique; ); Blaustein, Edgar; Rialhe, Anne; Ray, Jean Claude; Zerbib, Jean Claude; Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard; Boilley, David

    2015-06-01

    A first set of article addresses the issue negotiations for the COP 21. A first author proposes a chronicle of a success foretold; a second author outlines the crucial issue of a better management of soils for a better management of climate; and a third article proposes an overview of actions in favour of climate in Western Africa. The second part addresses the issue of agriculture: development of GMOs and GM seeds, consequences of the various pollutions (air, soil, water), social and economic issues, impact of pesticides, development of alternatives (biological, sustainable, natural or organic, bio-dynamic, or wild agriculture) and new techniques (perma-culture, agro-forestry), and issues raised by these alternatives and new techniques. The author also evokes and discusses the results of various studies. The third part addresses the French nuclear sector and its perspectives. Several topics are thus addressed: health and environmental consequences of Chernobyl and health impact of the Fukushima accident; the always higher rate of increase of nuclear costs (soon four times every 10 years); a presentation of the ATMEA reactor proposed by Mitsubishi and Areva (performance, safety issues, opinion of the safety authority, and industrial status of its competitors, i.e. Westinghouse AP-1000, different models developed in China which are derived from the 900 MW PWR series, and exported Russian and Korean reactors); a critical discussion of the ASTRID project which is considered as highly risky and exorbitantly costly (description of the operation principle of a fast neutron reactor, fuels, use of sodium, safety issues, proliferation issue, cost and economy) and a recall on Superphenix operation; a discussion of the content of an ADEME's report stating that a 100 per cent renewable energy policy is possible; a comment of the position of the IPCC with respect to nuclear energy as it appears in its different publications

  9. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  10. PCB-induced changes of a benthic community and expected ecosystem recovery following in situ sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic community was analyzed to evaluate pollution-induced changes for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site at Hunters Point (HP) relative to 30 reference sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. An analysis based on functional traits of feeding, reproduction, and position in the sediment shows that HP is depauperate in deposit feeders, subsurface carnivores, and species with no protective barrier. Sediment chemistry analysis shows that PCBs are the major risk drivers at HP (1,570 ppb) and that the reference sites contain very low levels of PCB contamination (9 ppb). Different feeding traits support the existence of direct pathways of exposure, which can be mechanistically linked to PCB bioaccumulation by biodynamic modeling. The model shows that the deposit feeder Neanthes arenaceodentata accumulates approximately 20 times more PCBs in its lipids than the facultative deposit feeder Macoma balthica and up to 130 times more than the filter feeder Mytilus edulis. The comparison of different exposure scenarios suggests that PCB tissue concentrations at HP are two orders of magnitude higher than at the reference sites. At full scale, in situ sorbent amendment with activated carbon may reduce PCB bioaccumulation at HP by up to 85 to 90% under favorable field and treatment conditions. The modeling framework further demonstrates that such expected remedial success corresponds to exposure conditions suggested as the cleanup goal for HP. However, concentrations remain slightly higher than at the reference sites. The present study demonstrates how the remedial success of a sorbent amendment, which lowers the PCB availability, can be compared to reference conditions and traditional cleanup goals, which are commonly based on bulk sediment concentrations.

  11. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  12. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionys Forster

    Full Text Available The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010 of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008 for cotton (-29% and wheat (-27%, whereas in the 2(nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010 cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2. Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%, whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25% due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11% across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton

  13. Lessons from a transplantation of zebra mussels into a small urban river: An integrated ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, A; Gourlay-Francé, C; Vincent-Hubert, F; Palais, F; Geffard, A; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Pain-Devin, S; Tusseau-Vuillemin, M-H

