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Sample records for bioconversion processes employing

  1. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karcher Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, packed bed reactor (PBR, fluidized bed reactor (FBR, airlift reactor (ALR, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  2. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes. PMID:16122390

  3. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-08-25

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL(-1) can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  4. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  5. Energy from refuse by bioconversion, fermentation and residue disposal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Liebman, J C

    1976-01-01

    Bioconversion of organic refuse to CH/sub 4/ by anaerobic fermentation is 1 mechanism by which the energy in urban waste can be reclaimed. Laboratory studies were made to determine the rate and amount of gas production at various operating temperatures. The dewatering characteristics of the spent fermentation slurry were evaluated. The spent solids can be dewatered to a sufficiently low moisture content such that incineration is self-sustaining. The incineration system was evaluated to determine the possible energy recovery from the spent cake. A process for treating the liquid blowdown from the system was developed. A mathematical simulation of the total system was constructed to evaluate performance under various operating conditions. A plant processing 908 tons of refuse/day will produce 3905 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//hr. Recovery of just CH/sub 4/ provides a 32.6% efficiency of energy recovery. This efficiency can be increased to 63.4% if steam from the incinerator can be sold.

  6. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  7. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26°C. A total of 371g housefly larvae meal and 2,064g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  8. A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Hernandez, Ernesto; Webb, Colin

    2012-07-01

    This paper focuses on a novel process for adding value to algae residue. In current processes oleaginous microalgae are grown and harvested for lipid production leaving a lipid-free algae residue. The process described here includes conversion of the carbohydrate fraction into glucose prior to lipid extraction. This can be fermented to produce up to 15% additional lipids using another oleaginous microorganism. It was found that in situ enzymes can hydrolyze storage carbohydrates in the algae into glucose and that a temperature of 55 °C for about 20 h gave the best glucose yield. Up to 75% of available carbohydrates were converted to a generic fermentation feedstock containing 73 g/L glucose. The bioconversion step was found to increase the free water content by 60% and it was found that when the bioconversion was carried out prior to the extraction step, it improved the solvent extractability of lipids from the algae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of the bioconversion process using R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene as substrates for Fusarium oxysporum 152B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Gustavo; Bution, Murillo L; Bicas, Juliano L; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Pastore, Gláucia M

    2015-05-01

    This study compared the bioconversion process of S-(-)-limonene into limonene-1,2-diol with the already established biotransformation of R-(+)-limonene into α-terpineol using the same biocatalyst in both processes, Fusarium oxysporum 152B. The bioconversion of the S-(-)-isomer was tested on cell permeabilisation under anaerobic conditions and using a biphasic system. When submitted to permeabilisation trials, this biocatalyst has shown a relatively high resistance; still, no production of limonene-1,2-diol and a loss of activity of the biocatalyst were observed after intense cell treatment, indicating a complete loss of cell viability. Furthermore, the results showed that this process can be characterised as an aerobic system that was catalysed by limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase, had an intracellular nature and was cofactor-dependent because the final product was not detected by an anaerobic process. Finally, this is the first report to characterise the bioconversion of R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene by cellular detoxification using ultra-structural analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioconversion of Radiation Processed Dried Tomato Pomace to High Protein Animal Fee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Diaa El-Din, M.; El-Niely, H. F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing expansion of agro-industrial activity over the last 50 years has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of organic residues all over the world that they have become a threat to the environment. Bioconversion of these wastes seems to be a practical and promising alternative for increasing their nutritional value, transforming them into animal feed and thus producing a value added product. Radiation processing has the capability to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria, insects and parasites, thereby increasing the utilization and sustainable management of waste organic matter from food production and processing while contributing to improve food quality and reducing the environmental impact of the wastes. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation treatment at 25 kGy and fermentation process by Aspergillus niger, on crude and soluble protein, amino acid profile, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of dried tomato pomace (DTP), the by-product of the tomato canning industry. The study has also, investigated the effect of supplementation of 30% of raw or processed DTP meal in food of male Albino rats for six weeks on body and liver weight evaluation and the effect on blood lipid pattern. The work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of DTP at 25 kGy and fermentation process has increased the nutritional value of treated DTP meal and improved the plasma and liver lipid pattern of rats. Therefore, the combination treatment has beneficial effects on recycling of DTP and permits it to be included in monogastric animals' food without any health hazard or nutritional problem

  11. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  12. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by fermentation and bioconversion processes with Azohydromonas lata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Charles U; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Ichiba, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    Feasibility of producing (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid ((R)-3-HB) using wild type Azohydromonas lata and its mutants (derived by UV mutation) was investigated. A. lata mutant (M5) produced 780 m g/l in the culture broth when sucrose was used as the carbon source. M5 was further studied in terms of its specificity with various bioconversion substrates for production of (R)-3-HB. (R)-3-HB concentration produced in the culture broth by M5 mutant was 2.7-fold higher than that of the wild type strain when sucrose (3% w/v) and (R,S)-1,3-butanediol (3% v/v) were used as carbon source and bioconversion substrate, respectively. Bioconversion of resting cells (M5) with glucose (1% v/w), ethylacetoacetate (2% v/v), and (R,S)-1,3-butanediol (3% v/v), resulted in (R)-3-HB concentrations of 6.5 g/l, 7.3g/l and 8.7 g/l, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioconversion of fish solid waste into PHB using Bacillus subtilis based submerged fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S; Sarkar, B; Samantaray, D P; Daware, A; Maity, S; Pattnaik, S; Bhattacharjee, S

    2017-12-01

    Currently, one of the major problem affecting the world is solid waste management, predominantly petroleum-based plastic and fish solid waste (FSW). However, it is very difficult to reduce the consumption of plastic as well as fish products, but it is promising to convert FSW to biopolymer to reduce eco-pollution. On account of that, the bioconversion of FSW extract to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was undertaken by using Bacillus subtilis (KP172548). Under optimized conditions, 1.62 g/L of PHB has been produced by the bacterium. The purified compound was further characterized by advanced analytical technologies to elucidate its chemical structure. Results indicated that the biopolymer was found to be PHB, the most common homopolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This is the first report demonstrating the efficacy of B. subtilis to utilize FSW extract to produce biopolymer. The biocompatibility of the PHB against murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 demonstrated that, it was comparatively less toxic, favourable for surface attachment and proliferation in comparison with poly-lactic acid (PLA) and commercially available PHB. Thus, further exploration is highly indispensable to use FSW extract as a substrate for production of PHB at pilot scale.

  14. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  15. The synthesis of alternatives for the bioconversion of waste-monoethanolamine from large-scale CO{sub 2}-removal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa; Yokoyama, Takahisa [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The alternatives for bioconversion of monoethanolamine (MEA), which would appear in large quantities in industrial effluent of CO{sub 2}-removal process of power companies, have been proposed by investigating the ability of some microorganisms to deaminate MEA. An evaluation of biotechnology, which includes productions from MEA of acetic acid and acetaldehyde with Escherichia coli, of formic and acetic acids with Clostridium formicoaceticum, confirms and extends our earlier remarks on availability of ecotechnology for solving the above problem. (Author)

  16. The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

    2008-09-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates.

  17. Photosynthesis and Bioconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    This text summarises a talk held by Engelbert Broda at a conference on non-convential energy sources. The talk about photosynthesis and bioconversion is devided in 6 sections: the great physicist and photosynthesis; the influence of photosynthesis on the biosphere (in the past, present and future); the light reactions in photosynthesis; the dark reactions in photosynthesis; bioconversion; respiration and photorespiration. (nowak)

  18. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  19. A Two-Step Bioconversion Process for Canolol Production from Rapeseed Meal Combining an Aspergillus niger Feruloyl Esterase and the Fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinot, Elise; Fine, Frédéric; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Navarro, David; Laguna, Oscar; Bisotto, Alexandra; Peyronnet, Corinne; Ginies, Christian; Lecomte, Jérôme; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2017-10-14

    Rapeseed meal is a cheap and abundant raw material, particularly rich in phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest. In this study, we developed a two-step bioconversion process of naturally occurring sinapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid) from rapeseed meal into canolol by combining the complementary potentialities of two filamentous fungi, the micromycete Aspergillus niger and the basidiomycete Neolentinus lepideus . Canolol could display numerous industrial applications because of its high antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. In the first step of the process, the use of the enzyme feruloyl esterase type-A (named AnFaeA) produced with the recombinant strain A. niger BRFM451 made it possible to release free sinapic acid from the raw meal by hydrolysing the conjugated forms of sinapic acid in the meal (mainly sinapine and glucopyranosyl sinapate). An amount of 39 nkat AnFaeA per gram of raw meal, at 55 °C and pH 5, led to the recovery of 6.6 to 7.4 mg of free sinapic acid per gram raw meal, which corresponded to a global hydrolysis yield of 68 to 76% and a 100% hydrolysis of sinapine. Then, the XAD2 adsorbent (a styrene and divinylbenzene copolymer resin), used at pH 4, enabled the efficient recovery of the released sinapic acid, and its concentration after elution with ethanol. In the second step, 3-day-old submerged cultures of the strain N. lepideus BRFM15 were supplied with the recovered sinapic acid as the substrate of bioconversion into canolol by a non-oxidative decarboxylation pathway. Canolol production reached 1.3 g/L with a molar yield of bioconversion of 80% and a productivity of 100 mg/L day. The same XAD2 resin, when used at pH 7, allowed the recovery and purification of canolol from the culture broth of N. lepideus . The two-step process used mild conditions compatible with green chemistry.

  20. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  1. Process development studies on the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1978-12-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: raw materials and process evaluation, enzyme fermentation studies, ethanol fermentation studies, hydrolysis reactor development, and utilization of hemi-cellulose sugars. (MHR)

  2. COMBINED COMPOST AND VERMICOMPOSTING PROCESS IN THE TREATMENT AND BIOCONVERSION OF SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alidadi, A. R. Parvaresh and M. R. Shamansouri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional thermophillic composting is commonly for treatment of sludge. A related technique as vermicomposting process, using earthworms to breakdown sludge, is also becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. The combined approach suggested in this study to enhance the overall process and improve the products qualities. Two systems,vermicomposting and combined compost vermicomposting processes, have been investigated in this study. The sludge used in this study was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant.The sludge mixed with sawdust to provide C/N ratio of 25/1.Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting processes.The results obtained indicates reduction in the amount of volatile solids,total carbon and C/N ratio with the vermicompost age,which indicates the reduction in the biodegradable organic content and mineralization of sludge. Also increase in phosphorus concentration by the end process because of mineralization of organic matter. The results indicate that, a system that combines the two mentioned processes not only shortens stabilization time, but also improves the products quality. Combining the two systems resulted in a product that was more stable and homogenous; the product could meet the pathogen reduction requirements.

  3. Process development studies on the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.

    1978-02-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the NO--O/sub 2/ pretreatment of wheat straw prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Studies of the conversion of xylose to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum were continued. Progress is also reported on pilot plant process development and design studies on continuous cellulase production, enzyme recovery, batch cellulase enzyme production from Trichoderma viride, and kinetic modelling of the enzymatic hydrolysis of 5 percent newsprint. (JGB)

  4. A Two-Step Bioconversion Process for Canolol Production from Rapeseed Meal Combining an Aspergillus niger Feruloyl Esterase and the Fungus Neolentinus lepideus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Odinot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed meal is a cheap and abundant raw material, particularly rich in phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest. In this study, we developed a two-step bioconversion process of naturally occurring sinapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid from rapeseed meal into canolol by combining the complementary potentialities of two filamentous fungi, the micromycete Aspergillus niger and the basidiomycete Neolentinus lepideus. Canolol could display numerous industrial applications because of its high antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. In the first step of the process, the use of the enzyme feruloyl esterase type-A (named AnFaeA produced with the recombinant strain A. niger BRFM451 made it possible to release free sinapic acid from the raw meal by hydrolysing the conjugated forms of sinapic acid in the meal (mainly sinapine and glucopyranosyl sinapate. An amount of 39 nkat AnFaeA per gram of raw meal, at 55 °C and pH 5, led to the recovery of 6.6 to 7.4 mg of free sinapic acid per gram raw meal, which corresponded to a global hydrolysis yield of 68 to 76% and a 100% hydrolysis of sinapine. Then, the XAD2 adsorbent (a styrene and divinylbenzene copolymer resin, used at pH 4, enabled the efficient recovery of the released sinapic acid, and its concentration after elution with ethanol. In the second step, 3-day-old submerged cultures of the strain N. lepideus BRFM15 were supplied with the recovered sinapic acid as the substrate of bioconversion into canolol by a non-oxidative decarboxylation pathway. Canolol production reached 1.3 g/L with a molar yield of bioconversion of 80% and a productivity of 100 mg/L day. The same XAD2 resin, when used at pH 7, allowed the recovery and purification of canolol from the culture broth of N. lepideus. The two-step process used mild conditions compatible with green chemistry.

  5. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  6. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  7. CONCEPT OF IN-OIL PROJECT BASED ON BIOCONVERSION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czekała

    2017-09-01

    The main assumption of the project is based on the introduction of by-products from the food processing industry to feeding with larvae of H. illucens. Biomass of insect larvae will then be processed into products that will be used for feed and energy purposes.

  8. Process development studies on the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Progress report, September 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.

    1978-09-01

    Progress is reported in studies on the pretreatment of cellulosic materials to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis, sulfuric acid hydrolysis, investigation of the Purdue processing scheme including an economic analysis, and the fermentability of the enzymatic hydrolyzate. Progress is also reported on enzyme fermentation studies, hydrolysis reactor development, and utilization of hemicellulose sugars. (JSR)

  9. Bioconversion of starch to ethanol in a single-step process by coculture of amylolytic yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, G.; Singh, D.; Chaudhary, K. [CCS Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology; Nigam, P. [Ulster Univ., Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    2000-05-01

    Ethanol production by a coculture of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21 was 24.8 g/l using raw unhydrolysed starch in a single-step fermentation. This was 48% higher than the yield obtained with the monoculture of S. diastaticus (16.8 g/l). The maximum ethanol fermentation efficiency was achieved (93% of the theoretical value) using 60 g/l starch concentration. In another coculture fermentation with E. capsularis and S. cerevisiae 21, maximum ethanol yield was 16.0 g/l, higher than the yield with the monoculture of Endomycopsis capsularis. In batch fermentations using cocultures maximum ethanol production occurred in 48 h of fermentation at 30{sup o}C using 60 g/l starch. Fermentation efficiency was found lower in a two-step process using {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase-treated starch. (Author)

  10. New cost-effective bioconversion process of palm kernel cake into bioinsecticides based on Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Jaqueline; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Dos Santos Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Tinôco, Ricardo Salles; Quintela, Eliane Dias; Dos Reis Castilho, Leda; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to add value to palm oil by-products as substrates to efficiently produce conidia of Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) for biological control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), through a solid-state fermentation process using palm kernel cake and palm fiber as nutrient source and solid matrix, respectively. The optimum culture conditions yielded high concentrations of viable conidia after air-drying, when the fungi were grown on palm kernel cake (B. bassiana 7.65 × 10 9 and I. javanica 2.91 × 10 9  conidia g -1 dry substrate) after 6 days under optimal growth conditions set to 60% substrate moisture and 32 °C. Both fungal strains exhibited high efficacy against third-instar whitefly nymphs, inducing mortality up to 62.9 and 56.6% by B. bassiana and I. javanica, respectively, assessed after 9 days post-application in a screenhouse. Furthermore, we noted that insect mortality was strongly correlated with high atmospheric moisture, while B. bassiana appeared to require shorter accumulative hours under high moisture to kill whitefly nymphs compared to I. javanica. Our results underpin a feasible and cost-effective mass production method for aerial conidia, using palm kernel as the main substrate in order to produce efficacious fungal bioinsecticides against an invasive whitefly species in Brazil. Finally, our fermentation process may offer a sustainable and cost-effective means to produce eco-friendly mycoinsecticides, using an abundant agro-industrial by-product from Brazil that will ultimately assist in the integrated management of agricultural insect pests.

