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Sample records for biodegradable seeds production

  1. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, W.S.; Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  2. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides; Viabilidade da producao de sementes biocompativeis e biodegradaveis com radionuclideos incorporados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, W.S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Ouro Preto (CEFET/OP), MG (Brazil); Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: wanderley@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  3. Biodegraded polymers as materials for sowing of grain crops seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Shibryaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of efficiency of grain production, solution of problems of food security demand search and development of innovative technologies at all stages. One of ways of environmentally friendly production is sowing of seeds on an excipient located in the soil, for example, nonwoven fabric made of eco- decomposable decomposed biodegraded polymer. Biodegraded polymeric materials influence on sowing properties of grain crops seeds and provide realization of their potential productivity. The authors used an electroforming method with chloroform and a dichloroethane application to receive nonwoven fabric from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and its compositions together with synthetic nitrile rubber (PHB-SNR. Polymeric material influences on energy of germination and viability of wheat seeds. Germination index is calculated, heat physical parameters are determined for the polymeric excipient. The major factor influencing seeds germination is a structure of nonwoven fabric. Water diffusion, its supply to seeds and their viability depend on morphological features of polymeric material. Polymer excipient structure influence on speed of development of root system on which, in turn, intensity of destruction of polymer depends. The best indicators of energy of germination and viability of seeds correspond to the greatest value of decrease of melting heat of PHB in mix PHB-SNR. In addition, among the studied samples of PHB-SNR the material received from blend of solvents is most effective. The cause is in feature of its structure favorable for a seed germination.

  4. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  5. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  6. Biodegradable products by lipase biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Y Y; Lämsä, M; Wu, X; Uosukainen, E; Seppälä, J; Linko, P

    1998-11-18

    The interest in the applications of biocatalysis in organic syntheses has rapidly increased. In this context, lipases have recently become one of the most studied groups of enzymes. We have demonstrated that lipases can be used as biocatalyst in the production of useful biodegradable compounds. A number of examples are given. 1-Butyl oleate was produced by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease the viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. Enzymic alcoholysis of vegetable oils without additional organic solvent has been little investigated. We have shown that a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters can be obtained in a good yield by enzymic transesterification from rapeseed oil fatty acids for use as a solvent. Trimethylolpropane esters were also similarly synthesized as lubricants. Finally, the discovery that lipases can also catalyze ester syntheses and transesterification reactions in organic solvent systems has opened up the possibility of enzyme catalyzed production of biodegradable polyesters. In direct polyesterification of 1,4-butanediol and sebacic acid, polyesters with a mass average molar mass of the order of 56,000 g mol-1 or higher, and a maximum molar mass of about 130,000 g mol-1 were also obtained by using lipase as biocatalyst. Finally, we have demonstrated that also aromatic polyesters can be synthesized by lipase biocatalysis, a higher than 50,000 g mol-1 mass average molar mass of poly(1,6-hexanediyl isophthalate) as an example.

  7. Tissue Equivalents Based on Cell-Seeded Biodegradable Microfluidic Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Tao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is the formation of functional microvascular networks capable of sustaining tissue constructs. Complex tissues and vital organs require a means to support oxygen and nutrient transport during the development of constructs both prior to and after host integration, and current approaches have not demonstrated robust solutions to this challenge. Here, we present a technology platform encompassing the design, construction, cell seeding and functional evaluation of tissue equivalents for wound healing and other clinical applications. These tissue equivalents are comprised of biodegradable microfluidic scaffolds lined with microvascular cells and designed to replicate microenvironmental cues necessary to generate and sustain cell populations to replace dermal and/or epidermal tissues lost due to trauma or disease. Initial results demonstrate that these biodegradable microfluidic devices promote cell adherence and support basic cell functions. These systems represent a promising pathway towards highly integrated three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs for a wide range of clinical applications.

  8. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.J.; Ravenscroft, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO 2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  9. A BIODEGRADABLE FILM FROM JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS SEED FLOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah S. Retnowati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus and durian (Durio zibethinus seeds contain high portion of amylose, which makes them potential materials for biodegradable films. The objective of this study is to develop biodegradable films composed of jackfruit and durian seed flours and glycerol as plasticizer. The films were prepared by dispersing flours in water, adding glycerol, heating the mixture, casting the solution on an acrylic plate, and drying the films at 50 ºC for 20 hours. Glycerol contributes to the flexibility of the film, while reduces the strength of the film. The Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break increase as the ratio of jackfruit to durian seed flour increases. The films made from jackfruit and durian seed flours in this work are stronger than the film made from rice flour obtained by other researcher. Therefore, jackfruit and durian seed flours are potential raw material for biodegradable films.

  10. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R J [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P D [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Bacterial production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtuvia, Viviana; Villegas, Pamela; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Petroleum-based plastics constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is of increasing interest. Microbial polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics. Life cycle assessment indicates that PHB is more beneficial than petroleum-based plastics. In this report, bacterial production of PHAs and their industrial applications are reviewed and the synthesis of PHAs in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is described. PHAs are synthesized by a large number of microorganisms during unbalanced nutritional conditions. These polymers are accumulated as carbon and energy reserve in discrete granules in the bacterial cytoplasm. 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are two main PHA units among 150 monomers that have been reported. B. xenovorans LB400 is a model bacterium for the degradation of polychlorobiphenyls and a wide range of aromatic compounds. A bioinformatic analysis of LB400 genome indicated the presence of pha genes encoding enzymes of pathways for PHA synthesis. This study showed that B. xenovorans LB400 synthesize PHAs under nutrient limitation. Staining with Sudan Black B indicated the production of PHAs by B. xenovorans LB400 colonies. The PHAs produced were characterized by GC-MS. Diverse substrates for the production of PHAs in strain LB400 were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipase biocatalysis for useful biodegradable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linko, Y.Y.; Wang, Zhuo Lin; Uosukainen, E.; Seppaelae, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laemsae, M. [Raisio Group Oil Milling Industry, Raisio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    It was shown that lipases can be used as biocatalysts in the production of useful biodegradable compounds such as 1-butyl oleate by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. By enzymic transesterification, a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters from rapeseed oil fatty acids can be obtained in good yields for use as a solvent, and of trimethylolpropane esters for use as a lubricant. Finally, it was demonstrated that polyesters with a mass average molar mass in excess of 75,000 g mol{sup -}1 can be obtained by esterification or transesterification by using lipase as biocatalyst. (author) (3 refs.)

  13. Lipase biocatalysis for useful biodegradable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linko, Y Y; Wang, Zhuo Lin; Uosukainen, E; Seppaelae, J [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laemsae, M [Raisio Group Oil Milling Industry, Raisio (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    It was shown that lipases can be used as biocatalysts in the production of useful biodegradable compounds such as 1-butyl oleate by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. By enzymic transesterification, a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters from rapeseed oil fatty acids can be obtained in good yields for use as a solvent, and of trimethylolpropane esters for use as a lubricant. Finally, it was demonstrated that polyesters with a mass average molar mass in excess of 75,000 g mol{sup -}1 can be obtained by esterification or transesterification by using lipase as biocatalyst. (author) (3 refs.)

  14. Production of biodegradable plastic from agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Mostafa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues management is considered to be a vital strategy in order to accomplish resource conservation and to maintain the quality of the environment. In recent years, biofibers have attracted increasing interest due to their wide applications in food packaging and in the biomedical sciences. These eco-friendly polymers reduce rapidly and replace the usage of the petroleum-based synthetic polymers due to their safety, low production costs, and biodegradability. This paper reports an efficient method for the production of the cellulose acetate biofiber from flax fibers and cotton linters. The used process satisfied a yield of 81% and 54% for flax fibers and cotton linters respectively (based on the weight of the cellulosic residue used. The structure of the produced bioplastic was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and gel permeation chromatography. Moreover, this new biopolymer is biodegradable and is not affected by acid or salt treatment but is alkali labile. A comparison test showed that the produced cellulose acetate was affected by acids to a lesser extent than polypropylene and polystyrene. Therefore, this new cellulose acetate bioplastics can be applied in both the food industry and medicine. Keywords: Cotton linters, Flax fibers, Cellulose acetate, Preparation, Characterization

  15. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  16. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  17. Increase of the productivity of pleurotus ostreatus and their use in the petroleum biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona U, Fernando; Restrepo R, Dora Patricia; Nino, Pilar; Gonzalez, Raul

    2002-01-01

    This work is divided in two phases: in the first one a substrate what help to increase productivity of the white-rot fungi pleurotus ostreatus was looked, this was reached combining different kinds of substrates; in the second phase, the contribution in biodegradation of pleurotus ostreatus into the substrate obtained in the first phase and contaminated with heavy part of Cusiana oil was looked. The quantification in the augmentation of productivity was obtained taking the weight of fungi collected of each substrate and comparing it between the, until finding the best one. To quantify the biodegradation the method of determination of greases, oils, and hydrocarbons of petroleum in solids by Soxhlet method was used. The highest substrate in productivity was the mix of 70% of cotton quinine and 30% of hay with 3- 5% of seed, thiamine and vegetable oil. For the biodegradation study concentration less than 25% were used, at higher concentrations a partial inhibition was detected. When the substrate was contaminated with 10% of Cusiana oil the biodegradation was more efficient

  18. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  19. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bilck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the development of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen, when the plant is planted without being removed from the bag. Both black and white biodegradable bags remained intact throughout the seedling production period (60 days. After being transplanted into containers (240 days, they were completely biodegraded, and there was no significant difference between the dry mass of these plants and that of plants that were transplanted without the bags. The plants that were cultivated without being removed from the polyethylene bags had root development difficulties, and the wrapping showed no signs of degradation. The use of biodegradable films is an alternative for the production of bags for seedlings, as these can then be transplanted directly into the soil without removing the bag, reducing the risk of damage to the roots during the moment of transplant.

  20. Recobrimento de sementes de brócolos e salsa com coberturas e filmes biodegradáveis Covering broccoli and parsley seeds with biodegradable films and coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sayuri Tanada-Palmu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a comparação do desempenho de sementes de brócolos e de salsa cobertas ou aderidas a filmes biodegradáveis de quitosana e gelatina. Inicialmente, determinou-se o número ótimo de camadas de cobertura e a espessura do filme, para não comprometer a germinação das sementes. O desempenho foi avaliado por meio da capacidade de germinação e do vigor, e pelas massas de material fresco e seco de plantas com cerca de 30 dias. Observou-se germinação inferior ao controle nas sementes inseridas às fitas. O recobrimento de sementes obteve bons resultados em termos de vigor e desenvolvimento das plantas. Pelos resultados indicados, verificou-se que o recobrimento de sementes, com coberturas biodegradáveis, pode ser promissor, devido à melhoria na germinação das sementes recobertas e também no desenvolvimento das plantas quando comparadas às sementes sem tratamento.The objective of this work was to compare the performance of broccoli and parsley seeds coated or adhered to biodegradable films of gelatin and chitosan. Initially, the optimum number of coating layers and the thickness of the film were determined in order not to affect the germination of seeds. The performance was evaluated by germination capacity and vigor, and by fresh and dry weight of plants with 30 days. The seeds inserted into the films of gelatin and chitosan showed lower germination results than the control seeds. The coating of the seeds with gelatin and chitosan coatings of had good results in terms of vigor and development of plants. The results indicated that coating the seeds with biodegradable coatings can be promising due to the improvement of the germination of the coated seeds and the development of the plants when compared to the seeds with not treated.

  1. Vigor de sementes de brócolos submetidas a coberturas biodegradáveis e micronutrientes Vigor of broccoli seeds submitted to biodegradable coatings and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Batista

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e a aplicação de filmes ou coberturas biodegradáveis na horticultura são técnicas praticadas há vários anos, que visam promover melhoria na qualidade do produto. no presente trabalho desenvolveu-se e caracterizou-se biofilmes de pectina, gelatina e ácidos graxos e verificou-se sua eficiência como cobertura para sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. Os filmes foram caracterizados quanto à solubilidade em água. A contagem e a observação de plantas de brócolos, a partir da germinação de sementes cobertas e não cobertas foi realizada em média a cada três dias, aos 27 dias fêz-se a quantificação da matéria fresca e seca. Os filmes de pectina e ácido esteárico foram 100% solúveis em água, enquanto os elaborados com pectina e gelatina (1/1 foram apenas 18%. A aplicação das coberturas filmogênicas nas sementes de brócolos não afetou a emergência das plantas, demonstrando assim sua potencialidade para uso comercial. Os fertilizantes molibdato de sódio (0,2 mg L-1 e ácido bórico (1mg L-1, aplicados juntamente com os biofilmes, também não afetaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plantas.The development and application of biodegradable coatings and films have been used for many years in order to improve quality of the coated or packed product. The development and characterization of pectin and pectin/gelatin-based biofilms with fatty acids was evaluated and verified their efficiency as coatings to broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. The solubility in water of the films was determined. The counting and visual observations of the germinated broccoli seeds were done each three days and fresh and dried weight of the plants were determined at the end of the experiment. Pectin-based films with stearic acid were 100% soluble in water and composite films of pectin and gelatin were 18%. The application of the biodegradable coatings on broccoli seeds had no effect on the

  2. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  3. Some insects affecting Penstemon seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Beardtongue (Penstemon Schmidel [Scrophulariaceae)) seeds are often produced without apparent damage from pests, but several species of native insects can adversely impact seed production fields. Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot)) and western plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight [Hemiptera: Miridae]), penstemon weevil (Hesperobaris sp. Casey [Coleoptera:...

  4. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bilck,Ana Paula; Olivato,Juliana Bonametti; Yamashita,Fabio; Souza,José Roberto Pinto de

    2014-01-01

    The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the deve...

  5. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  6. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK; Taşkın POLAT

    2017-01-01

    Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified...

  7. Effect of grape seed extract against biodegradation of composite resin-dentin shear bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generosa, D. M.; Suprastiwi, E.; Asrianti, D.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on resin-dentin shear bond strength. A group of 48 dentin samples were divided into 6 groups. The six groups, each with eight specimens, included group 1 (control), group 2 (control + NaOCl 10%), group 3 (2.9% GSE application before etching), group 4 (2.9% GSE application before etching + NaOCl 10%), group 5 (2.9% GSE application after etching), and group 6 (2.9% GSE application after etching + NaOCl 10%). Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. The highest median value was in group 3, and the lowest value was in group 5. GSE can improve the shear bond strength (p = 0.002 and 0.001), but it has no effect on reducing biodegradation (p = 0.141).

  8. Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum: a new source of carbohydrate to make a biodegradable film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2014-01-30

    Microstructural, physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a novel biodegradable film based on Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) were investigated. LPSG films were successfully prepared by incorporation of four levels of glycerol (40%, 50%, 60% and 70%, w/w). As expected, increasing glycerol concentration from 40 to 70% (w/w), increased water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB%), moisture content, moisture adsorption and water solubility of LPSG films; whilst, elastic modulus (EM), contact angle, melting point (Tm), enthalpy of melting (ΔHm) and glass transition point (Tg) decreased significantly. LPSG films became slightly greenish and yellowish in color but still transparent in appearance. The images taken from electron scanning microscopy indicated uniform surface, compact sheets with no holes or fracture. This study demonstrates that LPSG based films with desired properties can be obtained by adjusting glycerol content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of heavy metals on the oil products biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskaite, Audrone; Jakubauskaite, Viktorija; Belous, Olga; Ambrazaitiene, Dalia; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

    2008-12-01

    Oil products continue to be used as a principal source of energy. Wide-scale production, transport, global use and disposal of petroleum have made them major contaminants in prevalence and quantity in the environment. In accidental spills, actions are taken to remove or remediate or recover the contaminants immediately, especially if they occur in environmentally sensitive areas, for example, in coastal zones. Traditional methods to cope with oil spills are confined to physical containment. Biological methods can have an advantage over the physical-chemical treatment regimes in removing spills in situ as they offer biodegradation of oil fractions by the micro-organisms. Recently, biological methods have been known to play a significant role in bioremediation of oil-polluted coastal areas. Such systems are likely to be of significance in the effective management of sensitive coastal ecosystems chronically subjected to oil spillage. For this reason the aim of this paper is to present an impact of Mn, Cu, Co and Mo quantities on oil biodegradation effectiveness in coastal soil and to determine the relationship between metal concentrations and degradation of two oil products (black oil and diesel fuel). Soil was collected in the Baltic Sea coastal zone oil products degradation area (Klaipeda, Lithuania). The experiment consisted of two parts: study on the influence of micro-elements on the oil product biodegradation process; and analysis of the influence of metal concentration on the number of HDMs. The analysis performed and results obtained address the following areas: impact of metal on a population of hydrocarbon degrading micro-organisms, impact of metals on residual concentrations of oil products, influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, inter-relation of metal concentrations with degradation rates. Statistical analysis was made using ;Statgraphics plus' software. The influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, the biodegradation process

  10. Biodegradation of bituminous products from processing liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Hladky, E.; Halama, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the possible ways of disturbing the stability of bituminous products from liquid radioactive waste processing, is biodegradation caused by common microorganisms. Pseudomonas bacteria and a Bacillus cereus culture were selected for experimental study of cultivation of microorganisms. Experiments with mixed cultures were also performed. Pitches, ajatin and imidazoline were used as inhibitors. The thin layer and the emulsion methods were used in assessing biological corrosion. The results of the experiments are discussed with respect to the dependence of bacterial growth on bitumen biodegradation, the effect of pH on bitumen degradation and the effect of inhibitors on bitumen biodegradation. The salts contained in bituminous products were not found to significantly affect the rate of destruction. The degree of degradation was found to mainly depend on the bitumen, its chemical composition, and on the conditions of storage. It was also found that inhibitor additions in some cases modified the properties of the matrix such that it became more liquid. The coefficient of extractibility thus increased of matrix salts. The recultivation of bacteria on a full-value medium resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect. In some cases, the inhibitor even stimulated the growth of microorganisms. The use of inhibitors in an effort to achieve biostability of bituminous products thus did not solve the problem. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 9 refs

  11. Economic performance of community based bean seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-08

    May 8, 2017 ... in rural areas and those in farmer organisations/cooperatives. However, seed production through this model is concentrated closer to urban areas, where individual seed producers are easily linked to the formal seed system.

  12. STATUS OF PUMPKIN SEED PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gulsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed contains very valuable nutrients and may have some beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to overview status of pumpkin seed production in Turkey. The production has sharply risen from 11.500 tons in 2015 to 42.181 tons in 2016. The area has also indicated sharp increase from 172.580 da to 628.441 tons in the same period. The first section provides introduction of topics, and later nutrition value of pumpkin seed, taxonomy, production, bottlenecks and breeding efforts are summarized. They have several advantages such as their short vegetation time that just fits the Central Anatolia conditions where vegetation time available is too short for many other crop plants, net profit per de compared to the other crop plants, extended storability, etc.

  13. Late Jute seed production in cropland agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Noor-E-Alam Jewel; Md. Mujibur Rahman; Mohammad Shahjahan; Sayeeduz zaman

    2015-01-01

    Farmers were not self-sufficient in jute seed production and cultivation to avoid use exotic jute seed from different resources. Though the conventional method of jute seed production was not enough to meet the demand of farmers because of shrinkage of jute seed production land. So, late jute seed production technique was applied in agroforestry systems at both established and newly developed orchards. The study was conducted in the selected three sites of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur. Both...

  14. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L......In Denmark, organic vegetable seed production is possible for some of the late-maturing species when the maturing is performed in lightweight tunnels which are also relevant for the isolation of small-scale production. The tunnel system offers several advantages, e.g., it is possible to control...

  15. Research regarding biodegradable properties of food polymeric products under microorganism activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opran, Constantin; Lazar, Veronica; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2018-02-01

    Aim of this research is the structural analysis by comparison of the biodegradable properties of two polymeric products made by non-biodegradable polymeric material (polypropylene TIPPLEN H949 A) and biodegradable polymeric material (ECOVIO IS 1335), under microorganism activity in order to give the best solution for the manufacture of food packaging biodegradable products. It presents the results of experimental determinations on comparative analysis of tensile strength for the two types of polymers. The sample weight variations after fungal biodegradation activity revealed that, after 3 months, there are no significant changes in polymeric substratum for non-biodegradable polymeric. The microscopically analysis showed that the fungal filaments did not strongly adhered on the non-biodegradable polymeric material, instead, both filamentous fungi strains adhered and covered the surface of the biodegradable sample with germinated filamentous conidia. The spectral analysis of polymer composition revealed that non-biodegradable polymer polypropylene spectra are identical for control and for samples that were exposed to fungal activity, suggesting that this type of sample was not degraded by the fungi strains. Instead, for biodegradable polymer sample, it was observed significant structural changes across multiple absorption bands, suggesting enzyme activity manifested mainly by Aspergillus niger strain. Structural analysis of interdisciplinary research results, lead, to achieving optimal injection molded technology emphasizing technological parameters, in order to obtain food packaging biodegradable products.

  16. Seeds of Cross-Media Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2007-01-01

    separately and of cross-media production. Since cross-media production is in the making, we study the instruments currently used for planning and coordination, and analyze them as seeds that will eventually make cross-media production happen. Time and timing are important in news production in general......We present an empirical study of an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production towards cross-media production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, television, radio and web-news. The paper focuses on the daily production rhythms of the media...... with planning and coordination. We demonstrate how the production rhythms of the individual media collide with that of cross-media, and how product lifecycle rhythms add to the list of causes of problems that may jeopardize crossmedia production. We propose to strengthen planning and overview support elements...

  17. Climate Change: Seed Production and Options for Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hampton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

  18. Seeds of Cross-Media Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2007-01-01

    We present an empirical study of an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production towards cross-media production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, television, radio and web-news. The paper focuses on the daily production rhythms of the media...... separately and of cross-media production. Since cross-media production is in the making, we study the instruments currently used for planning and coordination, and analyze them as seeds that will eventually make cross-media production happen. Time and timing are important in news production in general......, and our analyses focus on the rhythm of the daily planning, coordination and production processes. Specifically, we analyze the temporal coordination of the activities in and around the Superdesk – the current center of coordination of the news organization, and of the persons who work specifically...

  19. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  20. Microbial production of four biodegradable siderophores under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazary, Ahmed E; Al-Shihri, Ayed S; Alfaifi, Mohammad Y; Saleh, Kamel A; Alshehri, Mohammed A; Elbehairi, Serag Eldin I; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Four siderophore analogues were isolated and purified from Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. ST13, and Streptomyces pilosus microorganisms under some specific submerged fermentation conditions. In order to evaluate the highest production of this siderophore analogues through the growth, a rapid spectrophotometric screening semi-quantitative method was used, in which interestingly the analogues were isolated in its own form not its iron chelate. After chromatographic separation, the chemical structures of the isolated and purified siderophores were illustrated using detailed spectroscopic techniques. The biodegradation studies were done on that four novel isolated and purified siderophores following OECD protocols. In addition, the bioactivities of these siderophores and their iron complexes were examined and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of magnesium alloy biodegradation products in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Neryanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information on the study of possible toxic effects of biodegradation products of original magnesium-based alloy on laboratory rats. The used laboratory methods of investigation are described. Author has examined biochemical parameters of plasma on the base of which endogenous intoxication in rats was studied. It was found out that products of alloy biological resorption don’t cause toxic effects on tissues and don’t enhance cell destruction, that is evidenced by the absence of signs of endogenous intoxication and oxidative damage of functional macromolecules. Materials and methods. We used white mongrel male rats weighing 220-270 g (n = 20. Fixator consisting of a modified magnesium alloy ML-10 was implanted into the femur muscle mass of the animals of the experimental group (n = 14. The control group consisted of white mongrel male rats weighing 230-250 g (n = 6, which were not subjected to surgery (intact group. The degree of oxidative damage to proteins, the content of the average molecular weight, nucleic acids and the stable metabolites of nitric oxide were evaluated in plasma. Results and discussion. The studies revealed the reliable (relative to the intact group increase in the content of all fractions of middle molecules in the plasma of the experimental group of rats, the increase shows only that the immune system of animals with magnesium implants is in a reactive state and responds with minor release of biologically active substances into the bloodstream. At this rate of endogenous intoxication this exponent usually increases tenfold, but we have not seen that. Levels of stable metabolites of nitric oxide increase insignificantly(1,4 times, that likely indicates more on the start of adaptive signaling processes than a pathological condition. The experimental data concerning the content of nucleic acids in the plasma of animals with magnesium implants testifies in support of this hypothesis. There were no

  2. a cost-benefit analysis of farmer based seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    of farmer based common bean seed production in Kenya. The study used .... this limited our ability to assess the impact of management and other ... traditional method of broad casting seed rather than following the .... Handbook 1. Network on ...

  3. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya

    1988-01-01

    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  4. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio; Santagata, Gabriella; Malinconico, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The production and management of crops uses plastics for many applications (e.g., low tunnels, high tunnels, greenhouses, mulching, silage bags, hay bales, pheromone traps, coatings of fertilizers or pesticides or hormones or seeds, and nursery pots and containers for growing transplants). All these applications have led some authors to adopt the term "plasticulture" when discussing the use of plastic materials in agriculture and related industries. Unfortunately, the sustainability of this use of plastics is low, and renewability and degradability have become key words in the debate over sustainable production and utilization of plastic. Recently, researchers and the plastics industry have made strong efforts (i) to identify new biopolymers and natural additives from renewable sources that can be used in plastics production and (ii) to enhance the degradability (biological or physical) of the new ecologically sustainable materials. In the present review, we describe the main research results, current applications, patents that have been applied for in the last two decades, and future perspectives on sustainable use of plastics to support crop production. The article presents some promising patents on bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

  5. Biodegradable Microparticles for Simultaneous Detection of Counterfeit and Deteriorated Edible Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehor, Ivan; van Vreeswijk, Sophie; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.; Kegel, Willem K.; Eral, Huseyin Burak

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalized trade relations where food and pharmaceutical products cross borders effortlessly, consumers face counterfeit and deteriorated products at elevated rates. This paper presents multifunctional, biodegradable hydrogel microparticles that can provide information on the

  6. Production of quality/certified seed of fodder-crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, Pakistan has well developed Seed-production and certification Programme for major crops, but seed programme for fodder-crops is still not well organized. Availability of local certified seed, remained 250-350 mt for Berseem, Sorghum, maize, barley and oat. About 5000 to 9000 mt of seed has being imported during 2003-04 to 2005-06. Fodder Research Institute and jullundhur Seed Corporation have demonstrated a model of public/private partnership for initiation of certified seed of a few fodder crops. To produce quality seeds of fodder crops, various steps, procedures and prescribed standards have been given, which will help in production of quality seed of fodder crops in Pakistan. (author)

  7. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  8. Late Jute seed production in cropland agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Noor-E-Alam Jewel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers were not self-sufficient in jute seed production and cultivation to avoid use exotic jute seed from different resources. Though the conventional method of jute seed production was not enough to meet the demand of farmers because of shrinkage of jute seed production land. So, late jute seed production technique was applied in agroforestry systems at both established and newly developed orchards. The study was conducted in the selected three sites of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur. Both White (Corchorus capsularis L.cv. CVL-1 and Tossa (two popular cultivars, eg., Corchorus olitorius L. cv. O-9897, and cv. O-72 varieties were used for to evaluate the late jute seed production in cropland agroforestry in 2011- 2013. It was observed that 600 kg ha-1 to 725 kg ha-1 of jute seed was produced in different types of orchard plantation. Seeds from Litchi orchard showed the higher fiber yield (1051.11, 2511.11 and 3555.56 kg ha-1 at Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur, respectively than the mango orchard. Nutrient contents of soil in three sits were improved significantly due to the cultivation of late jute seed production. Moreover, late jute seed production in early stages of orchard plantation was more profitable and late jute can be produced economically for five to seven years depending on the plantations type and age.

  9. Economics of Mini tuber Seed Yam Production Technique in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcel

    Socio-economic studies on yam production conducted in Nigeria include Lageman (1977) .... the profitability of the mini tuber seed yam production technique as a guide .... production (with particular reference to Root Crops in the West Indies).

  10. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  11. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  12. Patterns of seed production and shrub association in two palatable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed production and shrub association patterns of the twopalatable shrubs. Tripteris sinuatum and Tetragoma froticosa were investigated on heavily grazed communal and lightly grazed commercial rangeland in the succulent karoo. Namaqualand. Seed production in both these species was substantially reduced on the ...

  13. Seed Production of Cutting Lettuce Varieties: Economical Facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights current problems of cutting lettuce seed production for all its variants. Research background is provided to the composition of material expenditures for growing of every variant in particular. Economical efficiency of seed production in line with varietal certification requirements has been reproved.

  14. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  15. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...

  16. Phosphate fertilization on production and quality of cauliflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Due to the scarcity of information related to the effect of fertilizers on production and quality of vegetable seeds, mainly on species which present an increase in the cycle, like cauliflower, more studies are necessary about the influence of nutrients rates which provide high production of high-quality seeds. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of rates of phosphorus (P on the production and quality of cauliflower seeds. Five rates of phosphorus were studied (0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200kg ha-1 of P2O5, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Production and quality (weight of a thousand seeds, germination test, first count of germination test and emergence in substrate of the seeds and soil chemical characteristics were evaluated. The higher the rate of phosphorus, the higher P content in the soil and values of sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and saturation of bases were observed at the end of the cycle. Seed quality was not affected by P fertilization, with the exception of the weight of a thousand seeds which was adjusted to a linear model. For seed production quadratic effect was obtained. The highest weight of seeds per plant was estimated for the rate of 862kg ha-1 of P2O5.

  17. Effects of environmental variation during seed production on seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven; MacGregor, Dana R

    2017-02-01

    The environment during seed production has major impacts on the behaviour of progeny seeds. It can be shown that for annual plants temperature perception over the whole life history of the mother can affect the germination rate of progeny, and instances have been documented where these affects cross whole generations. Here we discuss the current state of knowledge of signal transduction pathways controlling environmental responses during seed production, focusing both on events that take place in the mother plant and those that occur directly as a result of environmental responses in the developing zygote. We show that seed production environment effects are complex, involving overlapping gene networks active independently in fruit, seed coat, and zygotic tissues that can be deconstructed using careful physiology alongside molecular and genetic experiments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Potential of grass seed production for new lawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Vargas de Oliveira Maximino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paspalum and Axonopus genera are among the main warm season grasses used for lawns. The seed propagation contributes to the decrease of the cost of establishment, besides maintaining the exact characteristics of the mother plant genotype, because they are apomictic species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed production potential of seventeen grass accesses of the species Paspalum notatum, P. lepton, P. lividum and Axonopus parodii. The experiment was conducted at Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with four replications. The evaluated variables were: number of inflorescences per area, number of florets per inflorescence and seed production potential (SPP. In order to measure the seed production potential of the accesses, the equation proposed is: SPP = number of florets per inflorescence x number of inflorescences per m2 . There were year, access and interaction between years and accesses effect for the traits number of inflorescences per area and seed production potential. For the number of florets per inflorescence, there was no year effect. Potential production for the 2013/2014 harvest, ranged from 19,152.00 to 135,062.70 seeds m- ², with PN 09 of the P. notatum species standing out. In the 2014/2015 harvest, the seed production potential ranged from 9,973.75 to 81,536.75 seeds m- ², highlighting the access PN 11 of the species P. notatum. The accesses PN 11, PN 09, PN 10 and AP 01 were in the top third of the seed production potential ranking in the two harvests, and “grama-batatais” was in the lower third. There is genotype-environment interaction for all characteristics evaluated. However, there are accesses that show seed production potential consistently superior to the “grama-batatais” control, and have a greater potential for exploitation in the establishment of lawns by seeds.

  19. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  20. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  1. Measuring biodegradation of oil products by means of environmental forensic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J. R.; Garcia-Mtnez, M. J.; Ortiz, J. E.; Ortega, M.; Torres, T. de; Llamas, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Bioremediation technologies are focused to the biodegradation of organic pollutants. This approach is particularly helpful when soils and/or groundwater are affected by oil products spills, given the satisfactory biodegradability of most hydrocarbons. However, during a bio-treatment the decreasing in pollutants concentration may be due to both biotic and biotic processes, whose distinction is very important, albeit difficult, in order to evaluate if bioremediation is being properly applied. (Author)

  2. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development...... of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...

  3. Economic performance of community based bean seed production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited access to seed of improved varieties is an impediment to agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Researchers in the national and international agricultural research systems have been piloting a community based seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal ...

  4. Lettuce seeds production in hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Nilson Lemos de; Santos, Osmar Souza dos; Schmidt, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.Lettuce seeds of Deyse and Regina cultivars were produced in greenhouse, in hydroponic system, with excelents rendiments per plant and seed quality, when compared to con...

  5. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    -type festulolium, Paulita, and in a fescue-type festulolium, Hykor. The objectives were to examine the influence of row spacing (12, 24, and 36 cm) and seed rate (8, 12, or 16 kg ha-1) on plant establishment, development, and seed yield. Observations of autumn and spring in-row plant densities indicated......Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass...... satisfactory plant establishment in all combinations of seed rate and row spacing. The number of reproductive tillers was in the range from 800 to 2200 m-2 in Paulita and from 500 to 1300 m-2 in Hykor. Row spacing had an effect on the number of reproductive tillers and in both cultivars the highest number...

  6. Assessing Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant effects on the biodegradation of petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pollutant removal capabilities can be determined and exploited to accomplish bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments. Thus, increasing knowledge on environmental behavior of different petroleum products can lead to better bioremediation strategies. Biodegradation can be enhanced by adding biosurfactants to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism consortia. This work aimed to improve petroleum products biodegradation by using a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis. The produced biosurfactant was added to biodegradation assays containing crude oil, diesel, and kerosene. Biodegradation was monitored by a respirometric technique capable of evaluating CO₂ production in an aerobic simulated wastewater environment. The biosurfactant yielded optimal surface tension reduction (30.9 mN m(-1)) and emulsification results (46.90% with kerosene). Biodegradation successfully occurred and different profiles were observed for each substance. Precise mathematical modeling of biosurfactant effects on petroleum degradation profile was designed, hence allowing long-term kinetics prediction. Assays containing biosurfactant yielded a higher overall CO₂ output. Higher emulsification and an enhanced CO2 production dataset on assays containing biosurfactants was observed, especially in crude oil and kerosene.

  7. Shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands in the Ouachita and Ozark mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Robert F. Wittwer

    1996-01-01

    Seed production of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) was monitored from 1965 to 1974 to determine the periodicity qf seed crops in both woods-run stands and seed-production areas. One bumper and two good seed crops occurred during the 9-yr period. The two largest crops occurred in successive years, then seed production was low for 4 yr before...