    2010-10-01

    It is often difficult to evaluate the level of contamination in small urban rivers because pollution is mainly diffuse, with low levels of numerous substances. The use of a coupled approach using both chemical and biological measurements may provide an integrated evaluation of the impact of micro-pollution on the river. Zebra mussels were transplanted along a metal and organic pollution gradient in spring 2008. For two months, mussels and water samples were collected from two sites every two weeks and analyzed for metal and PAH content as well as water physicochemical parameters. Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) were also used to assess levels of labile metals. Exposure of mussels to contaminants and potential impact were evaluated using physiological indices and various biomarkers including condition index (CI), defense mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase: GST), digestive enzymes (amylase and cellulase) and genotoxicity (micronucleus test: MN and comet assay: CA). For most contaminants, the water contamination was significantly higher downstream. Bioaccumulation in zebra mussels was related to water contamination in the framework of the biodynamic model, which allowed us to take into account the biological dilution that was caused by the growth of soft tissue downstream. Thus, metal influxes were on average two times higher downstream than upstream in particular for Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd. Significant differences in condition index were observed (final CI was 0.42 ± 0.03 downstream and 0.31 ± 0.03 upstream) reflecting a better food availability downstream. Moreover a significant decrease of GST activity and digestive enzymes activity in the cristalline style was observed downstream. Interpreting this decrease requires considering not only micro-pollution but also the trophic status related to the water's physicochemistry. The MN test and the CA on gill cells highlighted genotoxicity in mussels transplanted downstream compared to upstream. © 2010 Wiley

  14. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1).

  15. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szczepaniak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA. The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 – 4.16 ms[sup] -1 [/sup].

  16. The Smell of Selfless Love: Sharing Vulnerability with Bees in Alternative Apiculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green, Kelsey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sudden decline of bee pollinator populations worldwide has caused significant alarm, not least because Apis mellifera, the European honeybee, is thought to be responsible for pollination of 71 of the 100 crop species which provide 90% of the world’s food supply. Here we investigate the response to colony collapse disorder of a committed group of beekeepers who live in southern England, UK. These beekeepers are inspired by the writings of Rudolf Steiner and the principles of biodynamic agriculture, and they care deeply about bees. Drawing on Judith Butler’s work on vulnerability as a shared condition of living, we examine the philosophies and practices of alternative apiculture along two axes: the gifts of honey and poison; longing, connection and bee-worship. The first emphasizes how poison and honey draw bee and beekeeper together in uneven gift relations; the second axis emphasizes how beekeepers make their bodies and their selves vulnerable to bees. We show how these beekeepers want us to do more than reshape bees’ vulnerability to colony collapse disorder; they want to recognize, and reconstitute, their own vulnerability to the bee. The lessons to be drawn are less about solving bee decline and more about how becoming less uncomfortable with vulnerability and seeking to put ourselves at risk to others becomes an ethical practice. The example of these alternative beekeepers suggests that we might learn to accept more generously the risks of cohabiting with awkward nonhumans, so as to loosen the hegemonic grip of a self-certain subject that is disrupted by an outsider.

  17. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  18. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 1987-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    1986-12-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy, provides national scientific leadership and supports technological innovation through its mission to: (1) Perform leading multidisciplinary research in general sciences and energy sciences; (2) Develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for use by qualified investigators; (3) Educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers; and (4) Foster productive relationships between LBL research programs and industry. The following areas of research excellence implement this mission and provide current focus for achieving DOE goals. GENERAL SCIENCES--(1) Accelerator and Fusion Research--accelerator design and operation, advanced accelerator technology development, accelerator and ion source research for heavy-ion fusion and magnetic fusion, and x-ray optics; (2) Nuclear Science--relativistic heavy-ion physics, medium- and low-energy nuclear physics, nuclear theory, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear chemistry, transuranium elements studies, nuclear data evaluation, and detector development; (3) Physics--experimental and theoretical particle physics, detector development, astrophysics, and applied mathematics. ENERGY SCIENCES--(1) Applied Science--building energy efficiency, solar for building systems, fossil energy conversion, energy storage, and atmospheric effects of combustion; (2) Biology and Medicine--molecular and cellular biology, diagnostic imaging, radiation biophysics, therapy and radiosurgery, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, lipoproteins, cardiovascular disease, and hemopoiesis research; (3) Center for Advanced Materials--catalysts, electronic materials, ceramic and metal interfaces, polymer research, instrumentation, and metallic alloys; (4) Chemical Biodynamics--molecular biology of nucleic acids and proteins, genetics of photosynthesis, and photochemistry; (5) Earth Sciences--continental lithosphere properties, structures and