  11. Fed-batch hydrolysate addition and cell separation by settling in high cell density lignocellulosic ethanol fermentations on AFEX™ corn stover in the Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycling Technology process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarks, Cory; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2017-09-01

    The Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycling Technology (RaBIT) process uses enzyme and yeast recycling to improve cellulosic ethanol production economics. The previous versions of the RaBIT process exhibited decreased xylose consumption using cell recycle for a variety of different micro-organisms. Process changes were tested in an attempt to eliminate the xylose consumption decrease. Three different RaBIT process changes were evaluated in this work including (1) shortening the fermentation time, (2) fed-batch hydrolysate addition, and (3) selective cell recycling using a settling method. Shorting the RaBIT fermentation process to 11 h and introducing fed-batch hydrolysate addition eliminated any xylose consumption decrease over ten fermentation cycles; otherwise, decreased xylose consumption was apparent by the third cell recycle event. However, partial removal of yeast cells during recycle was not economical when compared to recycling all yeast cells.

  12. Environmental aspects of bioconversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.; Pfeifer, F.; Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays suited for a sensitive and reproducible valuation of coal relevant products. Bioassays with organisms representing different trophic levels like bacteria, daphnia and algae were used for determination of ecotoxicological/toxicological effects. The results show the suitability of these bioassays for the valuation of ecotoxicological effects of coal-relevant substances and different model compounds similar to microbial transformation/conversion products of coal. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  14. Employing expert systems for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, W.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristic features of expert systems are explained in detail, and the systems' application in process control engineering. Four points of main interest are there, namely: Applications for diagnostic tasks, for safety analyses, planning, and training and expert training. For the modelling of the technical systems involved in all four task fields mentioned above, an object-centred approach has shown to be the suitable method, as process control techniques are determined by technical objects that in principle are specified by data sheets, schematic representations, flow charts, and plans. The graphical surface allows these data to be taken into account, so that the object can be displayed in the way best suited to the individual purposes. (orig./GL) [de

  15. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Meng, Xianzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  16. Uranium manufacturing process employing the electrolytic reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshio; Kazuhare, Manabu; Morimoto, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention related to a uranium manufacturing process that employs the electrolytic reduction method, but particularly to a uranium manufacturing process that employs an electrolytic reduction method requiring low voltage. The process, in which uranium is obtained by means of the electrolytic method and with uranyl acid as the raw material, is prior art

  17. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  18. Bioconversion of sugar beet pulps and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J.P.; Bourlet, P.

    A new technology for biogas and energy supply by anaerobic digestion of wet vegetal substrats was studied. It was a two step anaerobic process, each resulting from numerous fermentative reactions. About 88% of the pulp substrat can be converted into gas and a volumic load of 7 kg.m/sup 3/ of dry solids was converted in 24 hours. Many technological problems were encountered with beet trash digestion. It was not tested with high loads, but bioconversion rate was about 75%.

  19. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization.

  20. Biomass pyrolysis liquid to citric acid via 2-step bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiguang; Bai, Zhihui; Sun, Hongyan; Yu, Zhisheng; Li, Xingxing; Guo, Yifei; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-12-31

    The use of fossil carbon sources for fuels and petrochemicals has serious impacts on our environment and is unable to meet the demand in the future. A promising and sustainable alternative is to substitute fossil carbon sources with microbial cell factories converting lignocellulosic biomass into desirable value added products. However, such bioprocesses require tolerance to inhibitory compounds generated during pretreatment of biomass. In this study, the process of sequential two-step bio-conversion of biomass pyrolysis liquid containing levoglucosan (LG) to citric acid without chemical detoxification has been explored, which can greatly improve the utilization efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass. The sequential two-step bio-conversion of corn stover pyrolysis liquid to citric acid has been established. The first step conversion by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) is desirable to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan as a pretreatment for the second conversion. The remaining levoglucosan in solution was further converted into citric acid by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) CBX-209. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology. Under experimental conditions, levoglucosan yield is 12% based on the feedstock and the citric acid yield can reach 82.1% based on the levoglucosan content in the pyrolysis liquid (namely 82.1 g of citric acid per 100 g of levoglucosan). The study shows that P. chrysosporium and A. niger have the potential to be used as production platforms for value-added products from pyrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass. Selected P. chrysosporium is able to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan and levoglucosan can be further converted into citric acid in the residual liquids by A. niger. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology.

  1. Phyto-bioconversion of hard coal in the Cynodon dactylon/coal rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinigie, Eric E; Mutambanengwe, Cecil C Z; Rose, Peter D

    2010-03-01

    Fundamental processes involved in the microbial degradation of coal and its derivatives have been well documented. A mutualistic interaction between plant roots and certain microorganisms to aid growth of plants such as Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on hard coal dumps has recently been suggested. In the present study coal bioconversion activity of nonmycorrhizal fungi was investigated in the C. dactylon/coal rhizosphere. Fungal growth on 2% Duff-agar, gutation formation on nitric acid treated coal and submerged culture activity in nitrogen-rich and -deficient broth formed part of the screening and selection of the fungi. The selected fungal isolates were confirmed to be found in pristine C. dactylon/coal rhizosphere. To simulate bioconversion, a fungal aliquot of this rhizosphere was used as inoculum for a Perfusate fixed bed bioreactor, packed with coal. The results demonstrate an enhanced coal bioconversion facilitated by low molecular weight organics and the bioconversion of coal may be initiated by an introduction of nitrogen moieties to the coal substrate. These findings suggest a phyto-bioconversion of hard coal involving plant and microbes occurring in the rhizosphere to promote the growth of C. dactylon. An understanding of this relationship can serve as a benchmark for coal dumps rehabilitation as well as for the industrial scale bioprocessing of hard coal.

  2. Bioconversion of Rebaudioside I from Rebaudioside A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To supply the increasing demand of natural high potency sweeteners to reduce the calories in food and beverages, we have looked to steviol glycosides. In this work we report the bioconversion of rebaudioside A to rebaudioside I using a glucosyltransferase enzyme. This bioconversion reaction adds one sugar unit with a 1→3 linkage. We utilized 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY and NOESY and mass spectral data to fully characterize rebaudioside I.

  3. Challenges and pitfalls of P450-dependent (+)-valencene bioconversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavira, Carole; Höfer, René; Lesot, Agnès; Lambert, Fanny; Zucca, Joseph; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2013-07-01

    Natural nootkatone is a high value ingredient for the flavor and fragrance industry because of its grapefruit flavor/odor, low sensorial threshold and low availability. Valencene conversion into nootkatol and nootkatone is known to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, but so far development of a viable bioconversion process using either native microorganisms or recombinant enzymes was not successful. Using an in silico gene-mining approach, we selected 4 potential candidate P450 enzymes from higher plants and identified two of them that selectively converted (+)-valencene into β-nootkatol with high efficiency when tested using recombinant yeast microsomes in vitro. Recombinant yeast expressing CYP71D51v2 from tobacco and a P450 reductase from arabidopsis was used for optimization of a bioconversion process. Bioconversion assays led to production of β-nootkatol and nootkatone, but with low yields that decreased upon increase of the substrate concentration. The reasons for this low bioconversion efficiency were further investigated and several factors potentially hampering industry-compatible valencene bioconversion were identified. One is the toxicity of the products for yeast at concentrations exceeding 100 mg L⁻¹. The second is the accumulation of β-nootkatol in yeast endomembranes. The third is the inhibition of the CYP71D51v2 hydroxylation reaction by the products. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of nootkatone from β-nootkatol is not P450-dependent but catalyzed by a yeast component. Based on these data, we propose new strategies for implementation of a viable P450-based bioconversion process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioconversion of lutein by Enterobacter hormaechei to form a new compound, 8-methyl-α-ionone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guifang; Wang, Fangfang; Sun, Jianhong; Ye, Jianbin; Mao, Duobin; Ma, Ke; Yang, Xuepeng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the final product of the bioconversion of lutein by a novel lutein-degrading bacterium, Enterobacter hormaechei A20, and the kinetics of the process. A new product, 8-methyl-α-ionone, was resolved by GC-MS. The compound was further identified by NMR. A conversion yield of 90% was achieved by E. hormaechei in 36 h with 10 g lutein l -1 . This is the first report of the bioconversion of lutein to form 8-methyl-α-ionone. A degradation pathway is proposed.

  5. Employee Selection Process: Integrating Employee Needs and Employer Motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brian J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for managers relative to the employee selection process, focusing on the identification of a potential employee's needs and the employer's motivators that affect employee productivity. Discusses the use of a preemployment survey and offers a questionnaire that allows matching of the employee's needs with employment…

  6. Wastewaters from the bioconversion of biomass. Utilisation and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frings, R.M. (Forest Research Inst. (New Zealand)); Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Developed technology for the bioconversion of biomass into energy forms falls into two categories: biogasification and bioliquefaction. Biogasification is the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter by a mixed culture of organisms to produce a gaseous mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Bioliquefaction is the use of a pure culture of organisms (mainly yeasts) to anaerobically ferment sugars into a range of liquid products with acetone, butanol, and ethanol being the most commonly produced. Biological processes have the advantage of occurring at ambient, or relatively low (35-60[sup o]C) temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in dilute substrate, in an aqueous environment. Conversion of raw material to gas or liquid fuel is generally incomplete, leaving the non-convertible residues (organic or inorganic) in solution. Hence, biological processes potentially generate large volumes of wastewater containing significant levels of pollutants. This review briefly describes the two bioconversion process routes and then considers each process separately in relation to the characteristics, utilisation and treatment of the specific wastewaters produced by the process. (author)

  7. Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. ... and secondly to highlight some of the modern approaches which potentially could be used to tackle one of the major impediments, namely high enzyme cost, to speed-up the extensive commercialisation of the lignocellulose bioprocessing.

  8. Employer Brand Opens up for a Gender Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lundkvist

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of a long tradition of legislation, policymaking and practical achievements, the issues ofgender equality and of the segregated labor market still remain a matter of concern in Sweden. Thispaper describes a collaborative process between a research project and an engineering enterprise.It describes the point of departure, based on the concept of employer brand, of a long-term changeprocess and the different phases and activities during an intensive period 2009. The collaborationaimed to develop innovative methods, and to apply them in order to achieve increased genderawareness, and thereby to be able to retain and attract the best labor for tomorrow. Differentapproaches and methods as analogies, anecdotes, and pictures were used to nourish the process.Findings showed that the interactive process contributed to increased awareness. During the processthe enterprise became more conscious of the potential of being a gender equal employer

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODELING, AUTOMATION AND CONTROL OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF SORBITOL TO SORBOSE IN THE VITAMIN C PRODUCTION PROCESS I. MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonomi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, the Biotechnology and the Control Systems Groups of IPT started developing a system for the control and automation of fermentation processes, applied to the oxidation of sorbitol to sorbose by the bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans, the microbial step of the vitamin C production process, that was chosen as a case study. Initially, a thirteen-parameter model was fitted to represent the batch operation of the system utilizing a nonlinear regression analysis, the flexible polyhedron method. Based on these results, a model for the continuous process (with the same kinetic equations was constructed and its optimum operating point obtained

  10. Employing image processing techniques for cancer detection using microarray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  12. Design of a tailor‐made platform for syngas bioconversion into polyhydroxybutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Narancic, Tanja; O'Connor, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Biodegradable polymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) are part of the emerging portfolio of renewable materials, which are addressing the issue of plastic waste. Syngas, as a cheap, renewable and sustainable resource that can be obtained from biomass or waste, is viewed as an excellent feedstock for different bioprocesses, including syngas to PHB bioconversion. However, due to the hazardous nature of syngas, it is of utmost importance to consider safety aspects of the process. This...

  13. Bioconversion of R-(+)-limonene to perillic acid by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Almeida, Débora S.; Siani, Antonio C.; Lucchetti, Leonardo; Lacerda, Paulo S.B.; Freitas, André; Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Bon, Elba P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Perillyl derivatives are increasingly important due to their flavouring and antimicrobial properties as well as their potential as anticancer agents. These terpenoid species, which are present in limited amounts in plants, may be obtained via bioconversion of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons. In this study, seventeen yeast strains were screened for their ability to oxidize the exocyclic methyl group in the p-menthene moiety of limonene into perillic acid. Of the yeast tested, the highest efficiency was observed for Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 18942. The conversion of R (+)-limonene by Y. lipolytica was evaluated by varying the pH (3 to 8) and the temperature (25 to 30 °C) in a reaction medium containing 0.5% v/v limonene and 10 g/L of stationary phase cells (dry weight). The best results, corresponding to 564 mg/L of perillic acid, were obtained in buffered medium at pH 7.1 that was incubated at 25 °C for 48 h. The stepwise addition of limonene increased the perillic acid concentration by over 50%, reaching 855 mg/L, whereas the addition of glucose or surfactant to the reaction medium did not improve the bioconversion process. The use of Y. lipolytica showed promise for ease of further downstream processing, as perillic acid was the sole oxidised product of the bioconversion reaction. Moreover, bioprocesses using safe and easy to cultivate yeast cells have been favoured in industry. PMID:24688495

  14. Bioconversion of R-(+-limonene to perillic acid by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonieta Ferrara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perillyl derivatives are increasingly important due to their flavouring and antimicrobial properties as well as their potential as anticancer agents. These terpenoid species, which are present in limited amounts in plants, may be obtained via bioconversion of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons. In this study, seventeen yeast strains were screened for their ability to oxidize the exocyclic methyl group in the p-menthene moiety of limonene into perillic acid. Of the yeast tested, the highest efficiency was observed for Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 18942. The conversion of R (+-limonene by Y. lipolytica was evaluated by varying the pH (3 to 8 and the temperature (25 to 30 ºC in a reaction medium containing 0.5% v/v limonene and 10 gµL of stationary phase cells (dry weight. The best results, corresponding to 564 mgµL of perillic acid, were obtained in buffered medium at pH 7.1 that was incubated at 25 ºC for 48 h. The stepwise addition of limonene increased the perillic acid concentration by over 50%, reaching 855 mgµL, whereas the addition of glucose or surfactant to the reaction medium did not improve the bioconversion process. The use of Y. lipolytica showed promise for ease of further downstream processing, as perillic acid was the sole oxidised product of the bioconversion reaction. Moreover, bioprocesses using safe and easy to cultivate yeast cells have been favoured in industry.

  15. Fictitious employment contracts in loan recovery processes in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neilands R.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research how fictitious employmentcontracts are used and to propose a solution for the fictitious labour agreements issue. Methods of qualitative research were employed in the paper – comparative method, analytic method, inductive method, and deductive method.

  16. An Effective Method to Detect Volatile Intermediates Generated in the Bioconversion of Coal to Methane by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after In-Situ Extraction Using Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction under Strict Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Baoyu; Tai, Chao; Wu, Li; Zhao, Han; Guan, Jiadong; Chen, Linyong

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of coal to methane has gained increased attention in recent decades because of its economic and environmental advantages. However, the mechanism of this process is difficult to study in depth, partly because of difficulties associated with the analysis of intermediates generated in coal bioconversion. In this investigation, we report on an effective method to analyze volatile intermediates generated in the bioconversion of coal under strict anaerobic conditions. We conduct in-situ extraction of intermediates using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioconversion simulation equipment was modified and combined with a solid-phase micro-extraction device. In-situ extraction could be achieved by using the combined units, to avoid a breakdown in anaerobic conditions and to maintain the experiment continuity. More than 30 intermediates were identified qualitatively in the conversion process, and the variation in trends of some typical intermediates has been discussed. Volatile organic acids (C2-C7) were chosen for a quantitative study of the intermediates because of their importance during coal bioconversion to methane. Fiber coating, extraction time, and solution acidity were optimized in the solid-phase micro-extraction procedure. The pressure was enhanced during the bioconversion process to investigate the influence of headspace pressure on analyte extraction. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.0006 to 0.02 mmol/L for the volatile organic acids and the relative standard deviations were between 4.6% and 11.5%. The volatile organic acids (C2-C7) generated in the bioconversion process were 0.01-1.15 mmol/L with a recovery range from 80% to 105%. The developed method is useful for further in-depth research on the bioconversion of coal to methane.