  8. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  9. Dissolution Coupled Biodegradation of Pce by Inducing In-Situ Biosurfactant Production Under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, J.; Nambi, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have proven to enhance the bioavailability and thereby elevate the rate of degradation of Light Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) such as crude oil and petroleum derivatives. In spite of their superior characteristics, use of these biomolecules for remediation of Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) such as chlorinated solvents is still not clearly understood. In this present study, we have investigated the fate of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by inducing in-situ biosurfactants production, a sustainable option which hypothesizes increase in bioavailability of LNAPLs. In order to understand the effect of biosurfactants on dissolution and biodegradation under the inducement of in-situ biosurfactant production, batch experiments were conducted in pure liquid media. The individual influence of each process such as biosurfactant production, dissolution of PCE and biodegradation of PCE were studied separately for getting insights on the synergistic effect of each process on the fate of PCE. Finally the dissolution coupled biodegradation of non aqueous phase PCE was studied in conditions where biosurfactant production was induced by nitrate limitation. The effect of biosurfactants was differentiated by repeating the same experiments were the biosurfactant production was retarded. The overall effect of in-situ biosurfactant production process was evaluated by use of a mathematical model. The process of microbial growth, biosurfactant production, dissolution and biodegradation of PCE were translated as ordinary differential equations. The modelling exercise was mainly performed to get insight on the combined effects of various processes that determine the concentration of PCE in its aqueous and non-aqueous phases. Model simulated profiles of PCE with the kinetic coefficients evaluated earlier from individual experiments were compared with parameters fitted for observations in experiments with dissolution coupled biodegradation process using optimization

  10. Early Generation Seed Production and Supply in Ethiopia: Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karta K. Kalsa

    the institutionalization of early generation seed production in Ethiopia. .... (Bishaw and van Gastel, 2007) and cross-pollinated crops (Maize Program, 1999).The .... Louwaars, 1999) have been suggested to address some critical gaps in early ...

  11. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results .... reduction in free fatty acids. .... Development and Characterization of Biodiesel from Shea Nut ... comparative review of biodiesel production from Jatropha.

  12. Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and Its Economic Importance in Edo Central, Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  13. Effect of phosphorus and potassium on seed production of berseem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... 1Department of Agronomy, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. ... Key words: Berseem, seed production, phosphorus, potassium. ... important forage legumes in Pakistan and India which belongs ...

  14. Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and Its Economic Importance in Edo ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Irvingia gabonensis is one of the most important indigenous fruit trees cultivated and ...

  15. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    OpenAIRE

    Deleuran, L.C.; Gislum, R.; Boelt, B.

    2010-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due to its large importance in Danish agriculture. In a three-year trial six different methods of under-sowing of perennial ryegrass in a spring barley cover crop were employed. Perennial ryegrass was e...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  17. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  18. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum-polyvinyl alcohol biodegradable composite film: Physicochemical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjazeb Marvdashti, Leila; Koocheki, Arash; Yavarmanesh, Masoud

    2017-01-02

    Films made from Alyssum homolocarpum seeds gum (AHSG) have poor mechanical and barrier (to oxygen) properties. In the present study poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to improve the physicochemical properties of AHSG films. Results indicated that the addition of PVA significantly increased the moisture content, solubility, elongation at break (EB) and transparency while it decreased the density, oxygen permeability, chroma, water contact angle and Young modulus of AHSG based films. Films with higher AHSG to PVA ratios had lower water vapor permeability (WVP). The light barrier measurements presented low values of transparency at 600nm for PVA/AHSG films, indicating that films were very transparent while they had excellent barrier properties against UV light. Results for FTIR, DSC and SEM showed a clear interaction between PVA and AHSG, forming a new material. These results indicated that PVA/AHSG blend films had good compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of seeding with bacteria on biogas production rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangoggo, S.M. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry; Aliyu, M.; Atiku, A.T. [Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria). Energy Research Centre

    1996-09-01

    Biogas as a clean and cheap fuel is studied with the aim of determining the effect of seeding with bacteria on its production rate using four different substrates. The seeding with four different digesters was carried out with 5g of digested cowdung sludge obtained from a working digester. Results indicate that of all the substrates used for the studies, ipomea asarifobia produced the highest amount of biogas over a period of 40 days. (Author)

  20. Status of fish broodstock management and seed production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted with the broad objectives to assess the existing situation of broodstock management and fish seed production in private fish seed farms in Bangladesh. The data were collected from 100 private hatcheries and 40 nurseries in seven upazilas under four districts. There was no shed in forty hatcheries and the owners faced many problems. Brood fish ponds were found suitable for rearing brood fish. About 66% of the hatchery owners collected brood fish from their own ponds and...

  1. Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Naimeh; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Jouki, Mohammad

    2014-02-15

    It is well known that the market for edible films is experiencing remarkable growth and expected to continue. This study investigated the using of basil seed gum (BSG) as a new film-forming material under the influence of addition of glycerol (GLY) as plasticizer. Edible films based on BSG and three different concentrations of GLY (25%, 35%, and 50% w/w BSG) were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), as well as physical, thermal and mechanical properties were measured. The addition of glycerol significantly increased water vapor permeability and solubility of the film (p<0.05). As expected, the increase in GLY concentration from 25% to 50% (w/w) increased the extensibility, but decreased tensile strength. This suggests weaker mechanical strength and higher mobility of polymer chains by plasticizing effect of GLY. The color measurement values showed that increasing the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix caused the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. The electron scanning micrograph showed plasticized films as smooth, and uniform which lacked pores or cracks compared with those were not plasticized. This study revealed that the BSG had a good potential to be used in producing edible films for various food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IAA production during germination of Orobanche spp. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Slavtcho; van Onckelen, Henry; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Atanassov, Atanas; Prinsen, Els

    2004-07-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are parasitic plants, whose growth and development fully depend on the nutritional connection established between the parasite and the roots of the respective host plant. Phytohormones are known to play a role in establishing the specific Orobanche-host plant interaction. The first step in the interaction is seed germination triggered by a germination stimulant secreted by the host-plant roots. We quantified indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during the seed germination of tobacco broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) and sunflower broomrape (O. cumana). IAA was mainly released from Orobanche seeds in host-parasite interactions as compared to non-host-parasite interactions. Moreover, germinating seeds of O. ramosa released IAA as early as 24 h after the seeds were exposed to the germination stimulant, even before development of the germ tube. ABA levels remained unchanged during the germination of the parasites' seeds. The results presented here show that IAA production is probably part of a mechanism triggering germination upon the induction by the host factor, thus resulting in seed germination.

  3. Estimating Production Technical Efficiency of Irvingia Seed (Ogbono ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated the production technical efficiency of irvingia seed (Ogbono) farmers in Nsukka agricultural zone in Enugu State, Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of the importance of efficiency as a factor of productivity in a growing economy like Nigeria where resources are scarce and opportunities for new ...

  4. Manipulation of microtubers for direct field utilization in seed production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Astatkie, T.; Duplessis, P.; Stewart, L.; Nowak, J.; Struik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    A two-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of jasmonic acid (JA), light (during in vitro explant production and in vitro tuberization phases), and dormancy-breaking treatment on performance of microtubers in the production of seed tubers (pre-elite) in five potato cultivars.

  5. Clonal variation in growth, flowering and cone production in a seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... production in a seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in ... one of the important seed sources for forest plantations. And also, these seed ...... Ph.D. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umea ,. Sweden.

  6. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. seed Production and Poverty Reduction: Case of Dodoma Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of seed production to poverty reduction at household level in the participating villages was studied. Food security and household income was used as proxy indicators of poverty. Data was collected through a cross section survey using a structured questionnaire. The average incomes / Adjusted Adult ...

  8. Seed constraint to cultivation and productivity of African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-availability of improved seeds constitutes a major constraint to the cultivation and productivity of the indigenous leaf vegetables (ILVs) of Africa. Research on African ILVs has focused mainly on the ethnobotany, collection, preservation, and the assessment of food value and chemical composition of the ILVs. No serious ...

  9. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  10. Towards sustainable seed production of centro in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2000, 5: 13- 15. Printed in Uganda. ... cassava tuber yield. Production costs of I kg of seed were Shs 1200, 2000 and 3700 for centro ... of cassava are the second most important staple food of those ...

  11. Quality Assurance Procedure Development in Iodine-125 Seeds Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, J.A.; Moura, E.S.; Sprenger, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Brachytherapy using Iodine-125 seeds has been used in prostate cancer treatment. In the quality control routine during seed production, leak tests are made to detect any leakage of radioactive material from inside the titanium shield. Leak tests are made according to the International Standard Organization- Radiation protection - sealed radioactive sources - ISO 9978 standard, and require liquid transfer between recipients. If any leakage happens, there will be contamination of the liquid and tubing. This study aims to establish decontamination routines for tubing, allowing its repeated use, in the automated assay process

  12. Interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seeds as energy feedstock and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation: current advanced molecular spectroscopic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Xin, Hangshu; Ban, Yajing; Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-05-07

    Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation.

  13. Activated sludge is a potential source for production of biodegradable plastics from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, A; Guha, P K; Kumar, M S; Mudliar, S N; Chakrabarti, T

    2005-05-01

    Increased utilization of synthetic plastics caused severe environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. In the search for environmentally friendly materials to substitute for conventional plastics, different biodegradable plastics have been developed by microbial fermentations. However, limitations of these materials still exist due to high cost. This study aims at minimization of cost for the production of biodegradable plastics P(3HB) and minimization of environmental pollution. The waste biological sludge generated at wastewater treatment plants is used for the production of P(3HB) and wastewater is used as carbon source. Activated sludge was induced by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymer. Initially polymer accumulation was studied by using different carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximum accumulation of polymer was observed with carbon source acetic acid and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) as nitrogen source. Further studies were carried out to optimize the carbon: nitrogen ratios using acetic acid and DAHP. A maximum of 65.84% (w/w) P(3HB) production was obtained at C/N ratio of 50 within 96 hours of incubation.

  14. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Pierce

    Full Text Available The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds.

  15. Perfusion seed cultures improve biopharmaceutical fed-batch production capacity and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Lu, Jiuyi; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Yuan, Hang; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric productivity and product quality are two key performance indicators for any biopharmaceutical cell culture process. In this work, we showed proof-of-concept for improving both through the use of alternating tangential flow perfusion seed cultures coupled with high-seed fed-batch production cultures. First, we optimized the perfusion N-1 stage, the seed train bioreactor stage immediately prior to the production bioreactor stage, to minimize the consumption of perfusion media for one CHO cell line and then successfully applied the optimized perfusion process to a different CHO cell line. Exponential growth was observed throughout the N-1 duration, reaching >40 × 10(6) vc/mL at the end of the perfusion N-1 stage. The cultures were subsequently split into high-seed (10 × 10(6) vc/mL) fed-batch production cultures. This strategy significantly shortened the culture duration. The high-seed fed-batch production processes for cell lines A and B reached 5 g/L titer in 12 days, while their respective low-seed processes reached the same titer in 17 days. The shortened production culture duration potentially generates a 30% increase in manufacturing capacity while yielding comparable product quality. When perfusion N-1 and high-seed fed-batch production were applied to cell line C, higher levels of the active protein were obtained, compared to the low-seed process. This, combined with correspondingly lower levels of the inactive species, can enhance the overall process yield for the active species. Using three different CHO cell lines, we showed that perfusion seed cultures can optimize capacity utilization and improve process efficiency by increasing volumetric productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Effect of cesium seeding on hydrogen negative ion volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacal, M.; Balghiti-Sube, F. El; Elizarov, L. I.; Tontegode, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of cesium vapor partial pressure on the plasma parameters has been studied in the dc hybrid negative ion source ''CAMEMBERT III.'' The cesium vapor pressure was varied up to 10 -5 Torr and was determined by a surface ionization gauge in the absence of the discharge. The negative ion relative density measured by laser photodetachment in the center of the plasma extraction region increases by a factor of four when the plasma is seeded with cesium. However the plasma density and the electron temperature (determined using a cylindrical electrostatic probe) are reduced by the cesium seeding. As a result, the negative ion density goes up by a factor of two at the lowest hydrogen pressure studied. The velocity of the directed negative ion flow to the plasma electrode, determined from two-laser beam photodetachment experiments, appears to be affected by the cesium seeding. The variation of the extracted negative ion and electron currents versus the plasma electrode bias will also be reported for pure hydrogen and cesium seeded plasmas. The cesium seeding leads to a dramatic reduction of the electron component, which is consistent with the reduced electron density and temperature. The negative ion current is enhanced and a goes through a maximum at plasma electrode bias lower than 1 V. These observations lead to the conclusion that the enhancement of pure volume production occurs in this type of plasma. Possible mechanisms for this type of volume process will be discussed

  17. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  18. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  19. INTRODUCTION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PACKING FROM SECONDARY MATERIAL RESOURCES OF FOOD PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For increase of profitability of the food enterprises, decrease in an ecological trace from technogenic activity of the food industry the concept of development of low-waste and waste-free productions considered on the example of technology of receiving a biodegradable packing material from secondary material resources of food productions is offered: beer pellet, beet press, spirit bards, Pancake week press and bone glue. The technology of receiving biodegradable material from secondary material resources of food productions includes itself the following main stages: dehydration, crushing, mixing, leveling, formation, glazing. Advantage of the offered product consists of: - low cost of packing due to use of secondary material resources and full naturalness (now the raw materials for biodegradable packing specially are grown up on technical fields with use of GMO; - full decomposition in nature less than in 6 months according to GOST R 54533-2011 (EN 13432:2000 "Resource-saving. Packing. Requirements, criteria and the scheme of utilization of packing by means of a composting and biological decomposition"; - presence at the compost received at decomposition, the elements promoting increase of fertility of the soil. Application of technology allows reach at the same time three effects of a positive orientation: economic, ecological and social.

  20. Biological control of Alternaria radicina in seed production of carrots with Ulocladium atrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Langerak, C.J.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Black rot of carrots is caused by seed-borne Alternaria radicina. Biological control of seed infestation by treatments applied to plants in flower during seed production with the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum was investigated in laboratory and field experiments resulting in a reduction of seed

  1. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stages of certification including seeding, harvesting, processing, and labeling of the seed. (b) The unit... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED...

  2. Biodegradation of free cyanide and subsequent utilisation of biodegradation by-products by Bacillus consortia: optimisation using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed; Jackson, Vanessa Angela

    2015-07-01

    A mesophilic alkali-tolerant bacterial consortium belonging to the Bacillus genus was evaluated for its ability to biodegrade high free cyanide (CN(-)) concentration (up to 500 mg CN(-)/L), subsequent to the oxidation of the formed ammonium and nitrates in a continuous bioreactor system solely supplemented with whey waste. Furthermore, an optimisation study for successful cyanide biodegradation by this consortium was evaluated in batch bioreactors (BBs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The input variables, that is, pH, temperature and whey-waste concentration, were optimised using a numerical optimisation technique where the optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pH 9.88, temperature 33.60 °C and whey-waste concentration of 14.27 g/L, under which 206.53 mg CN(-)/L in 96 h can be biodegraded by the microbial species from an initial cyanide concentration of 500 mg CN(-)/L. Furthermore, using the optimised data, cyanide biodegradation in a continuous mode was evaluated in a dual-stage packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) connected in series to a pneumatic bioreactor system (PBS) used for simultaneous nitrification, including aerobic denitrification. The whey-supported Bacillus sp. culture was not inhibited by the free cyanide concentration of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L, with an overall degradation efficiency of ≥ 99 % with subsequent nitrification and aerobic denitrification of the formed ammonium and nitrates over a period of 80 days. This is the first study to report free cyanide biodegradation at concentrations of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L in a continuous system using whey waste as a microbial feedstock. The results showed that the process has the potential for the bioremediation of cyanide-containing wastewaters.

  3. Polylactide-based renewable composites from natural products residues by encapsulated film bag: characterization and biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the biodegradability, morphology, and mechanical properties of composite materials consisting of acrylic acid-grafted polylactide (PLA-g-AA) and natural products residues (corn starch, CS) were evaluated. Composites containing acrylic acid-grafted PLA (PLA-g-AA/CS) exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties due to their greater compatibility with CS compared with PLA/CS. The feasibility of using PLA-g-AA/CS as a film bag material to facilitate the controlled release of an encapsulated phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) Burkholderia cepacia as a fertilizer use promoter was then evaluated. For purposes of comparison and accurate characterization, a PLA film bag was also assessed. The results showed that the bacterium completely degraded both the PLA and the PLA-g-AA/CS composite film bags, resulting in cell release. The PLA-g-AA/CS (20 wt%) film bags were more biodegradable than those made of PLA, and displayed a higher loss of molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity, indicating a strong connection between these characteristics and biodegradability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sorption and biodegradation characteristics of the selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products onto tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Mahsa; Hu, Jiangyong; Tran, Ngoc Han; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sorption and biodegradation characteristics of five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET) and salicylic acid (SA), were studied in laboratory-batch experiments. Sorption kinetics experimental data showed that sorption systems under this study were more appropriately described by the pseudo second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient (R2)>0.98. Sorption equilibrium data of almost all target compounds onto soil could be better described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm model. The adsorption results showed higher soil affinity for SA, following by ACT. Results also indicated a slight effect of pH on PPCP adsorption with lower pH causing lower adsorption of compounds onto the soil except for SA at pH 12. Moreover, adsorption of PPCPs onto the soil was influenced by natural organic matter (NOM) since the higher amount of NOM caused lower adsorption to the soil. Biodegradation studies of selected PPCPs by indigenous microbial community present in soil appeared that the removal rates of ACT, SA and DEET increased with time while no effect had been observed for the rest. This study suggests that the CBZ and CTMT can be considered as suitable chemical sewage indicators based on their low sorption affinity and high resistance to biodegradation.

  5. Biodegradation of sulfamethoxazole photo-transformation products in a water/sediment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tong; Deng, Huiping; Benskin, Jonathan P; Radke, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in the aquatic environment is of concern due to its potential to induce antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. While degradation of SMX can occur by numerous processes, the environmental fate of its transformation products (TPs) remains poorly understood. In the present work, biodegradation of SMX photo-TPs was investigated in a water/sediment system. Photo-TPs were produced by exposing SMX to artificial sunlight for 48 h. The resulting mixture of 8 photo-TPs was characterized using a combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, and then used in biodegradation experiments. Significant differences in transformation among SMX photo-TPs were observed in the water/sediment system, with four photo-TPs displaying evidence of biodegradation (dissipation half-lives [DT50] of 39.7 d for 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole, 12.7 d for 4-nitro-sulfamethxoazole, 7.6 d for an SMX isomer and 2.4 d for [C10H13N3O4S]), two displaying primarily abiotic degradation (DT50 of 31 d for sulfanilic acid and 74.9 d for 5-methylisoxazol-3-yl-sulfamate), and two photo-TPs behaving largely recalcitrantly. Remarkably, TPs previously reported to be photo-stable also were persistent in biodegradation experiments. The most surprising observation was an increase in SMX concentrations when the irradiated solution was incubated, which we attribute to back-transformation of certain photo-TPs by sediment bacteria (85% from 4-nitro-sulfamethoxazole). This process could contribute to exposure to SMX in the aquatic environment that is higher than one would expect based on the fate of SMX alone. The results highlight the importance of considering TPs along with their parent compounds when characterizing environmental risks of emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Seed Priming on Performance and Water Productivity of Direct Seeded Rice in Alternating Wetting and Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Ur Rehman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct seeded rice is promising alternative to traditional transplanting, but requires appropriate crop and water management to maintain yield performance and achieve high water productivity. Present study evaluated the effect of seed priming and irrigation on crop establishment, tillering, agronomic traits, paddy yield, grain quality and water productivity of direct seeded rice in alternate wetting and drying (DSR-AWD in comparison with direct seeded rice at field capacity (DSR-FC. Seed priming treatments were osmo-priming with KCl (2.2%, CaCl2 (2.2% and moringa leaf extracts (MLE, 3.3% including hydro-priming as control. Among the treatments, seed osmo-primed with MLE emerged earlier and had higher final emergence, followed by osmo-priming with CaCl2. Tillering emergence rate and number of tillers per plant were the highest for seed priming with CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Total productive and non-productive tillers, panicle length, biological and grain yields, harvest index were highest for seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Similarly, grain quality, estimated in terms of normal grains, abortive and chalky grains, was also the highest in DSR-AWD with MLE osmo-priming. Benefit cost ratio and water productivity was also the highest in DSR-AWD for seed priming with MLE. In conclusion, seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 can be successfully employed to improve the direct seeded rice performance when practiced with alternate wetting and drying irrigation.

  7. Production and analysis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present reported work was conducted to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed, followed with the production of biodiesel via transesterification of resultant oil. The effects of methanol-to-oil ratio 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1 and 6:1, reaction time of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180min, at constant operating temperature of 60oC were ...

  8. Methanogenic Paraffin Biodegradation: Alkylsuccinate Synthase Gene Quantification and Dicarboxylic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberding, Lisa K; Gieg, Lisa M

    2018-01-01

    Paraffinic n -alkanes (>C 17 ) that are solid at ambient temperature comprise a large fraction of many crude oils. The comparatively low water solubility and reactivity of these long-chain alkanes can lead to their persistence in the environment following fuel spills and pose serious problems for crude oil recovery operations by clogging oil production wells. However, the degradation of waxy paraffins under the anoxic conditions characterizing contaminated groundwater environments and deep subsurface energy reservoirs is poorly understood. Here, we assessed the ability of a methanogenic culture enriched from freshwater fuel-contaminated aquifer sediments to biodegrade the model paraffin n -octacosane (C 28 H 58 ). Compared with that in controls, the consumption of n -octacosane was coupled to methane production, demonstrating its biodegradation under these conditions. Smithella was postulated to be an important C 28 H 58 degrader in the culture on the basis of its high relative abundance as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. An identified assA gene (known to encode the α subunit of alkylsuccinate synthase) aligned most closely with those from other Smithella organisms. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription qPCR assays for assA demonstrated significant increases in the abundance and expression of this gene in C 28 H 58 -degrading cultures compared with that in controls, suggesting n -octacosane activation by fumarate addition. A metabolite analysis revealed the presence of several long-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acids only in the C 28 H 58 -degrading cultures, a novel observation providing clues as to how methanogenic consortia access waxy hydrocarbons. The results of this study broaden our understanding of how waxy paraffins can be biodegraded in anoxic environments with an application toward bioremediation and improved oil recovery. IMPORTANCE Understanding the methanogenic biodegradation of different classes of hydrocarbons has important

  9. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  10. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  11. Production of biodegradable plastic by polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating bacteria using low cost agricultural waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Anteneh; Woldesenbet, Fantahun

    2016-12-12

    Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are macromolecules synthesized by bacteria. They are inclusion bodies accumulated as reserve materials when the bacteria grow under different stress conditions. Because of their fast degradability under natural environmental conditions, PHBs are selected as alternatives for production of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this work was to isolate potential PHB producing bacteria, evaluate PHB production using agro-residues as carbon sources. Among fifty bacterial strains isolated from different localities, ten PHB accumulating strains were selected and compared for their ability to accumulate PHB granules inside their cells. Isolate Arba Minch Waste Water (AWW) identified as Bacillus spp was found to be the best producer. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period for best PHB production by the isolate were 7, 37 °C, and 48 h respectively at 150 rpm. PHB production was best with glucose as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source. The strain was able to accumulate 55.6, 51.6, 37.4 and 25% PHB when pretreated sugar cane bagasse, corn cob, teff straw (Eragrostis tef) and banana peel were used as carbon sources respectively. Fourier transform-infrared authentication results of the extracted and purified PHB identified its functional units as C-H, CH 2 , C=O and C-O groups. UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis and biodegradability test confirmed the similarity of the extract with standard PHB and its suitability for bioplastic production. The isolated Bacillus sp can be used for feasible production of PHB using agro-residues especially sugarcane bagasse which can reduce the production cost in addition to reducing the disposal problem of these substrates. The yield of PHB can further be boosted by optimization of production parameters as substrates.

  12. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of biodegradable mulch for tomato and broccoli production: Crop yield and quality, mulch deterioration, and growers' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jeremy Scott

    Biodegradable mulch may offer the benefits of polyethylene mulch for crop production with the added benefit of biodegradability. Four studies were carried out in Mount Vernon, WA to evaluate biodegradable mulch for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) production. The first study compared four biodegradable mulch treatments: BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus (cellulose product), and SB-PLA-10/11/12 (experimental, non-woven fabric), to polyethylene mulch and bare ground in high tunnels and in the open field for tomato yield and fruit quality over three growing seasons. Biodegradable plastic films produced yields and fruit quality comparable to polyethylene. Moreover, high tunnels increased total and marketable fruit weight five and eight times, respectively, compared to the open field. The second study quantified relationships among visual assessment parameters and mulch mechanical properties. Visual assessments and mechanical property tests of polyethylene, BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus, and SB-PLA-10/11/12, were made over three growing seasons. Regression analyses found the strongest relationship overall (r2 = 0.41) to be between the percent of initial breaking force in the machine direction and log 10 of percent visual deterioration. However, evaluating mulch products individually and increasing sample frequency are recommended for future research. The third study evaluated three biodegradable mulch products, BioAgri, Crown 1, and SB-PLA-11, after soil-incorporation. The average area of recovered mulch fragments decreased for all mulch products over time. The number of mulch fragments initially increased for all mulch products, with the greatest number of Crown 1 and BioAgri fragments recovered 132 and 299 days after incorporation, respectively. At 397 days after soil-incorporation, the total area of recovered fragments of Crown 1 and BioAgri was 0% and 34% of the theoretical maximum area, respectively. The fourth study

  14. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  15. Enhancing sludge biodegradability and volatile fatty acid production by tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Bao, Xian; Yin, Ren-Li; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Zheng, He-Shan; Luo, Hai-Chao; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-09-01

    A new pretreatment method based on tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide was tried to enhance sludge disintegration, and improved sludge biodegradability and subsequent volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Sludge activity decreased to less than 10% after 2 days pretreatment using 20mg/g-TSS THPS, which also obviously destroyed EPS and cell membrane, and dissolved more biodegradable substances (48.8%) than raw sludge (19.7%). Moreover, 20mg/g-TSS THPS pretreatment shortened fermentation time to 4days and improved VFA production to 2778mg COD/L (4.35 times than that in control). Therein, the sum of n-butyric, n-valeric and iso-valeric acids unexpectedly accounted for 60.5% of total VFA (only 20.1% of that in control). The more high molecular weight VFAs (C4-C5) than low molecular VFAs (C2-C3) resulted from THPS pretreatment benefited to subsequent medium-chain volatile acids (C6-C12) generation to realize the separation and recovery of organic carbon more efficiently. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Combustible gas production (methane) and biodegradation of solid and liquid mixtures of meat industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, A.; Al-Kassir, A.; Cuadros, F.; Lopez-Rodriguez, F. [School of Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. De Elva, s/n, 06071, Badajoz (Spain); Mohamad, A.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This work is devoted to determine the optimal operational conditions on the methane production as well as on the biodegradation obtained from the anaerobic codigestion of solid (fat, intestines, rumen, bowels, whiskers, etc.) and liquid (blood, washing water, manure, etc.) wastes of meat industry, particularly the ones rising from the municipal slaughterhouse of Badajoz (Spain). The experiments were performed using a 2 l capacity discontinuous digester at 38 C. The loading rate were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4.5 g COD for wastewater (washing water and blood; Mixture 1), and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 g COD for the co-digestion of a mixture of 97% liquid effluent and 3% solid wastes v/v (Mixture 2) which represents the annual mean composition of the waste generated by the slaughterhouse. The maximal biodegradation rates obtained were: Mixture 1, 56.9% for a COD load of 1 g; and Mixture 2, 19.1% for a COD load of 2 g. For both mixtures, the greatest methane production was for the maximum COD load (4.5 g for Mixture 1, and 4 g for Mixture 2), at which values the amounts of methane obtained during and at the end of the co-digestion were practically indistinguishable between the two mixtures. The results will be used to design, construct, and establish the optimal operating conditions of a continuous complete-mixture biodigester. (author)

  17. Effect of temperature on aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A K; Chourasia, H K

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of temperature on the level of aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds. The highest level of aflatoxin B1 (1.75 micrograms/g) was detected in the samples incubated at 25 degrees C for three weeks. At 20, 30, and 35 degrees C, aflatoxin levels were 0.30 to 0.56, 0.37 to 1.20, and 0.26 to 0.65 micrograms/g, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin B1 (0.10 to 0.29 microgram/g) was produced at 15 degrees C. PMID:2719482

  18. RADISH SEED PRODUCTION (TRANSPLANTATION CULTURE; STANDARD OF ORGANISATION FOR MODEL TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Pavlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of organization for model technological process of seed production waselaborated at VNIISSOK. Requirements established are for implementation of technological operation at radish seed production as transplantation culture as followed: seed plant growing in polyhouses to produce elite seeds, seedlings planting out, plant nursing, harvesting and postharvest processing. The standard is aimed to provide the qualified work in radish seed production through transplantation culture. Radish seed plants for elite seed production are grown on warmed soil beds in winter greenhouses with use of plastic roofing or in plastic houses supplied with heating system. Seeds with germination not less than 85 % according to GOST 32592-2013 are taken for seed production aims. Hand sowing under marker ensures the identical all-around nutrition for plants that is particularly important when growing and selecting the seed plants (1 hectare - 55-60 thousand seed plant roots. Approbation of seed plants is carried out just before harvesting. The terms of seed plant planting are the earliest. Scheme of planting is 70 x 15 - 20 (cm, 60 x 30 (cm or 90 x 15 (cm. To protect the seed production plantation of radish against weeds, diseases and pests, the pesticides are allowed to apply in accordance with State Catalogue of Pesticides and Agrochemicals, permitted to use in the territory of Russian Federation. Postharvest desiccation of seed plants enables to yield radish by means of direct combining. Radish seeds after processing on sowing qualities have to meet all sowing requirements according to the acting standard. The standard of organization is agreed and affirmed in 2016 CTO45727225-52-16.

  19. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  20. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  1. Preventing an increase in Verticillium wilt incidence in spinach seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2014-01-01

    A semifield assay was conducted from 2009 to 2011 to distinguish between different preventive methods of reducing Verticillium spp. in spinach seed production. The seed treatments for controlling seed infection levels included Thiram, Signum, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum and Natural II...

  2. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Novizar; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Yuliani, Sri; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar; Salimon, Jumat; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2014-01-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG) in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH co...

  3. Biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide by bacteria isolated from production water after polymer flooding in an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Mutai; Chen Qingguo; Li Yiming; Jiang Guancheng

    2010-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in production water after polymer flooding in oil filed causes environmental problems, such as increases the difficulty in oil-water separation, degrades naturally to produce toxic acrylamide and endanger local ecosystem. Biodegradation of HPAM may be an efficient way to solve these problems. The biodegradability of HPAM in an aerobic environment was studied. Two HPAM-degrading bacterial strains, named PM-2 and PM-3, were isolated from the produced water of polymer flooding. They were subsequently identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sp., respectively. The utilization of HPAM by the two strains was explored. The amide group of HPAM could serve as a nitrogen source for the two microorganisms, the carbon backbone of these polymers could be partly utilized by microorganisms. The HPAM samples before and after bacterial biodegradation were analyzed by the infrared spectrum, high performance liquid chromatography and scanning electronic microscope. The results indicated that the amide group of HPAM in the biodegradation products had been converted to a carboxyl group, and no acrylamide monomer was found. The HPAM carbon backbone was metabolized by the bacteria during the course of its growth. Further more, the hypothesis about the biodegradation of HPAM in aerobic bacterial culture is proposed.

  4. Enhancement of Surfactin and Fengycin Production by Bacillus mojavensis A21: Application for Diesel Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Hanen; Jacques, Philippe; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-01-01

    This work concerns the study of the enhancement of surfactin and fengycin production by B. mojavensis A21 and application of the produced product in diesel biodegradation. The influences of the culture medium and cells immobilization were studied. The highest lipopeptides production was achieved after 72 hours of incubation in a culture medium containing 30 g/L glucose as carbon source and a combination of yeast extract (1 g/L) and glutamic acid (5 g/L) as nitrogen sources with initial pH 7.0 at 30°C and 90% volumetric aeration. The study of primary metabolites production showed mainly the production of acetoin, with a maximum production after 24 h of strain growth. The use of immobilized cells seemed to be a promising method for improving lipopeptides productivity. In fact, the synthesis of both lipopeptides, mainly fengycin, was greatly enhanced by the immobilization of A21 cells. An increase of diesel degradation capacity of approximately 20, 27, and 40% in the presence of 0.5, 1, and 2 g/L of produced lipopeptides, respectively, was observed. Considering these properties, B. mojavensis A21 strain producing a lipopeptide mixture, containing both surfactin and fengycin, may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in bioremediation and crop protection. PMID:29082251

  5. Enhancement of Surfactin and Fengycin Production by Bacillus mojavensis A21: Application for Diesel Biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomen Hmidet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the study of the enhancement of surfactin and fengycin production by B. mojavensis A21 and application of the produced product in diesel biodegradation. The influences of the culture medium and cells immobilization were studied. The highest lipopeptides production was achieved after 72 hours of incubation in a culture medium containing 30 g/L glucose as carbon source and a combination of yeast extract (1 g/L and glutamic acid (5 g/L as nitrogen sources with initial pH 7.0 at 30°C and 90% volumetric aeration. The study of primary metabolites production showed mainly the production of acetoin, with a maximum production after 24 h of strain growth. The use of immobilized cells seemed to be a promising method for improving lipopeptides productivity. In fact, the synthesis of both lipopeptides, mainly fengycin, was greatly enhanced by the immobilization of A21 cells. An increase of diesel degradation capacity of approximately 20, 27, and 40% in the presence of 0.5, 1, and 2 g/L of produced lipopeptides, respectively, was observed. Considering these properties, B. mojavensis A21 strain producing a lipopeptide mixture, containing both surfactin and fengycin, may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in bioremediation and crop protection.