  19. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harigae T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Harigae,1 Kiyotaka Nakagawa,1 Taiki Miyazawa,2 Nao Inoue,3 Fumiko Kimura,1 Ikuo Ikeda,3 Teruo Miyazawa4,5 1Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 2Vascular Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Laboratory of Food and Biomolecular Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, 4Food and Biotechnology Innovation Project, New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, 5Food and Health Science Research Unit, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Purpose: Curcumin (CUR, the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG, the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability.Methods: Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells.Results: Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with

  20. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  1. Effects of +G_z exposure on gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin,and somatostatin in rabbits with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-feng XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study explores the effects of +Gz exposure on the gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin(CCK,and somatostatin(SS in rabbits with high cholesterol diets and investigates its mechanism in the occurrence of cholecystolithiasis.Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the high cholesterol diet(control group,n=8 and high cholesterol diet plus +Gz exposure groups.The latter was divided into the four-and six-week +Gz exposure groups(n=8 based on the exposure time.Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the CCK and SS contents of the gallbladder at the end of the experiment in the fourth and sixth weeks and to calculate the gallbladder volume and maximum emptying ratio.A microcomputer biodynamic pressure monitor was used to record the hydrostatic pressure in the gallbladder to measure its capacity.Moreover,the bile properties and formation of concretion were observed with the naked eye,and polarized light microscopy was used to observe cholesterin crystallization on the gallbladder wall.Results The gallbladder capacity increased upon +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,indicating that the maximum emptying ratio(E% decreased,the empty and residual volumes improved,and the pressure increased(P < 0.05.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the CCK contents in the experimental groups were evidently lower than that in the control group and gradually decreased(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.On the other hand,after +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the SS contents in the experimental groups were higher than that in the control group and gradually improved(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,bile was turbid and sticky with cholesterol crystals and without visible concretion.Conclusions Therefore,+Gz exposure may cause abnormal gallbladder emptying functions,decrease CCK content,increase SS content,and thus cause bile stasis

  2. Estimativa da massa muscular esquelética em mulheres idosas: validade da impedância bioelétrica Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the estimation of skeletal muscle mass in elderly women

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    Cassiano Ricardo Rech

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivos: a verificar a concordância entre os métodos da impedância bioelétrica (BIA e da absortometria radiológica de dupla energia (DXA para a estimativa da massa muscular esquelética (MME; e b analisar o poder preditivo de variáveis antropométricas e da BIA para a predição da MME em idosas. Foram avaliadas 120 mulheres (60 a 81 anos, residentes na região Sul do Brasil. Mensuraram-se as variáveis antropométricas (massa corporal e estatura; a resistência e hidratação dos tecidos livres de gordura foram medidas pela técnica da BIA tetrapolar (Biodinamics - BF-310, e pela DXA de corpo inteiro (Lunar Prodigy DF + 14319 Radiation e software 7.52.002 DPX-L. A diferença entre os métodos foi verificada pelo teste t pareado, análise dos resíduos e o coeficiente de correlação. O valor preditivo das variáveis antropométricas e de BIA foi verificado pela regressão linear múltipla, adotando nível de significância de p 0,01. Observou-se que a BIA subestimou em média 0,8kg (IC95%: -3,7; 2,0kg a MME, quando comparada com a DXA. Foi observada alta correlação entre os métodos (r² = 0,75; p The objectives of the present study were: a to determine the agreement between bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for the estimation of skeletal muscle mass (SMM, and b to analyze the predictive power of anthropometric variables and BIA for the prediction of SMM in elderly women. A total of 120 women (60 to 81 years, living in the southern region of Brazil, were studied. Anthropometric variables (body weight and height were measured. Resistance and hydration of fat-free tissues were measured by tetrapolar BIA (Biodynamics, BF-310 and by whole-body DXA (Lunar Prodigy DF + 14319 Radiation and DPX-L software, version 7.52.002. Differences between methods were determined using the paired t-test, analysis of residuals and correlation coefficient. The predictive value of the