  17. Integrated bioconversion of syngas into bioethanol and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa-Costa, Borja; Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Fernández-Romasanta, María; Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C

    2017-09-01

    Syngas bioconversion is a promising method for bioethanol production, but some VFA remains at the end of fermentation. A two-stage process was set-up, including syngas fermentation as first stage under strict anaerobic conditions using C. autoethanogenum as inoculum, with syngas (CO/CO 2 /H 2 /N 2 , 30/10/20/40) as gaseous substrate. The second stage consisted in various fed-batch assays using a highly enriched PHA accumulating biomass as inoculum, where the potential for biopolymer production from the remaining acetic acid at the end of the syngas fermentation was evaluated. All of the acetic acid was consumed and accumulated as biopolymer, while ethanol and 2,3-butanediol remained basically unused. It can be concluded that a high C/N ratio in the effluent from the syngas fermentation stage was responsible for non-consumption of alcohols. A maximum PHA content of 24% was reached at the end of the assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Optimization Employing Gaussian Process-Based Bayesian Surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Preuss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of complex physics models may lead to enormous computer running times. Since the simulations are expensive it is necessary to exploit the computational budget in the best possible manner. If for a few input parameter settings an output data set has been acquired, one could be interested in taking these data as a basis for finding an extremum and possibly an input parameter set for further computer simulations to determine it—a task which belongs to the realm of global optimization. Within the Bayesian framework we utilize Gaussian processes for the creation of a surrogate model function adjusted self-consistently via hyperparameters to represent the data. Although the probability distribution of the hyperparameters may be widely spread over phase space, we make the assumption that only the use of their expectation values is sufficient. While this shortcut facilitates a quickly accessible surrogate, it is somewhat justified by the fact that we are not interested in a full representation of the model by the surrogate but to reveal its maximum. To accomplish this the surrogate is fed to a utility function whose extremum determines the new parameter set for the next data point to obtain. Moreover, we propose to alternate between two utility functions—expected improvement and maximum variance—in order to avoid the drawbacks of each. Subsequent data points are drawn from the model function until the procedure either remains in the points found or the surrogate model does not change with the iteration. The procedure is applied to mock data in one and two dimensions in order to demonstrate proof of principle of the proposed approach.

  20. Can Rural Employment Benefit from Changing Labor Skills in U.S. Processed Food Trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Gerald; Lee, Chinkook

    2002-01-01

    The 1990s saw a gain in rural food-processing employment, particularly meat packing and poultry processing, as the industry's demand for low-skilled workers increased. Analysis links the change in worker skills to international trade. While increased rural employment may seem beneficial, the jobs often do not appeal to rural domestic workers, and…

  1. The effects on employment of the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Thomas

    An analysis of how the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector in Finland has affected the employment development in the telecommunications sector......An analysis of how the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector in Finland has affected the employment development in the telecommunications sector...

  2. Promotion of sustainable employability : Occupational health in the meat processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Breunis Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Due to rising retirement age, sustainable employability is gaining interest among employers. Such is the case in the meat processing industry. A strategy to address these challenges is health promotion at work. Therefore, the largest Dutch meat processing company has implemented a Workers’ Health

  3. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Major source of fuel in rural areas is still fire wood, cowdung and crop residues. Cowdung and crop residues can be effectively used as manure too. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure can solve the twin problems. The paper deals with various kinds of organic wastes used as fuel, manure and for both, other organic wastes as alternate and supplemental feedstocks, impact of their bioconversion on rural energy and environment, dry fermentation technology, manurial value of the biogas slurry, etc. Important constraints in popularizing the biogas programme have been mentioned and their remedial measures have also been suggested. (author). 32 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  4. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.

    2009-01-01

    -erythrulose. Experiments were performed using automated microwell studies at the 150 or 800 mu L scale. The derived kinetic parameters were then verified in a second round of experiments where model predictions showed excellent agreement with experimental data obtained under conditions not included in the original......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments....... These can be both time consuming and expensive when working with the types of non-natural chiral intermediates important in pharmaceutical syntheses. This paper presents ail automated microscale approach to the rapid and cost effective generation of reliable kinetic models useful for bioconversion process...

  5. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... foreign workers in agriculture (H-2A) employers seeking to temporarily employ foreign workers in logging..., employers seeking to temporarily employ foreign workers in logging operations are now governed by the... products, Fraud, Health professions, Immigration, Labor, Longshore and harbor work, Migrant workers...

  6. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  7. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  8. Bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by combined action of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ability of 10 fungi strains for the degradation of ferulic acid and production of vanillic acid was examined. The findings suggested that all the fungi were able to degrade ferulic acid via different pathways producing variety of products. Vanillic acid was the main bioconversion product for all the fungi strains. Aspergillus niger ...

  9. Processes of Middle-Class Reproduction in a Graduate Employment Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Sarah; Hutchings, Merryn; Maylor, Uvanney; Mendick, Heather; Menter, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Teach First is an educational charity that places graduates to teach in "challenging" schools for two years. It is marketed as an opportunity to develop employability while "making a difference". In this paper, I examine the process of class reproduction occurring in this graduate employment scheme through examining the…

  10. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel Subsistence Reimbursement, Including Lodging AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  11. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel Subsistence Reimbursement, Including Lodging AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  12. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel Subsistence Reimbursement, Including Lodging AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  13. Application of recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs +/ech +) for bioconversion of agrowaste to vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debkumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kaur, Baljinder; Wong, Jonathan Woon Chung; Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba

    2017-07-01

    Biotechnological production of vanillin is gaining momentum as the natural synthesis of vanillin that is very expensive. Ferulic acid (FA), a costly compound, is used as the substrate to produce vanillin biotechnologically and the making process is still expensive. Therefore, this study investigated the practical use of an agrobiomass waste, rice bran, and provides the first evidence of a cost-effective production of vanillin within 24 h of incubation using recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs + /ech + ). Introduction of two genes encoding feruloyl CoA synthetase and enoyl CoA hydratase into the native strain increased vanillin yield to 4.01 g L -1 . Bioconversion was monitored through the transformation of phenolic compounds. A hypothetical metabolic pathway of rice bran during the vanillin bioconversion was proposed with the inserted pathway from ferulic acid to vanillin and compared with that of other metabolic engineered strains. These results could be a gateway of using recombinant lactic acid bacteria for industrial production of vanillin from agricultural waste.

  14. Bioconversion of Airborne Methylamine by Immobilized Recombinant Amine Oxidase from the Thermotolerant Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines, including methylamine, are air-pollutants, due to their intensive use in industry and the natural degradation of proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in biological samples. It is necessary to develop systems for removal of methylamine from the air, since airborne methylamine has a negative effect on human health. The primary amine oxidase (primary amine : oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating or amine oxidase, AMO; EC 1.4.3.21, a copper-containing enzyme from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha which was overexpressed in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was tested for its ability to oxidize airborne methylamine. A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBR was designed to enable bioconversion of airborne methylamine by AMO immobilized in calcium alginate (CA beads. The results demonstrated that the bioreactor with immobilized AMO eliminates nearly 97% of the airborne methylamine. However, the enzymatic activity of AMO causes formation of formaldehyde. A two-step bioconversion process was therefore proposed. In the first step, airborne methylamine was fed into a CFBR which contained immobilized AMO. In the second step, the gas flow was passed through another CFBR, with alcohol oxidase from the yeast H. polymorpha immobilized in CA, in order to decompose the formaldehyde formed in the first step. The proposed system provided almost total elimination of the airborne methylamine and the formaldehyde.

  15. Modelling the bioconversion of cellulose into microbial products: rate limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenjo, J A

    1984-12-01

    The direct bioconversion of cellulose into microbial products carried out as a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has a strong effect on the rates of cellulose degradation because cellobiose and glucose inhibition of the reaction are circumvented. A general mathematical model of the kinetics of this bioconversion has been developed. Its use in representing aerobic systems and in the analysis of the kinetic limitations has been investigated. Simulations have been carried out to find the rate limiting steps in slow fermentations and in rapid ones as determined by the specific rate of product formation. The requirements for solubilising and depolymerising enzyme activities (cellulase and cellobiase) in these systems has been determined. The activity that have been obtained for fungal cellulases are adequate for the kinetic requirements of the fastest fermentative strains. The results also show that for simultaneous bioconversions where strong cellobiose and glucose inhibition is overcome, no additional cellobiase is necessary to increase the rate of product formation. These results are useful for the selection of cellolytic micro-organisms and in the determination of enzymes to be cloned in recombinant strains. 17 references.

  16. Employing the intelligence cycle process model within the Homeland Security Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The purpose of this thesis was to examine the employment and adherence of the intelligence cycle process model within the National Network of Fusion Centers and the greater Homeland Security Enterprise by exploring the customary intelligence cycle process model established by the United States Intelligence Community (USIC). This thesis revealed there are various intelligence cycle process models used by the USIC and taught to the National Network. Given the numerous differ...

  17. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stoilkovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the problem of the concept of equal employment opportunities in the HR recruitment and selection process. Due to the fact that in these processes, both the HR managers and the applicants are involved, this research is conducted separately among them. Thus, it will be determined if both sides share the same opinion with respect to the existence of this concept in the mentioned processes. Providing equal employment opportunities is crucial for any company and represents a key for selecting the real employees. Therefore, the research includes the existence of prejudices in the recruitment and selection process such as discrimination based on national and social origin, gender and sexual orientation, age, political affiliation etc. As an essential part of this concept, the legislation in the Republic of Macedonia and its impact in the process of generating equal opportunities will be considered.

  18. Opening the Learning Process: The Potential Role of Feature Film in Teaching Employment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of feature film to encourage more inclusive, participatory and open learning in the area of employment relations. Evaluations of student responses in a single postgraduate course over a five-year period revealed how feature film could encourage participatory learning processes in which students reexamined their…

  19. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Employment and...

  20. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Employment and...

  1. 78 FR 19019 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A Special Procedures; Correction and Rescission AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  2. 78 FR 1260 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A Special Procedures AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor...

  3. ATTITUDES OF THE CONSUMERS REGARDING THE PROCESSING AND EMPLOYMENT OF THEIR PERSONAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusescu Marius

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the specific personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations’ extended attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers’ personal data. Paper explores the attitudes of the consumers regarding their personal data in terms of their disclosure, previous agreement consumers should grant to the companies or public institutions (authorities processing them, employment, registration and processing by the companies, and buying products and/or services as a result of a direct approach.

  4. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals, and Maximum Travel Subsistence Reimbursement AGENCY...

  5. Optimising the anaerobic co-digestion of urban organic waste using dynamic bioconversion mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical anaerobic bioconversion models are often used as a convenient way to simulate the conversion of organic materials to biogas. The aim of the study was to apply a mathematical model for simulating the anaerobic co-digestion of various types of urban organic waste, in order to develop...... in a continuously stirred tank reactor. The model's outputs were validated with experimental results obtained in thermophilic conditions, with mixed sludge as a single substrate and urban organic waste as a co-substrate at hydraulic retention times of 30, 20, 15 and 10 days. The predicted performance parameter...... (methane productivity and yield) and operational parameter (concentration of ammonia and volatile fatty acid) values were reasonable and displayed good correlation and accuracy. The model was later applied to identify optimal scenarios for an urban organic waste co-digestion process. The simulation...

  6. An alternative approach to the bioconversion of sweet sorghum carbohydrates to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamma, D.; Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.; Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.; Koukios, E. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The ethanol fermentation of juice and press case, resulting from the squeezing of sweet sorghum stalks at high pressure was investigated. The juice was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and yielded 4.8 g ethanol per 100 g of fresh stalks. The press cake was fermented directly to ethanol by a mixed culture of Fusarium oxysporum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and yielded 5.1 g ethanol per 100 g of fresh stalks. An overall ethanol concentration and yield of 5.6% (w/v) and 9.9 g of ethanol per 100 g of fresh stalks respectively was obtained. Based on soluble carbohydrates, the ethanol yield from press cake was doubled while the overall theoretical yield was enhanced by 20.7% due to the bioconversion of a significant portion of cell wall polysaccharides to ethanol. The process was found promising for further investigation. (Author)

  7. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  8. The Process of Adapting the Employer Brand to Attract the Right Employees : A Case Study of How SEB Uses Employer Branding to Go Digital

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Tabea; Ferhatovic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Companies within the banking industry are facing the challenge to attract new competences in order to react to the forces of digitization. This paper examines how employer branding is used as a tool to achieve this through appealing to a broader target group. It also identifies problems that can arise in this process. We extend the theoretical knowledge on this topic by developing a theoretical framework, which combines corporate brand, employer branding, industry image and P-O fit literature...

  9. Improving the Timeliness of Equal Employment Opportunity Complaint Processing in Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    1964 (Title VII) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act amendment to Title VII, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimi- nation in Employment Act of...Act of 1964 (Title VII) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act amendment to Title VII, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimination in...EEO programs uti - lize training on the EEO complaint process and framing of claims and that they use more-structured investigation requests

  10. Optimization of Dimensional accuracy in plasma arc cutting process employing parametric modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Deepak kumar; Maity, K. P.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is a high temperature thermal cutting process employed for the cutting of extensively high strength material which are difficult to cut through any other manufacturing process. This process involves high energized plasma arc to cut any conducting material with better dimensional accuracy in lesser time. This research work presents the effect of process parameter on to the dimensional accuracy of PAC process. The input process parameters were selected as arc voltage, standoff distance and cutting speed. A rectangular plate of 304L stainless steel of 10 mm thickness was taken for the experiment as a workpiece. Stainless steel is very extensively used material in manufacturing industries. Linear dimension were measured following Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array design approach. Three levels were selected to conduct the experiment for each of the process parameter. In all experiments, clockwise cut direction was followed. The result obtained thorough measurement is further analyzed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Analysis of means (ANOM) were performed to evaluate the effect of each process parameter. ANOVA analysis reveals the effect of input process parameter upon leaner dimension in X axis. The results of the work shows that the optimal setting of process parameter values for the leaner dimension on the X axis. The result of the investigations clearly show that the specific range of input process parameter achieved the improved machinability.

  11. Proposal of Optimization of the Process of Credit Analysis to the Self-Employment Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Pereira-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the banking system transformation process in Cuba, from 2011 is provided the granting of credits to persons authorized to engage in self-employment and other forms of non-state management. These new types of credit must be subject to strict rules of risk, analysis by the banking institution, what has caused it to become a slow and complicated process. According to the situation described, an analysis of the credit granted to this segment is carried out at the Branch 8312 of the Popular Saving Bank, determining the main limitations and making proposals to improve this said process through the mapping process tool that Proposes the Microsave Methodology which reduce the response time to the requests of the clients and contribute to the provision of more efficient services. 

  12. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P...

  13. SMART BIOCONVERSION OF PELT WASTE FROM TANNERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAINESCU Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The area of interest is the synthesis and study of properties of new types of hydrogels made from pelt waste, in order to recover waste from tanneries. Leather processing in tanneries results in about 500-600 kg of pelt waste from a ton of raw hides. These hydrogels are made using smart processes in order to then be applied in agriculture, for preservation of water in the soil or for controlled release of fertilizers, pesticides but also for the development of additivated agricultural film biodegradable over time (between 1 month and 6 months. Hydrogels that are based on biopolymers, compared with hydrogels based on synthetic polymers, have the advantage of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and a low level of toxicity. The paper presents the production of biodegradable polymer mixtures obtained from hydrolysis and enrichment of the resulting hydrolysate with phosphorus and potassium. Hydrogels with collagenous structure are tested using a high-performance instrumental analysis system (FT-IR-ATR, UV-VIS-NIR, SEM, EDAX, etc. The paper presents an experimental model for obtaining hydrogels with collagenous structure from pelt waste resulting from the liming process.

  14. The bioconversion process of deoxypodophyllotoxin with Linum flavum cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Beekman, A.C; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro cell suspension culture of Linum flavum is able to convert high amounts of the 2,7'-cyclolignan deoxypodophyllotoxin into 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin 7-O-glucoside. We studied this conversion in detail by monitoring the intermediates and side-products after feeding different concentrations

  15. Bioconversion process of rice straw by thermotolerant cellulolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    state fermentation for bioethanol production is a focus of current attention. ... Optimization of fermentation conditions showed highest cellulolytic enzymes ... using dilute acid pretreated rice straw hydrolysate with initial soluble ...

  16. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L) of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L). The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement.