  6. Value of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Seed Treatments in Mid-South Corn (Zea mays) Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J H; Gore, J; Catchot, A L; Stewart, S D; Lorenz, G M; Musser, F R; Cook, D R; Kerns, D L; Leonard, B R; Dodds, D M

    2018-02-09

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are one of several effective control options used in corn, Zea mays L., production in the Mid-South for early season insect pests. An analysis was performed on 91 insecticide seed treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoids in corn production systems. The analysis compared neonicotinoid insecticide treated seed plus a fungicide to seed only with the same fungicide. When analyzed by state, corn yields were significantly higher when neonicotinoid seed treatments were used compared to fungicide only treated seed in Louisiana and Mississippi. Corn seed treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments yielded 111, 1,093, 416, and 140 kg/ha, higher than fungicide only treatments for Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Across all states, neonicotinoid seed treatments resulted in a 700 kg/ha advantage compared to fungicide only treated corn seed. Net returns for corn treated with neonicotinoid seed treatment were $1,446/ha compared with $1,390/ha for fungicide only treated corn seed across the Mid-South. Economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treated corn were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated corn seed in 8 out of 14 yr. When analyzed by state, economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treatments were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated seed in Louisiana. In some areas, dependent on year, neonicotinoid seed treatments provide significant yield and economic benefits in Mid-South corn. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Production of green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from renewable resources of agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahman, Yaser; Ugwu, Charles U

    2014-08-01

    This work describes potential opportunities for utilization of agro-industrial residues to produce green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Wheat straws were examined with good efficacy of carbon substrates using Cupriavidus necator. Production was examined in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) in the presence and absence of WS hydrolysis enzymes, and in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes. Results showed that production of PHB in SSF was more efficient in terms of viable cell count, cell dry weight, and PHB production and yield compared to those of SHF and glucose-control cultures. While glucose control experiment produced 4.6 g/L PHB; SSF produced 10.0 g/L compared to 7.1 g/L in SHF when utilizing enzymes during WS hydrolysis. Results showed that most of sugars produced during the hydrolysis were consumed in SHF (~98 %) compared to 89.2 % in SSF. Results also demonstrated that a combination of glucose and xylose can compensate for the excess carbon required for enhancing PHB production by C. necator. However, higher concentration of sugars at the beginning of fermentation in SHF can lead to cell inhibition and consequently catabolite repressions. Accordingly, results demonstrated that the gradual release of sugars in SSF enhanced PHB production. Moreover, the presence of sugars other than glucose and xylose can eliminate PHB degradation in medium of low carbon substrate concentrations in SSF.

  8. Flowering and seed production in seven hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted J. Grisez

    1975-01-01

    As forest management has grown more intensive in the cherry-maple and oak forests of the Allegheny region, the need for additional knowledge of the seeding habits of important tree species has become apparent. Reproduction of new stands after cutting depends, to a large extent, on an adequate seed supply. And seeds and friuts represent an important source of food for...

  9. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Anirban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem. Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. Results In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. Conclusion This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on

  10. Production, Marketing and Value Chain Mapping of 'Srijana' Tomato Hybrid Seed in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Thapa Magar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A tomato variety known as ‘Srijana’ developed by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC has been substantially popular among Nepalese farmers and entrepreneurs. To understand the seed value chain of the Srijana hybrid tomato, a survey was conducted in 2014/15 with public research and extension institutions, private seed companies/firms, non-governmental organization and community group including individual farmers, involved in Srijana tomato seed production. The survey covered random selection of 30 agro-vets and 30 farmers in Kathmandu valley, Kavre, Nuwakot, Dolakha and Kaski districts, Nepal where production of Srijana tomato seed is mostly concentrated. A focus group discussion was also conducted with commercial tomato farmers in each of the study districts. The study showed a total production of 293 kg Srijana seed having a value of around 47 million Nepalese Rupees (US $ 470 thousands in year 2013/14. Private sector was the dominant actor sharing about 85% of the total Srijana seed production followed by non-governmental organization (10%, farmers group (3% and governmental station/farm/centers (2%, respectively. Out of the total Srijana seed produced, about 95% was consumed in domestic market while 5% was exported to India. The study revealed increasing trend of production, supply and price of Srijana tomato seed. About 0.3 million NRs (US $ 3,000 profit was estimated through the production of Srijana tomato seed in 0.05 hectares (500 m2 of land. Agro-vets (private sector seed dealers were the major actors for supplying the seed from the producers to farms and received a higher profit margins. The farmers producing and selling the seed in technical assistance of public agencies received higher producer`s share (66.6% than farmers producing and selling seed through own group (60%, technical assistance of non-governmental organization (53.3%, and in contract with private seed companies (26.7%. Majority of commercial tomato farmers

  11. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  12. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to producecavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system forimproving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was usedunder constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound canreduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describecorrelation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 –7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  13. Local seed businesses in Uganda: a market-oriented approach towards community seed production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated seed sector development (ISSD) programme aims to improve food security and economic development, by providing smallholder farmers with sustainable access to quality seed of superior varieties. The specific objective of the programme is to create a vibrant, pluralistic and

  14. Uptake and biodegradation of the antimicrobial sulfadimidine by the species Tripolium pannonicum acting as biofilter and its further biodegradation by anaerobic digestion and concomitant biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-11-01

    This project analyses the uptake and biodegradation of the antimicrobial sulfadimidine (SDI) from the culture medium and up to the anaerobic digestion. Tripolium pannonicum was grown under hydroponic conditions with different concentrations of SDI (0, 5 and 10mg·L(-1)) and the fresh biomass, containing different amounts of SDI taken up, was used as substrate for biogas production. SDI was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI LC-MS). Based on the findings, T. pannonicum is able to uptake SDI. The more SDI is in the culture medium, the higher the SDI content in the plant tissue. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of biogas using biomass of T. pannonicum containing SDI and at the same time biodegradation of SDI is carried out. The highest specific biogas yield is obtained using shoots as substrate of the plants cultivated at 5mg·L(-1) SDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Socio-economic analysis of maize seed production in Arghakhanchi district of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Bajracharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the socioeconomic condition of maize seed and non-seed producers. A field survey was carried out in sixty households of Khanchikot VDC of Arghakhanchi district during May, 2014. The district was major seed producing district and Khanchikot was found better in seed production than other VDC in district. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data using pre-tested interview schedule. About 57% were seed producer among the sample. The average family size of household was 5. Dependency ratio was less in seed producing households (0.41 than non-seed producers (0.72. Farmers were involved in the production of certified seed and the major (50% source of foundation seed was National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan. The external input like chemical fertilizer was used in fewer amounts in the study area. The seed test was done at regional laboratory, Bhairahawa and sold to DADO, Arghakhanchi. Decision on loan taking, business operation and bank account were taken by males whereas cropping pattern, deficit labor use, religious and social works related decision were taken by females in the household. Major problem in maize production were lack of technical assistance followed by inadequate irrigation facilities. Proper training, extension service and government support on inputs would help in better socio-economic condition and production of maize.

  16. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available roduction of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation in which the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production is commonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate mass transfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA which may reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonification has been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to produce cavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system for improving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was used under constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound can reduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describe correlation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 – 7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2 ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet. 

  18. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  19. Production of Pd 103 seed from Rh targets for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afarideh, H.; Ardaneh, K.; Sadeghi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The suitability of a given radionuclide for brachytherapy is determined by its half-life, the type of energy, and abundance (number per decay) of its emission. The half-life of a radionuclide must be long enough to permit shipping and implant preparation with an acceptable loss of source strength due to decay, but it must also be short enough to permit source sizes sufficiently small for the intended application. Pd-103 is a low energy photon emitter available for permanent interstitial implantation. Pd-103 has energy and safety characteristics similar to I-125, but its initial peripheral dose rate is approximately three times greater. This may provide improved control of rapidly proliferating tumours. Although Pd-103 has been used for various kinds of cancers, it is almost exclusively used for prostate cancer, the most common cancer, and the death rate from this cancer is the highest. There are two cyclotron production routes for Pd-103, Ag (p,xn) 103 Pd and Rh (p,n) 103 Pd. For a cyclotron with low energy (such as 30Mev that we have in Iran, Karaj, NRCAM) only Rh target can be used. The target material should be deposited on a special designed Cu substrate and the separation process should isolate the desired radionuclide from target material as well as Cu. Our work plan for production of Pd 103 in Karaj, Iran, is as follows: In the first year of the CRP we are going to complete the literature survey of Pd production and perform the relevant experiments as described later. In the second year of the CRP we will construct suitable hot cells for Pd production and also do research for development of Pd seeds. In the last year of the CRP we are going to finalise all the work done during the last two years and propose the automation system for routine production

  20. The True Seed of Shalott (TSS Technology Production on Trisula Variety in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E.R. Prahardini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the onion increasing production problem is the lack of quality seeds availability. In order to provide high quality seeds of high yield and available throughout the year, an improvement of seed technology is required. One of the developing onion seed technologies is onion seeding through TSS (true seed of shallot. TSS technology development is expected to overcome the problem of onion seeding in Indonesia. East Java as one of the production centers of onion requires in developing onion seeding technology through TSS. This study aims to apply and develop TSS production technology using Trisula varieties which has been done from April to December 2016 in Tulungrejo village, Bumiaji district, Batu. The result of TSS production technology implementation indicates that Trisula variety is able to produce 110,5 kg TSS. Based on its agro-ecology, Batu area has the potential as the center of TSS production in East Java. Keywords: Onion, Technology, Trisula Varieties, True Seed of Shalot

  1. Extracellular matrix production by human osteoblasts cultured on biodegradable polymers applicable for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, S F; Lu, H H; Khan, Y; Burems, J; Mitchell, J; Tuan, R S; Laurencin, C T

    2003-03-01

    The nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial in regulating cell functions via cell-matrix interactions, cytoskeletal organization, and integrin-mediated signaling. In bone, the ECM is composed of proteins such as collagen (CO), fibronectin (FN), laminin (LM), vitronectin (VN), osteopontin (OP) and osteonectin (ON). For bone tissue engineering, the ECM should also be considered in terms of its function in mediating cell adhesion to biomaterials. This study examined ECM production, cytoskeletal organization, and adhesion of primary human osteoblastic cells on biodegradable matrices applicable for tissue engineering, namely polylactic-co-glycolic acid 50:50 (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA). We hypothesized that the osteocompatible, biodegradable polymer surfaces promote the production of bone-specific ECM proteins in a manner dependent on polymer composition. We first examined whether the PLAGA and PLA matrices could support human osteoblastic cell growth by measuring cell adhesion at 3, 6 and 12h post-plating. Adhesion on PLAGA was consistently higher than on PLA throughout the duration of the experiment, and comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). ECM components, including CO, FN, LM, ON, OP and VN, produced on the surface of the polymers were quantified by ELISA and localized by immunofluorescence staining. All of these proteins were present at significantly higher levels on PLAGA compared to PLA or TCPS surfaces. On PLAGA, OP and ON were the most abundant ECM components, followed by CO, FN, VN and LN. Immunofluorescence revealed an extracellular distribution for CO and FN, whereas OP and ON were found both intracellularly as well as extracellularly on the polymer. In addition, the actin cytoskeletal network was more extensive in osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than on PLA or TCPS. In summary, we found that osteoblasts plated on PLAGA adhered better to the substrate, produced higher levels of ECM molecules, and showed greater cytoskeletal

  2. Validity of accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production. The criti......The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production...... the NDCs in tall fescue, alfalfa, pea and rapeseed. These findings should be used to continue the interesting and necessary work on developing a NDC in grass species for seed production....

  3. Biodegradation of Cosmetics Products: A Computational Study of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism of Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián G. Cantú Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are a broad class of enzymes in the human body with important functions for human health, which include the metabolism and detoxification of compounds in the liver. Thus, in their catalytic cycle, the P450s form a high-valent iron(IV-oxo heme cation radical as the active species (called Compound I that reacts with substrates through oxygen atom transfer. This work discusses the possible degradation mechanisms of phthalates by cytochrome P450s in the liver, through computational modelling, using 2-ethylhexyl-phthalate as a model substrate. Phthalates are a type of compound commonly found in the environment from cosmetics usage, but their biodegradation in the liver may lead to toxic metabolites. Experimental studies revealed a multitude of products and varying product distributions among P450 isozymes. To understand the regio- and chemoselectivity of phthalate activation by P450 isozymes, we focus here on the mechanisms of phthalate activation by Compound I leading to O-dealkylation, aliphatic hydroxylation and aromatic hydroxylation processes. We set up model complexes of Compound I with the substrate and investigated the reaction mechanisms for products using the density functional theory on models and did a molecular mechanics study on enzymatic structures. The work shows that several reaction barriers in the gas-phase are close in energy, leading to a mixture of products. However, when we tried to dock the substrate into a P450 isozyme, some of the channels were inaccessible due to unfavorable substrate positions. Product distributions are discussed under various reaction conditions and rationalized with valence bond and thermodynamic models.

  4. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradation of photo-oxidized lignite and characterization of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Liu, Xiangrong; Yue, Zilin; Zhang, Yaowen

    2018-01-01

    Biodegradation of photo-oxidized Inner Mongolia lignite by pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied and the degradation percentage reached 56.27%, while the corresponding degradation percentage of the strain degrading raw Inner Mongolia lignite is only 23.16%. The degradation products were characterized. Proximate and ultimate analyses show that the higher oxygen content increased by photo-oxidation pretreatment maybe promoted the degradation process. Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) analysis of the liquid product reveals that it contains unsaturated structures and aromatic rings are the main structure units. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicates that the main components of the ethyl acetate extracts are low molecular weight organic compounds, such as ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, esters and alcohols. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis of raw lignite, photo-oxidized lignite and residual lignite demonstrates that the absorption peaks of functional groups in residual lignite disappeared or weakened obviously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis manifests that small holes appear in photo-oxidized lignite surface, which may be promote the degradation process and this is only from the physical morphology aspects, so it can be inferred from the tests and analyses results that the more important reason of the high degradation percentage is mostly that the photo-oxidation pretreatment changes the chemical structures of lignite.

  6. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a

  7. Protocols for sagebrush seed processing and seedling production at the Lucky Peak Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark D. Fleege

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the production protocols currently practiced at the USDA Forest Service Lucky Peak Nursery (Boise, ID) for seed processing and bareroot and container seedling production for three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata).

  8. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  9. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in

  10. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2012-01-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p 

  11. Product Seeding: Word-of-Mouth Effects For and Beyond the Focal Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Yakov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a classic seeded WOM marketing campaign, a company sends product samples to a selected group of influencers, and encourages them share the product information and their own opinions with other consumers. Positive effects include more WOM for the focal product in the target segment, but also in additional segments. But there are additional spillover effects on the brand and the product category level and they are negative. More conversations about the focal product reduced the “off-topic” conversations about other brands in the same category as well as other products of the same brand. These negative brand and category spillover effects are stronger when the focal product is of a more functional nature. Marketers tend to consider only positive spillovers to be beneficial for a company, but negative spillovers should not be immediately classified as “bad news.” There are upsides to this effect that managers can use in their favor.

  12. Extraction solvent’s effect on biogas production from mixtures of date seed and wastewater sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeef Wameed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of extraction solvent on biogas production from mixtures of date (Phoenix dactylifera seed and wastewater treatment sludge. Date palm seed is a locally produced waste which is used in different useful purposes. Date seed is rich in proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and have the potential for biogas enhancement. In this study, three extraction solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate and Ethanol:water (1:1, were used on two types of date seeds (locally known as Khalas and Khudari. Date seed powder of size 0.425 – 0.6 mm after extraction was mixed with wastewater treatment sludge at dry date seed/dry sludge solids ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%. The study showed a direct relationship between biogas production and ratio of date seeds/wastewater sludge in the mixture. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the quantity of biogas produced from samples containing raw date seed was almost same as the quantity produced from samples containing date seed after extraction. The results revealed that the used extraction solvents had no effect on biogas production

  13. A New Jatropha curcas Variety (JO S2 with Improved Seed Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxin Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One key reason for the failure of Jatropha plantation is the use of non-improved planting materials. We present in this paper a Jatropha variety (JO S2 through selective breeding with much better seed productivity than wild accessions as proven by field trials in Singapore and India. In a single farm trial in Singapore for two years, a comparison was conducted with accessions from China, India, Indonesia and Africa. It was found that all traits studied like seed yield, seed kernel content, seed oil content, fatty acid composition, phosphorus content and PE content differed significantly among and within the wild accessions. Overall, JO S2 was the best performer with the highest seed yield, high oil content and low phosphorus content. On two sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India, this Jatropha variety produced up to 2.95 ton/ha of dry seeds in the first year and up to 4.25 ton/ha of dry seeds in the second year, much better than the local variety control. We attribute its higher seed productivity to early flowering, better self-branching, more flower/fruiting bunches, more fruits per bunch and importantly, better uniformity among plants. This exemplifies that breeding has improved Jatropha seed productivity which will lead to better economics for Jatropha plantation.

  14. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; González-Benito, M Elena; Hill, Lisa M; Walters, Christina

    2010-09-01

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed ageing rates. Over 30 volatile compounds were detected from lettuce seeds during storage at 35 degrees C at water contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.09 g H(2)O g(-1) dw. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in volatile composition were noted as a function of water content, and these differences were apparent before signs of deterioration were visible. Seeds stored at high water content (L >or=0.06 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) emitted molecular species indicative of glycolysis (methanol+ethanol), and evidence of peroxidation was apparent subsequent to viability loss. Seeds containing less water (0.03-0.05 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) produced volatiles indicative of peroxidation and survived longer compared with seeds stored under more humid conditions. Production of glycolysis-related by-products correlated strongly with deterioration rate when measured as a function of water content. This correlation may provide a valuable non-invasive means to predict the duration of the early, asymptomatic stage of seed deterioration.

  15. Forage seeding in rangelands increases production and prevents weed invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Davy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California's Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L. proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT. In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L. cover.

  16. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  17. By-product identification and phytotoxicity of biodegraded Direct Yellow 4 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouren, Shazia; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Bibi, Ismat; Kamal, Shagufta; Sadaf, Sana; Sultan, Misbah; Kausar, Abida; Safa, Yusra

    2017-02-01

    Citrus limon peroxidase mediated decolourization of Direct Yellow 4 (DY4) was investigated. The process variables (pH, temperature, incubation time, enzyme dose, H 2 O 2 amount, dye concentration, co-metal ions and surfactants) were optimized for maximum degradation of dye. Maximum dye decolourization of 89.47% was achieved at pH 5.0, temperature 50 °C, enzyme dose 24 U/mL, H 2 O 2 concentration 0.25 mM and DY4 concentration 18.75 mg/L and incubation time 10 min. The co-metal ions and surfactants did not affect the dye decolourization significantly. Response surface analysis revealed that predicted values were in agreement with experimentally determined responses. The degradation products were identified by UPLC/MS analysis and degradation pathway was proposed. Besides, phytotoxicity assay revealed a considerable detoxification in response of biodegradation of DY4 dye. C. limon showed promising efficiency for DY4 degradation and could possibly be used for the remediation of textile effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Economic Analysis of Pigeonpea Seed Production Technology and Its Adoption Behavior: Indian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Govind; Channanamchery, Radhika; Singh, R K; Kethineni, Udaya Bhaskar; Ram, H; Prasad, S Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was based on primary data collected from 100 farmers in Gulbarga district of Karnataka, India, during the agricultural year 2013-2014. Study shows that average land holding size of pigeonpea seed farmers was higher in comparison to grain farmers and district average. The study illustrates a ratio of 32 : 68 towards fixed and variable costs in pigeonpea certified seed production with a total cost of ₹ 39436 and the gross and net returns were ₹ 73300 and ₹ 33864 per hectare, respectively. The total cost of cultivation, gross return, and net return in pigeonpea seed production were higher by around 23, 32, and 44 percent than grain production, respectively. Hence, production of certified seed has resulted in a win-win situation for the farmers with higher yield and increased returns. The decision of the farmer on adoption of seed production technology was positively influenced by his education, age, land holding, irrigated land, number of crops grown, and extension contacts while family size was influencing negatively. Higher yield and profitability associated with seed production can be effectively popularized among farmers, resulting in increased certified seed production.

  19. Harvesting costs and production rates for seed-tree removal in young-growth, mixed-conifer stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1969-01-01

    Ponderosa pine seed trees left from a previous cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, were removed in October 1963. Logging costs and production rates were compared with those for a seed-tree cutting on an area nearby. Production rates for seed-tree removal greatly exceeded those for the operation as a whole. Skidding production increased by 38...

  20. Analysis of seed and ware potato production systems and yield constraints in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiz, D.O.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seed and ware potato production systems in Argentina and their possible yield constraints in order to develop specific strategies to increase seed quality and tuber yield.

    This thesis starts with a survey of the actual potato

  1. Cone and seed production of western larch in response to girdling and nitrogen fertilization - an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Jonalea R. Tonn; Theresa B. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) is a sporadic cone and seed producer. Because the species is such an important component of the -Northern Rocky Mountain forests, methods of increasing seed production are needed. Girdling, fertilizing, and a combination of the two were used on 75-year-old western larch in northern Idaho. Girdling at the base of the live crown...

  2. Incidence of viruses in fescue (Festuca sp.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue seed production fields of Western Oregon were sampled and tested for the presence or absence of three viruses, Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) -MAV and -PAV, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV). There was no BYDV-MAV detected in any of the Fescue seed fields. The BYDV-PAV occurred in ...

  3. Irrigation requirements for seed production of five Lomatium species in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Alicia Rivera; Lamont D. Saunders; Nancy Shaw; Francis F. Kilkenny

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of native plants are needed for rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. Many of these plants are rarely cultivated and relatively little is known about the cultural practices required for their seed production. Irrigation trials were conducted for five perennial Lomatium species over multiple years. Lomatium species grown at the Oregon State University...

  4. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Dragoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertility of arable land and the protection of agro-ecosystems. An important factor for the cheaper production of livestock feed is the possibility to provide sufficient quantities of quality seeds at affordable prices. Production of quality seeds of local varieties of perennial legumes is possible to obtain sufficient amounts of good quality forage. Current situation in forage crop seed production of the Republic of Serbia is unsatisfactory because the seed of perennial grasses are mostly imported. Domestic production of alfalfa, red clover and birdsfoot trefoil met domestic needs only in some years. Seed of imported varieties are often not satisfactory because those varieties are not adapted to our local agro-ecological conditions. The present results provide the basis and direction for further researches that may provide solutions to increase seed yields and which will be widely accepted in practice, which will make the production more cost-effective. Institute for forage crops Kruševac is making a significant contribution to the development of technology of seed productions, especially alfalfa, red clover and perennial grasses. Therefore the role of the Institute is very important and necessary link between production, processing and trading seeds of perennial legumes and grasses in Serbia.

  6. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in edible oil seeds and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers were presented in which chemical pollution due to insecticides was examined in edible oil seeds and their products. They include hexachlorocyclohexane residues in groundnut; carbaryl in groundnut; maize and cotton seed products, and in lactating goats; propoxur in cocoa beans; and leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products and in lactating goats. Eight of these papers constitute separate INIS entries. Egypt, Ghana, India, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, and the Sudan participated under the coordinated research programme. The progress of the programme is reviewed, and problems and priorities for future development of the programme are identified. A number of recommendations are addressed to the Joint FAO/IAEA Secretariat

  7. Solar photocatalytic oxidation of recalcitrant natural metabolic by-products of amoxicillin biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João H O S; Reis, Ana C; Homem, Vera; Silva, José A; Alves, Arminda; Borges, Maria T; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-11-15

    The contamination of the aquatic environment by non-metabolized and metabolized antibiotic residues has brought the necessity of alternative treatment steps to current water decontamination technologies. This work assessed the feasibility of using a multistage treatment system for amoxicillin (AMX) spiked solutions combining: i) a biological treatment process using an enriched culture to metabolize AMX, with ii) a solar photocatalytic system to achieve the removal of the metabolized transformation products (TPs) identified via LC-MS, recalcitrant to further biological degradation. Firstly, a mixed culture (MC) was obtained through the enrichment of an activated sludge sample collected in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Secondly, different aqueous matrices spiked with AMX were treated with the MC and the metabolic transformation products were identified. Thirdly, the efficiency of two solar assisted photocatalytic processes (TiO2/UV or Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis) was assessed in the degradation of the obtained TPs using a lab-scale prototype photoreactor equipped with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). Highest AMX specific biodegradation rates were obtained in buffer and urban wastewater (WW) media (0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.07 g(AMX) g(biomass)(-1) h(-1), respectively). The resulting TPs, which no longer presented antibacterial activity, were identified as amoxicilloic acid (m/z = 384). The performance of the Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis system in the removal of the TPs from WW medium was superior to the TiO2/UV process (TPs no longer detected after 40 min (QUV = 2.6 kJ L(-1)), against incomplete TPs removal after 240 min (QUV = 14.9 kJ L(-1)), respectively). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, MS1151, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Subramanian, Manny [BEST Medical International, Inc., 7643 Fullerton Road, Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT

  9. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301 125 I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images

  10. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  11. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  12. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  13. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  14. Effects of operational parameters on dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable complex waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Sposito, Fabio; Frunzo, Luigi; Trably, Eric; Escudié, Renaud; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effect of the initial pH, combination of food to microorganism ratio (F/M) and initial pH, substrate pre-treatment and different inoculum sources on the dark fermentative biohydrogen (H2) yields. Three model complex waste biomasses (food waste, olive mill wastewater (OMWW) and rice straw) were used to assess the effect of the aforementioned parameters. The effect of the initial pH between 4.5 and 7.0 was investigated in batch tests carried out with food waste. The highest H2 yields were shown at initial pH 4.5 (60.6 ± 9.0 mL H2/g VS) and pH 5.0 (50.7 ± 0.8 mL H2/g VS). Furthermore, tests carried out with F/M ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at initial pH 5.0 and 6.5 revealed that a lower F/M ratio (0.5 and 1.0) favored the H2 production at an initial pH 5.0 compared to pH 6.5. Alkaline pre-treatment of raw rice straw using 4% and 8% NaOH at 55°C for 24h, increased the H2 yield by 26 and 57-fold, respectively. In the dark fermentation of OMWW, the H2 yield was doubled when heat-shock pre-treated activated sludge was used as inoculum in comparison to anaerobic sludge. Overall, this study shows that the application of different operating parameters to maximize the H2 yields strongly depends on the biodegradability of the substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sorption of biodegradation end products of nonylphenol polyethoxylates onto activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Viet; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori; Tsunoi, Shinji; Tanaka, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    Nonylphenol(NP), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC), nonylphenol monoethoxy acetic acid (NP2EC), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) are biodegradation end products (BEPs) of nonionic surfactant nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPnEO). In this research, sorption of these compounds onto model activated sludge was characterized. Sorption equilibrium experiments showed that NP, NP1EO and NP2EO reached equilibrium in about 12 h, while equilibrium of NP1EC and NP2EC were reached earlier, in about 4 h. In sorption isotherm experiments, obtained equilibrium data at 28 degrees C fitted well to Freundlich sorption model for all investigated compounds. For NP1EC, in addition to Freundlich, equilibrium data also fitted well to Langmuir model. Linear sorption model was also tried, and equilibrium data of all NP, NP1EO, NP2EO and NP2EC except NP1EC fitted well to this model. Calculated Freundlich coefficient (K(F)) and linear sorption coefficient (K(D)) showed that sorption capacity of the investigated compounds were in order NP > NP2EO > NP1EO > NP1EC approximately NP2EC. For NP, NP1EO and NP2EO, high values of calculated K(F) and K(D) indicated an easy uptake of these compounds from aqueous phase onto activated sludge. Whereas, NP1EC and NP2EC with low values of K(F) and K(D) absorbed weakly to activated sludge and tended to preferably remain in aqueous phase.

  16. Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.

  17. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  18. Ammonia production in nitrogen seeded plasma discharges in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, V., E-mail: Volker.Rohde@ipp.mpg.de; Oberkofler, M.

    2015-08-15

    In present tokamaks nitrogen seeding is used to reduce the power load onto the divertor tiles. Some fraction of the seeded nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to form ammonia. The behaviour of ammonia in ASDEX Upgrade is studied by mass spectrometry. Injection without plasma shows strong absorption at the inner walls of the vessel and isotope exchange reactions. During nitrogen seeding in H-mode discharges the onset of a saturation of the nitrogen retention is observed. The residual gas consists of strongly deuterated methane and ammonia with almost equal amounts of deuterium and protium. This confirms the role of surface reactions in the ammonia formation. The results are consistent with findings in previous investigations. A numerical decomposition of mass spectra is under development and will be needed for quantitative evaluation of the results obtained.

  19. Technical efficiency of certified maize seed in Palpa district, Nepal: A stochastic frontier production approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Bajracharya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cereal crop, maize is regarded as staple food mainly in hill areas of Nepal. Seed is one of the vital input which determines the production and yield of any crop. Farmers are found using the required inputs in haphazard way which had increased the cost of production and inefficiency of resources used. The study on seed sector is limited. For such a backdrop, this study was aimed to assess the level of technical efficiency (TE of certified maize seed production. The total of 164 certified seed producer were interviewed in June, 2016 using simple random sampling technique in Palpa district of Nepal. The result revealed that increase in amount of seed and labor by one percent would increase the yield of certified maize seed by 0.29 and 0.34 percent respectively. The TE was estimated using stochastic production frontier model in Stata software. The average TE was found 70 percent which revealed the scope of increasing TE by 30 percent using the existing available resources. There were about 29 percent farmers who had TE of ≥0.7-0.8 followed by 27.44 percent at ≥0.8-0.9. Government and other stakeholders should prioritize to provide technical knowledge via training and increase the visit of extension worker to increase TE of certified maize seed producer in the district.

  20. Biodegradation of Tributyltin (TBT) by Extremophile Bacteria from Atacama Desert and Speciation of Tin By-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Jorge; Riffo, Paula; Santander, Paola; Mansilla, Héctor D; Mondaca, María Angélica; Campos, Víctor; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of tributyltin (TBT) by four tin resistant Gram negative bacteria isolated from extremely contaminated river sediments in the Atacama Desert in Chile was studied. Moraxella osloensis showed the greatest resistance and degradation capability of TBT, producing less toxic by-products, such as dibutyltin (DBT) and inorganic tin. In 7 days, approximately 80 % of TBT degradation was achieved, generating close to 20 % of DBT as degradation product. The degradation rate constant (k) was 0.022 [day(-1)] and TBT half-life (t1/2) in culture was 4.3 days. Debutylation is stated a probable mechanism of TBT degradation.

  1. High Yields of Hydrogen Production Induced by Meta-Substituted Dichlorophenols Biodegradation from the Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Andronis, Efthimios; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E.; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is a highly promising energy source with important social and economic implications. The ability of green algae to produce photosynthetic hydrogen under anaerobic conditions has been known for years. However, until today the yield of production has been very low, limiting an industrial scale use. In the present paper, 73 years after the first report on H2-production from green algae, we present a combinational biological system where the biodegradation procedure of one meta-substituted dichlorophenol (m-dcp) is the key element for maintaining continuous and high rate H2-production (>100 times higher than previously reported) in chloroplasts and mitochondria of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. In particular, we report that reduced m-dcps (biodegradation intermediates) mimic endogenous electron and proton carriers in chloroplasts and mitochondria, inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) activity (and therefore O2 production) and enhance Photosystem I (PSI) and hydrogenase activity. In addition, we show that there are some indications for hydrogen production from sources other than chloroplasts in Scenedesmus obliquus. The regulation of these multistage and highly evolved redox pathways leads to high yields of hydrogen production and paves the way for an efficient application to industrial scale use, utilizing simple energy sources and one meta-substituted dichlorophenol as regulating elements. PMID:23145057

  2. Epidemiology of dark leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola and Alternaria brassicae in organic seed production of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Hoof, van R.A.; Driessen, R.; Heijden, van der L.

    2010-01-01

    In organic seed production of Brassica vegetables, infections by Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae can cause severe losses of yield and seed quality. Four field experiments with or without artificial inoculation with A. brassicicola were conducted in organically managed seed-production crops

  3. Practical aspects of grass forage seed production and quality with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GBENOU

    Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin. 2Département de ..... size, floret per tiller (Hare and Rolston, 1990) seed per head and .... grasses and legumes cultivated as ley pastures in the ... Grassl., 35: 43-47. Clua AA ...

  4. Seed production and dispersal of sulfur cinquefoil in northeast Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Catherine G. Parks; Michael L. McInnis; Bridgett J. Naylor

    2006-01-01

    Sulfur cinquefoil (family Rosaceae) is an invasive, herbaceous perennial, native to Eurasia. It has wide ecological amplitude and has become established throughout North America in numerous habitat types. Sulfur cinquefoil reproduces only by seed (achenes); however, little is known about its regenerative strategy or reproductive biology. To improve understanding of the...

  5. Seed production and field establishment of hoary tansyaster (Machaeranthera canescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek J. Tilley

    2015-01-01

    The USDA NRCS Aberdeen Plant Materials Center (PMC) produces certified early generation seed of hoary tansyaster (Machaeranthera canescens (Pursh) A. Gray [Asteraceae]), a late summer and fall blooming forb native to the Intermountain West region. Hoary tansyaster is an excellent forb candidate for restoration efforts in arid to semiarid sites. It is relatively easy to...

  6. Biochemical methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability of non-herbaceous and herbaceous phytomass in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, Jin Mi; Pedersen, Lene; Qu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of municipal plant waste for anaerobic digestion was examined using 57 different herbaceous and non-herbaceous samples. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability were related to the degree of lignification and crystallinity of cellulose. The BMP of herbace...

  7. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Olivato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more desirable, with an optimal formulation being obtained which contained (55:45 starch/PBAT (88.2 wt. (%, glycerol (11.0 wt. (% and TA (0.8 wt. (%. Biodegradable plastic bags were produced using the film with this formulation, and analysed according to the standard method of the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT. The bags exhibited a 45% failure rate in free-falling dart impact tests, a 10% of failure rate in dynamic load tests and no failure in static load tests. These results meet the specifications set by the standard. Thus, the biodegradable plastic bags fabricated with an optimised formulation could be useful as an alternative to those made from non-biodegradable materials if the nominal capacity declared for this material is considered.

  8. Biodegradation of PCBs by ligninolytic fungi and characterization of the degradation products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čvančarová, Monika; Křesinová, Zdena; Filipová, Alena; Covino, S.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 11 (2012), s. 1317-1323 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polychlorinated biphenyls * PCBs * Biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  9. Role of Weed Emergence Time for the Relative Seed Production in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvenuti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Trials were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to investigate the effect of weed emergence time on weed seed production in a maize field. Datura stramonium L., Solanum nigrum L. and Abutilon theophrasti Medicus were selected for their importance as summer weeds. Emergence time was found to be crucial since delay would involve an unfavourable light environment determined by crop canopy elongation and resulting shade production. Only the early emergence of D. stramonium and A. theophrasti showed the capacity to exposing their leaves over the crop canopy. Generally the weed seed production under shade conditions decreased for the reduction of the fruit per plant since the number of seed per plant showed only a light reduction. However, while D. stramonium and A. theophrasti compete with the crop by increasing height, Solanum nigrum tends to adjust to shade without excessive reduction in number of seeds produced. Thus in D. stramonium and A. theophrasti late emergence reduced seed production to only 15%, while S. nigrum maintained 25% of the seed production level generally observed with greater light exposure. This environmental adaptation was confirmed by the less marked decrease in S. nigrum harvest index. Agroecological involvements are discussed.