  3. Harvest season influences on the quality of tomato grown in alternative systems / Influência das épocas de colheita na qualidade de tomate cultivado em sistemas alternativos

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    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On tomato production in Brazil, around two/thirties is designated to consume “in nature”. Thus, the skin aspect and its quality became an important factor on buying decision. Tomato presents high mass of water, and its quality depends on temperature and humidity variation. Water loss brings weight and fruit aspect loss, affecting the quality. This work aimed to verify the influence of harvest season on the fruit quality grown in alternative, organic and biodynamic systems. It was evaluated tomato quality characteristics, including mass loss, texture, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids. The cycle stage of the tomato plant interferes on fruit quality. The third, fourth and fifth harvests were those which showed the highest values to quality parameters, with more fresh mass fruit. The sixth harvest showed fruits with high total soluble solids and sugar contents. On the evaluation of mass loss on the three harvest seasons, it was observed that on the first harvest there was a smaller loss. The period of harvest cycle interferes on the time of storage, and fruitd harvested on the first have more conservation time in relation to the other onesNa produção de tomate no Brasil, aproximadamente dois terços são destinados ao consumo “in natura”. Assim, o aspecto externo e a sua qualidade tornam-se um fator importante na decisão de compra. O tomate apresenta elevado conteúdo de água, estando sujeito às variações de temperatura e umidade relativa do ambiente onde se encontra. A perda de água ocasiona perda de peso e aparência do fruto, afetando a qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência das épocas de colheita na qualidade de frutos de tomateiro cultivados em sistemas alternativos, orgânico e biodinâmico. Foram avaliadas características de qualidade dos frutos de tomate, que incluíram perda de massa, textura, pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e açúcares redutores. O estádio do ciclo do tomateiro

  4. Simulating soil greenhouse emissions from Swiss long-term cropping system trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Berner, Alfred; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Gattinger, Andreas; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their bio-physical potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The cost and time required for direct management-specific GHG measurements limit the spatial and temporal resolution and the extent of data that can be collected. Biogeochemical process-based models such as DayCent can be used to bridge data gaps over space and time and estimate soil GHG emissions relevant to various climate change mitigation strategies. Objectives of this study were (a) to parameterize DayCent for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices using the Swiss long-term experimental data collected at four sites (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz); (b) to evaluate the model's ability to predict crop productivity, long-term soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems; (c) to calculate a net soil GHG balance for all treatments (except for bio-dynamic) studied in long-term field experiments in Switzerland; and (d) to study the management effects and their interactions on soil GHG emissions at each experimental site. Model evaluation indicated that DayCent predicted crop productivity (rRMSE=0.29 r2=0.81, n=2614), change in soil carbon stock (rRMSE=0.14, r2=0.72, n=1289) and cumulative N2O emissions (rRMSE=0.25, r2=0.89, n=8) satisfactorily across all treatments and sites. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation on an annual basis using IPCC (2014) global warming potentials. Modelled net soil GHG emissions calculated for individual treatments over 30 years ranged from -594 to 1654 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. The highest net soil GHG emissions were predicted for conventional tillage and slurry application treatment at Frick, while soils under organic and reduced tillage management at Reckenholz acted as a net GHG sink. The statistical analyses using linear MIXED models indicated that net soil GHG