  17. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Salazar-Bryam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1 was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L. The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement. Keywords: Biotechnology, Microbiology

  18. Employing Young Talent from Underserved Populations: Designing a Flexible Organizational Process for Assimilation and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mark Langer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an ongoing 13-year-old program designed to improve the ability of organizations to assimilate young talent from underserved populations, mostly students who have recently graduated from high school. Although many firms have internship and orientation programs, few have well-tested organizational approaches for assimilating 17-20 year-olds into their organizations in an efficient and productive manner. The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate the solution introduced by Workforce Opportunity Services (WOS, a non-profit agency that provides organizations with well-trained talent from underserved local communities. The WOS model is a systemic design involving a lead agency (WOS, corporate clients, training partnerships with local colleges and universities, and underutilized human capital. Over 290 students have completed the WOS program and obtained long-term employment, mostly in IT jobs that normally are outsourced. The results of the study show that companies have success employing young talent when they follow the WOS organizational process. Companies need to have patience with WOS student employees, but within six months most members of the WOS program make positive contributions to their sponsoring firm and have a strong likelihood of becoming permanently employed. Implications of the WOS model for organization design are discussed.

  19. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population.

  20. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population. PMID:27493995

  1. 20 CFR 668.700 - What process must an INA grantee use to plan its employment and training services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... it uses to plan other activities and services. (b) However, in the process of preparing its Two Year... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What process must an INA grantee use to plan its employment and training services? 668.700 Section 668.700 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  2. Use of Aspergillus niger for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1983-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste material remaining after apple brandy distillation was investigated. Different cellulolytic fungi were tested for their ability to convert the waste organic substances into microbial biomass. An Aspergillus niger strain was chosen as the most convenient microorganism. By growing this mold on the apple slop the following results were obtained: filtration time was shortened by 30 times, reduction of the chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase in the range of 50-80% depending on the substrate dilution and a dry filter cake enriched with fungal biomass to about 12 g/l containing up to 22% raw proteins and certain amounts of cellulolytic enzymes in the filtrate. The influence of the initial pH, the salt addition and the dilution of the substrate were studied as well. 12 references.

  3. Bioconversion of chicken wastes to value-added products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Forgacs, T; Isbister, J [ARCTECH, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Increasing quantities of chicken waste concerns the poultry industry because of escalating disposal costs and the potential for environmental pollution. Biological conversion of these wastes to valuable products such as methane and/or chemical feed-stocks appears to be feasible. Biomethanation of chicken waste by a sewage sludge microbial consortium produced as much as 69 mol% methane in the gas phase. Acetic and propionic acids were the major acids produced during the bioconversion. Addition of chelating agents and other micro-nutrients enhanced methane production and shifted the ratios of intermediates accumulated. Preliminary data indicate that more than 60% of the chicken waste carbon was converted and that the nitrogen-rich residue may have potential as a soil additive. (author).

  4. Bioconversion Using Lactic Acid Bacteria: Ginsenosides, GABA, and Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-05-28

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as fermentation starters in vegetable and dairy products and influence the pH and flavors of foods. For many centuries, LAB have been used to manufacture fermented foods; therefore, they are generally regarded as safe. LAB produce various substances, such as lactic acid, β-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase, making them useful as fermentation starters. Existing functional substances have been assessed as fermentation substrates for better component bioavailability or other functions. Representative materials that were bioconverted using LAB have been reported and include minor ginsenosides, γ-aminobutyric acid, equol, aglycones, bioactive isoflavones, genistein, and daidzein, among others. Fermentation mainly involves polyphenol and polysaccharide substrates and is conducted using bacterial strains such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium sp. In this review, we summarize recent studies of bioconversion using LAB and discuss future directions for this field.

  5. Technologies for the bioconversion of methane into more valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, Sara; Muñoz, Raúl; Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez, Yadira; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Methane, with a global warming potential twenty five times higher than that of CO 2 is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted nowadays. Its bioconversion into microbial molecules with a high retail value in the industry offers a potential cost-efficient and environmentally friendly solution for mitigating anthropogenic diluted CH 4 -laden streams. Methane bio-refinery for the production of different compounds such as ectoine, feed proteins, biofuels, bioplastics and polysaccharides, apart from new bioproducts characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria, has been recently tested in discontinuous and continuous bioreactors with promising results. This review constitutes a critical discussion about the state-of-the-art of the potential and research niches of biotechnologies applied in a CH 4 biorefinery approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Position, Possession or Process? Understanding Objective and Subjective Employability during University-to-Work Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…

  7. Municipal solid waste processing and separation employing wet torrefaction for alternative fuel production and aluminum reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'min, Gea Fardias; Prawisudha, Pandji; Zaini, Ilman Nuran; Aziz, Muhammad; Pasek, Ari Darmawan

    2017-09-01

    This study employs wet torrefaction process (also known as hydrothermal) at low temperature. This process simultaneously acts as waste processing and separation of mixed waste, for subsequent utilization as an alternative fuel. The process is also applied for the delamination and separation of non-recyclable laminated aluminum waste into separable aluminum and plastic. A 2.5-L reactor was used to examine the wet torrefaction process at temperatures below 200°C. It was observed that the processed mixed waste was converted into two different products: a mushy organic part and a bulky plastic part. Using mechanical separation, the two products can be separated into a granular organic product and a plastic bulk for further treatment. TGA analysis showed that no changes in the plastic composition and no intrusion from plastic fraction to the organic fraction. It can be proclaimed that both fractions have been completely separated by wet torrefaction. The separated plastic fraction product obtained from the wet torrefaction treatment also contained relatively high calorific value (approximately 44MJ/kg), therefore, justifying its use as an alternative fuel. The non-recyclable plastic fraction of laminated aluminum was observed to be delaminated and separated from its aluminum counterpart at a temperature of 170°C using an additional acetic acid concentration of 3%, leaving less than 25% of the plastic content in the aluminum part. Plastic products from both samples had high calorific values of more than 30MJ/kg, which is sufficient to be converted and used as a fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Peter W.; Muth, Myron C.; Schilling, William F.; Rairden, III, John R.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  9. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  10. Engineering Ligninolytic Consortium for Bioconversion of Lignocelluloses to Ethanol and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Zohaib; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hou, Jialin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Cheng, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    Rising environmental concerns and recent global scenario of cleaner production and consumption are leading to the design of green industrial processes to produce alternative fuels and chemicals. Although bioethanol is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels yet its production from food and feed has received much negative criticism. The main objective of this study was to present the noteworthy potentialities of lignocellulosic biomass as an enormous and renewable biological resource. The particular focus was also given on engineering ligninolytic consortium for bioconversion of lignocelluloses to ethanol and chemicals on sustainable and environmentally basis. Herein, an effort has been made to extensively review, analyze and compile salient information related to the topic of interest. Several authentic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer, Bentham Science and other scientific databases were searched with utmost care, and inclusion/ exclusion criterion was adopted to appraise the quality of retrieved peer-reviewed research literature. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can largely satisfy the possible inconsistency of first-generation ethanol since it utilizes inedible lignocellulosic feedstocks, primarily sourced from agriculture and forestry wastes. Two major polysaccharides in lignocellulosic biomass namely, cellulose and hemicellulose constitute a complex lignocellulosic network by connecting with lignin, which is highly recalcitrant to depolymerization. Several attempts have been made to reduce the cost involved in the process through improving the pretreatment process. While, the ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF) including laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have appeared as versatile biocatalysts for delignification of several lignocellulosic residues. The first part of the review is mainly focused on engineering ligninolytic consortium

  11. Low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing silver nanowires as top electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Fushan, E-mail: fushanli@hotmail.com; Yang, Kaiyu; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All solution processed perovskite solar cells were realized with Ag nanowires. • ZnO nanoparticles were used as electron transport layer. • The solar cells showed a photovoltaic behavior with efficiency of 9.21%. • Device performance showed negligible difference between forward and reverse scan. - Abstract: In this paper, we reported a low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell employing silver nanowires as the top electrode and ZnO nanoparticles as the electron transport layer. The CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite was grown as the light absorber via two-step spin-coating technique. The as-fabricated perovskite solar cell exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.21% with short circuit current density of 19.75 mA cm{sup −2}, open circuit voltage of 1.02, and fill factor value of 0.457. The solar cell's performance showed negligible difference between the forward and reverse bias scan. This work paves a way for realizing low cost solution processable solar cells.

  12. The Role of Character in the Hiring Process: A Pilot Study Survey of College Seniors' Potential Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Proemmel, Elizabeth; McDivitt, Sarah; Evens, Jennifer; Gibbs, Lew

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 31 prospective employers (65% response rate) regarding their views on character as part of the employment selection process. The results showed character qualities superordinate, relative to skills that prospective employees bring to potential jobs. We discuss survey results in light of business educators' responsibility for helping…

  13. Self-Employment for People with Disabilities in the United States: A Recommended Process for Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Nancy; Seekins, Tom; Ipsen, Catherine; Colling, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    Recommends a research-based process for rehabilitation agencies assisting clients with self-employment. Steps include counselor-client dialog about self-employment, use of assessment tools and resources, education/training, development of a business plan, start-up funding from the agency and other sources, business start-up, and evaluation of…

  14. Dynamic bioconversion mathematical modelling and simulation of urban organic waste co-digestion in continuously stirred tank reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.

    of this study was to apply a dynamic mathematical model to simulate the co-digestion of different urban organic wastes (UOW). The modelling was based on experimental activities, during which two reactors (R1, R2) were operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 30, 20, 15, 10 days, in thermophilic conditions......The application of anaerobic digestion (AD) as process technology is increasing worldwide: the production of biogas, a versatile form of renewable energy, from biomass and organic waste materials allows mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the energy and transportation sectors while treating...... waste. However, the successful operation of AD processes is challenged by economic and technological issues. To overcome these barriers, mathematical modelling of the bioconversion process can provide support to develop strategies for controlling and optimizing the AD process. The objective...

  15. New approaches to improve a WCDMA SIR estimator by employing different post-processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnart Chaichoet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For effective control of transmission power in WCDMA mobile systems, a good estimate of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is needed. Conventionally, an adaptive SIR estimator employs a moving average (MA filter (Yoon et al., 2002 to encounter fading channel distortion. However, the resulting estimate seems to have high estimation error due to fluctuation in the channel variation. In this paper, an additional post-processing stage is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy by reducing the variation of the estimate. Four variations of post-processing stages, namely 1 a moving average (MA postfilter,2 an exponential moving average (EMA post-filter, 3 an IIR post-filter and 4 least-mean-squared (LMS adaptive post-filter, are proposed and their optimal performance in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE are then compared by simulation. The results show the best comparable performance when the MA and LMS post-filter are used. However, the MA post-filter requires a lookup table of filter order for optimal performance at different channel conditions, while the LMS post-filter can be used conveniently without a lookup table.

  16. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  17. Combinatorial pretreatment and fermentation optimization enabled a record yield on lignin bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Xie, Shangxian; Lin, Furong; Jin, Mingjie; Yuan, Joshua S

    2018-01-01

    Lignin valorization has recently been considered to be an essential process for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. Lignin represents a potential new feedstock for value-added products. Oleaginous bacteria such as Rhodococcus opacus can produce intracellular lipids from biodegradation of aromatic substrates. These lipids can be used for biofuel production, which can potentially replace petroleum-derived chemicals. However, the low reactivity of lignin produced from pretreatment and the underdeveloped fermentation technology hindered lignin bioconversion to lipids. In this study, combinatorial pretreatment with an optimized fermentation strategy was evaluated to improve lignin valorization into lipids using R. opacus PD630. As opposed to single pretreatment, combinatorial pretreatment produced a 12.8-75.6% higher lipid concentration in fermentation using lignin as the carbon source. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that combinatorial pretreatment released more aromatic monomers, which could be more readily utilized by lignin-degrading strains. Three detoxification strategies were used to remove potential inhibitors produced from pretreatment. After heating detoxification of the lignin stream, the lipid concentration further increased by 2.9-9.7%. Different fermentation strategies were evaluated in scale-up lipid fermentation using a 2.0-l fermenter. With laccase treatment of the lignin stream produced from combinatorial pretreatment, the highest cell dry weight and lipid concentration were 10.1 and 1.83 g/l, respectively, in fed-batch fermentation, with a total soluble substrate concentration of 40 g/l. The improvement of the lipid fermentation performance may have resulted from lignin depolymerization by the combinatorial pretreatment and laccase treatment, reduced inhibition effects by fed-batch fermentation, adequate oxygen supply, and an accurate pH control in the fermenter. Overall, these results demonstrate that combinatorial

  18. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  19. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P coffee was significantly (P market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  20. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  1. The Effects on Employment of the Liberalisation Process in the Telecommunications Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Wulff, Thomas

    An analysis of the effects of the policies of liberalisation and privatisation in the telecommunications field on the employment development in the telecommunications sector.......An analysis of the effects of the policies of liberalisation and privatisation in the telecommunications field on the employment development in the telecommunications sector....

  2. Direct bioconversion of brown algae into ethanol by thermophilic bacterium Defluviitalea phaphyphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Brown algae are promising feedstocks for biofuel production with inherent advantages of no structural lignin, high growth rate, and no competition for land and fresh water. However, it is difficult for one microorganism to convert all components of brown algae with different oxidoreduction potentials to ethanol. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 is the first characterized thermophilic bacterium capable of direct utilization of brown algae. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 can simultaneously utilize mannitol, glucose, and alginate to produce ethanol, and high ethanol yields of 0.47 g/g-mannitol, 0.44 g/g-glucose, and 0.3 g/g-alginate were obtained. A rational redox balance system under obligate anaerobic condition in fermenting brown algae was revealed in D. phaphyphila Alg1 through genome and redox analysis. The excess reducing equivalents produced from mannitol metabolism were equilibrated by oxidizing forces from alginate assimilation. Furthermore, D. phaphyphila Alg1 can directly utilize unpretreated kelp powder, and 10 g/L of ethanol was accumulated within 72 h with an ethanol yield of 0.25 g/g-kelp. Microscopic observation further demonstrated the deconstruction process of brown algae cell by D. phaphyphila Alg1. The integrated biomass deconstruction system of D. phaphyphila Alg1, as well as its high ethanol yield, provided us an excellent alternative for brown algae bioconversion at elevated temperature.

  3. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqi Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  4. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junqi; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Zengjie; Yang, Xianling; Wang, Na; Yu, Xiaoqi

    2017-02-10

    The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  5. Real-time monitoring of intracellular redox changes in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) for efficient bioconversion of methane to methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masahito; Tanaka, Yuya; Suzuki, Risa; Kimura, Kota; Tanaka, Kenya; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Ito, Hidehiro; Kato, Souichiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Hori, Katsutoshi; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel method for real-time monitoring of the intracellular redox states in a methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus, using Peredox as a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of the NADH:NAD + ratio. As expected, the fluorescence derived from the Peredox-expressing M. capsulatus transformant increased by supplementation of electron donor compounds (methane and formate), while it decreased by specifically inhibiting the methanol oxidation reaction. Electrochemical measurements confirmed that the Peredox fluorescence reliably represents the intracellular redox changes. This study is the first to construct a reliable redox-monitoring method for methanotrophs, which will facilitate to develop more efficient methane-to-methanol bioconversion processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research priorities in bioconversion of municipal solid waste to produce chemicals, liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [BABA Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    1988-09-01

    Areas for future research on the bioconversion of municipal solid wastes are highlighted in order to optimise the potential use of this resource to make chemical, liquid and gaseous fuels. Despite widespread research, a biological understanding of bioconversion technologies, including landfill gas, composting and anaerobic digestion, has yet to be established. Specifically, work on the development and growth of microorganisms in uncontrolled systems and the detailed biochemistry of purified strains needs to be undertaken. The microbial breakdown of xenobiotics to clean up polluted sites, and as an alternative to incineration of toxic organic wastes, is viewed as a desirable outcome of such an understanding. (UK)

  7. [Publicly employed physicians--war years and post-war judicial process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiøtz, A

    1995-12-10

    During the Second World War, publicly employed medical officers in Norway were given a role which disharmonized in many ways with the role they had before 9 April 1940. They had been employed on terms which included loyalty towards employer, colleagues and patients. After the outbreak of the war and for five years to come, loyalties were put to the test. At the same time their actual services became more demanding. Their daily work was complicated by various laws and regulations, and the political situation in general hindered personal and professional development and free communication between doctors and patients, and between colleagues. After the war the central medical administration was relentless and the sanctions against those who had supported the occupying powers were exceptionally hard. The author emphasizes the doctors' personal experiences during the war and the first postwar years. The most important sources are personal testimonies, as they come forth in public records, biographies and interviews.