  10. Role of Weed Emergence Time for the Relative Seed Production in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvenuti

    Full Text Available Trials were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to investigate the effect of weed emergence time on weed seed production in a maize field. Datura stramonium L., Solanum nigrum L. and Abutilon theophrasti Medicus were selected for their importance as summer weeds. Emergence time was found to be crucial since delay would involve an unfavourable light environment determined by crop canopy elongation and resulting shade production. Only the early emergence of D. stramonium and A. theophrasti showed the capacity to exposing their leaves over the crop canopy. Generally the weed seed production under shade conditions decreased for the reduction of the fruit per plant since the number of seed per plant showed only a light reduction. However, while D. stramonium and A. theophrasti compete with the crop by increasing height, Solanum nigrum tends to adjust to shade without excessive reduction in number of seeds produced. Thus in D. stramonium and A. theophrasti late emergence reduced seed production to only 15%, while S. nigrum maintained 25% of the seed production level generally observed with greater light exposure. This environmental adaptation was confirmed by the less marked decrease in S. nigrum harvest index. Agroecological involvements are discussed.

  11. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES AND GOURDS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION; NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of seed market of vegetable and gourds in Russian Federation in the frame of national food safety program is given in the article. Russia as a country with well-developed  seed production  in the last century has now  ceded  its  position,  and according  to  last experts’ association estimations the 80%  of  required volume of seeds of vegetables and gourds, amounting from 8 to 12 thousand per year is imported.  Not  less than 15 thousands  of  hectares  are  needed  to  be  necessary  for demand  of  Russian seed  production  sector,  however, presently only 2 thousands of hectares is a total certified land used for seed production.  Moreover, the seed production sector of some countries that export seeds rises becoming a profitable branch of agriculture, and providing local employment. The lack of competitiveness in Russia causes that many foreign companies increase annually purchasing prices for seeds and their production services. Therefore, now the total volume of seeds imported  in  Russian Federation has nearly been  twice less for the last years than in 2012, but in currency earnings in exporting countries the insignificant changes can be seen, where deviation is only 19-25%  from  average annual value, that means 1675 thousand dollars per year. Besides, for the Russian budget in the ruble currency the total cost of imported seeds has become 2.5 times more expensive since 2012, but the increase of combined cost of  marketable  vegetables  has been  over  2.7  billion  of rubles.  The  main  idea  that  the  seed  production  is  a process requiring the participation of breeders, seed producers and seed companies is main factor to succeed in recovering seed production sector. Exception of any participant or ignoring his interests may destroy all process. For instance, there is a chronic problem of plagiarism and royalty nonpayment causes the break between the business and

  12. The potential for hydrocarbon biodegradation and production of extracellular polymeric substances by aerobic bacteria isolated from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, S P; Dellagnezze, B M; Wieland, A; Klock, J-H; Santos Neto, E V; Marsaioli, A J; Oliveira, V M; Michaelis, W

    2011-06-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) can contribute to the cellular degradation of hydrocarbons and have a huge potential for application in biotechnological processes, such as bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Four bacterial strains from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir were investigated for EPS production, emulsification ability and biodegradation activity when hydrocarbons were supplied as substrates for microbial growth. Two strains of Bacillus species had the highest EPS production when phenanthrene and n-octadecane were offered as carbon sources, either individually or in a mixture. While Pseudomonas sp. and Dietzia sp., the other two evaluated strains, had the highest hydrocarbon biodegradation indices, EPS production was not detected. Low EPS production may not necessarily be indicative of an absence of emulsifier activity, as indicated by the results of a surface tension reduction assay and emulsification indices for the strain of Dietzia sp. The combined results gathered in this work suggest that a microbial consortium consisting of bacteria with interdependent metabolisms could thrive in petroleum reservoirs, thus overcoming the limitations imposed on each individual species by the harsh conditions found in such environments.

  13. Phthalates biodegradation in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Herbert H P; He, Jianzhong

    2008-08-01

    Phthalates are synthesized in massive amounts to produce various plastics and have become widespread in environments following their release as a result of extensive usage and production. This has been of an environmental concern because phthalates are hepatotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic by nature. Numerous studies indicated that phthalates can be degraded by bacteria and fungi under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. This paper gives a review on the biodegradation of phthalates and includes the following aspects: (1) the relationship between the chemical structure of phthalates and their biodegradability, (2) the biodegradation of phthalates by pure/mixed cultures, (3) the biodegradation of phthalates under various environments, and (4) the biodegradation pathways of phthalates.

  14. Substrate uptake, phosphorus repression, and effect of seed culture on glycopeptide antibiotic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Singh, Kamaleshwar P.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    may experience catabolite repression by one or more of the substrates. Availability of reliable process models is a key bottleneck in optimization of such processes. Here we present a structured kinetic model to describe the growth, substrate uptake and product formation for the glycopeptide....... The model is also able to predict key phenomena such as simultaneous uptake of glucose and glycerol but with different specific uptake rates, and inhibition of glycopeptide production by high intracellular phosphate levels. The model is successfully applied to both production and seed medium with varying....... The model may have applications in optimizing seed transfer, medium composition, and feeding strategy for maximizing production....

  15. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields.

  16. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  17. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  18. Physiological characteristics of cucumber seed production plants by presowing laser and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholakov, D.; Petkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    Seeds from G-3 maternal line of hybrid cucumber cultivar Pobeda F 1 were treated with helium-neon 632.8 nm laser-exit power 20 mW and gamma-rays ( 60 Co) in a field experiment under conditions suitable for hybrid seed production. The irradiation was carried out a week before sowing and the following variants were investigated: 1. sevenfold laser irradiation; 2. 10 Gy gamma irradiation; 3. combined laser + gamma rays irradiation. Seeds from the parent line were not irradiated. A positive effect of irradiation on the photosynthetic intensity, content of plastid pigments in leaves and activity of catalase and peroxidase has been observed. (author)

  19. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultiva......, and total seed yield was therefore not affected. The one exception was in 1991 when at one location dry matter production in autumn was low, and autumn N application resulted in increased N content, fertile tiller number and seed yield...

  20. Seed production scenario in Maharashtra with special reference to mutant crop varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    Several mutant varieties of different crops have been developed by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai during last two decades and released for cultivation for Maharashtra and other states of the country. The Maharashtra State Seed Corporation (MSSC) has undertaken the seed production of the mutant varieties released for the Maharashtra state. There has been a growing demand of some mutant varieties especially TAU-1 of black gram and TAG-24 of ground nut by the farmers of various states. The MSSC has been meeting the demand of the farmers of Maharashtra as well as of other states of the country for these varieties for last several years. The demand for TAU-1 in Maharashtra has reached the level of 27525 quintals of certified seed during the current year. The total seed production scenario of mutant varieties is indicative of their popularity. (author)

  1. Combined thermophilic aerobic process and conventional anaerobic digestion: effect on sludge biodegradation and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, C; Perez, S; Paul, E; Lefebvre, X

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of hyper-thermophilic (65 degrees Celsius) aerobic process coupled with a mesophilic (35 degrees Celsius) digester was evaluated for the activated sludge degradation and was compared to a conventional mesophilic digester. For two Sludge Retention Time (SRT), 21 and 42 days, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilisation and biodegradation processes, the methanisation yield and the aerobic oxidation were investigated during 180 days. The best results were obtained at SRT of 44 days; the COD removal yield was 30% higher with the Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion/Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (MAD-TAR) co-treatment. An increase of the sludge intrinsic biodegradability is also observed (20-40%), showing that the unbiodegradable COD in mesophilic conditions becomes bioavailable. However, the methanisation yield was quite similar for both processes at a same SRT. Finally, such a process enables to divide by two the volume of digester with an equivalent efficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass spectrometry for the elucidation of the subtle molecular structure of biodegradable polymers and their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Marek; Adamus, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary reports by Polish authors on the application of mass spectrometric methods for the elucidation of the subtle molecular structure of biodegradable polymers and their degradation products will be presented. Special emphasis will be given to natural aliphatic (co)polyesters (PHA) and their synthetic analogues, formed through anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-substituted β-lactones. Moreover, the application of MS techniques for the evaluation of the structure of biodegradable polymers obtained in ionic and coordination polymerization of cyclic ethers and esters as well as products of step-growth polymerization, in which bifunctional or multifunctional monomers react to form oligomers and eventually long chain polymers, will be discussed. Furthermore, the application of modern MS techniques for the assessment of polymer degradation products, frequently bearing characteristic end groups that can be revealed and differentiated by MS, will be discussed within the context of specific degradation pathways. Finally, recent Polish accomplishments in the area of mass spectrometry will be outlined. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah-Agyeman, Grace; Gyamerah, Michael; Biney, Paul O; Woldesenbet, Selamawit

    2016-10-01

    Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio-oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production. The results show that coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds contain known triglycerides which are 983 and 1000 g kg(-1) respectively of the fatty acids found in edible vegetable oils such as sunflower, corn and soybean oils. In addition, the triglyceride yields of 53-67 g kg(-1) of the seed samples are in the range of commercial oil-producing seeds such as corn (42 g kg(-1) ). The results also indicate that the two non-edible oils could be used as substitutes for edible oil for biodiesel production. In addition, the use of seeds of switchgrass for non-edible oil production (as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel) further increases the total biofuel yield when switchgrass is cultivated for use as energy feedstock for pyrolysis oil and biodiesel production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Olivato, J. B.; Grossmann, M. V. E.; Bilck, A. P.; Yamashita, F.; Oliveira, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability) was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA) as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more des...

  5. Transesterification of rubber seed oil by sonication technique for the production of methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragavan, S.N.; Roy, D.V. [Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Department of Chemistry, Research Centre, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-07-15

    The ever-increasing concern due to the fast-depleting energy sources and the environmental impact of the fossil fuel burning has provoked the researchers to turn out for an environmentally benign fuel source. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) being renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and eco-friendly, is now gaining momentum. Added carbon sequestration ability of rubber trees has made it one of the best sources for biodiesel in developing countries. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from high acid content (23%) rubber seed oil by sonication technique at room temperature (32 C) is of good yield (80%). The FAMEs produced have acceptable fuel standards as specified by ASTM D 6751. This study deals with the utilisation of FAMEs as an alternate fuel for petrodiesel. (orig.)

  6. Approach for detecting mutagenicity of biodegraded and ozonated pharmaceuticals, metabolites and transformation products from a drinking water perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Happel, Oliver; Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Many pharmaceuticals and related metabolites are not efficiently removed in sewage treatment plants and enter into surface water. There, they might be subject of drinking water abstraction and treatment by ozonation. In this study, a systematic approach for producing and effect-based testing of transformation products (TPs) during the drinking water ozonation process is proposed. For this, two pharmaceutical parent substances, three metabolites and one environmental degradation product were investigated with respect to their biodegradability and fate during drinking water ozonation. The Ames test (TA98, TA100) was used for the identification of mutagenic activity present in the solutions after testing inherent biodegradability and/or after ozonation of the samples. Suspicious results were complemented with the umu test. Due to the low substrate concentration required for ozonation, all ozonated samples were concentrated via solid phase extraction (SPE) before performing the Ames test. With the exception of piracetam, all substances were only incompletely biodegradable, suggesting the formation of stable TPs. Metformin, piracetam and guanylurea could not be removed completely by the ozonation process. We received some evidence that technical TPs are formed by ozonation of metformin and piracetam, whereas all tested metabolites were not detectable by analytical means after ozonation. In the case of guanylurea, one ozonation TP was identified by LC/MS. None of the experiments showed an increase of mutagenic effects in the Ames test. However, the SPE concentration procedure might lead to false-positive results due to the generation of mutagenic artefacts or might lead to false-negative results by missing adequate recovery efficiency. Thus, these investigations should always be accompanied by process blank controls that are carried out along the whole ozonation and SPE procedure. The study presented here is a first attempt to investigate the significance of

  7. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products.

  8. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between...... conspecific trees affects pollination efficiency and seed predation intensity, and may therefore indirectly affect the long-term sustainability of selective logging. Here we investigate how reproductive status and the number of seeds dispersed per tree are affected by liana load, distance to the nearest...... and positively with tree diameter. In C. ianeirensis the most liana-infested trees dispersed fewer seeds. In T. oblonga the intensity of pre-dispersal seed predation decreased with distance to the nearest conspecifics. There was no evidence that seed viability or seed production decreased with distance...

  9. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  10. Herbicidal activity of glucosinolate degradation products in fermented meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jan F; Reed, Ralph L; Alber, Susan; Pritchett, Larry; Machado, Stephen

    2009-03-11

    Meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. This study investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome ( Bromus tectorum ) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO(4) (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile, and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of the seed meal (r(2) = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides.

  11. Rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue: DHA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xue-Rong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic engineering of seed biosynthetic pathways to diversify and improve crop product quality is a highly active research area. The validation of genes driven by seed-specific promoters is time-consuming since the transformed plants must be grown to maturity before the gene function can be analysed. Results In this study we demonstrate that genes driven by seed-specific promoters contained within complex constructs can be transiently-expressed in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf-assay system by co-infiltrating the Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene. A real-world case study is described in which we first assembled an efficient transgenic DHA synthesis pathway using a traditional N. benthamiana Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S-driven leaf assay before using the LEC2-extended assay to rapidly validate a complex seed-specific construct containing the same genes before stable transformation in Arabidopsis. Conclusions The LEC2-extended N. benthamiana assay allows the transient activation of seed-specific promoters in leaf tissue. In this study we have used the assay as a rapid preliminary screen of a complex seed-specific transgenic construct prior to stable transformation, a feature that will become increasingly useful as genetic engineering moves from the manipulation of single genes to the engineering of complex pathways. We propose that the assay will prove useful for other applications wherein rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue are sought.

  12. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  13. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  14. Liquid Soap Production with Blends Of Rubber Seed Oil (RSO) And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of liquid detergent using locally sourced palm fruit bunch (Elaeis Guineesis) waste saponier has been investigated. An optimum blend ratio of rubber seed oil to palm kernel oil RSO:PKO 20:80 being constituent elements used for the production of the soap; was obtained using the Duncan Multiple Range ...

  15. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  16. Evaluation of the multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a cost effective crop in semiarid regions, is an underestimated supplement to corn in starch based ethanol production. Twenty three multi-seeded (msd) mutant sorghums and one wild type sorghum BTx623 were evaluated for ethanol production and effect of che...

  17. Development of irradiation support devices for production of brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Joao A.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Karan Junior, Dib; Feher, Anselmo; Oliveira, Tiago B.; Benega, Marcos A.G., E-mail: tiagooliveira298@gmail.com, E-mail: mattos.fr@gmail.com, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jamoura@ipen.br, E-mail: ernandopeleias@gmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.br, E-mail: afeher@ipen.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ophthalmic tumors treatment with brachytherapy sources has been widely used as a primary or secondary therapy for non-malignant or malignant tumors, for example, choroid melanoma, and retinoblastoma. Ruthenium-106, Iodine-125, Palladium -103, Gold-198 and Iridium-192, are some radionuclides that can be applied for treatment of ocular tumors. These sources are in small sizes (a few millimeters) and different shapes (rods, wires, disks). To ensure high accuracy during treatment, they are positioned in eye applicators, specially designed to fit on the surface of tumor. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN) in a partnership with Paulista Medicine School (UNIFESP) created a project that aims to develop a prototype of Iridium-192 seeds for treatment of eye cancer. This seed consists in a core of Ir -Pt alloy (20%-80%) with a length of 3 mm, to be activated in IPEN's IEA-R1 Reactor, and a titanium capsule sealing the core. It was imperative to develop a sustainer device for irradiation. This piece is used to avoid overlapping of one cores and, therefore, avoiding the 'shadow effect' that does not allow full activation of each core due to the high density. (author)

  18. Development of irradiation support devices for production of brachytherapy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Joao A.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Karan Junior, Dib; Feher, Anselmo; Oliveira, Tiago B.; Benega, Marcos A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic tumors treatment with brachytherapy sources has been widely used as a primary or secondary therapy for non-malignant or malignant tumors, for example, choroid melanoma, and retinoblastoma. Ruthenium-106, Iodine-125, Palladium -103, Gold-198 and Iridium-192, are some radionuclides that can be applied for treatment of ocular tumors. These sources are in small sizes (a few millimeters) and different shapes (rods, wires, disks). To ensure high accuracy during treatment, they are positioned in eye applicators, specially designed to fit on the surface of tumor. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN) in a partnership with Paulista Medicine School (UNIFESP) created a project that aims to develop a prototype of Iridium-192 seeds for treatment of eye cancer. This seed consists in a core of Ir -Pt alloy (20%-80%) with a length of 3 mm, to be activated in IPEN's IEA-R1 Reactor, and a titanium capsule sealing the core. It was imperative to develop a sustainer device for irradiation. This piece is used to avoid overlapping of one cores and, therefore, avoiding the 'shadow effect' that does not allow full activation of each core due to the high density. (author)

  19. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  20. Community-based native seed production for restoration in Brazil - the role of science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, I B; de Urzedo, D I; Piña-Rodrigues, F C M; Vieira, D L M; de Rezende, G M; Sampaio, A B; Junqueira, R G P

    2018-05-20

    Large-scale restoration programmes in the tropics require large volumes of high quality, genetically diverse and locally adapted seeds from a large number of species. However, scarcity of native seeds is a critical restriction to achieve restoration targets. In this paper, we analyse three successful community-based networks that supply native seeds and seedlings for Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado restoration projects. In addition, we propose directions to promote local participation, legal, technical and commercialisation issues for up-scaling the market of native seeds for restoration with high quality and social justice. We argue that effective community-based restoration arrangements should follow some principles: (i) seed production must be based on real market demand; (ii) non-governmental and governmental organisations have a key role in supporting local organisation, legal requirements and selling processes; (iii) local ecological knowledge and labour should be valued, enabling local communities to promote large-scale seed production; (iv) applied research can help develop appropriate techniques and solve technical issues. The case studies from Brazil and principles presented here can be useful for the up-scaling restoration ecology efforts in many other parts of the world and especially in tropical countries where improving rural community income is a strategy for biodiversity conservation and restoration. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Onion Hybrid Seed Production: Relation with Nectar Composition and Flower Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Veronica C; Caselles, Cristian A; Silva, Maria F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2018-05-28

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main vegetable crops. Pollinators are required for onion seed production, being honeybees the most used. Around the world, two types of onion varieties are grown: open pollinated (OP) and hybrids. Hybrids offer numerous advantages to growers, but usually have lower seed yields than OP cultivars, which in many cases compromise the success of new hybrids. As pollination is critical for seed set, understanding the role of floral rewards and attractants to pollinator species is the key to improve crop seed yield. In this study, the correlation of nectar-analyzed compounds, floral traits, and seed yield under open field conditions in two experimental sites was determined. Nectar composition was described through the analysis of sugars, phenol, and alkaloid compounds. Length and width of the style and tepals of the flowers were measured to describe floral traits. Floral and nectar traits showed differences among the studied lines. For nectar traits, we found a significant influence of the environment where plants were cultivated. Nonetheless, flower traits were not influenced by the experimental sites. The OP and the male-sterile lines (MSLs) showed differences in nectar chemical composition and floral traits. In addition, there were differences between and within MSLs, some of which were correlated with seed yield, bringing the opportunity to select the most productive MSL, using simple determinations of morphological characters like the length of the style or tepals size.

  2. Utilization of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake for production of xylanase from thermophilic Scytalidium thermophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chetna; Khare, S K

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a major biodiesel crop. Large amount of deoiled cake is generated as by-product during biodiesel production from its seeds. Deoiled J. curcas seed cake was assessed as substrate for the production of xylanase from thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum by solid-state fermentation. The seed cake was efficiently utilized by S. thermophilum for its growth during which it produced good amount of heat stable extracellular xylanase. The solid-state fermentation conditions were optimized for maximum xylanase production. Under the optimized conditions viz. deoiled seed cake supplemented with 1% oat-spelt xylan, adjusted to pH 9.0, moisture content 1:3 w/v, inoculated with 1×10(6) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 45 °C, 1455 U xylanase/g deoiled seed cake was obtained. The xylanase was useful in biobleaching of paper pulp. Solid-state fermentation of deoiled cake appears a potentially viable approach for its effective utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  4. Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium: effects of tree seed production and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersago, K; Verhagen, R; Servais, A; Heyman, P; Ducoffre, G; Leirs, H

    2009-02-01

    Recently, human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE) due to Puumala virus infection in Europe have increased. Following the hypothesis that high reservoir host abundance induces higher transmission rates to humans, explanations for this altered epidemiology must be sought in factors that cause bank vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks. Since future climate change scenarios predict higher temperatures in Europe, we should regard Puumala virus as an increasing health threat.

  5. Production and requirements for pre-basic seed potato material in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Drago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-basic seed potato material is used for basic seed (elite and certified seed potato production. At this moment all basic seed material is imported into Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska, despite the fact that the method of in vitro tissue culture production of virus-free seed potato has been developed in both countries and there is a continuous demand for pre-basic and basic seed potato. Current total production is significantly lower than actual requirements. In the 80s and 90s of the previous century two modern facilities for production of virus-free seed potato and certified seed were built in Sokolac (Republic of Srpska and Guča (Republic of Serbia. Although facilities were well-equipped, seed potato production was permanently ceased in 2000. The presence of high infection pressure dominated by potato virus Y is shown in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska. This paper gives an overview of pre-basic seed potato material production in both countries over the last two decades.

  6. Degradation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics during ionizing radiation treatment and assessment of antibacterial activity, toxicity and biodegradability of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegze, Anna; Sági, Gyuri; Kovács, Krisztina; Homlok, Renáta; Tóth, Tünde; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet

    2018-06-01

    This work aimed at investigating the ionizing radiation induced degradation of two fluoroquinolone antibiotics: norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. At 0.1 mmol dm-3 concentration a low dose, 2 kGy was sufficient to degrade the initial molecules. However, despite of the high removal efficiency the degrees of both the mineralization and the oxidation were low, ∼10% and ∼25%, respectively. (The difference between the results obtained in norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin solutions was not statistically significant.) Broth microdilution tests carried out on Staphylococcus aureus evidenced removal of antibacterial activity in samples irradiated with 2 kGy. Acute toxicity determined on Vibrio fischeri bacteria showed increased toxicity at low doses indicating that the early degradation products were more toxic than the initial molecules. The results of biodegradation experiments performed in activated sludge have shown that the degradation products have become available to the metabolic processes of the microorganisms.

  7. Constraints on the production of primordial magnetic seeds in pre-big bang cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperini, M., E-mail: gasperini@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, Via G. Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    We study the amplification of the electromagnetic fluctuations, and the production of 'seeds' for the cosmic magnetic fields, in a class of string cosmology models whose scalar and tensor perturbations reproduce current observations and satisfy known phenomenological constraints. We find that the condition of efficient seeds production can be satisfied and compatible with all constraints only in a restricted region of parameter space, but we show that such a region has significant intersections with the portions of parameter space where the produced background of relic gravitational waves is strong enough to be detectable by aLIGO/Virgo and/or by eLISA.

  8. Constraints on the production of primordial magnetic seeds in pre-big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, M.

    2017-06-01

    We study the amplification of the electromagnetic fluctuations, and the production of "seeds" for the cosmic magnetic fields, in a class of string cosmology models whose scalar and tensor perturbations reproduce current observations and satisfy known phenomenological constraints. We find that the condition of efficient seeds production can be satisfied and compatible with all constraints only in a restricted region of parameter space, but we show that such a region has significant intersections with the portions of parameter space where the produced background of relic gravitational waves is strong enough to be detectable by aLIGO/Virgo and/or by eLISA.

  9. Seed production, seed dispersal and seedling establishment of two afromontane tree species in and around a church forest: implications for forest restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrham Abiyu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Seed production, seed dispersal and seedling establishment are relevant life phases of plants. Understanding these processes and their patterns is essential to recognize vegetation dynamics and to apply it to forest restoration. Methods For Olea europaea and Schefflera abyssinica, fecundity was estimated using randomized branch sampling. Seed dispersal and seedling establishment were monitored using spatially explicit seed traps and plots. Dispersal functions were calibrated applying inverse modeling. Results O. europaea produced more seeds and had longer dispersal distances compared to S. abyssinica. Correlations between observed and predicted number of recruits were statistically significant. Seedlings of the two species showed different niche requirements. Conclusions The studied species were recruitment-limited due to low dispersal activity or lack of suitable microsites. Restoration relying on natural regeneration should overcome these limitations by increasing disperser visitation and reducing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  10. Novi Sad wheat cultivars and their seed production in the period 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad started a large-scale seed production of its wheat cultivars in1971. This activity was done in cooperation with a large number of seed companies from the former Yugoslavia and later on from Serbia. A total volume of production of all seed categories for the period from 1971 to 2010 was 3,790,712 tons. On average for this period, the annual production of certified seed was 94,768 t. The largest amount of seed of Novi Sad wheat cultivars was placed on the market in 1982 - 168,248 t (excluding exports. In the former Yugoslavia, Novi Sad wheat cultivars took from 30 to 65% of the total wheat market share. In the new Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, and finally in Serbia, the market share of Novi Sad cultivars ranged from 80 to 97%. The most popular and bestselling Novi Sad wheat cultivars were: Sava, Partizanka, Novi Sad Early 2 and 1, Balkan, Jugoslavija, Lasta, Evropa, Evropa 90, Pobeda, Novi Sad Early 5 and Renesansa.

  11. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montesinos

    Full Text Available Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation.

  12. Genetic divergence among interspecific Paspalum hybrids based on seed production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of genetic divergence as a basis for identifying superior individuals, with greater heterozygosity, is important in view of the difficulty when selecting of dissimilar genotypes exhibiting high average for interest traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence and the expression of seed production traits in seventeen apomictic Paspalum plicatulum × Paspalum guenoarum hybrids and two male parents (P. guenoarum. A randomized block design was used, with genotypes individually arranged into ten blocks. The following traits were assessed: total number of tillers/plant (TT, reproductive tiller/plant (RT, number of racemes per inflorescence (NRI, reproductive tiller height (RTH, inflorescence rachis length (IRL, number of seeds/inflorescence (NSI, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS and seed production (SP. Genetic divergence among the genotypes was estimated using the Tocher method and UPGMA clustering, based on the generalized Mahalanobis distance (D2 ii’. The Tocher and UPGMA optimization methods showed high concordance. The traits that most contributed to genetic divergence were RTH (23.59%, IRL (21.63%, WTS (16.67% and SP (14.23%. The presence of genetic diversity made it possible to identify divergent genotypes and those with high means for the traits studied, allowing the selection of genotypes with significant breeding potential. Repeated cross-breeding of female superior plants with the genotypes Azulão and H20 can result in a high heterosis effect on seed production characteristics.

  13. Biodegradation of the Organophosphate Trichlorfon and Its Major Degradation Products by a Novel Aspergillus sydowii PA F-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiang; Dong, Qiaofeng; Yu, Chenlei; Zhao, Ruixue; Wang, Jing; Chen, Lanzhou

    2016-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is an important organophosphate pesticide in agriculture. However, limited information is known about the biodegradation behaviors and kinetics of this pesticide. In this study, a newly isolated fungus (PA F-2) from pesticide-polluted soils was identified as Aspergillus sydowii on the basis of the sequencing of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. This fungus degraded TCF as sole carbon, sole phosphorus, and sole carbon-phosphorus sources in a mineral salt medium (MSM). Optimal TCF degradation conditions were determined through response surface methodology, and results also revealed that 75.31% of 100 mg/L TCF was metabolized within 7 days. The degradation of TCF was accelerated, and the mycelial dry weight of PA F-2 was remarkably increased in MSM supplemented with exogenous sucrose and yeast extract. Five TCF metabolic products were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. TCF could be initially hydrolyzed to dichlorvos and then be degraded through the cleavage of the P-C bond to produce dimethyl hydrogen phosphate and chloral hydrate. These two compounds were subsequently deoxidized to produce dimethyl phosphite and trichloroethanal. These results demonstrate the biodegradation pathways of TCF and promote the potential use of PA F-2 to bioremediate TCF-contaminated environments.

  14. Biodegradable modified Phba systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniscenko, L.; Dzenis, M.; Erkske, D.; Tupureina, V.; Savenkova, L.; Muizniece - Braslava, S.

    2004-01-01

    Compositions as well as production technology of ecologically sound biodegradable multicomponent polymer systems were developed. Our objective was to design some bio plastic based composites with required mechanical properties and biodegradability intended for use as biodegradable packaging. Significant characteristics required for food packaging such as barrier properties (water and oxygen permeability) and influence of γ-radiation on the structure and changes of main characteristics of some modified PHB matrices was evaluated. It was found that barrier properties were plasticizers chemical nature and sterilization with γ-radiation dependent and were comparable with corresponding values of typical polymeric packaging films. Low γ-radiation levels (25 kGy) can be recommended as an effective sterilization method of PHB based packaging materials. Purposely designed bio plastic packaging may provide an alternative to traditional synthetic packaging materials without reducing the comfort of the end-user due to specific qualities of PHB - biodegradability, Biocompatibility and hydrophobic nature

  15. RICE SEED TREATMENT AND RECOATING WITH POLYMERS: PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND RETENTION OF CHEMICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOVANE KLEIN FAGUNDES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical seed treatment is an important tool in the protection of seedlings and has contributed to the increase of rice yield (Oryza sativa L.. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality and quantify the retention of chemical products in rice seeds treated with insecticide and fungicide coated with polymers. Six seed treatments were used: control, phytosanitary treatment and phytosanitary treatment and coating with the polymers, Florite 1127®, GV5® Solid Resin, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed®. The physiological quality was evaluated by the test of germination and vigor by first count tests, germination speed index, shoot length, radicle length, seedling dry mass and sand emergence. To determine the retention of the active ingredients metalaxyl-M and thiamethoxam, an equipment called extractor was used. The experiment was organized in a completely randomized design (DIC and the averages were separated by the Scott Knott test (p≤0.05. Seed treatment with the fungicide and insecticide, coated with the polymers, Florite 1127®, Solid Resin GV5®, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed®, did not affect the physiological quality of rice seeds. Solid Resin GV5®, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed® polymers were efficient at retaining thiamethoxam in the rice seeds, preventing some of the active ingredients of the insecticide from being leached through the sand columns immediately after the simulated pluvial precipitation.

  16. Increasing the production yield of recombinant protein in transgenic seeds by expanding the deposition space within the intracellular compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Seeds must maintain a constant level of nitrogen in order to germinate. When recombinant proteins are produced while endogenous seed protein expression is suppressed, the production levels of the foreign proteins increase to compensate for the decreased synthesis of endogenous proteins. Thus, exchanging the production of endogenous seed proteins for that of foreign proteins is a promising approach to increase the yield of foreign recombinant proteins. Providing a space for the deposition of r...

  17. Formation of seed productivity in lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of inflorescence habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is explained the essence of the formation of seed production of lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of the inflorescence habitus, which formed during the different areas of plant nutrition. It is substantiated the mechanism of seed formation on different parts of the inflorescence of female plant with identification of it’s sowing quality. It is developed the agrotehnologcal measures aimed at improving the productivity of lettuce seed by overcoming its matrical heteroquality

  18. Formation of seed productivity in lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of inflorescence habitus

    OpenAIRE

    Н. В. Лещук

    2009-01-01

    It is explained the essence of the formation of seed production of lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of the inflorescence habitus, which formed during the different areas of plant nutrition. It is substantiated the mechanism of seed formation on different parts of the inflorescence of female plant with identification of it’s sowing quality. It is developed the agrotehnologcal measures aimed at improving the productivity of lettuce seed by overcoming its matrical he...

  19. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  20. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. B.

    2000-10-01

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  1. Experimental study of bioethanol production using mixed cassava and durian seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seer, Q. H.; Nandong, J.; Shanon, T.

    2017-06-01

    The production of biofuels using conventional fermentation feedstocks, such as sugar-and starch-based agricultural crops will in the long-term lead to a serious competition with human-animal food consumption. To avoid this competition, it is important to explore various alternative feedstocks especially those from inedible waste materials. Potentially, fruit wastes such as damaged fruits, peels and seeds represent alternative cheap feedstocks for biofuel production. In this work, an experimental study was conducted on ethanol production using mixed cassava and durian seeds through fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The effects of pH, temperature and ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds on the ethanol yield, substrate consumption and product formation rates were analyzed in the study. In flask-scale fermentation using the mixed cassava-durian seeds, it was found that the highest ethanol yield of 45.9 and a final ethanol concentration of 24.92 g/L were achieved at pH 5.0, temperature 35°C and 50:50 volume ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds for a batch period of 48 hours. Additionally, the ethanol, glucose and biomass concentration profiles in a lab-scale bioreactor were examined for the fermentation using the proposed materials under the flask-scale optimum conditions. The ethanol yield of 35.7 and a final ethanol concentration of 14.61 g/L were obtained over a period of 46 hours where the glucose was almost fully consumed. It is worth noting that both pH and temperature have significant impacts on the fermentation process using the mixed cassava-durian seeds.

  2. Auxin production in the endosperm drives seed coat development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Duarte D; Batista, Rita A; Roszak, Pawel J; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, seed development is initiated by the fusion of the maternal egg and central cells with two paternal sperm cells, leading to the formation of embryo and endosperm, respectively. The fertilization products are surrounded by the maternally derived seed coat, whose development prior to fertilization is blocked by epigenetic regulators belonging to the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein family. Here we show that fertilization of the central cell results in the production of auxin and most likely its export to the maternal tissues, which drives seed coat development by removing PcG function. We furthermore show that mutants for the MADS-box transcription factor AGL62 have an impaired transport of auxin from the endosperm to the integuments, which results in seed abortion. We propose that AGL62 regulates auxin transport from the endosperm to the integuments, leading to the removal of the PcG block on seed coat development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20542.001 PMID:27848912

  3. Production and analysis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    production of biodiesel via transesterification of resultant oil. The effects of methanol-to-oil .... mass and energy balance, cost analysis involved in producing biodiesel from ..... Chen, Q; Song, B.A;Yang, S (2011) Production and selected fuel ...

  4. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  5. DIURON OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL AND SURFACE AND GROUND WATER ASSOCIATED WITH GRASS SEED PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea) is the principal herbicide used in grass seed production. The occurrence and distribution of diuron was investigated at a poorly-drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette ...

  6. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H.; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Spanjer, Martien; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Mol, Hans G.J.; Nijs, de Monique

    2018-01-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with

  7. Determination of phomopsin-A in lupin seeds and lupin-derived products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, van den H.J.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed for the determination of phomopsin A in lupin seeds and lupin derived products. This was done in the frame of the 2nd Standardization Mandate (M/520) in the field of methods of analysis for mycotoxins in food, which had been issued by the European Commission in

  8. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  9. Effects on nitrogen fertilization on dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed and carvone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, J.G.N.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Research was conducted to remedy the lack of information on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the seed and carvone (a potato sprouting inhibitor) production of dill under Dutch conditions. From two trials conducted in 1995 on fertile loamy soils it can be concluded that dill is able to

  10. Transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in seed production crops of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Stevens, L.H.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Fernandes Vieira, J.; Amaral Villela, F.