  5. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

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    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    reduction the number of microorganisms and the diversity of fungi species, repression of cellulose destroying capacity, decrease invertase activity and the rate of humification, intensifying mineralization processes and soil toxicity increasing. Long-term irrigation of ordinary chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water in moderate regime under 7-field crop rotation including alfalfa caused no disturbances of microbial cenosis. In this case parameters of biological indices did not deviate from the level of its non-irrigated analogue. Irrigation with saline water causes more profound negative changes of microbial cenosis of chernozem, which not always can be corrected using agroameliorative techniques. Intensive irrigation with saline water with total mineralization from 1.2 to 2.2 g/l of ordinary chernozem (Odesa Region for 13 years has led to a significant degradation changes in the structure and functioning of its microbial cenosis, its radical alteration such as oppression of microflora, decrease in the number of its main groups by 30 – 40 %, intensification of its mineralization function. Application of agroameliorative techniques (such as annually use of phosphogypsum 3 t/ha or /and complex measures (phosphogypsum 3 t/ha annually + N150P90K60 + manure 18 t/ha of crop rotation enable to regulate of soil biodynamic processes and partially or completely eliminate the phenomena of biological degradation. It was stated that after the cessation of irrigation the degradation changes of ordinary chernozem’s biological properties caused by irrigation with saline water were gradually restored.

  6. Soil properties and not inputs control carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Emmanuel; Buchmann, Nina; Bünemann, Else K.; Kiba, Delwende I.; Lompo, François; Oberson, Astrid; Tamburini, Federica; Traoré, Ouakoltio Y. A.

    2016-02-01

    Stoichiometric approaches have been applied to understand the relationship between soil organic matter dynamics and biological nutrient transformations. However, very few studies have explicitly considered the effects of agricultural management practices on the soil C : N : P ratio. The aim of this study was to assess how different input types and rates would affect the C : N : P molar ratios of bulk soil, organic matter and microbial biomass in cropped soils in the long term. Thus, we analysed the C, N, and P inputs and budgets as well as soil properties in three long-term experiments established on different soil types: the Saria soil fertility trial (Burkina Faso), the Wagga Wagga rotation/stubble management/soil preparation trial (Australia), and the DOK (bio-Dynamic, bio-Organic, and "Konventionell") cropping system trial (Switzerland). In each of these trials, there was a large range of C, N, and P inputs which had a strong impact on element concentrations in soils. However, although C : N : P ratios of the inputs were highly variable, they had only weak effects on soil C : N : P ratios. At Saria, a positive correlation was found between the N : P ratio of inputs and microbial biomass, while no relation was observed between the nutrient ratios of inputs and soil organic matter. At Wagga Wagga, the C : P ratio of inputs was significantly correlated to total soil C : P, N : P, and C : N ratios, but had no impact on the elemental composition of microbial biomass. In the DOK trial, a positive correlation was found between the C budget and the C to organic P ratio in soils, while the nutrient ratios of inputs were not related to those in the microbial biomass. We argue that these responses are due to differences in soil properties among sites. At Saria, the soil is dominated by quartz and some kaolinite, has a coarse texture, a fragile structure, and a low nutrient content. Thus, microorganisms feed on inputs (plant residues, manure). In contrast, the soil at

  7. Pathways of trace metal uptake in the lugworm Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Smith, B.D.; Valls, T.A. del; Rainbow, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    -only exposure (0.025 ± 0.012 and 0.020 ± 0.004 d -1 for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). A biodynamic model was used to estimate the relative importance of the dissolved phase versus ingested sediment as source of metal for the worms, showing that more than 90% of the Zn and Cd and more than 70% of Ag in lugworms is accumulated from sediment ingestion at realistic environmental concentrations. The model also shows that metal accumulation is highly dependent on the ingestion rate and assimilation efficiency

  8. Conveyor belt biomantles: Centripetal bioturbation coupled with erosional downwasting -- an explanatory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Science advances on the strength of clarifying and unifying concepts, models, and methodologies that enhance and expand our explanatory paradigms. If valid, such structures allow us to accurately understand and appreciate how the world works. To aid in this task, new term-concepts must sometimes be coined and formalized. To understand certain ubiquitously occurring -- though as yet un-conceptualized -- surface processes that operate non-stop, and assessing their efficacies, is a desirable goal in landscape evolution studies. All near-surface processes are, of course, biological, chemical, and or physical in nature, and many if not most operate in combination. But of this triumvirate, biological processes, both biochemical and biomechanical (bioturbations), are perhaps least understood. Combinations of ubiquitously and semi-continuously occurring poorly understood processes that are both obscure and yet obvious have collectively produced Earth's biomantle. The biomantle occupies the uppermost Pedosphere, is a planet-wide layer, and unique to Earth. It thus functions as the biogenically habitable interface between the Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere. The biomantle is defined as the organic-bearing bioturbated upper part of soil, including the topsoil, and of subaqueous substrates (lake, stream, ocean floor sediments) where most biota live, operate, move, wriggle, rest, sleep, estivate, seek food, eat, compete, fight, hide, reproduce, die, and assimilate. Its position and function in the uppermost soil layer of the Critical Zone must modulate and mediate much or most of what takes place above and below in ways yet to be established. In an attempt to increase understanding of this complicated biodynamic pedomembrane, and to identify the main processes that produce it, we present an iterative process model that pits ongoing cyclic bioturbation driven constructional processes against ongoing cyclic physically driven destructional processes. More