  8. 29 CFR 1691.5 - Agency processing of complaints of employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... title VI, title IX, or the revenue sharing act; and (2) Determine whether EEOC may have jurisdiction over the complaint under title VII or the Equal Pay Act. (c) An agency shall transfer to EEOC a... discrimination. 1691.5 Section 1691.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT...

  9. 78 FR 69538 - Attestation Process for Employers Using F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... academic year as an F-1 nonimmigrant and was maintaining good academic standing at the educational... academic term; and (3) the employer provided an attestation to the Department of Labor and to the... drafting errors and ambiguities. J. Plain Language The Department drafted this rule in plain language. K...

  10. Studying Abroad as a Sorting Criterion in the Recruitment Process: A Field Experiment among German Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Knut

    2017-01-01

    As the experience of studying abroad can signal general and transnational human capital, it is considered to be increasingly important for professional careers, particularly in the context of economies' internationalization. However, studies using graduate surveys face problems of self-selection and studies on employers' opinions face problems of…

  11. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, van Berry J.; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  12. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  13. Keeping up to date : Incorporating social network sites and employer branding in recruitment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Malin; Ekström, Myran

    2016-01-01

    The use of social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook and LinkedIn, by both organizations and the Swedish population is increasing. Previous publications in this research field lack empirical reinforcement and the empirical research that has been published often suggest a connection between recruitment via SNSs and employer branding. However, this connection has not yet been elaborated on or explained by previous research. Furthermore, both these research fields lack the insight of empiric...

  14. Mortality among men employed between 1943 and 1947 at a uranium-processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.; Frome, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mortality is described in a cohort of 18,869 white males who were employed between 1943 and 1947 at a uranium conversion and enrichment plant in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Workers in certain departments (especially chemical workers) were exposed to high average air levels of uranium dust. Based on deaths reported in 1974 by the Social Security Administration (SSA) and using mortality rates for US white males, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various causes in the entire cohort were generally less than 1.00. After correction for unascertained deaths and missing death certificates, the SMR for lung cancer was 1.22 (95% confidence limits, 1.10 and 1.36). SMRs for various causes, including lung cancer, did not tend to be higher in 8,345 workers employed in areas where uranium dust was present or in 4,008 of these 8,345 workers employed for one year or longer at the plant. Other causes of particular interest (i.e., bone cancer, leukemia, diseases of respiratory and genitourinary systems) did not exhibit high SMRs. The suggestive finding of the authors was an increased number of lung cancer deaths in a group of chemical workers hired at greater than or equal to 45 years of age. Continued follow-up of the cohort is necessary for further evaluation of the long-term health effects of exposure to uranium

  15. Xanthobacter sp. C20 contains a novel bioconversion pathway for limonene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Keijzer, P.M.; Schaft, P.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Xanthobacter sp. C20 was isolated from sediment of the river Rhine using cyclohexane as sole source of carbon and energy. Xanthobacter sp. C20 converted both enantiomers of limonene quantitatively into limonene-8,9-epoxide, a not previously described bioconversion product of limonene. With

  16. Influence of Efforts of Employer and Employee on Return-to-Work Process and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Brouwer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on disability and RTW outcome has led to significant advances in understanding these outcomes, however, limited studies focus on measuring the RTW process. After a prolonged period of sickness absence, the assessment of the RTW process by investigating RTW Effort Sufficiency

  17. Influence of efforts of employer and employee on return-to-work process and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Brouwer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research on disability and RTW outcome has led to significant advances in understanding these outcomes, however, limited studies focus on measuring the RTW process. After a prolonged period of sickness absence, the assessment of the RTW process by investigating RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) is

  18. Automatic processing of gamma ray spectra employing classical and modified Fourier transform approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, S.S.; Madan, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes methods for automatic processing of gamma ray spectra acquired with HPGe detectors. The processing incorporated both classical and signal processing approach. The classical method was used for smoothing, detecting significant peaks, finding peak envelope limits and a proposed method of finding peak limits, peak significance index, full width at half maximum, detecting doublets for further analysis. To facilitate application of signal processing to nuclear spectra, Madan et al. gave a new classification of signals and identified nuclear spectra as Type II signals, mathematically formalized modified Fourier transform and pioneered its application to process doublet envelopes acquired with modern spectrometers. It was extended to facilitate routine analysis of the spectra. A facility for energy and efficiency calibration was also included. The results obtained by analyzing observed gamma-ray spectra using the above approach compared favourably with those obtained with SAMPO and also those derived from table of radioisotopes. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Bioconversion of isoeugenol to vanillin and vanillic acid using the resting cells of Trichosporon asahii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashengroph, Morahem; Amini, Jahanshir

    2017-12-01

    40 isoeugenol-tolerant yeasts were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples which in turn were collected from aromatic plants in different regions of Iran, and further tested for their ability to grow on a minimal medium containing isoeugenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Nine isolates which were able to grow on isoeugenol were examined for their ability to convert isoeugenol into vanillin under growing cell experiments. Of the tested yeasts, the highest conversion efficiency was observed in isolate MP24. The isolate was identified as Trichosporon asahii based on morphological, biochemical and molecular (ITS region) characters and tested to effectively convert isoeugenol into vanillin under resting cell system. A comparative analysis of thin layer chromatography (TLC), UV-Vis spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) verified that vanillin and vanillic acid are accumulated as two major metabolites using T. asahii strain MP24 resting cells. In the presence of 7.5 g/l of wet weight cells of the strain MP24 pre-grown on isoeugenol and harvested at the end of the exponential growth phase, the optimal concentration of vanillin reached 2.4 g/l with a molar conversion of 52.5% in the potassium phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 5.8) supplemented with 5 g/l of isoeugenol and 2% (v/v) N , N -dimethylformamide (DMF). The total concentration of vanillin and vanillic acid obtained from the bioconversion process was 4.2 g/l (total molar yield of 88.3%). Until now, no data has been published on the conversion of isoeugenol into vanillin by the strains of the genus Trichosporon .

  20. The prospects of cellulase-producing bacteria for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Miranda; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-07-29

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and abundant resource with great potential for bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. However, the biorefining process remains economically unfeasible due to a lack of biocatalysts that can overcome costly hurdles such as cooling from high temperature, pumping of oxygen/stirring, and, neutralization from acidic or basic pH. The extreme environmental resistance of bacteria permits screening and isolation of novel cellulases to help overcome these challenges. Rapid, efficient cellulase screening techniques, using cellulase assays and metagenomic libraries, are a must. Rare cellulases with activities on soluble and crystalline cellulose have been isolated from strains of Paenibacillus and Bacillus and shown to have high thermostability and/or activity over a wide pH spectrum. While novel cellulases from strains like Cellulomonas flavigena and Terendinibacter turnerae, produce multifunctional cellulases with broader substrate utilization. These enzymes offer a framework for enhancement of cellulases including: specific activity, thermalstability, or end-product inhibition. In addition, anaerobic bacteria like the clostridia offer potential due to species capable of producing compound multienzyme complexes called cellulosomes. Cellulosomes provide synergy and close proximity of enzymes to substrate, increasing activity towards crystalline cellulose. This has lead to the construction of designer cellulosomes enhanced for specific substrate activity. Furthermore, cellulosome-producing Clostridium thermocellum and its ability to ferment sugars to ethanol; its amenability to co-culture and, recent advances in genetic engineering, offer a promising future in biofuels. The exploitation of bacteria in the search for improved enzymes or strategies provides a means to upgrade feasibility for lignocellulosic biomass conversion, ultimately providing means to a 'greener' technology.

  1. A Transcription Scheme for Languages Employing the Arabic Script Motivated by Speech Processing Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganjavi, Shadi; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-01-01

    ... (The DARPA Babylon Program; Narayanan, 2003). In this paper, we discuss transcription systems needed for automated spoken language processing applications in Persian that uses the Arabic script for writing...

  2. Multi-beam backscatter image data processing techniques employed to EM 1002 system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.; Chakraborty, B.

    to compensate outer-beam backscatter strength data in such a way that the effect of angular backscatter strength is removed. In this work we have developed backscatter data processing techniques for EM1002 multi-beam system...

  3. Real time acquisition, processing, and archiving of Doublet III diagram data employing table driven software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.; Henline, P.; Gross, L.; McHarg, B.

    1979-11-01

    This paper describes the diagnostic data acquisition, processing and archiving computer system for the Doublet III fusion research device. This paper's emphasis is mainly on the software, but provides a description of the hardware configuration

  4. Biochar Preparation from Simulated Municipal Solid Waste Employing Low Temperature Carbonization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeprasert, C.; Leelachaikul, P.; Jangkobpattana, G.; Phumprasop, K.; Kiattiwat, T.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on carbonization process of simulated municipal solid waste (MSW). Simulated MSW consists of a representative of food residue (68%), plastic waste (20%), paper (8%), and textile (4%). Laboratory-scale carbonization was performed in this study using a vertical-type pyrolyzer varying carbonization temperature (300, 350, 400, and 450 °C) and heating rate (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min). Appearance of the biochar product was in black and the volume was significantly reduced. Low carbonization temperature (300 °C) might not completely decompose plastic materials in MSW. Results showed that the carbonization at the temperature of 400 °C with the heating rate of 5 °C/min was the optimal condition. The yield of biochar from the optimal process was 50.6% with the heating value of 26.85 MJ/kg. Energy input of the process was attributed to water evaporation and the decomposition of plastics and paper. Energy output of the process was highest at the optimal condition. Energy output and input ratio was around 1.3-1.7 showing the feasibility of the carbonization process in all heating rate condition.

  5. The Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    of policy diffusion of the EES learning processes as predicted in the model in section 4. Section 6 deals with the conflictual views on the size and character of the learning processes of the EES in recent studies and proposes a new methodological path to investigate the mutual learning processes based upon......The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 summarizes the recent debate in the political science literature on analytical approaches to learning, which has gradually developed in a direction of being less and less individualistic. Section 3 follows up on this development and introduces a social...... constructivist approach to learning that redefines learning as changes in language-constituted relations to others. In section 4 this argument is elaborated into a model for mutual learning. Section 5 contains a qualitative analysis of the organisation of the EES in practice with regard to the possibilities...

  6. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  7. Dynamic strain analysis of structures employing digital signal processing, storage and display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, P K; Misra, V M; Kumar, Surendra

    1975-01-01

    A multi-channel digital technique has been adopted for analysing wave patterns of stresses and strains in structures, particularly under dynamic conditions. This technique provides adequate signal to noise discrimination and high sensitivity for very small (few milli-volts) and slow varying signals (few Hz to 100 Hz.), and A-D conversion accompined by live display during the course of data gathering and computer compatible output. This system also provides fast response because of inherent 50 MHz digitising speed and a large dynamic range of 1024 discrete signal steps. The signals can be suitably fed to the A-D converter (50 MHz) or can be analysed employing frequency modulation techniques and time mode operation of the analyser. The data can be gathered in the field on cassette tapes and replayed in the laboratory for detailed analysis. This technique would provide a versatile system for dynamic analysis of structures under varying conditions. e.g. structures in nuclear power systems, such as testing of end fittings, calandria, vibration testing and measurements exploying pressure transducers.

  8. Dynamic strain analysis of structures employing digital signal processing, storage and display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, P.K.; Misra, V.M.; Kumar, Surendra

    1975-01-01

    A multi-channel digital technique has been adopted for analysing wave patterns of stresses and strains in structures, particularly under dynamic conditions. This technique provides adequate signal to noise discrimination and high sensitivity for very small (few milli-volts) and slow varying signals (few Hz to 100 Hz.), A-D conversion accompined by live display during the course of data gathering and computer compatible output. This system also provides fast response because of inherent 50 MHz digitising speed and a large dynamic range of 1024 discrete signal steps. The signals can be suitably fed to the A-D converter (50 MHz) or can be analysed employing frequency modulation techniques and time mode operation of the analyser. The data can be gathered in the field on cassette tapes and replayed in the laboratory for detailed analysis. This technique would provide a versatile system for dynamic analysis of structures under varying conditions. e.g. structures in nuclear power systems, such as testing of end fittings, calandria, vibration testing and measurements exploying pressure transducers. (author)

  9. A Soft Tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing for injection molding of a 3D component with micro pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Pedersen, David Bue; Segebrecht Gøtje, Asger

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the capability of a soft tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing (AM) for preproduction of an insert with micro features by injection molding. The Soft Tooling insert was manufactured in a high temperature...... photopolymer by Digital Light Processing (vat photopolymerization). The mold cavity was formed by two insert halves, by design; both inserts have four angled tines, with micro holes (Ø200 μm, 200 μm deep) on the surface. Injection molding with polyethylene was used with the soft tool inserts to manufacture...

  10. Small Employer Decision-Making with Australia's New Apprenticeship System: Process-Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Bruce; Chappell, Clive

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative study examined 18 small and medium-sized business owners' decision to adopt or reject Australia's new apprenticeship system. Participation was based on three interconnected processes: psychological commitment, financial justification, and operational choice. Contextual elements in the internal and external environment influenced…

  11. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-01-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  12. Processing of gamma-ray spectra employing a Fourier deconvolver for the analysis of complex spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Rattan, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    Processing of a nuclear spectrum e.g. gamma ray spectrum is concerned with the estimation of energies and intensities of radiation. The processing involves filtering, peak detection and its significance, baseline delineation, the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of singlets and multiplets present in the spectrum. The methodology for the analysis of singlets is well established. However, the analysis of multiplets provides a challenge and is a extremely difficult problem. This report incorporates a Fourier deconvolver for the quantitative analysis of doublets separated by more than a full width at half maximum. The method is easy to implement. The report discusses the methodology, mathematical analysis, and the results obtained by analyzing both synthetic and observed spectra. A computer program, developed for the analysis of a nuclear spectrum, was verified by analyzing a 152 Eu gamma ray spectrum. The proposed technique compared favourably with SAMPO and MDFT method. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  13. ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF OLDER WORKERS AND THE PROCESSES OF MAINTAINING, EXTENDING AND LEAVING EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-María Alcover

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three objectives: firstly, we offer a synthesis of the recent results regarding the psychosocial and organizational factors involved in early retirement processes, especially in the case of early retirement in Spain. Secondly, we provide an analysis of the need to redefine retirement in the Spanish context, specifically by implementing “bridge employment“ modalities. And lastly, we identify future lines of research and we indicate the practical implications for workers, organizations and societies as a whole.

  14. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYING IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT ON ENHANCING SPATIAL PERCEPTION WITHIN DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Taisser Abu Alatta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments in Information Technology (IT and digital media have introduced new opportunities to design studio and new dimensions to design and architecture. The current research studies how the immersion of Virtual Reality (VR in architectural design studio affects spatial perception through the design process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using such environments on changing the way how to design for human experience: how it will improve students' spatial understanding of Three Dimensions (3D volumes, and how it will enhance their imagination, enrich their creativity and promote their ability to experience their design's sensations. This study hypothesizes that using an immersive virtual environment in design studio will empower students' imaginations and give them the ability to understand and experience their ideas. It will give them the opportunity to check their design's validity with greater 3D exploration, understanding and comprehension of spatial volumes.  Within a framework of an experimental design research, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate what had been assumed.  The research used teaching, monitoring, explanatory observation and evaluation methods. The results showed that VR can not only enhance spatial perception and improve the design, but also it can affect the design process and make changes in the architectural design way of thinking. It can help designers to incorporate human experience within the design process.