    2014-01-01

    n 2011, two polytunnel greenhouse experiments were conducted on seed production farms, one under conventional conditions in the South-West (Rilland) and the other under organic conditions in the East (Voorst) of the Netherlands, to study transmission routes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

  11. Economic valuation of potential products from Jatropha seed in five selected countries: Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Mali, Indonesia, and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Zvinavashe, E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Jatropha seeds are mainly used to produce biodiesel, and a resultant press cakeis obtained as a by-product. Jatropha press cake fractionation and conversion into variouspotential products using biorefinery, could improve the economic value of Jatropha seed.The objectives of this study

  12. Biomass production of dense direct-seeded lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at short rotation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, I.; Bergsten, U.

    2012-07-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a fast-growing species that is suitable for producing woody biomass in Nordic countries. Direct seeding of this species is cheaper than planting and creates dense, stable stands. The objective of this study was to quantify the stem volume and biomass production of direct seeded lodgepole pine stands grown under different site conditions with different stem densities, at an age that would permit extensive harvesting of biomass. A circle-plot inventory was performed in 16 of the oldest direct seeded lodgepole pine stands in mid-northern Sweden. Stemwood production of almost 200 m{sup 3}/ha was achieved on average on the best sites, rising to about 300 m{sup 3}/ha for the best circle-plots within 30 years of direct seeding despite the fact that pre-commercial thinning was made once or twice. This corresponds to 100 and 140 tons of dry weight biomass/ha, respectively. Higher stand stem densities ({>=}3000 st/ha) yielded more biomass with only slight reductions in diameter at breast height. The development of stem volume with respect to dominant height in direct seeded stands was becoming comparable to that in planted stands with similar spacing. It therefore seems that there is an unutilized potential for cost-effectively growing lodgepole pine in dense stands for biomass production after direct seeding. It may be possible to devise regimes for short(er) rotation forestry that would yield substantial amount of inexpensive biomass for biorefineries within a few decades. (orig.)

  13. A Practical Approach to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Seed Production

    OpenAIRE

    , Orhan Çakır

    2002-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) grows faster and has great disease resistance. Therefore this species has been preferred to culture for years. Fry production, feeding and management of broodstock are explained practically in order to increase profitability.

  14. Inhibition of aflatoxin B production of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from soybean seeds by certain natural plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Y L; Shashikala, J

    2006-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powder of Withania somnifera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of Citrus sinensis, Citrus medica and Punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Soybean seed was treated with different natural products and fungicide captan and was inoculated with toxigenic strain of A. flavus and incubated for different periods. The results showed that all the treatments were effective in controlling aflatoxin B(1) production. Captan, neem cake, spore suspension of T. harzianum, A. niger and combination of both reduced the level of aflatoxin B(1) to a great extent. Leaf powder of W. somnifera, H. suaveolens, peel powder of C. sinensis, C. medica and pongamia cake also controlled the aflatoxin B(1) production. All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus. These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) production by A. flavus.

  15. The seeding and cultivation of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva for algal biomass production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially 'seeded' under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3 and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m(-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day(-1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0 ± 8.8 g dry weight m(-1 (228.7 ± 115.4 g fresh weight m(-1 was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5 ± 7.3 g dry weight m(-1 (120.2 ± 71.8 g fresh weight m(-1 over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems.

  16. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  17. Lettuce seed production in Colombia Producción de semilla de lechuga en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinzón Hernán

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Inorder to study letluce seed production locally under
    greenhouse conditions, four experiments were conducted using Simpson 100and Great Lakes 118, as imported varieties. To describe flowering and seed formation, estimate seed production per plant and per hectare and to evaluate inIhe laboratoryand in the field the locally produced seed. Results show clearly that it is possible to produce lettuce seed
    locally under greenhouse conditions, getting yields as high as 247 and 172 Kg/ha for Simpson and Great Lakes, respectively. Germination data for bolh varieties provedthat fresh letluce seeds aredormant, but it decreases notoriously to the tenlh week after harvest. However, when the seed is treated for 10 days with 5°C, the dormancy is broken and the
    germination increases. When both seed types (local and imported were compared under greenhouse conditions, it was found that the imported seed was slightly superior to the locally produced one with respect to emergence and seedlings dry weight, bul theywere uniform independentlyofvarietyand origin.
    Con el objeto de estudiar la producción de semilla de lechuga a nivel local bajo invernadero, se realizaron cuatro experimentos con las variedades Simpson 100 y Great lakes 118 para describir la floración y formación de semilla, cuantificar la producción por planta y por hectárea y evaluar, en laboratorio y en campo, la semilla producida. Los resultados muestran que es posible producir semilla de lechuga localmente y de una manera rentable con rendimientos para las variedades Simpson y Great Lakes, que
    alcanzan 247 y 172 Kg de semilla/ha, respectivamente. Las curvas de germinación para ambas variedades confirmaron que las semillas frescas de lechuga presentan latencia, la cual disminuye notoriamente hacia la décima semana después de cosecha. Sin embargo, cuando la semilla es sometida a
    5°C por 10 días, la latencia se rompe y se obtienen porcentajes de germinación del

  18. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due...... to its large importance in Danish agriculture. In a three-year trial six different methods of under-sowing of perennial ryegrass in a spring barley cover crop were employed. Perennial ryegrass was either sown directly at different depths within the spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rows or placed 2, 6......, or 12 cm from the spring barley rows. Results of dry-matter yield indicate that the best establishment of the grass occurred when placing the grass 6 or 12 cm from the cover-crop row, and this is of importance in less vigorous grasses. Overall, no seed-yield difference has been observed for perennial...

  19. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  20. Efficacies of Various Anaerobic Starter Seeds for Biogas Production from Different Types of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawinee Chaiprasert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various anaerobic starter seeds from different sources were investigated for their efficacies in treatment of different types of wastewater. Six combinations of starter seeds and wastewaters were selected out of 25 combination batch experiments and operated in semicontinuous reactors. It was noticed that the efficacies of various anaerobic starter seeds for biogas production from different types of wastewater in terms of reactor performance and stability were depended on wastewater characteristics and F/M ratio affecting microbial community and their microbial activities. However, exogenous starter seed can be used across different types of wastewater with or without acclimatization. Four reactors reached the targeted OLR of 2 kg COD/m3·d with high performance and stability except for concentrated rubber wastewater (RBw, even using high active starter seeds of cassava starch (CSs and palm oil (POs. The toxic compounds in RBw such as ammonia and sulfate might also adversely affect methanogenic activity in CSsRBw and POsRBw reactors. DGGE analysis showed that propionate utilizers, Smithella propionica strain LYP and Syntrophus sp., were detected in all samples. For Archaea domain, methylotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and acetoclastic methanogens were also detected. Syntrophic relationships were assumed between propionate utilizers and methanogens as acetate/H2 producers and utilizers, respectively.

  1. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  2. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Microrhizome Production, and Molecular Profiling in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Raj, Rahul P; Akshita, H J; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a native of India and South East Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric are used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is an important crop in India and it is used as a spice, food preservative, coloring agent, cosmetic as well as for its medicinal properties. Propagation is done vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed materials. It is plagued by rhizome rot diseases most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free seed. Sexual reproduction is rare in turmeric, making recombinant breeding very difficult. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice and it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement.

  3. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  4. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas sp. and its role in aqueous phase partitioning and biodegradation of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P B; Sharma, S; Saini, H S; Chadha, B S

    2009-09-01

    To study the effect of biosurfactant on aqueous phase solubility and biodegradation of chlorpyrifos. A Pseudomonas sp. (ChlD), isolated from agricultural soil by enrichment culture technique in the presence of chlorpyrifos, was capable of producing biosurfactant (rhamnolipids) and degrading chlorpyrifos (0.01 g l(-1)). The partially purified rhamnolipid biosurfactant preparation, having a CMC of 0.2 g l(-1), was evaluated for its ability to enhance aqueous phase partitioning and degradation of chlorpyrifos (0.01 g l(-1)) by ChlD strain. The best degradation efficiency was observed at 0.1 g l(-1) supplement of biosurfactant, as validated by GC and HPLC studies. The addition of biosurfactant at 0.1 g l(-1) resulted in more than 98% degradation of chlorpyrifos when compared to 84% in the absence of biosurfactant after 120-h incubation. This first report, to the best of our knowledge, on enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in the presence of biosurfactant(s), would help in developing bioremediation protocols to counter accumulation of organophosphates to toxic/carcinogenic levels in environment.

  5. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of palladium-103 production and IR07-103Pd brachytherapy seed preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, Pooneh; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Enferadi, Milad; Aslani, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report the cyclotron production of 103-palladium via 103 Rh(p,n) 103 Pd reaction. → 103 Pd was absorbed on resin beads for brachytherapy seed preparation. → The optimum absorption of 103 Pd in resin was achieved at 0.5 M HCl. → Version 5 of MCNP code was employed to model a new 103 Pd brachytherapy seed. - Abstract: In this study, design and fabrication of 103 Pd brachytherapy seed was investigated. The excitation functions of 103 Rh(p,n) 103 Pd and 103 Rh(d,2n) 103 Pd reactions were calculated using EMPIRE (version 3.1 Rivoli), ALICE/ASH and TALYS-1.2 codes, the TENDL-2010 database and compared with the published data. Production of 103 Pd was done via 103 Rh(p,n) 103 Pd nuclear reaction. The target was bombarded with 18 MeV protons at 200 μA beam current for 15 h. After irradiation and radiochemical separation of the electroplated rhodium target, the optimum condition for absorption of 103 Pd into Amberlite (registered) IR-93 resin was achieved at 0.5 M HCl. Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was employed to calculate the dosimetric parameters around the 103 Pd brachytherapy seed. Finally the calculated results were compared with published results for other commercial sources.

  7. Improving hybrid seed production in corn with glyphosate-mediated male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Paul C C; Qi, Youlin; Chiu, Tommy; Stoecker, Martin A; Schuster, Christopher L; Johnson, Scott C; Fonseca, Augustine E; Huang, Jintai

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid corn varieties exhibit benefits associated with heterosis and account for most of the corn acreage in the USA. Hybrid seed corn is produced by crossing a female parent which is male-sterile and therefore incapable of self-pollination with a male parent as the pollen donor. The majority of hybrid seed corn is produced by mechanical detasseling which involves physically removing the tassel, a process that is laborious and costly. Glyphosate-resistant corn was developed via expression of a glyphosate insensitive 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme (CP4-EPSPS). Experimentation with molecular expression elements resulted in selective reduction of CP4-EPSPS expression in male reproductive tissues. The resulting plant demonstrated sterile tassel following glyphosate application with little to no injury to the rest of the plant. Using (14)C-glyphosate as a marker, we also examined the translocation of glyphosate to the tassel via spray application in a track sprayer to simulate field application. The results allowed optimization of spray parameters such as dose, spray timing and target to maximize tassel delivery of glyphosate for efficient sterilization. The Roundup hybridization system (RHS) is a novel process for hybrid seed production based on glyphosate-mediated male sterility. RHS replaces mechanical detasseling with glyphosate spray and greatly simplifies the process of hybrid seed corn production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nutritional composition in the chia seed and its processing properties on restructured ham-like products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-fat meat products always have harder texture, lower juiciness, and worse flavor. Due to their higher water-holding, water absorption, and organic molecule absorption, chia seeds (CHIA have been applied in powders, nutrition bars, breads, and cookies. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: (1 analyze the nutritional compositions in CHIA; and (2 look for the possible application of CHIA on restructured ham-like products. CHIA has high amounts of α-linolenic acid, crude polysaccharides, and also contains essential amino acids, minerals, and polyphenols. Regarding processing properties of CHIA, a combination of CHIA and carrageenan (CA increased (p<0.05 production yield of restructured ham-like products. A scanning electron microscope observation indicated that CHIA and CA addition can assist an emulsification in this ham-like product. Addition of 0.5% CA and 1.0% CHIA in this ham-like product showed the similar overall acceptance as products with added fat. Following storage at 4°C, higher (p<0.05 purge and centrifugation losses, as well as hardness of this ham-like product can be improved by adding CHIA and CA. CHIA addition also resulted in lower (p<0.05 lipid and protein oxidation, especially a 1.0% addition. In summary, due to both nutritional addition and improvements on physicochemical and sensorial properties of restructured ham-like products, CHIA seeds have great potential on the development of healthy and good-quality meat products.

  9. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  10. Effect of Ovule Position within the Pod on the Probability of Seed Production in Bauhinia ungulata (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENA-ALÍ, JORGE I.; ROCHA, OSCAR J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims It has been claimed that ovules linearly ordered within a fruit differ in their probabilities of reaching maturity. This was investigated by studying the effect the position of an ovule within the pod has on seed abortion and seed production in Bauhinia ungulata. • Methods Fruits collected during the dry seasons of 1999, 2000 and 2001 were opened, and the number, position and status of each ovule within the fruit were recorded. A GLM model was used to assess the effects of population, tree identity and ovule position within the pod on ovule fertilization, seed abortion, seed damage and seed maturation in two populations of B. ungulata. • Key Results Nearly 30 % of the ovules were not fertilized in 1999; this percentage dropped to 5 % the following two years. Seed abortion (50 %) and seed damage (15 %) were the same every year during the study period. Only 15 % of the initial ovules developed into mature seeds in 1999; this value increased to 35 % in 2000 and 2001. However, seed survivorship was dependent on the position of the ovule within the pod; non-fertilized and early aborted ovules were found more often near the basal end of the ovary. The frequency of seed damage was not affected by position. Mature seeds were found mainly in the stylar half of fruits, where ovules are likely to be fertilized by fast pollen tubes. • Conclusions The pattern of seed production in B. ungulata is non-random but is dependent upon the position of the ovule within the pod. The results suggest that the seeds produced within a fruit might differ in their vigour. PMID:15596452

  11. A bioplastic-based seed coating improves seedling growth and reduces production of coated seed dust. Journal of Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although recently introduced, film-coating of agronomic seeds is now widely accepted in modern agriculture as an effective technology for protecting germinating seeds and seedlings. These experiments explored the possibility of using a bioplastic-based formulation to film-coat corn (maize) and cano...

  12. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  13. PRODUCTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN ORTHIC QUARTZARENIC NEOSOIL OF THE CERRADO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLINE ZARATIN ALVES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the sowing periods in production , productivity component and physiological quality of seeds of three soybean cultivars (TMG133RR, P98Y70RR and NS7670RR in Orthic Quartzarenic Neosoil in the cerrado region. The design used was a randomized block a factorial scheme design with four repetitions, and each plot with useful space consisted of three rows of four meters length, spaced at 0.45 meters. Field evaluations were the final stand, the height of the plants, height of the first pod insertion, the mass of 100 seeds and productivity. Already in the lab seeds were evaluated for germination and vigor (first germination count, emergency, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of the aerial part of the plant and roots, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging and tetrazolium test. It concludes that it is possible to use Orthic Quartzarenic Neosoils , located in the Cerrado region at altitudes higher than 600 m, in years and places with good water distribution in the spring - summer seasons, for grain and soybeans production, but as a first goal, the crop should be sown in the first 20 days of November otherwise it should take place in early December.

  14. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO 2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO 2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO 2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO 2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO 2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO 2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unique occurrence of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre: Screening the rich source of seed oil for bio-energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagi, Kariyappa S.; Munnolli, Ravindra S.; Hosamani, Kallappa M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to characterize, isolate and elucidate the structure of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre. Further, this nonedible seed oil is screened for its bio-diesel or industrial feedstock property. The Aegle marmelos Corre seeds yielded 49.0% oil. The seed oil contains 12.5% of 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid (ricinoleic acid) along with other normal fatty acids. The identification and characterization was supported by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC analysis and chemical degradation technique. A good agreement is seen between the calculated and experimental results of iodine value (IV) and saponification value (SV). The prominent parameters of bio-diesel such as cetane number (CN), lower heating value (LHV) and higher heating value (HHV) are deployed to envisage the quality of oil for use as bio-diesel. This seed oil is nonedible and is found to be the alternative feed stock for the production of bio-diesel since it convenes the major specifications of bio-diesel. The bio-diesel property of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of this seed oil is compared with other bio-diesels.

  16. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  17. LEGISLATIVE ENSURING FOR SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION (BASED ON PARLIAMENTARY SESSION ON 11 JULY IN 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the national seed market state really showed the high dependence of Russian food security on imported seeds. The government means for supporting the national seed production program undertaken in 2015 by Ministry of Agriculture of RF were very effective and took action as showed the data from ‘Roselkhozcentre’. Thus, the total land area used for seed production in vegetables, melons and gourds was increased by 48% that amounted to 2104.3 ha in 2016, and that was more than in 2015. Moreover, the vegetable and melon seed producers and breeders are worried about the facts of falsification and low quality. The main reason of occurrence of such seeds that are not meeting the variety requirements in the market is an insufficient legislative system and its lack of correspondence to the current seed production, conditions and up-to-date requirements. It is necessary to take urgent measures to revise the current state of legislative system in national seed production program. 

  18. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Kollmann, J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between

  19. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  20. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  1. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Henn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao. In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 929-938. Epub 2014 September 01.

  2. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  3. Biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Harrison, Mark D.; Kusumo, Fitranto; Mazaheri, Hoora; Ilham, Zul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Need for alternative energy has led to explore new feedstock. • Ocimum basilicum seeds oil was used as biodiesel feedstock. • Biodiesel was produced via lipase-catalyzed transesterification by Novozym. • Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was employed. - Abstract: The increasing global demand for fuel, limited fossil fuel resources, and increasing concern about the upturn in gaseous CO_2 emissions are the key drivers of research and development into sources of renewable liquid transport fuels, such as biodiesel. In the present work, we demonstrate biodiesel production from Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) seed oil by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Sweet basil seeds contain 22% oil on a dry weight basis. Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was used to optimize reaction. Temperature, catalyst concentration, time, and methanol to oil molar ratio were the input factors in the optimization study, while fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was the key model output. FAME composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimized transesterification process resulted in a 94.58% FAME yield after reaction at 47 °C for 68 h in the presence of 6% w/w catalyst and a methanol to oil ratio of 10:1. The viscosity, density, calorific value, pour point, and cloud point of the biodiesel derived from sweet basil seed oil conformed to the EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standard specifications. The antioxidant stability of the biodiesel did not meet these specifications but could be improved via the addition of antioxidant.

  4. SCREENING OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L. CULTIVARS FOR SEED PRODUCTION POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Aminul Islam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted aiming to find out the seed production potentiality of 19 local and exotic onion cultivars. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sprouting percentage, number of flowers per umbel and number of umbel per bulb. Maximum number of days to 50% bolting (52.67 was exhibited by the genotype G2 and minimum by G6 (27.00 days. The larger bulb size after harvest was obtained from G14 and G19 (18.11 g. Genotypes G4 and G11 required the maximum (16.66 and the minimum (9.00 days for 100% sprouting, respectively. The highest stalk length was found in the genotype G1 (67.23 cm and the lowest in G8 (38.47 cm. Maximum number (5.75 of stalk was produced by the genotype G7 and minimum number (2.09 of stalk by the genotype G11. The genotype G1 produced the highest number of seeds per umbel (1395.92 and seed yield per plant (4.29 g. The lowest (0.45 g seed yield per plant and maximum bulb weight was obtained by the genotype G8.

  5. Novel Gram-Scale Production of Enantiopure R-Sulforaphane from Tuscan Black Kale Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Rosalinda De Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of its natural precursor glucoraphanin. As an alternative to broccoli seeds, we have exploited Tuscan black kale seeds as a suitable source for gram-scale production of glucoraphanin. The defatted seed meal contained 5.1% (w/w of glucoraphanin that was first isolated through an anion exchange chromatographic process, and then purified by gel filtration. The availability of glucoraphanin (purity ≈ 95%, weight basis has allowed us to develop a novel simple hydrolytic process involving myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147 in a biphasic system to directly produce R-sulforaphane. In a typical experiment, 1.09 g of enantiopure R-sulforaphane was obtained from 150 g of defatted Tuscan black kale seed meal.

  6. Production and characterization of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%. The HM biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt%. • HM biodiesel satisfied ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards, with the exception of OS. • The transportation safety and cold flow properties of HM biodiesel were excellent. • After treatment with 400 ppm TBHQ, the OS of HM biodiesel satisfied EN 14214. - Abstract: Using inexpensive and high-quality oil feedstock is an effective means to produce low-cost biodiesel. This work investigated the production and fuel properties of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa (HM). The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%, which is much higher than that of many potential oil plants. With traditional base-catalyzed transesterification, biodiesel was readily prepared from HM seed oil. The biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt% from HM seed oil. Biodiesel derived from HM met all ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications, except for oxidative stability (OS). The OS specifications of the two biodiesel standards were met after treatment of HM biodiesel with 400 ppm tertbutyl hydroquinone. The biodiesel exhibited excellent transportation safety and cold flow properties, with flash point of 153 °C, pour point of −9 °C, and cold filter plugging point of −7 °C

  7. Influence of plant spacing on seed and ware tuber production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest number of seed-sized tubers (40-75 g) was obtained at high planting density, i.e. 50 cm x 25 cm and 60 cm x 25 cm. Since spacing 50 cm x 25 cm requires more planting material and also makes inter-cultivation practices more difficult, the spacing of 60 cm x 25 cm was recommended for maximizing production ...

  8. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  9. Impacts Seed Technology Improvement on Economic Aspects of Chilli Production in Central Java - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production, including that of chillies, plays an important role in agricultural sector and rural economic development worldwide. This is because of greater farm productivity with regard to vegetables than cereal and staple crops. This paper analyses the impact of seed technology development on the economic aspects of chilli production in Central Java. Particular attention is paid to improved varieties of chilli. Potential consequences of seed technology development are discussed. Data of this study are compiled from surveys conducted in three selected chilli producing regions in 2010-2012. The results show that the major varieties of chilli grown by surveyed farmers are grouped into three broad types: hybrids, local and improved open pollinated varieties. The chilli varieties farmers selected varied according to location and cropping season. In the dry season, farmers grew similar proportions of hybrid, local, and open pollinated types. Nevertheless, there were differences among the survey sites. Farmers grew different varieties to exploit seasonal microclimates and market preferences. Mostly, farmers selected varieties for economic motives. The consequence of growing hybrids was less use of agrochemicals, particularly pesticides, than for other varieties. Overall, they show the best economic performance in the study site. Development of seed technology should consider agro-ecological and economic aspects to obtain better outcomes. Private sector and national research institutions need to collaborate more to utilise available genetic resources to produce better varieties of chilli.

  10. Socioeconomic analysis and problems of maize seed production in mid hill area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is considered as staple food and is a way of life for the hilly region of Nepal. The production and yield of maize crop is very low which is unable to meet the current demand and is mostly affected by various insect/pests and diseases. For such a backdrop, 182 cross sectional data were collected using simple random techniques in Palpa in June, 2016. Forced scaling technique was used to rank problems based on index value. The total average landholding was 0.91 hectare with 0.32 ha under maize seed cultivation. About 90.7 and 69.8% farmers were access to extension service and had received training respectively. Infestation of insect/pests ranked at first as a major problem in maize seed production with 0.79 index value followed by infrastructure/credit, storage, unavailability of inputs and marketing problems. Similarly poor bargaining power ranked as a 1st major marketing problem. Better access to extension service as well as frequent training service to farmers should be provided to increase production and yield of maize seed. Government and other stakeholder organizations should focus to develop irrigation infrastructure for the overall development of maize sector.

  11. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  12. Process intensification for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds: Supercritical reactive extraction process parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of supercritical reactive extraction process for biodiesel production. ► Focus is given on optimizing methyl esters yield for Jatropha curcas L. seeds. ► Influence of process parameters to the reaction are discussed thoroughly. ► Comparison between the novel reaction with conventional process are studied. ► High methyl esters yield can be obtained without pre-extraction and catalyst. -- Abstract: In a bid to increase the cost competitiveness of biodiesel production against mineral diesel, process intensification has been studied for numerous biodiesel processing technologies. Subsequently, reactive extraction or in situ transesterification is actively being explored in which the solid oil-bearing seeds are used as the reactant directly with short-chain alcohol. This eliminates separate oil extraction process and combines both extraction and transesterification in a single unit. Supercritical reactive extraction takes one step further by substituting the role of catalyst with supercritical conditions to achieve higher yield and shorter processing time. In this work, supercritical reactive extraction with methanol was carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. Material and process parameters including space loading, solvent to seed ratio, co-solvent (n-hexane) to seed ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and mixing intensity were varied one at a time and optimized based on two responses i.e. extraction efficiency, M extract and FAME yield, F y . The optimum responses for supercritical reactive extraction obtained were 104.17% w/w and 99.67% w/w (relative to 100% lipid extraction with n-hexane) for M extract and F y respectively under the following conditions: 54.0 ml/g space loading, 5.0 ml/g methanol to seeds ratio, 300 °C, 9.5 MPa (Mega Pascal), 30 min reaction time and without n-hexane as co-solvent or any agitation source. This proved that

  13. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, S.S.

    1993-10-01

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS) [de

  14. Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: effects of seed provenance, consumers and disturbance on productivity and species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, John L; Auge, Harald; Pearson, Dean E; Korell, Lotte; Hensen, Isabell; Suding, Katharine N; Stein, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions are thought to alter productivity and species richness, yet these patterns are typically correlative. Few studies have experimentally invaded sites and asked how addition of novel species influences ecosystem function and community structure and examined the role of competitors and/or consumers in mediating these patterns. We invaded disturbed and undisturbed subplots in and out of rodent exclosures with seeds of native or exotic species in grasslands in Montana, California and Germany. Seed addition enhanced aboveground biomass and species richness compared with no-seeds-added controls, with exotics having disproportionate effects on productivity compared with natives. Disturbance enhanced the effects of seed addition on productivity and species richness, whereas rodents reduced productivity, but only in Germany and California. Our results demonstrate that experimental introduction of novel species can alter ecosystem function and community structure, but that local filters such as competition and herbivory influence the magnitude of these impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Selectivity of Some Herbicides to Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L., Grown for Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine selectivity of some herbicides to cocksfoot(Dactylis glomerata L., and their influence on the seed production, during the years 2008-2010. The trial was set on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, onslightly leached chernozem. As a result of the research the following was found: herbicidesArat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron at the dose of 100 ml/ha, Korida 75 VDG (750g/kg tribenuron-methyl – 15 g/ha and Cambio SL (320 g/l bentazon + 90 g/l dicamba –1250 ml/ha and Grasp 25SK (250 g/l tralkoxyidim + Atplus at rate of 1000 + 1000 ml/ha hadhigh selectivity to cocksfoot, applied at 2-4 leaf stage during establishing year of the stand,and until the stage of the beginning of shooting up in seed production year.Herbicide Topik 080EK (80 g/l clodinofop – propargyl + antidote at rate of 300 ml/ha,showed phytotoxic effect to D. glomerata and caused the reduction of seed and dry biomassproductivity.

  16. Importance of stand density, inter row spacing, "mother" and "father" row distance in corn seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Branko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of stand density, "mother" and "father" row distance is very important for corn seed production. Inter row spacing from 70,60 and 50 cm, and their influence on "mother" grain yield was investigated during 7 years trials. In seed production, at density ratio 6 + 2, beside inter row spacing, yield influence on stand density was followed as well. Five stand densities (40.8000, 52.900, 64.900, 79.400, 89.300, total plant number per ha and density ration 6 + 2, was investigated. The next results were obtained: at 70 cm inter row spacing, the highest yield was achieved with the 64.900 plant/ha stand density (4.35 tha-1 "mother" seed. At the first row, yield was higher for 360 and 550 kgha-1 in dependence from the second and the third "mother" row. At 60 cm inter row spacing, yield was increasing till the highest density, and significant difference, in relation to 40.800 plants/ha, was at 79.400 plants/ha stands density. At the second and the third row in rela­tion to the first "mother" row, yield difference was 430 and 510 kgha-1. The same conclusions can be made at the 50 cm inter row spacing. With the "mother" row space increasing, yield was decreased for 370 and 460 kgha-1.

  17. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In-situ Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biodiesel Production using Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ supercritical methanol transesterification for production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL seeds was successfully being carried out via batch-wise reactor system, under varying temperatures of 180 - 300 °C, pressures of 6 - 18 MPa, reaction time of 5 - 35 min and seeds-to-methanol ratio of 1:15 - 1:45 (w/v. In this study, the extracted oil obtained showed the presence of FAME referring as biodiesel, indicating that transesterification reaction had occurred during the extraction process. The results showed that the biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of 280 °C, 12 MPa, 30 min and 1:40 (w/v were 97.9%.

  19. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  20. Study on biomethane production and biodegradability of different leafy vegetables in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hu; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Jiafu; Zhang, Ruihong; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2017-12-01

    Enormous amounts of vegetable residues are wasted annually, causing many environmental problems due to their high moisture and organic contents. In this study, the methane production potential of 20 kinds of typical leafy vegetable residues in China were explored using a unified method. A connection between the biochemical components and the methane yields of these vegetables was well established which could be used to predict biogas performance in practice. A high volatile solid/total solid (VS/TS) ratio and hemicellulose content exhibited a positive impact on the biogas yield while lignin had a negative impact. In addition, three kinetic models were used to describe the methane production process of these agro-wastes. The systematic comparison of the methane production potentials of these leafy vegetables shown in this study will not only serve as a reference for basic research on anaerobic digestion but also provide useful data and information for agro-industrial applications of vegetable residues in future work.

  1. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gioannis, G., E-mail: degioan@unica.it [DICAAR – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); IGAG-CNR, Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of the National Research Council (Italy); Muntoni, A. [DICAAR – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); IGAG-CNR, Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of the National Research Council (Italy); Polettini, A.; Pomi, R. [Department of Hydraulics, Transportation and Roads, University of Rome “La Sapienza” (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ► Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ► More than 80 publications on H{sub 2} production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ► Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ► For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H{sub 2} production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is

  2. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gioannis, G.; Muntoni, A.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ► Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ► More than 80 publications on H 2 production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ► Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ► For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H 2 production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is strictly

  3. Biodegradable congress 2012; Bioschmierstoff-Kongress 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Within the Guelzower expert discussions at 5th and 6th June, 2012 in Oberhausen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of biodegradable lubricants by means of research and development as well as public relations (Steffen Daebeler); (2) Biodegradable lubricants - An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the engaged product groups (Hubertus Murrenhoff); (3) Standardization of biodegradable lubricants - CEN/DIN standard committees - state of the art (Rolf Luther); (4) Market research for the utilization of biodegradable lubricants and means of proof of sustainability (Norbert Schmitz); (5) Fields of application for high performance lubricants and requirements upon the products (Gunther Kraft); (6) Investigations of biodegradable lubricants in rolling bearings and gears (Christoph Hentschke); (7) Biodegradable lubricants in central lubrication systems Development of gears and bearings of offshore wind power installations (Reiner Wagner); (8) Investigations towards environmental compatibility of biodegradable lubricants used in offshore wind power installations (Tolf Schneider); (9) Development of glycerine based lubricants for the industrial metalworking (Harald Draeger); (10) Investigations and utilization of biodegradable oils as electroinsulation oils in transformers (Stefan Tenbohlen); (11) Operational behaviour of lubricant oils in vegetable oil operation and Biodiesel operation (Horst Hamdorf); (12) Lubrication effect of lubricating oil of the third generation (Stefan Heitzig); (13) Actual market development from the view of a producer of biodegradable lubricants (Frank Lewen); (14) Utilization of biodegradable lubricants in forestry harvesters (Guenther Weise); (15) New biodegradable lubricants based on high oleic sunflower oil (Otto Botz); (16) Integrated fluid concept - optimized technology and service package for users of biodegradable lubricants (Juergen Baer); (17) Utilization of a bio oil sensor to control

  4. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Polettini, A; Pomi, R

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H2 production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is strictly required, claiming for more systematic and comprehensive studies on the subject. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  6. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of Rhazia stricta seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. • Biodiesel is prepared by alkaline transesterification. • Biodiesel from R. stricta oil meets specifications in biodiesel standards. - Abstract: Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by 1 H-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world

  7. Phospholipase Dε enhances Braasca napus growth and seed production in response to nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoping; Yao, Shuaibing; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Zhou, Yongming; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD), which hydrolyses phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid, has been implicated in plant response to macronutrient availability in Arabidopsis. This study investigated the effect of increased PLDε expression on nitrogen utilization in Brassica napus to explore the application of PLDε manipulation to crop improvement. In addition, changes in membrane lipid species in response to nitrogen availability were determined in the oil seed crop. Multiple PLDε over expression (PLDε-OE) lines displayed enhanced biomass accumulation under nitrogen-deficient and nitrogen-replete conditions. PLDε-OE plants in the field produced more seeds than wild-type plants but have no impact on seed oil content. Compared with wild-type plants, PLDε-OE plants were enhanced in nitrate transporter expression, uptake and reduction, whereas the activity of nitrite reductase was higher under nitrogen-depleted, but not at nitrogen-replete conditions. The level of nitrogen altered membrane glycerolipid metabolism, with greater impacts on young than mature leaves. The data indicate increased expression of PLDε has the potential to improve crop plant growth and production under nitrogen-depleted and nitrogen-replete conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pollen Morphology and Viability Relates to Seed Production in Hybrid Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility of hybrid tea roses is often reduced due to their interspesific origin but also to intensive inbreeding. New genotypes used as pollen donors represent an economic risk for a breeding program, as their influence on seed production is unknown. In this study 9 garden rose genotypes were selected from a company database as high fertile or low fertile male parents, according to the number of seeds per hybridization. Pollen morphology and in vitro germination of the selected genotypes were characterized. Pollen was either small (mean diameter = 30 urn, shrunken, and irregular (abnormal, or large (mean diameter = 30 urn, elliptical and crossed by furrows (normal. High correlations were found between the number of seeds produced per hybridization and the pollen diameter (r = 0.94 or the percentage of normal pollen (r = 0.96. In order to evaluate the predictive power of the models, we conducted regression analyses and performed a validation experiment on genotypes not present in the database and without background information on fertility. Pollen diameter and percentage of normal pollen were characterized and fitted in the regression models for seed set predictions. Validation with an independent dataset gave a good prediction for 83.3% of the data. This indicates that using either the mean pollen diameter or the percentage of normal pollen resulted in effective fertility prediction. Moreover cluster analysis of the data classified all the cultivars into various groups with varying fertility. This tool could enhance the genetic variability in crossings between hybrid tea roses, thus creating possibilities for less economically risky exploitation of new tetraploid genotypes as male parents.