  9. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    different regulatory pathways and guidelines. The range of model outcomes accounts for critical sources of variability and establishes whether site and food-web characterization were adequate to represent the dynamics of the system with certainty. This is especially true in terms of particulate-material phases at the base of the food web and utilization of Kd in different hydrologic settings. For streams, a range of field-derived Kdds were applied to food-web exposure scenarios within a framework of locational and hydrologic variables (area of stream basin; stream gradient and discharge) that may affect the magnitude of Kd. Overlaying even a coarse temporal scale that acknowledges variability in stream dissolved Se and Se speciation, such as through seasonal derivation of Kd, can substantially narrow model uncertainty. Modeling that constrains the place and time of greatest ecosystem Se sensitivity within a specified food web gives insight into Se risk and identifies controlling management alternatives within a watershed or stream basin. If there is a range of hydrologic settings, specificity is needed to establish a hierarchy of in-stream and off-stream habitats for a watershed approach that takes into account Se-enriched water moving through different Kd and food web environments. If there is a range of predator vulnerabilities (measured as a combination of food-web Se biodynamics and response in Se toxicity tests) within the site-specific community of fish species to be protected, then choice of fish species is critical to protection because it determines the food web and, hence, the magnitude of biotransfer through which Se is modeled. Whether creek chub is representative of the vulnerability to Se of all fish species encountered within the study-site ecosystems will require additional species-specific data and analysis. A range of site-specific scenarios illustrated here set model outcomes, but the final quantitative evaluation of alternatives and their implications

  10. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S [Research Foundation, Third Cross Street, Taramani Institutional Area, Chennai - 600 113 (India); net, mssrfed@vsnl

    2003-07-01

    Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring

  11. The effects of over sea height of locality on some chemical, health, microbiological, physical and technological parameters of cow milk and sensorical properties of cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, the over sea height is cumulative factor, which can influence significantly the farm conditions. This effect consists of temperature (mean year temperature, rain (sum of rainfulls, sunshine (total period of sunshine and so on, in terms of climate, which can influence the dairy cow keeping directly and indirectly. Direct effects can influence the welfare of dairy cows in terms of hot stress for example, which could decrease a mastitis resistance of cows or their milk yield in simply way. Indirect effects can influence the dairy cows and their milk production (milk yield and milk composition and quality by typical kinds of forages and preserved rough fodders, by their botany composition and nutritional quality. In general it is possible to say, that increasing over sea height decreases economical efficiency of dairying. On the other hand the higher over sea height is sometimes linked with pastoral system of dairy cow rearing and nourishment and more often with possibility to ecological and biodynamical agriculture application. In the fact, the mountain and submountain localities are named as less favourable areas (LFAs in terms of agriculture efficiency and sustainability under the Czech Republic conditions. Despite of above mentioned facts, the pastoral system of dairying plays very important role for tourism development in different countries such as Alpine or Scandinavien countries, Ireland, The Netherlands or in particular in New Zealand.It could be very good to know the incidentaly possible impacts of over sea height of dairy cow rearing localities on milk quality, composition and its technological properties because of discussions about incidental dairy subsidies. Of course, in some countries including the Czech Republic, the governmental production subsidies or governmental environmental subsidies are partly linked with over sea height of localities of dairy farms, according to different calculation formulas as well