  15. Determination of risk identification process employed by NHS for a PFI hospital project in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Mohamed Ghazali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term concession contracts associated with Private Finance Initiative (PFI projects, such as National Health Service (NHS hospitals, are subject to substantial risks, which may not only emerge from project activities such as design and construction, but also from global issues beyond the control of project parties, such as commercial, legal and political risks. Therefore, the principal parties involved must manage risks effectively and efficiently, as early as the project initiation stage, in order to ensure a successful delivery. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk identification process of the NHS PFI hospital in the UK, as a case study, in order to determine the techniques used in risk identification, and their significance, based on estimated probabilities of occurrence. These objectives were achieved through interviews with key personnel within the NHS Trust involved. Results found the sole technique used in risk identification to be brainstorming, through which more than thirty risks were identified and classified under six risk categories: planning, pre-commissioning, design, land purchasing, construction and operation. Thirteen risks were identified as significant based on their estimated probability of occurrence had the project been developed via public procurement. The results of this research will enable public sector clients like the NHS Trust to not only identify the significant risks, which will allow them to focus more attention on developing appropriate mitigation strategies and contingency plans, but also to improve its risk identification process through the use of other techniques in order to support findings from the brainstorming process.

  16. Multidisciplinary research program directed toward utilization of solar energy through bioconversion of renewable resources. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W. R.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported in four research areas of solar bioconversion. The first program deals with the genetic selection of superior trees, physiological basis of vigor, tissue culture, haploid cell lines, and somatic hybridization. The second deals with the physiology of paraquat-induced oleoresin biogenesis. Separate abstracts were prepared for the other two program areas: biochemical basis of paraquat-induced oleoresin production in pines and biochemistry of methanogenesis. (JSR)

  17. Silicon dioxide etching process for fabrication of micro-optics employing pulse-modulated electron-beam-excited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Keigo; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Hori, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    Silicon dioxide etching process employing a pulse-modulated electron-beam-excited plasma (EBEP) has been developed for a fabrication process of optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMSs). Nonplanar dielectric materials were etched by using self-bias induced by the electron beam generating the plasma. In order to investigate the effect of pulse modulation on electron beam, plasma diagnostics were carried out in the EBEP employing C 4 F 8 gas diluted with Ar gas by using a Langmuir single probe and time resolved optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that the pulse-modulated EBEP has an excellent potential to reduce the plasma-induced thermal damage on a photoresist film on a substrate to get the uniform etching and the anisotropic SiO 2 etching in comparison with the conventional EBEP. The pulse-modulated EBEP enabled us to get the high etch rate of SiO 2 of 375 nm/min without any additional bias power supply. Furthermore, the microfabrication on the core area of optical fiber was realized. These results indicate that the pulse-modulated EBEP will be a powerful tool for the application to optical MEMS process

  18. Bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated sorghum bagasse to ethanol by Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Gkounta, Olga; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zografou (Greece). Biotechnology Lab.

    2012-07-15

    Bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SB), the lignocellulosic solid residue obtained after extraction of sugars from sorghum stalks, can further improve the energy yield of the crop. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a cost-efficient bioconversion of SB to ethanol at high solids loadings (16 % at pretreatment and 8 % at fermentation), low cellulase activities (1-7 FPU/g SB) and co-fermentation of hexoses and pentoses. The fungus Neurospora crassa DSM 1129 was used, which exhibits both depolymerase and co-fermentative ability, as well as mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A dilute-acid pretreatment (sulfuric acid 2 g/100 g SB; 210 C; 10 min) was implemented, with high hemicellulose decomposition and low inhibitor formation. The bioconversion efficiency of N. crassa was superior to S. cerevisiae, while their mixed cultures had negative effect on ethanol production. Supplementing the in situ produced N. crassa cellulolytic system (1.0 FPU/g SB) with commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase mixture at low activity (6.0 FPU/g SB) increased ethanol production to 27.6 g/l or 84.7 % of theoretical yield (based on SB cellulose and hemicellulose sugar content). The combined dilute-acid pretreatment and bioconversion led to maximum cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis 73.3 % and 89.6 %, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated sorghum bagasse to ethanol by Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Gkounta, Olga; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2012-07-01

    Bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SB), the lignocellulosic solid residue obtained after extraction of sugars from sorghum stalks, can further improve the energy yield of the crop. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a cost-efficient bioconversion of SB to ethanol at high solids loadings (16 % at pretreatment and 8 % at fermentation), low cellulase activities (1-7 FPU/g SB) and co-fermentation of hexoses and pentoses. The fungus Neurospora crassa DSM 1129 was used, which exhibits both depolymerase and co-fermentative ability, as well as mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A dilute-acid pretreatment (sulfuric acid 2 g/100 g SB; 210 °C; 10 min) was implemented, with high hemicellulose decomposition and low inhibitor formation. The bioconversion efficiency of N. crassa was superior to S. cerevisiae, while their mixed cultures had negative effect on ethanol production. Supplementing the in situ produced N. crassa cellulolytic system (1.0 FPU/g SB) with commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase mixture at low activity (6.0 FPU/g SB) increased ethanol production to 27.6 g/l or 84.7 % of theoretical yield (based on SB cellulose and hemicellulose sugar content). The combined dilute-acid pretreatment and bioconversion led to maximum cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis 73.3 % and 89.6 %, respectively.

  20. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address two normative and interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC): First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes of the European Employment Strategy (EES......)? Second, how should mutual learning processes be diffused among the Member States in order to be efficient? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on the literature and participatory observations, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors. At the end of the paper a path for empirical...

  1. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2018-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  2. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on creation of high-efficiency renewable resources, and bioconversion technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabi ni bioconversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey was made on material production technology using creation technology of high-efficiency renewable resources (photosynthesis reaction of plants). Industrially usable plant resources in overseas countries and Japan were arranged, and plant resources unused for food were also surveyed. The present state of genetic engineering necessary for metabolic engineering of higher plants such as fit and high-expression technology of genes, plant cell cultivation, and control technology of plant cell multiplication is described, and elementary technologies required for future gene-recombined plants are predicted. Survey was also made on the trend of creation technology of industrial plants for fat and oil, biodegradable polyester, amino acid, cellulose, fiber (cotton) and forest wood. A patent list on plant biotechnology was prepared, and study on bioconversion of plant resources was also surveyed. Overseas R & D trends on conversion and effective use technologies of renewable bio- resources are reported, and process design and its profitability were evaluated through a case study. 414 refs., 87 figs., 55 tabs.

  3. Preliminary analysis of projected construction employment effects of building the defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garey, R.B.; Blair, L.M.; Craig, R.L.; Stevenson, W.

    1981-09-01

    This study estimates the probable effects of constructing the DWPF on the surrounding labor markets. Analyses are based on data from the local and regional labor markets, information from experts on local construction activities, information on the labor requirements of the Vogtle Power Plant (two nuclear reactors) being built by Georgia Power Company in Burke County, Georgia, and an econometric model of the construction labor market, based on several surveys of workers building three Tennessee Valley Authority nuclear power plants. The results of this study are reported in three parts. In Part I, completed in May 1980, we describe the 1979 (base year) employment levels within the local and regional labor markets surrounding SRP, from which most DWPF construction workers are likely to be drawn. In Part II, completed in June 1980, we define the four local sources of construction employment that will compete for craftsmen when DWPF is built. Also in Part II, most of the projected impacts of the DWPF reference immobilization alternative (one of several alternatives that may be chosen) are reported. Several construction schedules and labor demand scenarios for the reference alternative are considered. In Part III, completed in January 1981, most of the estimated impacts of the DWPF alternative referred to as the staged process alternative are reported. Several construction schedules and labor demand scenarios for this alternative are considered

  4. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products | Awg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value added products. DS Awg-Adeni, S Abd-Aziz, K Bujang, MA Hassan ... sago processing mills. This review focuses on the developments in processes and products for the value addition of sago residues through biotechnological means.

  5. Utilization of fruit peels as carbon source for white rot fungi biomass production under submerged state bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunnisola Kola Saheed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of nutrient rich waste streams within the food and hospitality industry is inevitable and remained a matter of concern to stakeholders. Three white rot fungal strains were cultivated under submerged state bioconversion (SmB. Fermentable sugar conversion efficiency, biomass production and substrate utilization constant were indicators used to measure the success of the process. The substrates – banana peel (Bp, pineapple peel (PAp and papaya peel (Pp were prepared in wet and dried forms as substrates. Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium, Panus tigrinus M609RQY, and RO209RQY were cultivated on sole fruit wastes and their composites. All fungal strains produced profound biomass on dry sole wet substrates, but wet composite substrates gave improved results. P. tigrinus RO209RQY was the most efficient in sugar conversion (99.6% on sole substrates while P. tigrinus M609RQY was efficient on composite substrates. Elevated substrate utilization constant (Ku and biomass production heralded wet composite substrates. P. chrysosporium was the most performing fungal strain for biomass production, while PApBp was the best composite substrate.

  6. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Nan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Compound K (CK, a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO4 without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C–50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1 → Rd → F2 → CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  7. 77 FR 12723 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States; Announcement of Non- Material... reasons in great detail in the preamble of the ``Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the... set the AEWR. See ``Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Modernizing...

  8. Bioconversion of cellulose into electrical energy in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid

    .5, 53 and 47 mWm-2, respectively. The anode potential varied under the different circuit loads employed. Higher coulombic efficiencies were achieved in MFCs with lower external resistance. The effect of different external resistances on the bacterial diversity and metabolism in cellulose-fed MFCs was investigated as the fourth objective. DGGE analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes showed clear differences between the planktonic and the anode-attached populations at various external resistances. Cellulose degradation was complete (anaerobic degradation of cellulose was accompanied by production of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, and lactic acids, with acetic acid being predominant. The profile of metabolites was different among the MFCs. The concentrations of SCFA were higher in MFCs with larger external resistance. High levels of SCFA indicated that fermentative metabolism dominated over anaerobic respiration, resulting in relatively low coulombic efficiencies. The accumulation of SCFA at higher circuit resistances corresponded to lower power outputs. Methanogenesis shifts the flow of electrons available from the substrate away from electricity generation in MFCs. The fifth objective of this research was to assess the influence of methane formation on the performance of cellulose-fed MFCs under long-term operation. A maximum volumetric power density of 3.5 W m-3 was achieved in R20O MFCs, which was three times greater than that obtained with R100O MFCs (1.03 W m-3). The diversity of methanogens in cellulose-fed MFCs was also characterized. It was shown that the suppression of methanogenesis was accompanied by a decrease in the diversity of methanogens and changes in the concentration of SCFA, as revealed by DGGE analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and HPLC analysis, respectively. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene Sequences indicated that the most predominant methanogens were related to the family Methanobacteriaceae . The results

  9. Bioconversion of D-psicose to D-tagatose and D-talitol by Mucoraceae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazutoshi; Shinohara, Yoshihiro; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Izumori, Ken

    2006-03-01

    Rhizopus oryzae MYA-2483, which cannot utilize D-psicose as a sole source of carbon, converted D-psicose to two other compounds. These compounds were identified by NMR and IR as D-tagatose and D-talitol. In this study, we describe for the first time the bioconversion of D-psicose to D-tagatose. Various strains of Mucoraceae fungi, to which R. oryzae MYA-2483 belongs, exhibited conversion activity similar to that of R. oryzae MYA-2483. There is the possibility that a considerable number of fungi belonging to Mucoraceae possess such D-psicose conversion activity.

  10. Xanthobacter sp. C20 contains a novel bioconversion pathway for limonene

    OpenAIRE

    Werf, M.J. van der; Keijzer, P.M.; Schaft, P.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Xanthobacter sp. C20 was isolated from sediment of the river Rhine using cyclohexane as sole source of carbon and energy. Xanthobacter sp. C20 converted both enantiomers of limonene quantitatively into limonene-8,9-epoxide, a not previously described bioconversion product of limonene. With (4R)-limonene, (4R,8R)-limonene-8,9-epoxide was formed as the only reaction product, while (4S)-limonene was converted into a (78:22) mixture of (4S,8R)- and (4S,8S)-limonene-8,9-epoxide. Cytochrome P-450 w...

  11. Enantioselectivity of the bioconversion of chiral citronellal during the inhibition of wheat seeds germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Andrea; Fischer, Ravit; Larkov, Olga; Dudai, Nativ

    2014-03-01

    Citronellal is one of the most prominent monoterpenes present in many essential oils. Low persistence of essential oils as bioherbicides has often been addressed because of the high volatility of these compounds. Bioconversion of citronellal by wheat seeds releases less aggressive and injurious compounds as demonstrated by their diminished germination. We demonstrated that optically pure citronellal enantiomers were reduced to optically pure citronellol enantiomers with retention of the configuration both in isolated wheat embryos and endosperms. Our findings reveal the potential of essential oils as allelopathic agents providing an insight into their mechanism of action and persistence. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... In Sarawak, East Malaysia, agro-residues from sago starch processing industries are ... conversion to animal food or fuel ethanol (Species. Profiles for Pacific Island ..... serious contamination of the rivers. Based on study by.

  13. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to xylitol: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswar Rao, Linga; Goli, Jyosthna Khanna; Gentela, Jahnavi; Koti, Sravanthi

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes include agricultural and forest residues which are most promising alternative energy sources and serve as potential low cost raw materials that can be exploited to produce xylitol. The strong physical and chemical construction of lignocelluloses is a major constraint for the recovery of xylose. The large scale production of xylitol is attained by nickel catalyzed chemical process that is based on xylose hydrogenation, that requires purified xylose as raw substrate and the process requires high temperature and pressure that remains to be cost intensive and energy consuming. Therefore, there is a necessity to develop an integrated process for biotechnological conversion of lignocelluloses to xylitol and make the process economical. The present review confers about the pretreatment strategies that facilitate cellulose and hemicellulose acquiescent for hydrolysis. There is also an emphasis on various detoxification and fermentation methodologies including genetic engineering strategies for the efficient conversion of xylose to xylitol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Home Station to Theater Employment Readiness for the United States Army Reserve and the Defense Distribution Process Owner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollard, David T

    2008-01-01

    .... Guaranteeing our national security in this environment requires a full-spectrum modernized force -- one that is responsive, agile, easily deployed, and sustainable over long distances when employed...

  15. Changes in the Anti-Allergic Activities of Sesame by Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is an important oilseed crop, which has been used as a traditional health food to ameliorate the prevention of various diseases. We evaluated the changes in the anti-allergic activities of sesame by bioconversion. SDS-PAGE of non-fermented sesame proteins showed major allergen bands, while that of fermented sesame showed only a few protein bands. Additionally, we investigated the effectiveness of fermented sesame by bioconversion in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. In HaCaT cells, fermented sesame inhibited the mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β, thymus and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22, activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Moreover, fermented sesame inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1. Fermented sesame exerts anti-allergic effects by suppressing the expression of chemokines and cytokines via blockade of NF-κB and STAT1 activation.

  16. Characterization of hydrocortisone bioconversion and 16S RNA gene in Synechococcus nidulans cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoul-Amini, S; Ghasemi, Y; Morowvat, M H; Ghoshoon, M B; Raee, M J; Mosavi-Azam, S B; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Nouri, F; Parvizi, R; Negintaji, N; Khoubani, S

    2010-01-01

    A unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus nidulans (Pringsheim) Komárek, was isolated from paddy-fields and applied in the biotransformation experiment of hydrocortisone (1). This strain has not been previously tested for steroid bioconversion. Fermentation was carried out in BG-11 medium supplemented with 0.05% substrate at 25 degrees C for 14 days of incubation. The obtained products were chromatographically purified followed by their characterization using spectroscopic methods. 11beta,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (2), 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3,17-dione (3), and androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (4) were the main bioproducts in the hydrocortisone bioconversion. The observed bioreaction characteristics were the side chain degradation of the substrate to prepare compounds (2) and (3) following the 11beta-dehydroxylation for accumulation of the compound (4). Time course study showed the accumulation of the product (2) from the second day of the fermentation and compounds (3) and (4) from the third day. All the metabolites reached their maximum concentration in seven days. Cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene was also amplified by PCR. Sequences were amplified using the universal prokaryotic primers which amplify a approximately 400-bp region of the 16S rRNA gene. PCR products were sequenced to confirm their authenticity as 16S rRNA gene of cyanobacteria. The result of PCR blasted with other sequenced cyanobacteria in NCBI showed 99% identity to the 16S small subunit rRNA of seven Synechococcus species.