  9. Survival of Salmonella during Production of Partially Sprouted Pumpkin, Sunflower, and Chia Seeds Dried for Direct Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Anderson, Nathan M; Wang, Can; Burbick, Stephen J; Hildebrandt, Ian M; Gonsalves, Lauren J; Suehr, Quincy J; Farakos, Sofia M Santillana

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-eat foods based on dried partially sprouted seeds have been associated with foodborne salmonellosis. Whereas research has focused on the potential for Salmonella initially present in or on seeds to grow and survive during fresh sprout production, little is known about the potential for growth and survival of Salmonella associated with seeds that have been partially sprouted and dried. The goal of this study was to determine the growth of Salmonella during soaking for partial germination of pumpkin, sunflower, and chia seeds and subsequent survival during drying and storage. Pumpkin, sunflower, and chia seeds were inoculated with a four-serotype Salmonella cocktail by the dry transfer method and were soaked in sterile water at 25 or 37°C for 24 h. During the soaking period, Salmonella exhibited growth rates of 0.37 ± 0.26, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.45 ± 0.19 log CFU/h at 25°C and 0.94 ± 0.44, 1.04 ± 0.84, and 0.73 ± 0.36 log CFU/h at 37°C for chia, pumpkin, and sunflower seeds, respectively. Soaked seeds were drained and dried at 25, 51, and 60°C. Drying resulted in >5 log CFU/g loss at both 51 and 60°C and ∼3 log CFU/g loss at 25°C on partially sprouted pumpkin and sunflower seeds. There was no decrease in Salmonella during drying of chia seeds at 25°C, and only drying at 60°C provided losses >5 log CFU/g. Dried seeds were stored at 37 and 45°C at 15 and 76% relative humidity (RH) levels. The combination of temperature and RH exerted a stronger effect than either factor alone, such that rates at which Salmonella decreased generally followed this order: 37°C at 15% RH < 45°C at 15% RH < 37°C at 76% RH < 45°C at 76% RH for all seeds tested. Rates differed based on seed type, with chia seeds and chia seed powder having the smallest rate of Salmonella decrease, followed by sunflower and pumpkin seeds. Drying at higher temperatures (50 and 61°C) or storing at elevated temperature and humidity (45°C and 76% RH) resulted in significantly different

  10. Pyrolysis of Mahua seed (Madhuca indica) – Production of biofuel and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Debalaxmi; Singh, R.K.; Bendu, Harisankar; Mund, Rachna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New feedstock reported as its superiority for biofuel production. • At optimum 525 °C the maximum bio-oil yield was 49% and bio-char yield was 18%. • Suitability of bio-oil from Mahua seed could be used an alternative to fossil fuel. • The high calorific value of bio-char indicates as good source of solid fuel. - Abstract: The thermal pyrolysis of Mahua seed (Madhuca indica) has been carried out in the present study to verify its potentiality for biofuel production. Pyrolysis was conducted in a semi-batch reactor at various temperatures from 450 to 600 °C under 30 mL/min nitrogen flow rate and at 20 °C/min constant heating rate. At an optimum temperature of 525 °C, the maximum bio-oil yield of 49% was obtained along with 18% of bio-char. Both the products were further physically and chemically characterized, and their results demonstrated their efficiency and potentiality as beneficial energy resources. The chemical characterizations through FTIR, "1H NMR, and GC–MS showed that the bio-oil consisted of significant number of aliphatic compounds than aromatics. The obtained calorific value of bio-oil was found to be 39.02 MJ/kg which is closer to the calorific values of the conventional petroleum fuels. Moreover, the morphological characteristics of bio-char was carried out using SEM and BET analysis which revealed their macroporous surface with a low surface area of 13.2 m"2/g. Bio-char had calorific value of 26.053 MJ/kg which is more than that of fossil fuel coal. Such favorable outcomes endorse the Mahua seed biofuel as a promising candidate to be used as hydrocarbon fuel and chemical feed stock.

  11. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Maya, Lisandro; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of the flavanoid family are abundantly present in cacao seed and its cocoa products. Results from studies using cocoa products indicate beneficial effects of flavanols on cardiovascular endpoints. Evidence indicates that (-)-epicatechin is the main cacao flavanol associated with cardiovascular effects, so the accurate quantification of its content in cacao seeds or cocoa products is important. Common methods for the quantification of phenolic content in cocoa products are based on the reaction of phenols with colorimetric reagents such as the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) In this study, we compared the FC method of phenolic determinations using 2 different standards (gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin) to construct calibration curves. We compare these results with those obtained from a simple fluorometric method (Ex(280)/Em(320) nm) used to determine catechin/(-)-epicatechin content in samples of cacao seeds and cocoa products. Values obtained from the FC method determination of polyphenols yield an overestimation of phenol (flavonoid) content when gallic acid is used as standard. Moreover, the epicatechin is a more reliable standard because of its abundance in cacao seeds and cocoa products. The use of fluorometric spectra yields a simple and highly quantitative means for a more precise and rapid quantification of cacao catechins. Fluorometric values are essentially in agreement with those reported using more cumbersome methods. In conclusion, the use of fluorescence emission spectra is a quick, practical and suitable means to quantifying catechins in cacao seeds and cocoa products.

  12. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  13. Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandin, Helena; Myrberg, Olle; Rundlöf, Torgny; Arvidsson, Ann-Kristin; Brenning, Gunilla

    2007-06-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of a GSE product for 3 days. The female patient experienced a minor subcutaneous haematoma 3 days later, and her international normalised ratio (INR) value was 7.9. This was reported to the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) as a spontaneous post-marketing report concerning adverse drug reactions/interactions. The composition of the GSE products was determined by proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The inhibitory effect of the GSE products on the cytochrome P450 enzymes was tested in an in vitro baculosome assay. The NMR analysis showed that all three investigated GSE products contained the synthetic preservative benzethonium chloride (BTC) in addition to glycerol and water. No authentic GSE extract was found in any of the three GSE products analysed. Furthermore, BTC was found to be a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. Our results suggest that BTC in the GSE products is responsible for the increase in the INR value in a patient on warfarin treatment.

  14. UV-photodegradation of desipramine: Impact of concentration, pH and temperature on formation of products including their biodegradability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Nareman D.H.; Mahmoud, Waleed M.M. [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Olsson, Oliver [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Kümmerer, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.kuemmerer@leuphana.de [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Desipramine (DMI) is a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, and it is the major metabolite of imipramine (IMI) and lofepramine (LMI); IMI and LMI are two of the most commonly used tricyclic antidepressants. If DMI enters the aquatic environment, it can be transformed by the environmental bacteria or UV radiation. Therefore, photolysis of DMI in water was performed using a simulated sunlight Xenon-lamp and a UV-lamp. Subsequently, the biodegradability of DMI and its photo-transformation products (PTPs) formed during its UV photolysis was studied. The influence of variable conditions, such as initial DMI concentration, solution pH, and temperature, on DMI UV photolysis behavior was also studied. The degree of mineralization of DMI and its PTPs was monitored. A Shimadzu HPLC-UV apparatus was used to follow the kinetic profile of DMI during UV-irradiation; after that, ion-trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with chromatography were used to monitor and identify the possible PTPs. The environmentally relevant properties and selected toxicity properties of DMI and the non-biodegradable PTPs were predicted using different QSAR models. DMI underwent UV photolysis with first-order kinetics. Quantum yields were very low. DOC values indicated that DMI formed new PTPs and was not completely mineralized. Analysis by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that the photolysis of DMI followed three main photolysis pathways: isomerization, hydroxylation, and ring opening. The photolysis rate was inversely proportional to initial DMI concentration. The pH showed a significant impact on the photolysis rate of DMI, and on the PTPs in terms of both formation kinetics and mechanisms. Although temperature was expected to increase the photolysis rate, it showed a non-significant impact in this study. Results from biodegradation tests and QSAR analysis revealed that DMI and its PTPs are not readily biodegradable and that some PTPs may be human and/or eco

  15. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram; Merah, Othmane

    2018-02-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people's access to food. Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway ( Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

  16. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread. PMID:29495324

  17. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sayed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. and caraway (Carum carvi L. oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6% of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

  18. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation of an isolated flower in reproductive stages on seed production of Brassica napus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Harufumi; Sakurai, Noboru; Muroyama, Takeo; Hogetsu, Daisuke

    1999-01-01

    We examined seed production after gamma irradiation of an isolated whole flower (a flower with pedicel) of Brassica napus strain 1 through a flower organ culture and estimated the effects of gamma rays on embryogenesis in sexual reproductive stages. The whole flowers were irradiated with 17, 32, 57 and 87 Gy of gamma rays in unpollinated stage at day of anthesis, in stage shortly after fertilization and early embryo stage. The gamma irradiation of flowers in stage shortly after fertilization showed a drastic effect on the mature seed production. The number of seeds per pod began to decrease at 17 Gy and dropped to 15% of that of unirradiated flowers at 32 Gy. On the other hand, the flowers irradiated in the unpollinated and early embryo stages began to reduce the number of seeds at 57 Gy. The ovary elongation was suppressed with increasing irradiation dose when the flower was irradiated in unpollinated stage and stage shortly after fertilization. (author)

  20. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PRODUCTS UPON THE GERMINATION CAPACITIES OF SMOOTH BROME SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The carrying out of uniform forage crops represents an important technological loop for all agricultural species. The uniformity of these crops is caused especially by seed germination capacity, respectively by plant emergence capacity, depending upon the climatic and technological conditions. With regards to the researches carried out in this direction, we present here the influence exerted by some biologically-active products, used through extra-root application during plant vegetation period, upon seeds submitted to germination. The observations performed on smooth brome seeds have led to the conclusion that the per cent of germinated seeds ranges from 82%, in the untreated control variant, to 87.67% in the variant treated with the product Stimupro.

  1. Biodegradable Polydepsipeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintang Guo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the synthesis, characterization, biodegradation and usage of bioresorbable polymers based on polydepsipeptides. The ring-opening polymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives using organic Sn and enzyme lipase is discussed. The dependence of the macroscopic properties of the block copolymers on their structure is also presented. Bioresorbable polymers based on polydepsipeptides could be used as biomaterials in drug controlled release, tissue engineering scaffolding and shape-memory materials.

  2. Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product

    OpenAIRE

    Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

    2012-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0–30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder co...

  3. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Simon P; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2) hr(-1) (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3)). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility.

  4. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118 in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2 hr(-1 (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3. These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility.

  5. Biodegradation of CuTETA, an effluent by-product in mineral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Alexander M L; Kelebek, Sadan; Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Juliana A

    2018-04-13

    Polyamines such as triethylenetetramine (TETA) and other amine chelators are used in mineral processing applications. Formation of heavy metal complexes of these reagents as a by-product in effluent water is a recent environmental concern. In this study, Paecilomyces sp. was enriched from soil on TETA as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen and was found to degrade > 96 and 90% CuTETA complexes at initial concentrations of 0.32 and 0.79 mM respectively, following 96-h incubation. After destabilization, most of the copper (> 78%) was complexed extracellularly and the rest was associated with the cell. Mass spectroscopy results provided confirmation that copper re-complexed with small, extracellular, and organic molecules. There are no reports in the literature that Paecilomyces or any other organism can grow on TETA or CuTETA. This study is the first to show that biological destabilization of CuTETA complexes in mineral processing effluents is feasible.

  6. PRODUCTION OF HYBRID SEEDS OF THE VEGETABLE MARROW AT FREE POLLINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kuzmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work performed in 2015-2017 on seedgrowing crops of the Crimean OSS VIR was receiving hybrid seeds of a vegetable marrow at free pollination and check of their quality by method of soil control. At laying of seed-growing crops, carrying out variety cleanings,, inspections and approbation were guided by the Instruction for approbation of seedgrowing crops of vegetable, melon cultures, fodder root crops and fodder cabbage (2008. The vegetable marrow with a high saturation pistillate flowers of Bl12, Su4 and Ar3 were used as maternal lines. Double processing by solution of an etrel was carried out to early phases of development of plants them. Use of this growth regulator has influenced blossoming of plants - in the lower knots men's flowers weren't formed, purely women's blossoming for the term of 14-17 days, sufficient for setting of seed fruits was observed. Control of blossoming of maternal forms was exercised by systematic inspections of plants on a floor. We have conducted three multiple examination. The first - before blossoming of maternal plants, in a budding phase when it is already possible to distinguish a sex of flowers, the second – in a phase of the beginning of blossoming. The third examination was conducted for definition of the beginning of blossoming of male flowers on plants of the maternal line. Timely carrying out inspections and variety cleanings, promotes receiving qualitative hybrid material. When carrying out soil control the high hybridism of seed material is revealed: F1 Bl12 x D1 - 95,3 %; F1 Su4 x D1 - 95,7 %; F1 Ar3 x D1 - 96,0 %. The results indicate that of the carried-out work, at free pollination of maternal and fatherly forms, vegetable marrow seeds with a high hybridism are received. Conducting the trial testing of new hybrids showed their high economic value. In comparison with the standard of Belogor F1, their total yield is higher by 16.7-25.7%, and the early yield by 10.5-27.7%. The

  7. The peasant women movement and the seeding of new perspectives: the meanings of (re production of creole seeds for women in the west of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Manoel Lacerda Adão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the reasons that motivate the women of the Peasant Women Movement (Movimento das Mulheres Camponesas - MMC to produce food by cultivation of creole seeds. An analysis was carried out to know the women’s practices and perceptions about the production and multiplication of the creole seeds and its possible contribution to the food production in a sustainable way in the city of Itá, in the west of Santa Catarina. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation, whereas the analysis of information collected was done through content analysis. One of the most important findings was that women realize the purpose of the MMC to drive their participation on the public spaces and to value their daily activities. The cultivation of the creole seeds is a symbol of the struggle for Food sovereignty, integrating the production of healthy food and the valorization of the role of women in the family and social realms.

  8. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  9. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  10. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  11. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makambila, C.

    1997-01-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab

  12. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  13. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makambila, C [Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Sciences, Univ. of Brazzaville, Brazzaville (Congo)

    1997-12-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab.

  14. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  15. Production of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from cheese whey by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(1)W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-08-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  17. Comments on H- volume production in Cs-seeded ion sources. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable interest was generated at the IAEA Negative Ion Beam Workshop in Grenoble, France, in March, 1985, by a report from the Kurchatov Institute on the development of a 2-ampere steady-state H - ion source, in which the ions were volume-produced in a discharge in H 2 , seeded with Cs vapor. The mechanism primarily responsible for this remarkably high current from a volume production source was not yet understood, but it was tentatively presumed to involve the collisional energy transfer from electronically excited Cs 6p atoms into H 2 vibrations. In any case, it was apparently different from the surface-plasma interactions that have been assumed to control the H - production in the Dudnikov-Dimov type sources

  18. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  20. Production of pre-basic potato seed by polyvinyl chloride PVC: articulate gutters hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient and productive systems for pre-basic seed potato production would improve the quality of the propagative material used by the potato growers, directly affecting the crop yields. A two-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the potato pre-basic seed production by two types of hydroponic systems (fibrocement tiles and articulated PVC gutters, two cultivars (`Baronesa` and `Eliza` and two types of propagative material (plants coming from in vitro culture and minitubers. The PVC gutters system was highly efficient. When using minitubers, this system reached multiplication rates up to 74 tubers per plant. Minitubers were more productive than in vitro plants, independent of cultivar and hydroponic system utilized.Um experimento realizado por dois anos consecutivos avaliou a produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata por meio de sistemas de cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho testou a combinação de dois sistemas de cultivo (telha de fibrocimento e calhas de PVC articuladas, duas cultivares (Baronesa e Eliza e dois tipos de material propagativo (plântulas oriundas do cultivo in vitro e minitubérculos. O sistema de calhas de PVC foi altamente eficiente. Quando foi utilizado minitubérculos, este sistema alcançou taxas de multiplicação de até 74 tubérculos por planta. De modo geral, o uso de minitubérculos como material propagativo apresentou os melhores resultados de produtividade quando comparada ao material in vitro, independentemente da cultivar e sistemas hidropônicos utilizados.

  1. THE SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF PLANTS IN CENOPOPULATION TULIPA BIFLORA UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF The Republic of Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sergeevna Ochirova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viable seeds in the composition of populations are considered as an indicator of the life strategy of species. Hence, seed productivity can be considered as an important indicator of species adaptation to habitat conditions. The replaceable productivity of bulbous ephemeroids growing in arid conditions has not been studied sufficiently. In connection with the foregoing, our goal was to identify the seed productivity of plants in the tulip cenopopulations of the two-flowered tulip – Tulipa biflora Pall. (Liliaceae, which is recommended for protection in the conditions of Kalmykia. Materials and metods: Three cenopopulations of Tulipa biflora were studied in different plant communities on brown light loamy solonetzic soils. The sample size was no less than 30 plants of Tulipa biflora, their mature fruits were considered in the aspects of the measured features, their potential and actual seed production, as well as the percentage of seminification. The density of generative plants was taken into account at 10 sites of 0.5 square meters, located along the transect. Resalts: Biometric signs of the fetus in plants in Tulipa biflora populations were positively correlated with air temperature during the active vegetation period of the species. The potential and actual seed productivity of plants in the Tulipa biflora cenpopulations in 2017 is more than in 2016, however, the percentage of seminification marked the reverse results: in 2017 it was 4.7–10.4% lower. In this case, the plants of one of the Tulipa biflora cenopopulations, showed the greatest percentage of seminification in both studies: in 2016 – 77.5, in 2017 – 67.1 pieces of seeds per plant. The mature seed bank which is formed during the growing season in the cenopopulations of Tulipa biflora during the years under the study amounted to 782.8–1338.4 seeds per 1.0 sq.m. Conclusion: The idea of a bank of mature seeds was got – 782.8–1338.4 seeds per 1.0 m2, which is

  2. A review of methods for the production of haploids in seed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkener, L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methods which have been tried to produce haploids in seed plants. Because of their unique genetic constitution the haploids provide useful material for the study of various fundamental cytological and genetic problems. Thus the diploidization of haploids in conifers and subsequent intercrossing might allow the use of the same breeding technique as those which have been used with great success in maize breeding. Induced parthenogenesis in angiosperms has led to the formation of haploids in at least 25 genera but the number of plants obtained is generally too low for a practical utilization. The most promising method in angiosperms is in vitro cultivation of anthers which has hitherto yielded haploids in relatively large numbers in at least l5 genera but certainly can be applied with success in many more. Isolation of protoplasts or whole cells of diploid and haploid tissues and regeneration of entire plants from these protoplasts or cells have been accomplished in a few angiosperm genera. In gymnosperms all attempts to produce complete haploid plants have up to now failed. In this group there is possibly a relationship between polyembryonic seeds and the presence of small, haploid embryos. Therefore, the in vitro cultivation of small embryos of such seeds may result in the formation of independent haploid plants. In vitro cultivation of whole microsporangia or pollen has led to the production of calli in a few gymnosperm genera and in one case roots have even been induced. In some gymnosperms female gametophytes cultured on nutrient medium have yielded calli and in a few genera even root-like organs or small seedlings have arisen. (author)

  3. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by ND:YAG laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Costa, Fabio E.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by Nd:YAG laser welding, which has been used successfully in low dose rate brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources became a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a larger number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with good manufacturing practices. The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing a Programmable Logic Controller, a stepper motor, an Nd:YAG laser welding machine and a supervisory. (author)

  4. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir Luiz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding, which has been used successfully in Low Dose Rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8mm in diameter and 4.5mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources becomes a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a largest number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), stepper motors, drivers, (Nd:YAG) laser welding machine, photoelectric sensors and supervisory. (author)

  5. Environmental aspects of the presowing cultivation of seeds by biological products

    OpenAIRE

    Ya. Chabanyuk; A. Klymenko; V. Yashchuk

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with an indexed estimation of seed material of farms at the Forest-Steppe zone in Ukraine. Studies have shown that all seed lots of corn and soybeans had signs of trauma. Considerable different quality of seeds in terms of its vigor in the similarity in the laboratory and cold germination even within category of its conditioning is set. Study on the uniformity biopreparation seed treatment, which contains labeling substance, is conducted. Adding food coloring in the Biopolici...

  6. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt. Engelm.] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses.

  7. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  8. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  9. Production of biodiesel from melia azedarach seed oil: a non- edible feedstock for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.; Ranaa, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80% conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number, and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45 mg KOH/g, < -10 deg. C and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD. (author)

  10. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  11. Selected properties of biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with by-products of food industry addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work extrusion process were used to create thermoplastic starch and to mix obtained starch with linen, quince and apple pomace at the same time. Obtained starch beads were formed in shapes. In experimental material was determined thermal conductivity, water absorption and the solubility in water. It is possible to get the biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with an addition of fruit pomace. Adding pomace and glycerine to the biodegradable material made from starch change of susceptibility on water action. In the case of materials containing pomace, glycerine addition decreases the susceptibility on water action compared to the material manufactured with pomace addition but without glycerine. In the material containing pomace, glycerine addition caused the increase of the thermal insulation time compared to the material with pomace but no glycerine in it.

  12. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  13. Extraction and Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rosigold Mango (Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Oil for Bioresin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sadiq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research report on extraction and assessment of physicochemical properties of Rosigold mango kernel oil. This is with a view to using the oil for bioresin production so as to mitigate some of the problems associated with petrochemical resins currently used for bulk of composite production activities. The seeds of the mango were identified and collected from the wastes discarded by marketers and consumers in Bauchi town. The Oil was obtained using soxhlet extraction with n-Hexane as solvent. The oil was characterized for yield, relative density, free fatty acid value, acid value, iodine value, and saponification value. Mean values of the characteristic parameters were: oil yield 19.6%, relative density 0.874 g/cm3, free fatty acid value 3.09 mg NaOH/g oil, acid value 6.18 mg KOH/g oil, iodine value 60.7 mg iodine/100 g oil and saponification value 143.6 mg KOH/ g oil. Analysis and comparison of these results with the physicochemical properties of palm oil, Soya bean oil and Hemp seed oil respectively, revealed that the iodine value of Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is higher than palm oil, but lower than Soya bean and Hemp seed oils respectively. Bioresin production is heavily dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the oil which is reflected by the iodine value. However, the overall results suggested that Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is suitable for bioresin production since the minimum iodine bench mark for renewable oil suitable for bioresin production is 50 mg iodine/100 g oil. The extracted oil has an added advantage in that the source (mango seed is a waste material that is readily available, affordable and sustainable in Nigeria and many other countries.

  14. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Optimization of spray drying conditions to microencapsulate cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) seed by-product extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Russany Silva; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Ribeiro-Costa, Roseane M; Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Converti, Attilio; Silva Júnior, José O C; Perego, Patrizia

    2018-04-16

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.) is a popular Amazonian fruit because of its intense aroma and nutritional value, whose lipid fraction is alternatively used in cosmetics. To preserve active principles and ensure their controlled release, extract was microencapsulated by spray drying. Influence of spray-drying conditions on microencapsulation of cupuassu seed by-product extract was investigated according to a 3 3 -Box Behnken factorial design, selecting inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration and feed flowrate as independent variables, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, antiradical power, yields of drying and microencapsulation as responses. Fitting the results by second-order equations and modelling by Response Surface Methodology allowed predicting optimum conditions. Epicatechin and glycosylated quercetin were the major microencapsulated flavonoids. Microparticles showed satisfactory antiradical power and stability at 5 °C or under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, thus they may be used to formulate new foods or pharmaceuticals.

  16. Recurring off-types in lettuce: Their significance in plant breeding and seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxon Smith, J W

    1977-03-01

    The lettuce cv. Valentine regularly produces non-heading off-type plants at the relatively high frequency of 4 × 10(-3). They result from mutation to the dominant condition. A similar propensity has been reported twice before in lettuce; it is highly heritable.The propensity to produce off-types was not present in the parents of Valentine so it must have arisen during the pedigree breeding programme. Closely related cultivars do not carry the character but it was subsequently transmitted to Dandie a new cultivar of which Valentine was one of the parents. Allelism tests to relate Valentine off-types to those in crisphead cultivars were not successful.The elimination of off-types in breeding programmes is discussed. Contrary to the findings in day-neutral crisphead cultivars, mutant phenotypes in long-day butterhead cultivars have no selective advantage for seed production. Consequently, strict roguing ensures adequate varietal stability.

  17. Optimization of maltodextrin production from avocado seed starch by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet; Ma, Tuyen-Hoang Nguyen; Nguyen, Tha Thi; Ho, Vinh-Nghi Kim; Vo, Hau Tan

    2018-04-01

    A process for maltodextrin production from avocado seed starch was reported in this study. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables for hydrolysis of the starch using a commercial food-grade α-amylase, Termamyl SC. These variables included enzyme concentration (0.05 - 0.15% starch), pH (5.0 - 6.0) and hydrolysis time (1.0 - 3.0 h), while the temperature fixed at 95°C. The result showed that the optimum conditions were using enzyme concentration at 0.12%, pH at 5.5 and 2.75 h of the incubation time. Under the optimum conditions, the recovered starch yield was 79.8% and the maltodextrin powder had 15.8 of dextrose equivalent.

  18. Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 production in modified media for pelleting seeds of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Guerra Lopez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass of Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 was produced from modification of culture media Yeast Extract Mannitol Broth (YEMB with the aim of increasing the number of viable cells with the ability to promote the germination of maca seeds pelleted with the bacteria and reduce production costs. In the optimization process, the yeast extract and mannitol components of the LMC culture media were replaced by commercial sources of sucrose and glutamate, whose concentrations were determined in flasks by statistical design from Box-Behnken; in addition, the effect of the inoculum percentage on the time of biomass production was determined. Subsequently, it was determined at the bioreactor level that 28.57 h-1 was the adequate value of the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa at 600 rpm, producing 1.28 x 10 11 CFU / mL. In the LMC M1 modified media, using 12.06 g / L-1 of sucrose, 11.50 g / L-1 of sodium glutamate and 10.9% of inoculant obtained 15x108 CFU / mL, increasing in 48% the number of viable cells with respect to the YEMB control treatment (7.8x10 8 CFU / mL. At the in vitro level, the pelleting of maca seeds with Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 produced in bioreactor and in the modified media M1 favored its germination. From commercial organic substrates, efficient bacterial inoculants can be produced in the development of maca crops, without altering their ability to promote plant growth.

  19. Abalone, Haliotis mariae (Wood, 1828, Hatchery and Seed Production Trials in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfan M. Al-Rashdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery and seed production trials for the Omani endemic abalone Haliotis mariae were carried out at the land-based Mirbat Abalone Seed Production Station in Oman between 1999 and 2000. The methods developed for broodstock conditioning, induction of spawning and fertilization, larval settlement, and the handling of small juveniles are shown. Abalone collected in the post-monsoon period and held for 2 months matured faster than those collected before the monsoon and held for 6 months. Spawning induction of males and females had 63% and 11% success rates respectively, and the morphology of early larval stages is shown. Survival rates of veliger larvae introduced to settlement plates ranged from 35.9% to 73.7%, but the survival of post-larvae was low at 0.1% to 3.6%. The high mortality rate was attributed to invasions of filamentous green- and coralline algae on settlement plates and occurrence of low quantity of diatoms as food. Juveniles reacted best to 2% ethanol as anaesthetic, dropping off culture plates within 4 min and recovering within 17 min. Cultured abalone reached an average shell length of 52.9 mm over 13 months, which translates to an increment of 4.1 mm.mon-1. The overall conclusion of these preliminary research trials confirms  that H. mariae can be cultured successfully in Oman. Further studies on the standardization of the techniques would help in stock enhancement programmes and commercial farming.

  20. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  1. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  2. The importance of using certified seed

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  3. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  4. Improvement of sheep welfare and milk production fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Zarrilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and milk production responses of 45 lactating Comisana sheeps (4th- 5th parity, divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 subject each, were used to evaluate the effects of two different levels of partial substitution of a complete feed with hydroponically germinating seeds. Germinated oat was employed after 7 days of hydroponic growth. The three groups received the following diets: Control group (T received only complete feed. The other 2 groups were fed on diet containing different levels of hydroponically germinating oat (1,5 kg – group A; 3 kg – group B. All the subjects have shown to accept the diets because the per capita ration was always completely consumed. In the second month, the A and B groups showed lower average values of cortisol (P<0.01 and a statistically significant increase in milk production as compared to T (P<0.05 and P<0.001. The obtained data induced to conclude that integration with hydroponically germinating oat in partial substitution of the complete feed does not modify biochemical and hematological parameters and seems to produce an improvement in animal welfare and production of milk.

  5. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces.

  6. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  7. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lihui [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Yongming, E-mail: zhym@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Rittmann, Bruce E. [Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA.

  8. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lihui; Zhang, Yongming; Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rittmann, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA

  9. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over

  10. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  11. Biodegradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Makkar, Harinder Ps; Becker, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is generated as a by-product during biodiesel production. Seed cake containing toxic phorbol esters (PEs) is currently used as a fertiliser and thus it is of eco-toxicological concern. In the present study the fate of PEs in soil was studied. Two approaches for the incorporation of PEs in soil were used. In the first, silica was bound to PEs, and in the second, seedcake was used. At day 0, the concentration of PEs in soil was 2.6 and 0.37 mg g(-1) for approach 1 and 2 respectively. PEs from silica bound PEs were completely degraded after 19, 12, 12 days (at 130 g kg(-1) moisture) and after 17, 9, 9 days (at 230 g kg(-1) moisture) at room temperature, 32 degrees C and 42 degrees C respectively. Similarly at these temperatures PEs from seed cake were degraded after 21, 17 and 17 days (at 130 g kg(-1) moisture) and after 23, 17, and 15 days (at 230 g kg(-1) moisture). Increase in temperature and moisture increased rate of PEs degradation. Using the snail (Physa fontinalis) bioassay, mortality by PE-amended soil extracts decreased with the decrease in PE concentration in soil. Jatropha PEs are biodegradable. The degraded products are innocuous. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  13. Methodology for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growth and plant productivity stimulation, thought seeds irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro; Gonzalez Nunnez, Luis Manuel; Camejo Serrano, Yanelis; Licea Castro, Luis; Garcia Rodriguez, Blanca; Porras Leon, Elia; Perez Espinosa, Anabel

    2001-01-01

    Based in the obtained results by several authors and the experience accumulated by the group of Nuclear Techniques of the Agricultural Research Institute Jorge Dimitrov about the irradiation techniques; the methodology for tomato growth and productivity stimulation through the seeds irradiation was established. This methodology includes the preparation, irradiation and material selection to irradiate; as well as the sows of the material under field conditions. With her application the seedlings of good quality is guaranteed, what facilitates its transplant from the nursery to field conditions with 7 days in advance comparing to the control treatment, that contributes to the saving of material and human resources. Their fundamental contribution is given in the increment of the agricultural yield that reaches maximum values about 30% for some of the applied treatments. It is also recommended, the application of response- surface analysis among the plant yield (dependent variable) and the irradiation doses (independent variable) for determine the better stimulation doses in each one of the four varieties, as well as the time repeatability parameter of the growth and productivity were calculated, that which endorses the practical application of the proposed methodology

  14. Production and Characterization of Organic Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatrophacurcas Seed Cake and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylen G. Eroa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The processing of Jatrophacurcas (tubang-bakod to produce biodiesel entails wastes in the form of seedcake which can be converted into valuable product that can help nurture and improve soil properties. The College of Industrial Technology and the Chemical Engineering Department of Batangas State University (BatstateU conducted an experimental study which includes the composting of the combination of Jatropha Seed-Cake(JSC and Chicken Manure(CM , formulating ratios of JSC and CM andcharacterization of the organic fertilizer produced. Generally, this study aimed to promote proper waste disposal by producing an organic fertilizer from the waste of biodiesel production which uses Jatropha plant and proving the feasibility of making the fertilizer as the main source of nutrient for plants. Specifically, the nutrients that were considered were Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K and the Carbon: Nitrogen (C:N ratio. Composting lasted for 6 weeks, three formulations were used, 30(CM:70(JSC, 50(CM:50(JSC and 70(CM:30(JSC. The result implies that theorganic fertilizers produced can be a good substitute to the commercially available fertilizers.

  15. Improved biogas production and biodegradation of oilseed rape straw by using kitchen waste and duck droppings as co-substrates in two-phase anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuqiao; Hong, Feng; Lu, Yong; Liu, Hengming

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape straw (ORS) is a kind of biorefractory waste widely existing in the rural area of China, which is highly suitable to mix with kitchen waste (KW) and duck droppings (DD) in two-phase anaerobic digestion (AD). This research introduced the importance of KW and DD addition to improve the biogas production and biodegradation of ORS. A set of comparative experiments were conducted on two-phase mono- and co-digestion with organic load of 60 g VS/L. The total methane yield (TMY) and the biodegradation of ORS of co-digestions were obviously improving, and the synergistic effect found in the two-phase co-digestions. The optimum mixing ratio of ORS, KW and DD was 50:40:10, and the corresponding TMY and VS degradation rate of ORS were 374.5 mL/g VS and 49.7%, respectively. Addition of KW and DD maintained the pH within the optimal range for the hydrolyzing-acidification, improved the phase separation and buffering capacity of AD system. PMID:28767709

  16. Clonal Variations in Flower Production at the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.subsp. pallasiana Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ERTEKİN, Korhan TUNÇTANER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for three years (2002-2004 in a black pine seed orchard established with 30 clonesoriginating from the forest of Yenice-Bakraz in Bartın, 1990. During the research, the variations between theclones in the seed orchard were determined based on the number of male and female flowers. According to theresults, the average values of flower production in three years at seed orchard showed considerable variations. Itwas determined that the number of the male and female flowers were 817,2 and 99,3 respectively. 62% ofaverage number of male flowers and 49% of female flowers were produced by 10 clones in 3 years. It was alsodetermined that the amount of the flowers for the clones showed significant differences within the years.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANNATTO (Bixa orellana L GENOTYPES THROUGH THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUITS, SEEDS PRODUCTIVITY AND BIXIN CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Mantovani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989281Bixa orellana L. (annatto is considered an important source of natural colorants for food, pharmaceutical and textile industries and Brazil is one of the largest producers and exporters of this natural dye extracted from this plant. The morphological characterization of fruits, evaluation of  seed productivity and the content of carotenoid bixin present in freshly harvested and stored seeds for periods of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days, were performed on 10 genotypes of annatto to provide subsidies for the selection of superior genotypes for these characteristics. There were variations in all evaluated characteristics between the 10 genotypes. The fruit of all genotypes are covered with bristles or hairs, have reddish, green, yellow or red color, and two basic forms, oval or lanceolate. The fruits had average lengths ranging from 3.1 to 4.8 cm, and widths between 2.4 to 3.1 cm. The average number of seeds per fruit ranged from 41.5 to 50.6. The mass of 100 seeds varied from 1.1 to 2.24 g. There was significant difference in the concentration of bixin among genotypes, being possible to identify genotypes with high levels of bixin carotenoid (5.05%, superior to those already reported by other studies. The content of bixin decreased with the increase in the period of storage of seeds.

  18. Fermentation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) seeds with a hybrid Kluyveromyces marxianus strain improved product quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Gildemberg Amorim; Gomes, Luiz Humberto; Efraim, Priscilla; de Almeida Tavares, Flavio Cesar; Figueira, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Fermentation of Theobroma cacao (cacao) seeds is an absolute requirement for the full development of chocolate flavor precursors. An adequate aeration of the fermenting cacao seed mass is a fundamental prerequisite for a satisfactory fermentation. Here, we evaluated whether a controlled inoculation of cacao seed fermentation using a Kluyveromyces marxianus hybrid yeast strain, with an increased pectinolytic activity, would improve an earlier liquid drainage ('sweatings') from the fermentation mass, developing a superior final product quality. Inoculation with K. marxianus increased by one third the volume of drained liquid and affected the microorganism population structure during fermentation, which was detectable up to the end of the process. Introduction of the hybrid yeast affected the profile of total seed protein degradation evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with improved seed protein degradation, and reduction of titrable acidity. Sensorial evaluation of the chocolate obtained from beans fermented with the K. marxianus inoculation was more accepted by analysts in comparison with the one from cocoa obtained through natural fermentation. The increase in mass aeration during the first 24 h seemed to be fundamental for the improvement of fermentation quality, demonstrating the potential application of this improved hybrid yeast strain with superior exogenous pectinolytic activity.

  19. Supplementation with sunflower seeds in beef cattle did not impact on oocyte and in vitro embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, A L; de Mattos, G M; Ropelli, B M; Firetti, Smg; Castilho, C; Pugliesi, G; Maldonado, Mbc; Binelli, M; Silva, Jof; Lupatini, G C; Lafuente, B S; Membrive, Cmb

    2018-06-01

    Supplementation with compounds rich in linoleic acid, including sunflower seed supplementation, promotes increase in conception rates in cows. We aimed to evaluate whether the sunflower seed (linoleic acid source) supplementation in beef donor females alters the plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL, increases the number and quality of oocytes, increases the cleavage rates and determines an improvement in number and quality of in vitro produced blastocysts. Thus, Nelore females were divided into two groups of 15 animals to receive supplementation with or without sunflower seed for 57 days. Females underwent follicular aspiration and the oocytes were subjected to in vitro embryo production. There was no difference (p > .1) between control group and group supplemented with sunflower seed on the number of displayed follicles; number of aspired oocytes; recovery rate; cleavage rate; number of embryos; number of blastocysts; embryos number of grades I and II; plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides; HDL and LDL. Therefore, sunflower seed supplementation in oocyte donors did not increase the number and quality of oocytes, cleavage rates and the number and quality of blastocysts produced in vitro. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Proceedings of biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of Biodegradation. Topics include:biodegradation using the tools of biotechnology, basic science aspects of biodegradation, the physiological characteristics of microorganisms, the use of selective techniques that enhance the process of microbial evolution of biodegradative genes in nature, the genetic characteristics of microorganisms allowing them to biodegrade both natural and synthetic toxic chemicals, the molecular techniques that allow selective assembly of genetic segments form a variety of bacterial strains to a single strain, and methods needed to advance biodegradation research as well as the high-priority chemical problems important to the Department of Defense or to the chemical industry

  1. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  2. Procedure for determination of the decontamination of piping in the production of iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, J.A.; Moura, E.S.; Sprenger, F.E.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Zeituni, C.A.; Feher, A.; Manzoli, J.E.; Souza, C.D.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine-125 seeds are radioactive sources used in the prostate cancer treatment. This work objective was to determine the necessary conditions and procedures for decontamination of liquid transfer tubes when a radioactive material leakage occurs during the process of seed quality control

  3. Propagation protocol for production of Lomatium dissectum (Nutt.) Mathias and Constance seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw; Jim Cane

    2012-01-01

    Fernleaf biscuitroot naturally occurs from British Columbia and Saskatchewan south to California and New Mexico and extends eastward to Wyoming and Colorado. Seed matures in July into August. Wildland seed disarticulates readily and is easily hand collected. Very clean collections can be made by shaking ripened inflorescences over a bag or tarp.

  4. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae in Amazonian black water floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piedade Maria Teresa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and slands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari w,as analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha-1. The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near BarcelosAstrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae es una de las especies más comunes de palma en las llanuras de inundación por las llamadas "aguas negras", aguas ricas en taninos que tienen pocos nutrientes para la fauna. Habita el subdosel que se desarrolla en riberas e islas, con una distribución amplia en toda la gradiente de inundación (resiste entre 30 y 340 días bajo el agua. La especie es importante para la nutrición de los peces y en la producción de palmito. La autoecología de A. jauari fue analizada por dos años en el Archipiélago Anavilhanas, río Negro, Brazil, con énfasis en fenología, producción de frutas, y dispersores de semillas. La caída de los frutos es anual y sincronizada con el aumento de los niveles de agua, con una producción de 1.6 ton de fruta ha-1. Las frutas son comidas por al menos de

  5. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  6. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  7. Methyl ester of [Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider] seed oil: biodiesel production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloua, Fatnassi; Saber, Chatti; Hedi, Zarrouk

    2010-05-01

    Oil extracted from seeds of Maclura pomifera fruits grown in Tunisia was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of the biodiesel oil (4.66 cSt) is similar to that of petroleum diesel (2.5-3.5 cSt). The density (0.889 g/cm(3)), kinematic viscosity (4.66 cSt), flash point (180 degrees Celsius), iodine number (125 degrees Celsius), neutralization number (0.4), pour point (-9 degrees Celsius), cloud point (-5 degrees Celsius), cetane number (48) are very similar to the values set forth by the ASTM and EN biodiesel standards for petroleum diesel (No. 2). The comparison shows that the methyl esters of M. pomifera oil could be possible diesel fuel replacements. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P K H; Mulder, Patrick P J; Spanjer, Martien; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Mol, Hans G J; de Nijs, Monique

    2018-03-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with acetonitrile/water/formic acid, ten-fold dilution and analysis by LC-MS/MS using a pH 10 carbonate buffer. The method was applied for the analysis of 41 samples collected in 2015 in the Netherlands and Germany. All samples contained morphine ranging from 0.2 to 240mg/kg. The levels of codeine and thebaine ranged from below LOQ to 348mg/kg and from below LOQ to 106mg/kg, respectively. Sixty percent of the samples exceeded the guidance reference value of 4mg/kg of morphine set by BfR in Germany, whereas 25% of the samples did not comply with the limits set for morphine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine by Hungarian legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgogianni, K.G.; Kontominas, M.G.; Pomonis, P.J. [Section of Industrial and Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina 45110-Ioannina (Greece); Avlonitis, D. [Department of Petroleum Technology, TEI of Chalkida, 34600-Kavala (Greece); Gergis, V. [Department of Food Technology, TEI of Athens, 12210-Egaleo (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work the alkaline transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol and ethanol, for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Both conventional and in situ transesterification were investigated using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm). Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with methanol gave high yields of methyl esters (95%) after a short reaction time (20 min) similar to those using mechanical stirring. Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with ethanol gave similar yields to those using mechanical stirring but significantly lower than respective yields using methanol. In the in situ transesterification the use of ultrasonication and mechanical stirring led to similar high yields (95%) of methyl esters after approximately 20 min of reaction time. In the presence of ethanol use of ultrasonication led to high ester yields (98%) in only 40 min of reaction time while use of mechanical stirring gave lower yields (88%) even after 4 h of reaction time. In situ transesterification gave similar ester yields to those obtained by conventional transesterification being an alternative, efficient and economical process. In all cases a concentration of 2.0% NaOH gave higher ester yields. Reaction rate constants were calculated, using first order reaction kinetics, to be equal to 3.1 x 10{sup -} {sup 3} s{sup -} {sup 1} for conventional transesterification using methanol and 2.0% NaOH, and 9.5 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} using ethanol. (author)

  10. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  11. Degradation of ciprofloxacin antibiotic by Homogeneous Fenton oxidation: Hybrid AHP-PROMETHEE method, optimization, biodegradability improvement and identification of oxidized by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Marjan; Rakhshandehroo, Gholam Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza

    2018-09-01

    The main purpose of this experimental study was to optimize Homogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) and identification of oxidized by-products from degradation of Ciprofloxacin (CIP) using hybrid AHP-PROMETHEE, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS). At the first step, an assessment was made for performances of two catalysts (FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O and FeCl 2 ·4H 2 O) based on hybrid AHP-PROMETHEE decision making method. Then, RSM was utilized to examine and optimize the influence of different variables including initial CIP concentration, Fe 2+ concentration, [H 2 O 2 ]/[ Fe 2+ ] mole ratio and initial pH as independent variables on CIP removal, COD removal, and sludge to iron (SIR) as the response functions in a reaction time of 25 min. Weights of the mentioned responses as well as cost criteria were determined by AHP model based on pairwise comparison and then used as inputs to PROMETHEE method to develop hybrid AHP-PROMETHEE. Based on net flow results of this hybrid model, FeCl 2 ·4H 2 O was more efficient because of its less environmental stability as well as lower SIR production. Then, optimization of experiments using Central Composite Design (CCD) under RSM was performed with the FeCl 2 ·4H 2 O catalyst. Biodegradability of wastewater was determined in terms of BOD 5 /COD ratio, showing that HFO process is able to improve wastewater biodegradability from zero to 0.42. Finally, the main intermediaries of degradation and degradation pathways of CIP were investigated with (HPLC-MS). Major degradation pathways from hydroxylation of both piperazine and quinolonic rings, oxidation and cleavage of the piperazine ring, and defluorination (OH/F substitution) were suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight in potato cv. ‘Romano’ seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the need to produce potato seed (Solanum tuberosum L. with low inputs, this work was carried out with the aim of to determine the effect of the Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight (Alternaria solani Sorauer in the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. ‘Romano’ seed. Minitubers obtained as basic seed were used. A field experiment was designed with three treatments: application of Versaklin®, chemical products and control without application of products. The incidence and intensity of the disease were determined, the area under the disease progression curve (AUDPC was calculated and the technical effectiveness of the culture was estimated with Versaklin® or chemical products. In addition, the number of tubers per plant was quantified, the fresh and dry mass of the tubers were determined and it were classified by their diameter (caliber. Treatment with Versaklin® reduced incidence (30% and disease severity (23.0%. The AUDPC was found in a value between control and chemical treatment. The superiority of the chemical treatment was verified by its technical efficiency and the potential of Versaklin® use because it reached a value that represents 60% of chemical treatment but with only one product. The number of tubers per plant had no significant differences among treatments. The highest proportion of tubers of caliber to be used as seed (35-45 mm occurred in the treatment with Versaklin®. The results indicated that Versaklin® bioproduct could be part of disease management strategies.   Key words: Alternaria solani, bioproduct, minitubers, Solanum tuberosum

  14. Expression of ZmLEC1 and ZmWRI1 increases seed oil production in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Allen, William B; Zheng, Peizhong; Li, Changjiang; Glassman, Kimberly; Ranch, Jerry; Nubel, Douglas; Tarczynski, Mitchell C

    2010-07-01

    Increasing seed oil production is a major goal for global agriculture to meet the strong demand for oil consumption by humans and for biodiesel production. Previous studies to increase oil synthesis in plants have focused mainly on manipulation of oil pathway genes. As an alternative to single-enzyme approaches, transcription factors provide an attractive solution for altering complex traits, with the caveat that transcription factors may face the challenge of undesirable pleiotropic effects. Here, we report that overexpression of maize (Zea mays) LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (ZmLEC1) increases seed oil by as much as 48% but reduces seed germination and leaf growth in maize. To uncouple oil increase from the undesirable agronomic traits, we identified a LEC1 downstream transcription factor, maize WRINKLED1 (ZmWRI1). Overexpression of ZmWRI1 results in an oil increase similar to overexpression of ZmLEC1 without affecting germination, seedling growth, or grain yield. These results emphasize the importance of field testing for developing a commercial high-oil product and highlight ZmWRI1 as a promising target for increasing oil production in crops.

  15. Biodegradation of bioplastics in natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadian, S Mehdi; Onay, Turgut T; Demirel, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The extensive production of conventional plastics and their use in different commercial applications poses a significant threat to both the fossil fuels sources and the environment. Alternatives called bioplastics evolved during development of renewable resources. Utilizing renewable resources like agricultural wastes (instead of petroleum sources) and their biodegradability in different environments enabled these polymers to be more easily acceptable than the conventional plastics. The biodegradability of bioplastics is highly affected by their physical and chemical structure. On the other hand, the environment in which they are located, plays a crucial role in their biodegradation. This review highlights the recent findings attributed to the biodegradation of bioplastics in various environments, environmental conditions, degree of biodegradation, including the identified bioplastic-degrading microorganisms from different microbial communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Why is seed production so variable among individuals? A ten-year study with oaks reveals the importance of soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be

  17. Assessment of transferring Sr-90 and Cs-137 in products of processing of seeds raps for getting raps' oil and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsino, T.S.; Mironov, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    The objects of research are soil assays, seeds of raps, straw and the stalks selected on polluted radio nuclides of territory. The work purpose is to measure specific activity of strontium and cesium in assays, to calculate factors of transition Sr 90 and Sr 137 in products of processing of seeds of raps. (authors)

  18. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Graziele Silva; Zurlo, Luana Fonseca; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Alves, Guilherme Pereira; Carvalho, Mariana Comanucci Silva; Souza, Brígida

    2017-01-01

    Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management. PMID:28141849

  19. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Oliveira Canedo-Júnior

    Full Text Available Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management.

  20. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-12-06

    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production.

  1. Here today, gone tomorrow: biodegradable soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Winfield, Jonathan; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern technologies is what to do with them when they go irreparably wrong or come to the end of their productive lives. The convention, since the development of modern civilisation, is to discard a broken item and then procure a new one. In the 20th century enlightened environmentalists campaigned for recycling and reuse (R and R). R and R has continued to be an important part of new technology development, but there is still a huge problem of non-recyclable materials being dumped into landfill and being discarded in the environment. The challenge is even greater for robotics, a field which will impact on all aspects of our lives, where discards include motors, rigid elements and toxic power supplies and batteries. One novel solution is the biodegradable robot, an active physical machine that is composed of biodegradable materials and which degrades to nothing when released into the environment. In this paper we examine the potential and realities of biodegradable robotics, consider novel solutions to core components such as sensors, actuators and energy scavenging, and give examples of biodegradable robotics fabricated from everyday, and not so common, biodegradable electroactive materials. The realisation of truly biodegradable robots also brings entirely new deployment, exploration and bio-remediation capabilities: why track and recover a few large non-biodegradable robots when you could speculatively release millions of biodegradable robots instead? We will consider some of these exciting developments and explore the future of this new field.

  2. Study of the Relationships between Technological and Productivity Elements that Determine Seed Yield in Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During an experience performed to elaborate an efficient technology of seed production in birdsfoot trefoil, we observed a series of correlations between yield and the elements of productivity, which exert a strong influence on seed quantity. In this viewpoint, the matrix of correlations between the elements of fructification, in the case of the influence exerted by birdsfoot trefoil cultivation method, made evident the following correlation coefficients: r = 0.81**, between the number of pods/plant; r = 0.82**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/inflorescence; r = 0.98**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/plant.

  3. Study on the seed production and germination dynamic of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, S E; Lehoczky, E; Nagy, P

    2008-01-01

    The common milkweed causes considerable damages on the agricultural and nature conservation areas. The area occupied by this weed is continuously bigger. The common milkweed is spread over North-America between the 35th and 50th degree of western Latitude and 60th 103rd degree of longitude. Millions of hectares are polluted by this weed in the United States. Important is its spread also in Asia (Iraq), in Europe (Carpathian Basin, Poland, Bulgaria, Switzerland, France, Austria, Germany), as well as in the area of the former Soviet Union (Belorussia, The Baltic Countries, Caucasus, and the Ukraine). Though the basic biological characters of this plant are well known, still its control is a significant problem, the damages increase on the areas occupied by this weed. We collect seed samples from several Hungarian areas in 2007. After the sampling we determined the average sprout length and the number of follicle as well as the average seed numbers in the follicle. We determined also the weight of thousand seeds of the resultant seed samples. At natural circumstances the seedlings appear at a soil temperature of 15 degrees C during the end of April and first week of May. Under Laboratory circumstances the dormancy of the seeds ceases continuously from November on, germinate at a temperature of 20-30 degrees C, the maximum germination can be achieved in the first part of April. At January we started germination examinations with the seeds in Petri dish, among laboratory condition.

  4. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Wang, Xing-jun; Zheng, He-hui

    2002-10-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organic matter addition were measured during 35 days laboratory incubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid) mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in the different treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soil alone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation. Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlor biodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. The biodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone, soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6 d, 6.1 d and 5.4 d and 5.3 d, 4.9 d and 5.3 d respectively. The biodegradation products were hydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, and hydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  5. Control strategy for viral diseases of salmonid fish, flounders and shrimp at hatchery and seed production facility in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimizu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Salmonid fish are important species for hatchery reared and released fish. Flounders and shrimp are also important species for seed production and sea-farming in Japan. Viral disease is one of the limitations of successful propagation of these species. Methods currently used to control viral diseases are 1) hygiene and sanitation in facilities, 2) disinfection of rearing and waste water using U. V. irradiation, ozonization and electrolyzation, 3) selection of pathogen-free brood stock by cell...

  6. Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Wikiera, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Tempeh is a food product obtained from legumes by means of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Our previous research proved that mixed-culture inoculum may also be successfully applied. The objective of present research was to study the proteolytic activity of R. microsporus var. chinensis and A. oryzae during tempeh-type fermentation of grass pea seeds, and the effect of inoculum composition on the protein level and in vitro protein bioavailability in products. Fermentation substrate were soaked and cooked grass pea seeds. Material was mixed with single- or mixed-culture inoculum, and incubated in perforated plastic bags at 30°C for 32 hrs. In the products, the proteolytic activity (pH 3, 5 and 7), glucosamine, total protein and free amino acids levels, as well as protein in vitro bioavailability and degree of protein hydrolysis were obtained. The significant correlation was found between glucosamine content and proteolytic activity in grass pea seeds fermented with Rhizopus or Aspergillus. The activities of Rhizopus proteases were higher than Aspergillus ones, which corresponded with the degree of seed protein hydrolysis. Both strains showed the highest activity of protease at pH 3. Tempeh made with pure culture of Rhizopus had 37% protein of 69% in-vitro bioavailability. Mixed-culture fermentation improved nutritional parameters of products only when the dose of Aspergillus spores in the inoculum was equal and lower than that of Rhizopus. This process resulted in higher in-vitro bioavailability of protein, slightly more efficient protein hydrolysis and higher level of free amino acids, as compared to standard tempeh. The activity of A. oryzae in tempeh-type fermentation is beneficial as long as it does not dominate the activity and/or growth of Rhizopus strain.

  7. Carapanolides J–L from the Seeds of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba and Their Effects on LPS-Activated NO Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Matsui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel gedunin and two novel phragmalin-type limonoids, named carapanolides J–L (compounds 1–3 as well as a known gedunin-type limonoid 4 were isolated from the seeds of Carapa guianensis (andiroba. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRFABMS. Compounds 1–4 were evaluated for their effects on the production of NO in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

  8. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  9. Effect of pH fermentation on production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. R.; Natsir, H.; Rohani, H.; Karim, A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sourced from natural products containing carbohydrates through hydrolysis and fermentation process. Jackfruit seeds is one of the feedstock that contain high carbohydrate content but less utilized. The aims of this study to determine the effect of pH hydrolysis in the process of production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis (SHF) method. The hydrolysis process uses H2SO4 as a hydrolyzing agent. The fermentation process used Saccharomyces cereviceae as a fermentor with a variation of pH 2,3 4 and 5 for 70 hours. The results showed that glucose content of 75% and pH 3 was the optimum pH of fermentation with the content of bioethanol 57.94%. The fermentation stage has an important role in increasing the levels of glucose and bioethanol in linear. The content of glucose and bioethanol of jackfruit seeds showed a great potential for development as the feedstock in bioethanol production.

  10. Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

  11. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  12. Seed production differences of the Andean oak Quercus Humboldtii Bonpl. in two Andean forests of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Melo, Andres; Parrado Rosselli Angela

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms of tree species reproduction under natural situations including fruit and seed production patterns is very important for forest management strategies. Considering the influence of abiotic factors such as soil characteristics, humidity and rainfall on fruiting phenology, we studied fruit production patterns of the Andean oak (Quercus humboldtii: Fagaceae) in two forest sites of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera (Cachalu and Patios Altos), under contrasting environmental conditions. At both sites, we monitored monthly fruit production of 15 trees in Cachalu and 11 in Patios Altos using fruit/seed traps placed under the tree crowns. In each site soil cores were extracted below the litter layer 20 cm depth, and soil characteristics and nutrients were analyzed. In general, trees in Cachalu produced more fruits than in Patios Altos, as well as mean fruit mass (wet and dry weight) was significantly higher in Cachalu. At both sites, oak fruiting peaked from April to May, when the highest rainfall occurs. We found positive correlations between fruit production and rainfall one month prior. High phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were the main variables for explaining the high production. In contrast, high aluminum (Al) contents explained the low production found in Patios Altos. We discuss the importance of including fruit production for oak management strategies, such as restoration and reforestation programs.

  13. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of

  14. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  15. Additional Equipment for Soil Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Kraus, Michal; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial production, increasing citizens’ living standards, expanding the consumer assortment mean in the production - consumption cycle a constantly increasing occurrence of waste material, which by its very nature must be considered as a source of useful raw materials in all branches of human activity. In addition to strict legislative requirements, a number of circumstances characterize waste management. It is mainly extensive transport associated with the handling and storage of large volumes of substances with a large assortment of materials (substances of all possible physical and chemical properties) and high demands on reliability and time coordination of follow-up processes. Considerable differences in transport distances, a large number of sources, processors and customers, and not least seasonal fluctuations in waste and strong price pressures cannot be overlooked. This highlights the importance of logistics in waste management. Soils that are contaminated with oil and petroleum products are hazardous industrial waste. Methods of industrial waste disposal are landfilling, biological processes, thermal processes and physical and chemical methods. The paper focuses on the possibilities of degradation of oil pollution, in particular biodegradation by bacteria, which is relatively low-cost among technologies. It is necessary to win the fight with time so that no ground water is contaminated. We have developed two additional devices to help reduce oil accident of smaller ranges. In the case of such an oil accident, it is necessary to carry out the permeability test of contaminated soil in time and, on this basis, to choose the technology appropriate to the accident - either in-sit biodegradation - at the site of the accident, or on-sit - to remove the soil and biodegrade it on the designated deposits. A special injection drill was developed for in-sit biodegradation, tossing and aeration equipment of the extracted soil was developed for

  16. High performance batch production of LREBa2Cu3Oy using novel thin film Nd-123 seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Tomita, M.

    2011-01-01

    A batch production for fabrication of LREBa 2 Cu 3 O y (LRE: Sm, Gd, NEG) 'LRE-123' pellets are developed in air and Ar-1% O 2 using a novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. The SEM and XRD results conformed that the quality and orientation of the seed crystals are excellent. On the other hand, new seeds can withstand temperatures >1100 deg. C, as a result, the cold seeding process was applied even to grow Sm-123 material in Air. The trapped field observed in the best 45 mm single-grain puck of Gd-123 was in the range of 1.35 T and 0.35 T at 77.3 K and 87.3 K, respectively. The average trapped field at 77.3 K in the 24 mm diameter NEG-123 samples batch lies between 0.9 and 1 T. The maximum trapped field of 1.2 T was recorded at the sample surface. Further, the maximum trapped field of 0.23 T at 77 K was recorded in a sample with 16 mm diameter of Sm-123 with 3 mol% BaO 2 addition. As a result we made more then 130 single grain pucks within a couple of months. Taking advantage of the single grain batch processed material, we constructed self-made chilled levitation disk, which was used on the open day of railway technical research Institute. More then 150 children stood on the levitation disk and revel the experience of levitation. The present results prove that a high-performance good-quality class of LREBa 2 Cu 3 O y material can be made by using a novel thin film Nd-123 seeds.

  17. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. The Molecular Level Characterization of Biodegradable Polymers Originated from Polyethylene Using Non-Oxygenated Polyethylene Wax as a Carbon Source for Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David; Adamus, Grazyna; Kwiecień, Iwona; Zięba, Magdalena; Sikorska, Wanda; Green, Matthew; Kowalczuk, Marek; Radecka, Iza

    2017-08-28

    There is an increasing demand for bio-based polymers that are developed from recycled materials. The production of biodegradable polymers can include bio-technological (utilizing microorganisms or enzymes) or chemical synthesis procedures. This report demonstrates the corroboration of the molecular structure of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) obtained by the conversion of waste polyethylene (PE) via non-oxygenated PE wax (N-PEW) as an additional carbon source for a bacterial species. The N-PEW, obtained from a PE pyrolysis reaction, has been found to be a beneficial carbon source for PHA production with Cupriavidus necator H16. The production of the N-PEW is an alternative to oxidized polyethylene wax (O-PEW) (that has been used as a carbon source previously) as it is less time consuming to manufacture and offers fewer industrial applications. A range of molecular structural analytical techniques were performed on the PHAs obtained; which included nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Our study showed that the PHA formed from N-PEW contained 3-hydroxybutyrate (HB) with 11 mol% of 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) units.

  19. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  20. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  1. Biofibres from biofuel industrial byproduct-Pongamia pinnata seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Puttaswamy; Srinikethan, Govindan; Shetty, K Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel production using Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) seeds results in large amount of unused seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites. These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis demonstrated the morphological changes in the fibre structure. Cellulose microfibres of diameter 6-8 µm, hydrodynamic diameter of 58.4 nm and length of 535 nm were isolated. Thermal stability was enhanced by 70 °C and crystallinity index (CI) by 19.8% ensuring isolation of crystalline cellulose fibres. The sequential chlorination and alkaline treatment stemmed to the isolation of cellulose fibres from P. pinnata seed hull. The isolated cellulose fibres possessed enhanced morphological, thermal, and crystalline properties in comparison with P. pinnata seed hull. These cellulose microfibres may potentially find application as biofillers in biodegradable composites by augmenting their properties.

  2. Innovation in vegetable seed production and the role of consumers in the organic and conventional babyleaf chains: The case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the focus is on babyleaf products and the potentials that an increased interest in these products might bring to vegetable seed growers. Case studies on babyleaf products illustrate how consumers perceive babyleaf products and which parameters they give preference to. In addition, ...

  3. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  4. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Thespesiapopulnea seed oil through rapid in situ transesterification - an optimization study and assay of fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, G.; Nageswara Rao, P.; Renganathan, S.

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel production was carried out from Thespesia populnea seed oil through rapid insitu transesterification. Influence of reaction parameters such as catalyst type and concentration, methanol to biomass ratio, co-solvent volume, temperature and agitation speed on conversion of oil into methyl esters was investigated. The effect of different co-solvents on conversion was evaluated. Optimum methyl ester conversion of 97.80% was achieved at 1.5wt% of KOH catalyst, 5.5:1 (v/w) methanol to biomass ratio, 25vol%tetrahydrofuranco-solvent, 60°C and 500 rpm within 120min of reaction time. Fuel properties of produced methyl esters were well fitted within the limits of ASTMD 6751 standards. Considering the properties of produced biodiesel, Thespesia populnea seed derived biodiesel can be used as potential alternate to fossil diesel fuel.

  6. Keratinase production and biodegradation of polluted secondary chicken feather wastes by a newly isolated multi heavy metal tolerant bacterium-Alcaligenes sp. AQ05-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Phang, Lai Yee; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shamaan, Nor Aripin; Abdul Khalil, Khalilah; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2016-12-01

    Biodegradation of agricultural wastes, generated annually from poultry farms and slaughterhouses, can solve the pollution problem and at the same time yield valuable degradation products. But these wastes also constitute environmental nuisance, especially in Malaysia where their illegal disposal on heavy metal contaminated soils poses a serious biodegradation issue as feather tends to accumulate heavy metals from the surrounding environment. Further, continuous use of feather wastes as cheap biosorbent material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents has contributed to the rising amount of polluted feathers, which has necessitated the search for heavy metal-tolerant feather degrading strains. Isolation, characterization and application of a novel heavy metal-tolerant feather-degrading bacterium, identified by 16S RNA sequencing as Alcaligenes sp. AQ05-001 in degradation of heavy metal polluted recalcitrant agricultural wastes, have been reported. Physico-cultural conditions influencing its activities were studied using one-factor-at-a-time and a statistical optimisation approach. Complete degradation of 5 g/L feather was achieved with pH 8, 2% inoculum at 27 °C and incubation period of 36 h. The medium optimisation after the response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in a 10-fold increase in keratinase production (88.4 U/mL) over the initial 8.85 U/mL when supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) sucrose, 0.15% (w/v) ammonium bicarbonate, 0.3% (w/v) skim milk, and 0.01% (w/v) urea. Under optimum conditions, the bacterium was able to degrade heavy metal polluted feathers completely and produced valuable keratinase and protein-rich hydrolysates. About 83% of the feathers polluted with a mixture of highly toxic metals were degraded with high keratinase activities. The heavy metal tolerance ability of this bacterium can be harnessed not only in keratinase production but also in the bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted feather wastes. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  7. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  8. Effect of the silvicultural treatment on canopy properties, litter and seed production in beech coppices under conversion to high forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is widely distributed in Italy where it covers 1035103 ha, mainly concentrated in the mountainous areas at altitudes above 900 m. The major part is represented by high forest often issued from the conversion of coppice woods, which in the past was the silvicultural system most widely applied mainly to provide fire wood. The social changes occurred in the second half of the last century –fire wood market crisis and the increasing importance of environmental issues- enhanced the conversion into high forest of large areas previously managed as coppice by means of different silvicultural treatments and practices. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of this choice were not adequately investigated. Results of annual measurements (1992-2009 made in a beech coppice stand aged 65 are here reported. The study area is located on the Alpe di Catenaia, a pre-Apennine outcrop close to Arezzo (Central Italy. Variables strictly related to stand productivity and dynamics such as annual litter and seed production, leaf area index (LAI and transmittance (PAR were measured in the research area of Buca Zamponi to estimate the effects of two theses, natural evolution (TEST and conversion into high forest (DIR. Three thinnings were undertaken in the latter thesis in 1972, 1987 and 2002. Additional theses of natural evolution (CONTR and advance seed cutting (TS were added in 2002 in a nearby study area (Eremo della Casella. Results showed the high productivity of coppice stands, under conversion to high forest, with mean values of annual total litter, leaf litter and leaf area index of 5 Mg ha-1, 3 Mg ha-1 and 6 m2m-2, respectively. These findings confirm both the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles and the reliability of undertaking coppice conversion into high forest. Furthermore, the positive trend observed in the ecological parameters and the high consistency of leaf fraction, highlight the still juvenile

  9. Estratégias de cultivo para produção dos plásticos biodegradáveis poli(3-Hidroxibutirato e poli(3-hidroxibutirato-co-3-hidroxivalerato por bactérias Cultivation strategies for production of the biodegradable plastics poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Squio

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are carbon and energy storage materials that are accumulated as intracellular granules in a variety of microorganisms during unbalanced growth. PHAs have drawn attention due to their properties similar to conventional plastics and complete biodegradability. They can be used for food and cosmetics packaging, and in medicine and agriculture. However, their applicability is reduced because of their high production cost compared to conventional plastics. An overview on production strategies of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate aiming at reducing the production costs is presented.

  10. Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible. In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an efficient agroinfection system by converting the two RNA genomes of the virus into binary expression vectors for Agrobacterium transformation. Results By vacuum infiltration (0.08 Mpa, 1 min) of germinating pea seeds with 2-3 cm roots with Agrobacteria carrying the binary vectors, expression of the gene for Green Fluorescent Protein as marker and the gene for the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was obtained in 80% of the infiltrated developing seedlings. Maximal production of the recombinant proteins was achieved 12-15 days after infiltration. Conclusions Compared to the leaf injection method vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds is highly efficient allowing large scale production of plants transiently expressing recombinant proteins. The production cycle of plants for harvesting the recombinant protein was shortened from 30 days for leaf injection to 15 days by applying vacuum infiltration. The synthesized aFGF was purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and its mitogenic activity on NIH 3T3 cells confirmed to be similar to a commercial product. PMID:21548923

  11. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  12. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  13. Intra-stand variation of cone structure and seed production in Siberian stone pine: pattern and use for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Akimov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in Russia is primarily valued as a nut-bearing species. Therefore, intra-standvariation in its cone structure and seed production have been actively studied during the last 50 years. However, these studies arepoorly related to practical breeding. We used a novel system of traits to characterize yearly seed crops at the different levels of itsstructural organization. The purpose is to analyze the results of long-term observations of the intra-stand variation of the reproductivefeatures complex, and to reveal the pattern and character of its diversity. This information would be useful to develop the method ofsearching the initial material for breeding. The research plot is established in the Nizhne-Sechenovo forest located 25 km fromTomsk in the south part of the boreal zone (170 years old, mean height 22 m, mean d.b.h. 60 cm. The number of sampled trees variedbetween 40-120 among years. The registration of seed crop and analysis of its structure was conducted every year from 1990 to 2005. Theintra-stand variation of the traits' level was determined as a standard deviation in percent from the simple average. The level ofvariability rose sharply and the correlations between them decreased in the years of the low crops. The results concerning variation in seedand cone traits are listed in the next table. The number of full seeds depended rather on losses in the processes of development (r =0.80*-0.85* than on their starting number (r =0.55*-0.60*. The mass of one seed with sound endosperm rose with an increase in the ratio ofthe ovules, which were lost at the earlier stagesof development (r = 0.20-0.25* and the flat seed ratio (r = 0.35*-0.40*. In year-to-year dynamics, the number of cones per tree ispositively connected with the number of filled seeds per cone (r = 0.78* and with other indices characterizing 'the crop quality'.The breeding rank of trees by all important

  14. Response of S.C.704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the best planting pattern for producing the S.C.704 hybrid seed of maize, a field experiment was conducted in 2007 at Safiabad Dezful Research Center via a complete block design with four treatments and replicates each. The treatments were: D1 (one row each of paternal and maternal lines), D2 (two ...