  17. Bioconversion of Agave tequilana fructans by exo-inulinases from indigenous Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010 enhances ethanol production from raw Agave tequilana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitrón, Carlos; Pérez, Rosalba; Gutiérrez, Luís; Lappe, Patricia; Petrosyan, Pavel; Villegas, Jesús; Aguilar, Cecilia; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Blancas, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Agave tequilana fructans are the source of fermentable sugars for the production of tequila. Fructans are processed by acid hydrolysis or by cooking in ovens at high temperature. Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered an alternative for the bioconversion of fructans. We previously described the isolation of Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010, an indigenous strain that produces extracellular inulinases. Here we evaluated the potential application of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases for the bioconversion of A. tequilana fructans, and its impact on the production of ethanol. Inulinases were analyzed by Western blotting and thin layer chromatography. Optimal pH and temperature conditions for inulinase activity were determined. The efficiency of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases was compared with commercial enzymes and with acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysates obtained were subsequently fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine the efficiency of ethanol production. Results indicate that A. niger CH-A-2010 predominantly produces an exo-inulinase activity. Optimal inulinase activity occurred at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. Hydrolysis of raw agave juice by CH-A-2010 inulinases yielded 33.5 g/l reducing sugars, compared with 27.3 g/l by Fructozyme(®) (Novozymes Corp, Bagsværd, Denmark) and 29.4 g/l by acid hydrolysis. After fermentation of hydrolysates, we observed that the conversion efficiency of sugars into ethanol was 97.5 % of the theoretical ethanol yield for enzymatically degraded agave juice, compared to 83.8 % for acid-hydrolyzed juice. These observations indicate that fructans from raw Agave tequilana juice can be efficiently hydrolyzed by using A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases, and that this procedure impacts positively on the production of ethanol.

  18. Renewable biofuels bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial community

    CERN Document Server

    Rana, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a complete introduction for novices to understand key concepts of biocatalysis and how to produce in-house enzymes that can be used for low-cost biofuels production. The authors discuss the challenges involved in the commercialization of the biofuel industry, given the expense of commercial enzymes used for lignocellulose conversion. They describe the limitations in the process, such as complexity of lignocellulose structure, different microbial communities’ actions and interactions for degrading the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic materials, hydrolysis mechanism and potential for bio refinery. Readers will gain understanding of the key concepts of microbial catalysis of lignocellulosic biomass, process complexities and selection of microbes for catalysis or genetic engineering to improve the production of bioethanol or biofuel.

  19. Microbial community structures in algae cultivation ponds for bioconversion of agricultural wastes from livestock industry for feed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamics of seasonal microbial community compositions in algae cultivation ponds are complex. There is very limited knowledge on community compositions that may play significant roles in the bioconversion of manure nu¬trients to animal feed. Algae production is an alternative where land area for pro...

  20. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...

  1. Photoproduction of hydrogen - A potential system of solar energy bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, V S.R.

    1979-10-01

    The photoproduction of hydrogen from water utilizing the photosynthetic capacity of green plants is discussed as a possible means of solar energy conversion. Advantages of the biological production of H/sub 2/ over various physical and chemical processes are pointed out, and the system used for the production of hydrogen by biological agents, which comprises the photosynthetic electron transport chain, ferredoxin and hydrogenase, is examined in detail. The various types of biological hydrogen production systems in bacteria, algae, symbiotic systems and isolated chloroplast-ferredoxin-hydrogenase systems are reviewed. The limitations and the scope for further improvement of the promising symbiotic Azolli-Anabena azollae and chloroplast-ferredoxin-hydrogenase are discussed, and it is concluded that future research should concern itself with the identification of the environmental conditions that would maximize solar energy conversion efficiency, the elimination of the oxygen inhibition of biological hydrogen production, and the definition of the metabolic state for the maximal production of hydrogen.

  2. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF, coconut coir fiber (CCF, pineapple peel (PP, pineapple crown leaves (PCL, kenaf bast fiber (KBF, and kenaf core fiber (KCF, as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol and alkaline treatment (NaOH, to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The finding showed that the highest amount of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid was produced from CCF and PP, respectively. This study also found that organosolv treatment was the superior method for phenolic compound extraction, whereas alkaline treatment was the selective method for lignin extraction. Vanillic acid production by Aspergillus niger I-1472 was only observed when the fermentation broth was fed with liquors from PP and PCL, possibly due to the higher levels of ferulic acid in those samples.

  3. Bioconversion of (+)-valencene in submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Krings, Ulrich; Nanzad, Tsevegsuren; Berger, Ralf G

    2005-06-01

    Submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum oxidised the exogenous sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to nootkatone via the stereoselective generation of alpha-nootkatol. Inhibition experiments suggested that the first introduction of oxygen, the rate-limiting step of the bioconversion, may have been catalysed by a cytochrome-P450-monooxygenase. However, nootkatone was not the final metabolite: further flavour-active and inactive, non-volatile oxidation products were identified. (+)-Valencene and the flavour-active mono-oxyfunctionalised transformation products, alpha-nootkatol, nootkatone, and valencene-11,12-epoxide accumulated preferably inside the fungal cells. Di- and poly-oxygenated products, such as nootkatone-11,12-epoxide, were found solely in the culture medium, indicating an active transport of these metabolites into the extracellular compartment during (+)-valencene detoxification. These metabolic properties may have contributed to the high tolerance of the fungus towards the exogenous hydrocarbon.

  4. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediating between Career Calling and Perceived Employability and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praskova, Anna; Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    We tested a cross-sectional, mediation model of career calling, in which career calling was associated positively with life satisfaction and perceptions of future employability, and these relationships were explained by the self-regulatory mechanisms of work effort, career strategies, and emotional regulation. Using a sample of 664 emerging adults…

  5. Characterization of hemicellulase and cellulase from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor owensensis and their potential application for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Qiao, Weibo; Mi, Shuofu; Jia, Xiaojing; Su, Hong; Han, Yejun

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment is currently the common approach for improving the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis on lignocellulose. However, the pretreatment process is expensive and will produce inhibitors such as furan derivatives and phenol derivatives. If the lignocellulosic biomass can efficiently be saccharified by enzymolysis without pretreatment, the bioconversion process would be simplified. The genus Caldicellulosiruptor, an obligatory anaerobic and extreme thermophile can produce a diverse set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) for deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. It gives potential opportunities for improving the efficiency of converting native lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Both of the extracellular (extra-) and intracellular (intra-) enzymes of C. owensensis cultivated on corncob xylan or xylose had cellulase (including endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase) and hemicellulase (including xylanase, xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase and acetyl xylan esterase) activities. The enzymes of C. owensensis had high ability for degrading hemicellulose of native corn stover and corncob with the conversion rates of xylan 16.7 % and araban 60.0 %. Moreover, they had remarkable synergetic function with the commercial enzyme cocktail Cellic CTec2 (Novoyzmes). When the native corn stover and corncob were respectively, sequentially hydrolyzed by the extra-enzymes of C. owensensis and CTec2, the glucan conversion rates were 31.2 and 37.9 %,which were 1.7- and 1.9-fold of each control (hydrolyzed by CTec2 alone), whereas the glucan conversion rates of the steam-exploded corn stover and corncob hydrolyzed by CTec2 alone on the same loading rate were 38.2 and 39.6 %, respectively. These results show that hydrolysis by the extra-enzyme of C. owensensis made almost the same contribution as steam-exploded pretreatment on degradation of native lignocellulosic biomass. A new process for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass by sequential hydrolysis

  6. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  7. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  8. The Armed Services and Model Employer Status for Child Support Enforcement: A Proposal to Improve Service of Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Alan L

    1996-01-01

    .... The Order directed DoD and other federal agencies to study methods of improving service of process for child support enforcement on their employees and uniformed members, with particular emphasis...

  9. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  10. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is solely to address two interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), using the European Employment Strategy as a case: First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes...... of the European Employment Strategy (EES)? Second, how is mutual learning processes diffused among the Member States? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on this concept of learning, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors....

  11. Working in the UK: Polish migrant worker routes into employment in the north east and north west construction and food processing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a TUC-funded project that sought to identify the main routes into employment for Polish migrant workers in the North East and North West construction and food processing sectors. Its findings show that the two sectors offer real opportunities and challenges for trade unions to organise those who most need help. Indeed many unions in the sectors have already taken up the challenge and have started to see real successes in organising groups traditionally see...

  12. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  13. Sustaining Employability: A Process for Introducing Cloud Computing, Big Data, Social Networks, Mobile Programming and Cybersecurity into Academic Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Bologa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a process for introducing modern technological subjects into the academic curricula of non-technical universities. The process described may increase and contribute to social sustainability by enabling non-technical students’ access to the field of the Internet of Things and the broader Industry 4.0. The process has been defined and tested during a curricular reform project that took place in two large universities in Eastern Europe. In this article, the authors describe the results and impact, over multiple years, of a project financed by the European Union that aimed to introduce the following subjects into the academic curricula of business students: cloud computing, big data, mobile programming, and social networks and cybersecurity (CAMSS. The results are useful for those trying to implement similar curricular reforms, or to companies that need to manage talent pipelines.

  14. ABOUT RISK PROCESS ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED BY A VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION WHICH IS DIRECTED TOWARDS THE INSURANCE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covrig Mihaela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In a virtual organization directed on the insurance business, the estimations of the risk process and of the ruin probability are important concerns: for researchers, at the theoretical level, and for the management of the company, as these influence the insurer strategy. We consider the evolution over an extended period of time of the insurer surplus process. In this paper, we present some methods for the estimation of the ruin probability and for the evaluation of a reserve fund. We discuss the ruin probability with respect to: the parameters of the individual claim distribution, the load factor of premiums and the intensity parameter of the number of claims process. We analyze the model in which the premiums are computed according to the mean value principle. Also, we attempt the case when the initial capital is proportional to the expected value of the individual claim. We give numerical illustration.

  15. IAEA advisory group meeting on dosimetry for high doses employed in industrial radiation processing, Vienna, 17-21 November 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    In 1977 the IAEA established a programme on High-Dose Standardization and Intercomparison with the aim of developing a world-wide service for dosimetry assurance in Industrial and Research Radiation Processing Facilities. The complete proceedings of the first Advisory Group meeting held within this programme have recently been published in the IAEA Technical Reports Series (No. 205) under the title ''High-Dose Measurement in Industrial Radiation Processing''. This report of the second Advisory Group meeting provides a brief review of the state of the programme at the present time. (The full proceedings of the meeting will not be published)

  16. Ethnography, fidelity, and the evidence that anthropology adds: supplementing the fidelity process in a clinical trial of supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Lopez, Gilberto; Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance; Dixon-Lawson, Kimberly

    2014-06-01

    This discussion considers the role and findings of ethnographic research within a clinical trial of supported employment for veterans with spinal cord injury. Contributing to qualitative evaluation research and to debates over anthropological evidence vis-à-vis clinical trials, we demonstrate how enactors of a randomized controlled trial can simultaneously attend to both the trial's evidentiary and procedural requirements and to the lived experiences and needs of patients and clinicians. Three major findings are described: (1) contextual information essential to fidelity efforts within the trial; (2) the role of human interrelationships and idiosyncratic networks in the trial's success; and (3) a mapping of the power and authority structures relevant to the staff's ability to perform the protocol. We emphasize strengths of anthropological ethnography in clinical trials that include the provision of complementary, qualitative data, the capture of otherwise unmeasured parts of the trial, and the realization of important information for the translation of the clinical findings into new settings. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  17. SATISFACTION OF QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS OF EMPLOYERS APPLIED TO SOFTWARE ENGINEERS IN THE PROCESS OF TRAINING AT HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Kruhlyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, based on the analysis of the problems of the professional training of software engineers in higher educational institutions, was shown that the contents of the curricula for the training of software engineers in basic IT specialties in higher education institutions generally meet the requirements to them at the labor market. It is stated that at the present time there are certain changes in the job market not only in the increasing demand for IT professionals but also in the requirements settled for future specialists. To scientists’ opinion, at present there is a gap between the level of expectation of employers and the level of education of graduates of IT-specialties of universities. Due to the extremely fast pace of IT development, already at the end of the studies, students' knowledge may become obsolete. We are talking about a complex of competencies offered by university during training of specialist for their relevance and competitiveness at the labor market. At the same time, the practical training of students does not fully correspond to the current state of information technology. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the updating of the contents of the academic disciplines with the aim of providing quality training of specialists.

  18. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  19. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  20. Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Lam

    2002-01-01

    Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

  1. Bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose by expression of L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, H J; Kim, P; Park, Y C; Choi, J H

    2000-02-01

    D-Tagatose is a potential bulking agent in food as a non-calorific sweetener. To produce D-tagatose from cheaper resources, plasmids harbouring the L-arabinose isomerase gene (araA) from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium were constructed because L-arabinose isomerase was suggested previously as an enzyme that mediates the bioconversion of galactose into tagatose as well as that of arabinose to ribulose. The constructed plasmids were named pTC101, pTC105 and pTC106, containing araA from E. coli, B. subtilis and S. typhimurium respectively. In the cultures of recombinant E. coli with pTC101, pTC105 and pTC106, tagatose was produced from galactose in 9.9, 7.1 and 6.9% yields respectively. The enzyme extract of E. coli with the plasmid pTC101 also converted galactose into tagatose with a 96.4% yield.

  2. Glucose bioconversion profile in the syngas-metabolizing species Clostridium carboxidivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Naveira, Ánxela; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Some clostridia produce alcohols (ethanol, butanol, hexanol) from gases (CO, CO 2 , H 2 ) and others from carbohydrates (e.g., glucose). C. carboxidivorans can metabolize both gases as well as glucose. However, its bioconversion profile on glucose had not been reported. It was observed that C. carboxidivorans does not follow a typical solventogenic stage when grown on glucose. Indeed, at pH 6.2, it produced first a broad range of acids (acetic, butyric, hexanoic, formic, and lactic acids), several of which are generally not found, under similar conditions, during gas fermentation. Medium acidification did not allow the conversion of fatty acids into solvents. Production of some alcohols from glucose was observed in C. carboxidivorans but at high pH rather than under acidic conditions, and the total concentration of those solvents was low. At high pH, formic acid was produced first and later converted to acetic acid, but organic acids were not metabolized at low pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological and Chemical Studies on the Bioconversion of Glycyrrhizin by Aspergillus niger NRRL595

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refai, A. M. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizin (GL, the well-known sweet saponin of licorice, has been used as a food-additive and as a medicine. Its aglycone, glycyrrhetic acid (GA showed antiinflamatory, antiulcer and antiviral properties. GA is now produced form GL by acid hydrolysis. However, it is difficult to obtain GA in a good yield by using this method, because many by-productsare also produced. Screening of different microorganisms (13 bacteria, 2 yeasts and 23 fungi for production of GA from GL revealed that Aspergillus niger NRRL 595 produced the highest yield of GA. The bioconversion of GL by A. niger NRRL 595 for 96 h, followed by isolation and purification of the transformation products led to the separation of two conversion products, namely: GA and 3-oxo-GA. Confirmation of the identity of these products was established by determination of their Rf values, m.p., and IR, UV, MS and NMR spectra. The conditions for cultivation of this fungus with the maximum hydrolytic activity for the maximum yield of GA were investigated. Based on the results, A. niger NRRL 595 was cultivated with a medium composed of 1.75 % GL, 0.5 % glucose, 0.8 % corn steep liquor at pH 6.5 at 32 °C for 96 h. The cultivation of fungal cells under the latter conditions afforded GA and 3-oxo-GA in a yield of 65 % and 22 %, respectively.

  4. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  5. Using performance tasks employing IOM patient safety competencies to introduce quality improvement processes in medical laboratory science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemboski, Karen; Otto, Catherine N; Morris, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In order to contribute to improved healthcare quality through patient-centered care, laboratory professionals at all levels of practice must be able to recognize the connection between non-analytical factors and laboratory analysis, in the context of patient outcomes and quality improvement. These practices require qualities such as critical thinking (CT), teamwork skills, and familiarity with the quality improvement process, which will be essential for the development of evidence-based laboratory science practice. Performance tasks (PT) are an educational strategy which can be used to teach and assess CT and teamwork, while introducing Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) students at both baccalaureate and advanced-practice levels to the concepts of quality improvement processes and patient outcomes research. PT presents students with complex, realistic scenarios which require the incorporation of subject-specific knowledge with competencies such as effective team communication, patient-centered care, and successful use of information technology. A PT with assessment rubric was designed for use in a baccalaureate-level MLS program to teach and assess CT and teamwork competency. The results indicated that, even when students were able to integrate subject-specific knowledge in creative ways, their understanding of teamwork and quality improvement was limited. This indicates the need to intentionally teach skills such as collaboration and quality system design. PT represent one of many strategies that may be used in MLS education to develop essential professional competencies, encourage expert practice, and facilitate quality improvement.