  15. Utilization of modified starch from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed in cream soup production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelia, M.; Christianti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed was often seen as waste and underutilized resources, especially in the food industry. The aim of this research was to modify the structure of avocado seed starch using the cross-linking method, to improve the viscosity stability in the cream soup. In the preliminary research, starch was isolated from the seed and modified by STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) with 2%, 4%, and 6% concentration and were reacted for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Starches were analyzed for moisture and ash content, paste clarity, gel strength, swelling power, solubility, yield, and degree of whiteness. Based on the analysis results, the best reaction time and STPP concentration was 6% at 1 hour reaction time. Native starch and the best-modified starch were applied in the cream soup and compared with commercial cream soup. Cream soups were analyzed for viscosity stability using viscometer in 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours after storage in room temperature. The result showed that cream soup using modified starch has better viscosity stability than native starch and commercial cream soup after 5 hours storage, which was 181.7 ± 4.85 cP. Sensory analysis showed that cream soup using modified starch was more acceptable than the others. Avocado seed modified starch has phosphate group that strengthen the starch chain to prevent viscosity breakdown.

  16. Estimating mast production: an evaluation of visual surveys and comparison with seed traps using white oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    1999-01-01

    Perry and Thill compared five types of visual mast surveyed with seed trap data from 105 white oaks (Quercus alba L.) during 1996-1997 in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. They also evaluated these visual survey methods for their usefulness in detecting differences in acorn density among areas. Indices derived from all five methods were highly...

  17. Production of biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. seed oil using bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two agricultural residues, cocoa pod ash (CPA) and rice husk ash (RHA), were investigated as bio-based catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results obtained using these bio-based catalysts were compared with potassium hydroxide which is a conventional catalyst. Oil was extracted ...

  18. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  19. Effect of Weeds and Some Methods for their Control in Seed Production Stands of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2007-2009 period in the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Cropsa study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of weeds and somemethods for their control in seed production stands of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop..The trial was carried out on a slightly leached chernozem on an area with a natural backgroundof weed infestation. As a result of the study it was found:Establishment of very uniform and productive seed production stands of sainfoinrequired effective weed control concentrated mainly in the first year when the degree ofweed infestation was the highest and reached to a number of 245 plants/m2 and the freshweed biomass to 1311 g/m2.The chemical control method showed the highest efficacy had the highest efficiencywhen, in the year of stand establishment at the stage of second-fourth true leaf of sainfoin,the treatment was conducted with imazamox 40g/l (Pulsar 40 at the dose of 48 g a.i./haor with the system of Bentazon 600 g/l (Basagran 600 SL – 900 g a.i./ha – fluazifop-P-butylg/l (Fusilad Forte – 120 g a.i./ha. In the years of seed production in spring at the beginningof vegetation, the treatment was conducted with imazamox 40 g/l (Pulsar 40 at the doseof 20 g a.i./ha + adjuvant DESH at the dose of 1000 ml/ha.An alternative to the chemical method is to sow sainfoin under cover of spring barleyachieving more complete use of the area in the first year, a weed suppressive and ecologicaleffect, but some negative residual effect on the crop was also observed;The pure stands of sainfoin with chemical control of weeds had the highest seed productivity,exceeding the zero check by 24 to 28%, followed by the stands with spring barleyas a cover crop with an increase of 12% and the mixed stands of sainfoin with crestedwheatgrass had the lowest productivity.

  20. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O; Corvera, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis

  1. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Thomas

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an

  2. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (pcontent (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (pcontent specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  3. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  4. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  5. Characterization of Proteins in Filtrate from Biodegradation of Crop Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Wileatha; Trotman, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Biodegradation of plant biomass is a feasible path for transformation of crop residue and recycling of nutrients for crop growth. The need to model the effects of factors associated with recycling of plant biomass resulting from hydroponic sweet potato production has led to investigation of natural soil isolates with the capacity for starch hydrolysis. This study sought to use nondenaturing gel electrophoresis to characterize the proteins present in filtered effluent from bioreactors seeded with starch hydrolyzing bacterial culture used in the biodegradation of senesced sweet potato biomass. The study determined the relative molecular weight of proteins in sampled effluent and the protein banding pattern was characterized. The protein profiles of effluent were similar for samples taken from independent runs under similar conditions of starch hydrolysis. The method can be used as a quality control tool for confirmation of starch hydrolysis of crop biomass. In addition, this method will allow monitoring for presence of contaminants within the system-protein profiles indicative of new enzymes in the bioreactors.

  6. A study of nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks fed hairy and hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, R W; Ram, J I; Hucl, P; Patterson, C A; Classen, H L

    2011-12-01

    A nutrient retention study and a growth study were conducted with broiler chickens to evaluate the nutritive value and potential toxicity of 2 hairless canary seed products-hulled seed and groats (cultivar CDC Maria), and one hairy hulled canary seed (cultivar Keet). Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed contained 24.5, 21.8, and 16.3% CP; 7.1, 5.8, and 6.6% ether extract; 1.5, 14.2, and 12.3% acid detergent fiber, and 3,867, 3,205 and 3,292 kcal/kg of AME(n), on a DM basis, respectively. The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed protein comprised, respectively, 0.49, 0.33, and 0.33% lysine (DM basis), which was 79, 78, and 67% digestible (apparent ileal); 0.65, 0.53, and 0.60% cysteine (DM basis), which was 86, 87, and 85% apparent ileal digestible; and 0.40, 0.30, and 0.25% methionine (DM basis), which was 89, 90, and 86% apparent ileal digestible. In the second study, a 35-d feeding study with male broiler chickens was conducted. The canary seed products were compared with a Canadian Western Red Spring wheat control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The test ingredients comprised 50% of the corn/soybean diets. The birds fed the hulled canary seed (hairy or hairless) had similar weight gain, feed intake, and G:F to those fed wheat. There were no statistically significant (P = 0.05) differences in the weights of the bursa, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, or the pancreas, nor was there any effect on serum lactate dehydrogenase or creatine kinase. The data indicated that feeding hulled canary seed increased the number of gizzard ulcers (P < 0.01). It was concluded that canary seed does not contain anti-nutritional components that negatively affect broiler performance or bird health. However, the canary seed hulls may damage the gizzard lining.

  7. Natural regeneration and seed production of pine stands on the dumps of coal mining industry in Kuzbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ufimtsev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the accounting of undergrowth in 5 gradations of crown closure density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest-ris L. stands, growing on the dumps in 4 ecological-geographic areas of Kuzbass, inverse relation of parameters of renewal from hydrothermal coefficient of the district is established. Optimum conditions develop in a steppe kernel where the number of shoots, seed production and undergrowth reaches 110 thousand trees per hectare with crown closure of 50 % and density of forest stand of 0.75 thousand trees of the II class of age on 1 hectare. At decrease or increase of forest canopy density of the main tree stand layer quantitative characteristics decrease. The smallest amount of undergrowth is recorded in the mountain-taiga area – from 0.4 to 23 thousand trees per hectare with a tendency to increase in the process of increasing crown closure. Areas of the northern forest-steppe and the southern forest-steppe on quantitative signs of renewal are intermediate. The number of undergrowth has high direct correlation dependence on the size of the current fructification of forest stands – around a steppe kernel ripens to 3.7 million seeds on 1 hectare, in mountain and taiga – to 0.39 million seeds on 1 hectare. Sowing qualities of seeds – the weight 1000, energy of germination and viability, and morphometric characteristics of 2-year seedlings, which are grown up from them – height, diameter and point of a vital state between ecological-geographic areas have no statistically reliable distinctions, but the characteristics stated above, than in the stands on zone soils. It testifies to usefulness of dumps’ conditions for natural regeneration of Scots pine, high actual reproductive opportunities for pine stands in forest-steppe areas and a steppe kernel, and also potential opportunities of the stands in the mountain and taiga region of the southern Kuzbass.

  8. Production of biodiesel from Amari (Amoora Wallichii King) tree seeds using optimum process parameters and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, J.; Gogoi, T.K.; Pakshirajan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from Amari tree seed oil (ATSO). • Two stage acid base transesterification was used. • The fatty acid composition of ATSO was determined. • Reaction time, temperature and concentrations of methanol and catalysts were optimized. • Properties of ATSO FAME were compared with standards and FAMEs of Amoora and Pithraj. - Abstract: Amari (Amoora Wallichii King) is a forest based tree from Meliaceae family which is mainly used in making timber. Amari wood also possess some medicinal activity. In this article, biodiesel production from Amari tree seed oil (ATSO) was investigated. Oil content in the seed was 42.85%. Linoleic (32.938%) and oleic acids (23.007%) were the major fatty acid constituents in ATSO with 84.617% unsaturation. The free fatty acid (FFA) in ATSO was 16%, hence, a two stage acid base transesterification was done to produce biodiesel from ATSO. Effect of reaction time, temperature, methanol and catalyst concentrations on yields from the 1st stage acid pre-treatment and 2nd stage base transesterification was evaluated. Maximum 96% yield (vol.%) from the 1st stage occurred with 0.80% (v/v) H_2SO_4 at an oil methanol ratio of 4:1 after 3.5 h of acid esterification. From the 2nd stage, highest biodiesel yield of 88.5% (vol.%) was obtained during base catalysed transesterification by adding 1% (w/v) NaOH and 30% (v/v) methanol with the acid pre-treated oil after 2.5 h. Characterization of ATSO fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was done and properties were compared with Amoora and Pithraj tree seed biodiesels from same Meliaceae family. Properties were found similar and most of them conformed to the ASTM (D6751) and EN 14214 standards except water and sulphur contents with slight deviations.

  9. External validation of structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) models for predicting the biodegradability of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, J; Pandard, P; Richard, B

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradation is an important mechanism for eliminating xenobiotics by biotransforming them into simple organic and inorganic products. Faced with the ever growing number of chemicals available on the market, structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) and quantitative structure-biodegradation relationship (QSBR) models are increasingly used as surrogates of the biodegradation tests. Such models have great potential for a quick and cheap estimation of the biodegradation potential of chemicals. The Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite™ includes different models for predicting the potential aerobic biodegradability of organic substances. They are based on different endpoints, methodologies and/or statistical approaches. Among them, Biowin 5 and 6 appeared the most robust, being derived from the largest biodegradation database with results obtained only from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) test. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive performances of these two models from a set of 356 chemicals extracted from notification dossiers including compatible biodegradation data. Another set of molecules with no more than four carbon atoms and substituted by various heteroatoms and/or functional groups was also embodied in the validation exercise. Comparisons were made with the predictions obtained with START (Structural Alerts for Reactivity in Toxtree). Biowin 5 and Biowin 6 gave satisfactorily prediction results except for the prediction of readily degradable chemicals. A consensus model built with Biowin 1 allowed the diminution of this tendency.

  10. Current knowledge on biodegradable microspheres in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Kapadia, Jinita R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable microspheres have gained popularity for delivering a wide variety of molecules via various routes. These types of products have been prepared using various natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers through suitable techniques for desired delivery of various challenging molecules. Selection of biodegradable polymers and technique play a key role in desired drug delivery. This review describes an overview of the fundamental knowledge and status of biodegradable microspheres in effective delivery of various molecules via desired routes with consideration of outlines of various compendial and non-compendial biodegradable polymers, formulation techniques and release mechanism of microspheres, patents and commercial biodegradable microspheres. There are various advantages of using biodegradable polymers including promise of development with different types of molecules. Biocompatibility, low dosage and reduced side effects are some reasons why usage biodegradable microspheres have gained in popularity. Selection of biodegradable polymers and formulation techniques to create microspheres is the biggest challenge in research. In the near future, biodegradable microspheres will become the eco-friendly product for drug delivery of various genes, hormones, proteins and peptides at specific site of body for desired periods of time.

  11. Sexual production in SE Asian seagrasses: the absence of a seed bank in Thalassia hemprichii (Bolinao, NW Philippines)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollon, R.N.; Nacorda, H.M.E.; Vermaat, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We report the absence of a persistent seed bank in Thalassia hemprichii in NW Philippine seagrass beds. The survival of buried seeds was assessed experimentally since such a capacity is a prerequisite for the formation of seed bank. We found a rapid germination of non-dormant seeds and development

  12. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops.

  13. A selection and seed-grower are a substantial factor of increase to the productivity of oil-bearing cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кириченко

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of oilseeds in Ukraine, including sunflower, soybean, winter and spring rape, mustard, linseed, sesame, spring false flax, safflower. Presented research-based elements of the technology of cultivation. Described seed of oilseeds. Named most promising varieties of these crops. Disclosed their productive and qualitative potential. The above varietal structure of oilseeds in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine for years. In order to ensure stable population of oil and food, which include oil, and for the implementation of programs related to soil fertility, scientifically grounded recommended area of oilseeds in Ukraine for 2013–2015 years, ha.

  14. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol using a novel bacterium Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2: A proposal of its metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jayanthi; Silambarasan, Sivagnanam

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its major metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) were studied with a novel bacterial strain JAS2 isolated from paddy rhizosphere soil. The molecular characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence homology confirmed its identity as Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2. The JAS2 strain degraded 300mgl(-1) of chlorpyrifos within 12h of incubation in the aqueous medium and it produced the TCP metabolite. However, after 72h of incubation TCP was also completely degraded by the JAS2 strain. A tentative degradation pathway of chlorpyrifos by Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2 has been proposed on basis of GC-MS analysis. The complete degradation of chlorpyrifos occurred within 24h in the soil spiked with and without addition of nutrients inoculated with Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2. TCP was obtained in both the studies which was degraded completely by 96h in the soil spiked with nutrients and whereas 120h in absence of nutrients in the soil. The mpd gene which is responsible for organophosphorus hydrolase production was identified. The isolates Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2 also exhibited a time dependent increase in the amount of tricalcium phosphate solubilization in Pikovskaya's medium. Further screening of the strain JAS2 for auxiliary plant growth promoting activities revealed its remarkable capability of producing the indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enzymatic production of sterculic acid from the novel Phoenix tree seed oil: Optimization and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.; Sun, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) seed oil is a novel oil which is rich in sterculic acid. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid, can be used as the inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system and mammary carcinomas growth. In this work, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed hydrolysis of the novel Phoenix tree seed oil was used to prepare sterculic acid. High temperature GC-FID and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were used to monitor the reaction progress. Effects of reaction variables on the hydrolysis were evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology. Results showed that sterculic acid can be successfully prepared from the novel seed oil, and the effect of reaction variables on the hydrolysis decreased in the order of reaction time > enzyme load > temperature. A high yield of fatty acids (DH, 98.2±0.8%) can be obtained under optimized conditions (45 ºC, mass ratio of water to oil 10:1, enzyme load 10%, and 18 h). The Arrhenius equation for the hydrolysis was LnV0 = 9.12 − 4721/T. The activation energy was 39.25KJ/mol. The kinetic values for Vmax, K/m were 0.232mol/(L∙min) and 0.084 mol/L, respectively. [es

  16. Effects of Seeding Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Productivity of Egyptian Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan G. Rafaat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to show the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg urea/ha, and two seeding rates 15 and 30 kg/ha. The study was conducted at Bakrajo research field during the winter season 2011-2012 to some growth characteristics of Egyptian clover, such as plant height, dry leaf weight percent, dry stem weight percent, leave stem ratio, fresh yield t/ha, dry yield t/ha and dry matter percent. The experiment was designed as (R.C.B.D. The results can be summarized as follow; significant differences were observed between all three cuts, and the third cut was superior in almost characters especially in the forage yield. The application of 40 and 60 kg urea gave maximum yield. Using 15 kg seeds/ha showed superior value due to fresh yield in compare to 30 kg for all cutting, while the dry yield responded non-significantly to seeding rates.

  17. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Okechukwu Onukwuli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced through transesterification of refined cotton seed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH as a catalyst using batch mode. The physicochemical properties of cotton seed oil and biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine was characterized through ASTM standards for fuel tests. The functional groups of the biodiesel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of key parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and methanol/oil molar ratio were determined using batch mode. These process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance of the different process parameters and their combined effects on the transesterification efficiency were established through a full factorial central composite design. The results obtained are in good agreement with published data for other vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for biodiesel fuel. An optimum yield of 96% was achieved with optimal conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 55 °C; time, 60 min; and catalyst concentration, 0.6%. This investigation has shown that cotton seed oil from Nigeria can be used to produce biodiesel.

  18. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA.

  19. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  20. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

  1. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos and Its Hydrolysis Product 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol by a New Fungal Strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuyan; Liu, Hongmei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L−1 of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L−1. The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM). Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L−1) within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t 1/2) of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop. PMID:23056611

  2. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by a new fungal strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L(-1 of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L(-1. The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L(-1 within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t(1/2 of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop.

  3. Seed research for improved technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bino,R.J.; Jalink,H.; Oluoch,M.O.; Groot,S.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The production of high-quality seed is the basis for a durable a profitable agriculture. After production, seed is processed, conditioned, stored, shipped and germinated. For quality assurance, seed quality has to be controlled at all steps of the production chain. Seed functioning is accompanied by programmed transitions from cell proliferation to quiescence upon maturation and from quiescence to reinitiation of cellular metabolism upon imbibition. Despite the obvious importance of these con...

  4. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  5. Adaptive value of phenological traits in stressful environments: predictions based on seed production and laboratory natural selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brachi

    Full Text Available Phenological traits often show variation within and among natural populations of annual plants. Nevertheless, the adaptive value of post-anthesis traits is seldom tested. In this study, we estimated the adaptive values of pre- and post-anthesis traits in two stressful environments (water stress and interspecific competition, using the selfing annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. By estimating seed production and by performing laboratory natural selection (LNS, we assessed the strength and nature (directional, disruptive and stabilizing of selection acting on phenological traits in A. thaliana under the two tested stress conditions, each with four intensities. Both the type of stress and its intensity affected the strength and nature of selection, as did genetic constraints among phenological traits. Under water stress, both experimental approaches demonstrated directional selection for a shorter life cycle, although bolting time imposes a genetic constraint on the length of the interval between bolting and anthesis. Under interspecific competition, results from the two experimental approaches showed discrepancies. Estimation of seed production predicted directional selection toward early pre-anthesis traits and long post-anthesis periods. In contrast, the LNS approach suggested neutrality for all phenological traits. This study opens questions on adaptation in complex natural environment where many selective pressures act simultaneously.

  6. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical...... and seed number, but seed weight and plant biomass were significantly reduced at the highest fertilizer concentration. In both experiments, the seeds germinated slower and less seeds germinated when plants had received the largest amount of fertilizer (6.25 mS·cm-1). In none of the experiments did applied......Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether...

  7. ATP Production by Respiration and Fermentation, and Energy Charge during Aerobiosis and Anaerobiosis in Twelve Fatty and Starchy Germinating Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, P; Al-Ani, A; Pradet, A

    1985-11-01

    The respiration and fermentation rates were compared in germinating seeds of 12 different cultivated species from five families. In air, fermentation contributes significantly to the energy metabolism only in some species (pea, maize), but is generally negligible when compared to respiration. The fermentation rate under anoxia was related either to the metabolic activity under air or to the adenine nucleotide content of the seeds: it was generally higher in seeds which contain starchy reserves (rice, maize, sorghum, pea), than in seeds which do not contain starch (lettuce, sunflower, radish, turnip, cabbage, flax); however, it was similar in wheat, sorghum (starchy seeds), and soya (nonstarchy seeds). The value of the energy charge of all the seeds was lower under anoxia than in air: after 24 hours under anoxia, it was higher than 0.5 in the starchy seeds and in soya and it was around 0.25 in the other fatty seeds.

  8. Test and research on the production of useful matter with carbon-dioxide-fixed microorganisms. Production of biodegradation plastics with photosynthesized microorganisms. Tansan gas kotei biseibutsu wo mochiita yuyo busshitsu seisan shiken kenkyu. Kogosei biseibutsu ni yoru seibunkaisei plastic seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasaka, H. (The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-07-10

    The present report introduces the basic research on the production of PHB (one of the biodegradation plastics) by utilizing the photosynthesized microorganisms. The indigo algae are conveniently used for the genetic operation, because they are genetically inferior and have plasmid (extranuclear ringed DNA). Therefore, a certain type of oceanic indigo algae was used for the present research. As a vector to introduce the PHB-producing gene into the indigo alga cell, hybrid plasmid was prepared by combining the indigo alga plasmid pAQ1 with colon bacillus plasmid vectors pUC19. The thus prepared vectors had an introduction efficiency into about 1000 cells per one vector. A RuBisCO gene of indigo alga cell was selected as a promoter to heighten the activity of PHB-producing gene in that cell. The gene is being further studied in promotion efficiency by combining it with the above vector and PHB-producing gene. 4 figs.

  9. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KOH/g, SN of 72.8. Degumming (with 0.2%Na2CO3 and 0.2%H3PO4) and bleaching gave oils with lower AV (7.45 mgKOH/gfat) and higher acid value (9.4 mgKOH/gfat), respectively. Iodine value (48.78 ml/g) of the 0.2% Na2CO3 degummed oil was higher than that of the seed oil degummed with 0.2% H3PO4 (25.35ml/g).

  10. A comparative study between chemical and enzymatic transesterification of high free fatty acid contained rubber seed oil for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilse Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a paramount method for biodiesel production has significance as the demand of alternative fuels like biodiesel is growing rapidly. In the present study, experimental results from chemical-catalysed as well as enzyme-catalysed methods were compared using common influencing parameters such as oil/alcohol molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction duration. Requirement of certain solvents to enhance the reaction rate was explained in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification reaction. Biodiesel conversion of more than 90% was attained for chemical-catalysed transesterification, whereas the conversion rate was 85% for enzyme-catalysed method. This gives the indication of further refinement in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification process. The influencing parameters and absolute results of the analysis give the impression of superiority of enzymatic transesterification method for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid-contained rubber seed oil.

  11. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  12. Induced mutants for the improvement of sesame and hybrid seed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, G.S.S.

    2001-01-01

    With an overall objective to develop hybrids in sesame, induced mutants were used in cross breeding and five initial yield trials were conducted. For obtaining the mutant hybrids, recessive morphological mutants were used as female, and check varieties as male parents. In each trial, seed yields of mutant hybrids were compared with: i) the original parent in which the mutants were induced, ii) best check variety and iii) best cultivar hybrid. Among 138 mutant hybrids evaluated between 1994 and 1997, 18 showed superiority. In the development of hybrids, it is also desirable to have male sterile lines. By irradiating seeds with 400 Gy gamma rays, four genetic male sterile mutants were isolated. One of them, TMST-11 appears to be promising for breeding programme showing 100% male sterility and characterised by dark green foliage. To study the percent outcrossing, a monogenic chlorina mutant which can be identified from the seedling stage, was used in experiments conducted for two years. Among open pollinated plants, 92-98% plants were found outcrossed. Based on plant to row progenies, percent outcrossing ranged between 0.0 to 13.8%. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.. To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer, and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  14. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  15. Grey water biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  16. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  17. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić Dragoslav; Terzić Dragan; Milenković Jasmina; Dinić Bora; Anđelković Bojan; Stanisavljević Rade; Barać Saša

    2013-01-01

    For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertili...

  18. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  19. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differe...

  20. Influence of pumpkin seed cake and extruded linseed on milk production and milk fatty acid profile in Alpine goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, Z; Castro-Montoya, J M; Novoselec, J; Molkentin, J; Domacinovic, M; Mioc, B; Dickhoefer, U; Antunovic, Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of substituting pumpkin seed cake (PSC) or extruded linseed (ELS) for soya bean meal in goats' diets on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acids profile of milk fat. In total, 28 dairy goats were divided into three groups. They were fed with concentrate mixtures containing soya bean meal (Control; n=9), ELS (n=10) or PSC (n=9) as main protein sources in the trial lasting 75 days. Addition of ELS or PSC did not influence milk yield and milk gross composition in contrast to fatty acid profile compared with Control. Supplementation of ELS resulted in greater branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and total n-3 fatty acids compared with Control and PSC (PLA, C18:2n-6; 2.10 and 2.28 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) proportions compared with Control (2.80 g/100 g fatty acids; PLA/ALA ratio (3.81 v. 7.44 or 6.92, respectively; Psoya bean meal with ELS in hay-based diets may increase beneficial n-3 fatty acids and BCFA accompanied by lowering LA/ALA ratio and increased C18:0. Pumpkin seed cake completely substituted soya bean meal in the diet of dairy goats without any decrease in milk production or sharp changes in fatty acid profile that may have a commercial or a human health relevancy.

  1. Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroglu, Somer; Myrberg, Olle; Ostman, Kristina; Ek, Marianne; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Rundlöf, Torgny; Hakkarainen, Birgit

    2008-08-05

    A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe. The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600MHz BB probe and CryoProbe, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3mg/ml (0.4%), respectively.

  2. Foliar fertilization of peanuts with cobalt and molybdenum: agronomic characteristics of production and physiological potential of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a crop, the peanut is becoming increasingly important in Brazil because it is used to renew areas where sugarcane is cultivated. The peanuts are mainly used by the candy industry and their importance has also grown because of the exploitation of oil crops to produce biodiesel. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying different levels Co and Mo foliar fertilizer to two peanut cultivars. The experiment was conducted in cerrado, during the rainy season, and the treatments consisted of applying Mo and Co fertilizer at zero, 400 and 800g.ha–1 to the Runner IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST cultivars. The study found that there were differences in the parameters of the cultivars but there were no changes when the rates of cobalt and molybdenum were increased. The foliar application of cobalt and molybdenum in doses up to 800g.ha–1, during the initial stage of seed formation, does not change the agronomic characteristics of peanuts; Runner IAC 886 is more productive than the IAC Tatu ST cultivar, and seeds with higher molybdenum content do not have more physiological potential.

  3. Establishment and Efficiency Evaluation of a Simple Mini hatchery for production of Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT strain seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.K.S.K. De Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple technology mini hatchery was established for small scale farmers to meet their own GIFT seed requirements. Different shapes and sizes of jars were trialed for incubation of eggs and yolk-sac larvae. Concaved bottom round plastic bottles (4 L and rectangular (3 L plastic trays gave the best hatchability of eggs and survival of yolk-sac larvae respectively. The best stocking density was 500 eggs/larvae L-1. Optimised flow rate into the incubation bottles and rearing trays were 2.70±0.18 L min-1 and 5.40±0.14 L min-1 respectively. Two gravel filters (15 L and 20 L made with discarded and low cost material purified the water from the incubation containers and directed into a water recirculation system. Production efficiency of this mini hatchery was compared with a hapa breeding method. Two hapas having 10 m3 size and 1.6 mm mesh were positioned in an earthen pond. Each hapa was stocked with 40 GIFT broodfish at 1:1 female to male ratio. In Phase I of the study (60 days, eggs collected from Hapa I were placed in incubation bottles and hatchability and survival rate were determined. In parallel, free-swimming fry were collected and counted from the Hapa II at every 14 days. The study continued in the same way for Phase II (next 60 days by interchanging the brood fish between Hapa I and Hapa II. Yield from the mini hatchery (24,000 fry was significantly different (P≤0.05 from hapa method (4,879 fry indicating that this established mini hatchery could serve as a productive model to support small scale farmers in GIFT seed production.

  4. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  5. Callus induction and flavonoid production on the immature seed of Stelechocarpus burahol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibah, N. A.; Moeljopawiro, S.; Dewi, K.; Indrianto, A.

    2018-03-01

    Stelechocarpus burahol [(Bl.) Hook. f. & Th.] is one of the medicinal plants. In vitro callus induction studies on S. burahol were carried out to determine phytohormone requirement for optimum callus induction. Immature seed explants were cultured on MS medium by adding different kinds and different concentrations of plant growth regulators (picloram and 2,4-D) under light and dark conditions. The results showed that callus formation was initiated on the 18,50th to the 55th days. The best condition for optimum callus induction was found on MS medium, which was supplemented with 7.5 mg/L picloram and was maintained in the dark condition. The callus induction varied from 60% to 100%. The callus that produced the highest flavonoid was grown on the medium with the addition of 10 mg/L of 2,4-D. In conclusion, the results represented a suitable medium for S.burahol callus induction.

  6. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  7. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  8. Synthesis of geopolymer from rice husk ash for biodiesel production of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, E.; Nugraha, M. W.; Helwani, Z.; Olivia, M.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, geopolymer was prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) made into sodium silicate then synthesized by reacting metakaolin, NaOH, and water. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX), Brunaeur Emmet Teller (BET), and basic strength. Then, the catalyst used for transesterification of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil in order to produce biodiesel. The variation of process variables conducted to assess the effect on the yield of biodiesel. The highest yield obtained 87.68% biodiesel with alkyl ester content 99.29%, density 866 kg/m3, viscosity 4.13 mm2/s, the acid number of 0.42 mg-KOH/g biodiesel and the flash point 140 °C. Generally, variations of %w/w catalyst provides a dominant influence on the yield response of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel comply with ASTM standard specifications.

  9. Biodegradation of high doses of commercial pesticide products in pilot-scale biobeds using olive-oil agroindustry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, L; Nogales, R; Romero, E

    2017-12-15

    Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated. Pesticides were retained mainly in the upper layer. In non-planted biobeds with SCPr and SVPr, pesticides dissipation was higher than in SPS, except for diuron. In the biobed with SVPr, with the highest pesticide dissipation capacity, the removed amount of dimethoate, imidacloprid, tebuconazole, diuron and oxyfluorfen was 100, 80, 73, 75 and 50%, respectively. The grass layer enhanced dehydrogenase and diphenol-oxidase activities, modified the pesticides dissipation kinetics and favored the pesticide downward movement. One metabolite of imidacloprid, 3 of oxyfluorfen and 4 of diuron were identified by GC-MS. These novel biobeds represent an alternative to the traditional one and a contribution to promote a circular economy for the olive-oil production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycelial growth rate and toxin production in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda: Resource trade-offs and temporally varying selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; M. Masi; S. Clement; T. L. Davis; J. Beckstead

    2015-01-01

    Pyrenophora semeniperda, an important pathogen in Bromus tectorum seed banks in semi-arid western North America, exhibits >4-fold variation in mycelial growth rate. Host seeds exhibit seasonal changes in dormancy that affect the risk of pathogen-caused mortality. The hypothesis tested is that contrasting seed dormancy phenotypes select for contrasting strategies...

  11. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  12. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  13. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  14. Effect of pollen load size and source (self, outcross) on seed and fruit production in highbush blueberry cv. 'Bluecrop' (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM; Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogterom, M H; Winston, M L; Mukai, A

    2000-11-01

    Reproductive fitness of a plant is ultimately determined by both number and quality of seed offspring. This is determined by sexual selection of pollen microspores and ovules during pollination and fertilization. These processes may include pollen competition and seed abortion, which reduce the number of microspores and ovules available for final seed production. Thus, even an excess of pollen microspores to ovules does not result in fertile seeds equal to ovule number. We investigated pollen requirements of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar 'Bluecrop') for maximal seed production and how fertile seed number translates into fruit quality, since fruit quality would ultimately determine the dispersal of its offspring. We demonstrate that individual blueberry flowers with a mean of 106 ovules reach their maximum fruit set and mass and minimum time to ripen when 125 outcross pollen tetrads pollinate a flower, compared to 10 or 25. Three hundred tetrads resulted in the increase of fertile seeds, but did not result in a further increase of fruit mass or fruit set, or decrease in time to ripen. We also examined the effect of pure and mixed loads of self and outcross pollen (25 and 125 tetrads), and found no differences in fertile seed number, fruit mass, or percentage fruit set when pollen loads were either 25 self or outcross pollen tetrads, although number of days to ripen was significantly shorter by 8 d with 25 outcross tetrads. When the pollen load of 125 tetrads consisted of self or a 50:50 mixture of self and outcross pollen, fruit mass, days to ripen, and percentage fruit set were not different from loads of 125 outcross pollen. In addition, a pollen load of 25 outcross tetrads resulted in fertile seed number and fruit quality in between that of 25 self, and 125 self, 125 mixed, or 125 outcross tetrads. Large, small, and flat seed types were identified, and only large seeds (length = 1.7 mm) were fertile. These results improve our understanding of

  15. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  16. Biodegradable Sonobuoy Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of Water Temperature and the Presence of Salt on the Disintegration Time of MonoSol A200 PVOH...polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). The proposed film would disintegrate , dissolve, and eventually biodegrade to prevent long-term effects on marine life. Ensuring no...Standard Specification for Non-Floating Biodegradable Plastics in the Marine Environment. Results showed that no PHA grades were toxic to the marine

  17. Biodegradable micromechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Greve, Anders; Schmid, Silvan

    of mechanical and thermal properties of polymers. For example, measurements of the resonance frequency of cantilevers were used to characterize thin polymer coatings in various environmental conditions [2]. Also, the influence of humidity on the Young’s modulus of SU-8 was evaluated [3]. However, introduction...... (NIL). Second, we used spray-coating to deposit thin biodegradable films on microcantilevers. Both approaches allowed the determination of the Young’s modulus of the biopolymer. Furthermore, biodegradation by enzymes was investigated....

  18. Progress of biodegradable metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafang Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable metals (BMs are metals and alloys expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon fulfilling the mission to assist with tissue healing with no implant residues. In the present review article, three classes of BMs have been systematically reviewed, including Mg-based, Fe-based and Zn-based BMs. Among the three BM systems, Mg-based BMs, which now have several systems reported the successful of clinical trial results, are considered the vanguards and main force. Fe-based BMs, with pure iron and Fe–Mn based alloys as the most promising, are still on the animal test stage. Zn-based BMs, supposed to have the degradation rate between the fast Mg-based BMs and the slow Fe-based BMs, are a rising star with only several reports and need much further research. The future research and development direction for the BMs are proposed, based on the clinical requirements on controllable degradation rate, prolonged mechanical stability and excellent biocompatibility, by optimization of alloy composition design, regulation on microstructure and mechanical properties, and following surface modification.

  19. Produtividade e qualidade de sementes de flores produzidas em Santa Maria Productivity and quality of flower seeds produced in Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de produção e a qualidade de sementes, foram cultivadas 15 espécies deflores nas condições de Santa Maria (Latitude 29°41'S e Longitude 53°48'W. O experimento foi realizado a campo no delineamento blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A grande maioria das espécies produz rendimento médio de sementes elevado apesar da variabilidade. Nas condições de benefïciamento oferecidas, as espécies Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella e Fhlox produziram sementes com alta germinação. As espécies Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gailiardia, Nicotina, Scabiosa e Zinnia possuem potencial de produção de sementes de melhor qualidade, desde que se melhore, principalmente, o beneficiamento.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential and quality of flowers seeds. Fifteen species were tested for Santa Maria (24°41'S latitude and 53°48'W longitude. The majority of the species had high seed production despite of variability. Considering the local conditions of seeds cleaning and processing the species Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella and Phlox produced seeds with high germination. The species Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gaillardia Nicotinic, Scabbiest and Zinnia have potential to potential to produce seeds of high quality, specially, when seed cleaning and processing are improved.

  20. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.