  6. Bioconversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose: continuous packed bed reaction with an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase and efficient purification by selective microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Min; Chen, Min; Liu, Xinying; Zhai, Yafei; Liu, Xian-wei; Zhang, Houcheng; Xiao, Min; Wang, Peng

    2012-02-01

    The continuous enzymatic conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose with an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in packed-bed reactor and a novel method for D-tagatose purification were studied. L-arabinose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacter mathranii (TMAI) was recombinantly overexpressed and immobilized in calcium alginate. The effects of pH and temperature on D-tagatose production reaction catalyzed by free and immobilized TMAI were investigated. The optimal condition for free enzyme was pH 8.0, 60°C, 5 mM MnCl(2). However, that for immobilized enzyme was pH 7.5, 75°C, 5 mM MnCl(2). In addition, the catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme at high temperature and low pH was significantly improved compared with free enzyme. The optimum reaction yield with immobilized TMAI increased by four percentage points to 43.9% compared with that of free TMAI. The highest productivity of 10 g/L h was achieved with the yield of 23.3%. Continuous production was performed at 70°C; after 168 h, the reaction yield was still above 30%. The resultant syrup was then incubated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae L1 cells. The selective degradation of D-galactose was achieved, obtaining D-tagatose with the purity above 95%. The established production and separation methods further potentiate the industrial production of D-tagatose via bioconversion and biopurification processes.

  7. Nitrile, amide and temperature effects on amidase-kinetics during acrylonitrile bioconversion by nitrile-hydratase/amidase in situ cascade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarella, Laura; Gallifuoco, Alberto; Spera, Agata; Cantarella, Maria

    2013-08-01

    In this study the amidase kinetics of an in situ NHase/AMase cascade system was explored as a function of operational parameters such as temperature, substrate concentration and product formation. The results indicated that controlling amidase inactivation, during acrylonitrile bioconversion, makes it possible to recover the intermediate product of the two-step reaction in almost a pure form, without using purified enzyme. It has been demonstrated, in long-term experiments performed in continuous stirred UF-membrane bioreactors, that amidase is kinetically controlled by its proper substrate, depending on the structure, and by acrylonitrile. Using acrylamide, AMase-stability is temperature dependent (5°C, kd=0.008 h(-1); 30°C kd=0.023 h(-1)). Using benzamide, amidase is thermally stable up to 50°C and no substrate inhibition/inactivation occurs. With acrylonitrile, AMase-activity and -stability remain unchanged at concentrations <200 mM but at 200 mM, 35°C, after 70 h process, 90% irreversible inactivation occurs as no AMase-activity on benzamide revives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Veteran Services - Welcome Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assistance Crosswalk websites Transition GPS National Career Readiness Certificate Post Traumatic Stress Credits (PDF) Fidelity Bonding Program National Career Readiness (PDF) Veteran Recruitment State/Federal veteran recruitment process Military Veteran Employment Guide Veterans Hiring Toolkit Other Information

  9. Computer-assisted analyses of (/sup 14/C)2-DG autoradiographs employing a general purpose image processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C; Biral, G P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisiologia Umana; Fonda, S; Baraldi, P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Lab. di Bioingegneria della Clinica Oculistica; Cavazzuti, M [Modena Univ. (Italy). Clinica Neurologica

    1984-09-01

    A general purpose image processing system is described including B/W TV camera, high resolution image processor and display system (TESAK VDC 501), computer (DEC PDP 11/23) and monochrome and color monitors. Images may be acquired from a microscope equipped with a TV camera or using the TV in direct viewing; the A/D converter and the image processor provides fast (40 ms) and precise (512x512 data points) digitization of TV signal with a 256 gray levels maximum resolution. Computer programs have been developed in order to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of autoradiographs obtained with the 2-DG method, which are written in FORTRAN and MACRO 11 Assembly Language. They include: (1) procedures designed to recognize errors in acquisition due to possible image shading and correct them via software; (2) routines suitable for qualitative analyses of the whole image or selected regions of it, providing the opportunity for pseudocolor coding, statistics, graphic overlays; (3) programs permitting the conversion of gray levels into metabolic rates of glucose utilization and the display of gray- or color-coded metabolic maps.

  10. Multiple surveys employing a new sample-processing protocol reveal the genetic diversity of placozoans in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Hideyuki; Nakano, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    Placozoans, flat free-living marine invertebrates, possess an extremely simple bauplan lacking neurons and muscle cells and represent one of the earliest-branching metazoan phyla. They are widely distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. Based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences, 19 haplotypes forming seven distinct clades have been reported in placozoans to date. In Japan, placozoans have been found at nine locations, but 16S genotyping has been performed at only two of these locations. Here, we propose a new processing protocol, "ethanol-treated substrate sampling," for collecting placozoans from natural environments. We also report the collection of placozoans from three new locations, the islands of Shikine-jima, Chichi-jima, and Haha-jima, and we present the distribution of the 16S haplotypes of placozoans in Japan. Multiple surveys conducted at multiple locations yielded five haplotypes that were not reported previously, revealing high genetic diversity in Japan, especially at Shimoda and Shikine-jima Island. The observed geographic distribution patterns were different among haplotypes; some were widely distributed, while others were sampled only from a single location. However, samplings conducted on different dates at the same sites yielded different haplotypes, suggesting that placozoans of a given haplotype do not inhabit the same site constantly throughout the year. Continued sampling efforts conducted during all seasons at multiple locations worldwide and the development of molecular markers within the haplotypes are needed to reveal the geographic distribution pattern and dispersal history of placozoans in greater detail.

  11. Enzymes and microorganisms in food industry waste processing and conversion to useful products: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroad, P A [Univ. of California, Davis; Wilke, C R

    1978-01-01

    Bioconversion of food processing wastes is receiving increased attention with the realization that waste components represent an available and utilizable resource for conversion to useful products. Liquid wastes are characterized as dilute streams containing sugars, starches, proteins and fats. Solid wastes are generally cellulosic, but may contain other polymers. The greatest potential for economic bioconversion is represented by processes to convert cellulose to glucose, glucose to alcohol and protein, starch to invert sugar, and dilute waste streams to methane by anaerobic digestion. Microbial or enzymatic processes to accomplish these conversions are described.

  12. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  13. Assessing the environmental sustainability of early stage design for bioprocesses under uncertainties: An analysis of glycerol bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a bio-based economy is seen as a key strategy towards a sustainable society in a world facing climate change, energy security and social distress. However, since substantial uncertainty is involved in early-stage design analyses, the ranking and identification of potential......; and lastly, (v) rank the alternatives within the design space. Finally, the methodology's applicability is highlighted by screening early-stage glycerol bioconversion routes to value-added chemicals for future biorefinery concepts. Through the proposed methodology, it was demonstrated that the statistical...

  14. Growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of Lactobacillus upon ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Siok-Koon; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVB; 90 J/m²) on growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of L. casei FTDC 2113. UV radiation significantly enhanced (P radiation also promoted (P radiation were only prevalent in the parent cells without inheritance by first, second and third passage of cells. Although temporary, our results suggested that UV radiation could enhance the bioactive and probiotic potentials of L. casei FTDC 2113, and thus could be applied for the production of probiotic products with enhanced bioactivity.

  15. Metabolic responses in Candida tropicalis to complex inhibitors during xylitol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Li, Hao; Fan, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jingkun; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-09-01

    During xylitol fermentation, Candida tropicalis is often inhibited by inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysate. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic responses to inhibitor stress and the resistances to inhibitors are still not clear. To understand the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors, a GC/MS-based metabolomics approach was performed on C. tropicalis treated with and without complex inhibitors (CI, including furfural, phenol and acetic acid). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to determine the metabolic variability between CI-treated groups and control groups, and 25 metabolites were identified as possible entities responsible for the discrimination caused by inhibitors. We found that xylose uptake rate and xylitol oxidation rate were promoted by CI treatment. Metabolomics analysis showed that the flux from xylulose to pentose phosphate pathway increased, and tricarboxylic acid cycle was disturbed by CI. Moreover, the changes in levels of 1,3-propanediol, trehalose, saturated fatty acids and amino acids showed different mechanisms involved in metabolic responses to inhibitor stress. The increase of 1,3-propanediol was considered to be correlated with regulating redox balance and osmoregulation. The increase of trehalose might play a role in protein stabilization and cellular membranes protection. Saturated fatty acids could cause the decrease of membrane fluidity and make the plasma membrane rigid to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane. The deeper understanding of the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors will provide us with more information on the metabolism regulation during xylitol bioconversion and the construction of industrial strains with inhibitor tolerance for better utilization of bioresource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro bioconversion of chitin to pyruvate with thermophilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kohsuke; Kimura, Keisuke; Ninh, Pham Huynh; Taniguchi, Hironori; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2017-09-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant organic compound on the planet and thus has been regarded as an alternative resource to petroleum feedstocks. One of the key challenges in the biological conversion of biomass-derived polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, is to close the gap between optimum temperatures for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation and to implement them in a single bioreactor. To address this issue, in the present study, we aimed to perform an in vitro, one-pot bioconversion of chitin to pyruvate, which is a precursor of a wide range of useful metabolites. Twelve thermophilic enzymes, including that for NAD + regeneration, were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli and semi-purified by heat treatment of the crude extract of recombinant cells. When the experimentally decided concentrations of enzymes were incubated with 0.5 mg mL -1 colloidal chitin (equivalent to 2.5 mM N-acetylglucosamine unit) and an adequate set of cofactors at 70°C, 0.62 mM pyruvate was produced in 5 h. Despite the use of a cofactor-balanced pathway, determination of the pool sizes of cofactors showed a rapid decrease in ATP concentration, most probably due to the thermally stable ATP-degrading enzyme(s) derived from the host cell. Integration of an additional enzyme set of thermophilic adenylate kinase and polyphosphate kinase led to the deceleration of ATP degradation, and the final product titer was improved to 2.1 mM. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of CdS Nanocrystals by Employing the By-Products of the Anaerobic Respiratory Process of Desulfovibrio alaskensis 6SR Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Rangel-Chávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology for the direct synthesis of CdS nanoparticles, using a biological agent that avoids the extracellular processing, and the results of the characterization of CdS nanocrystals are presented. The by-products of the anaerobic respiratory process of Desulfovibrio alaskensis 6SR along with aqueous solutions of Cd salts were successfully employed to produce CdS nanocrystals with mixed cubic and hexagonal phases. Nanocrystal size has a narrow size distribution with little dependence on the Cd concentration. Both the presence of the crystallographic cubic phase and the crystalline order decrease as Cd concentration increases. The band gap values obtained from optical transmission measurements are lower than those of the bulk crystal. Raman spectroscopy characterization agrees with electron transmission microscopy images and X-ray diffraction results indicating that the method promotes the formation of high structural quality nanocrystals when low concentrations of the Cd salt are used.

  18. Statistical optimization of process parameters for the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimization of process parameters such as moisture content, incubation temperature and initial pH (fixed) for the improvement of citric acid production from oil palm empty fruit bunches through solid state bioconversion was carried out using traditional one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method and response surface ...

  19. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  20. Directed evolution of toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida for improved selectivity toward cis-indandiol during indene bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Stewart, B G; Moore, J C; Greasham, R L; Robinson, D K; Buckland, B C; Lee, C

    2000-10-01

    Toluene dioxygenase (TDO) from Pseudomonas putida F1 converts indene to a mixture of cis-indandiol (racemic), 1-indenol, and 1-indanone. The desired product, cis-(1S,2R)-indandiol, is a potential key intermediate in the chemical synthesis of indinavir sulfate (Crixivan), Merck's HIV-1 protease inhibitor for the treatment of AIDS. To reduce the undesirable byproducts 1-indenol and 1-indanone formed during indene bioconversion, the recombinant TDO expressed in Escherichia coli was evolved by directed evolution using the error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR) method. High-throughput fluorometric and spectrophotometric assays were developed for rapid screening of the mutant libraries in a 96-well format. Mutants with reduced 1-indenol by-product formation were identified, and the individual indene bioconversion product profiles of the selected mutants were confirmed by HPLC. Changes in the amino acid sequence of the mutant enzymes were identified by analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the genes. A mutant with the most desirable product profile from each library, defined as the most reduced 1-indenol concentration and with the highest cis-(1S,2R)-indandiol enantiomeric excess, was used to perform each subsequent round of mutagenesis. After three rounds of mutagenesis and screening, mutant 1C4-3G was identified to have a threefold reduction in 1-indenol formation over the wild type (20% vs 60% of total products) and a 40% increase of product (cis-indandiol) yield.

  1. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of bioavailability and bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan Wang,; Xiaoying Xu,; Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Lugtenburg, J.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI LC-MS) was developed for the quantification of the bioavailability of retinyl palmitate and -carotene and the bioconversion of -carotene to retinol in humans. Following oral

  2. Application of continuous stirred membrane reactor to 3-cyanopyridine bioconversion using the nitrile hydratase–amidase cascade system of Microbacterium imperiale CBS 498-74

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantarella, L.; Gallifuoco, A.; Malandra, A.; Martínková, Ludmila; Pasquarelli, F.; Spera, A.; Cantarella, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2010), s. 64-70 ISSN 0141-0229 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Nitrile hydratase-amidase cascade system * 3-Cyanopyridine bioconversion * Nicotinamide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.287, year: 2010

  3. Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reductions in additional costs for inventory management; 50% of the resources used for loading the containers; and an 11.4% increment in the efficiency of operations. In addition, the new planning strategy was also evaluated with either a positive or negative variation of the demand. It should be underscored that the improved scenarios (out of those simulated do not involve investments in facilities or in machinery purchasing.  

  4. Development of thermophilic tailor-made enzyme mixtures for the bioconversion of agricultural and forest residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi eKarnaouri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the main components of all lignocellulosic feedstocks include cellulose, hemicellulose, as well as the protective lignin matrix, there are some differences in structure, such as in hardwoods and softwoods, which may influence the degradability of the materials. Under this view, various types of biomass might require a minimal set of enzymes that has to be tailor-made. Partially defined complex mixtures that are currently commercially used are not adapted to efficiently degrade different materials, so novel enzyme mixtures have to be customized. Development of these cocktails requires better knowledge about the specific activities involved, in order to optimize hydrolysis. The role of filamentous fungus Myceliophthora thermophila and its complete enzymatic repertoire for the bioconversion of complex carbohydrates has been widely proven. In this study, four core cellulases (MtCBH7, MtCBH6, MtEG5 and MtEG7, in the presence of other four accessory enzymes (mannanase, lytic polyssacharide monooxygenase MtGH61, xylanase, MtFae1a and β-glucosidase MtBGL3, were tested as a 9-component cocktail against one model substrate (phosphoric acid swollen cellulose and four hydrothermally pretreated natural substrates (wheat straw as an agricultural waste, birch and spruce biomass, as forest residues. Synergistic interactions among different enzymes were determined using a suitable design of experiments methodology. The results suggest that for the hydrolysis of the pure substrate (PASC, high proportions of MtEG7 are needed for efficient yields. MtCBH7 and MtEG7 are enzymes of major importance during the hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw, while MtCBH7 plays a crucial role in case of spruce. Cellobiohydrolases MtCBH6 and MtCBH7 act in combination and are key enzymes for the hydrolysis of the hardwood (birch. Optimum combinations were predicted from suitable statistical models which were able to further increase hydrolysis yields, suggesting that

  5. Ethanol production in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with interconnected reactors employing hydrodynamic cavitation-pretreated sugarcane bagasse as raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Ienny, João Vitor; Marcelino, Paulo Franco; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Antunes, Felipe A F; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Santos, Júlio César Dos

    2017-11-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB) pretreated with alkali assisted hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was investigated for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bioethanol production in interconnected column reactors using immobilized Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124. Initially, HC was employed for the evaluation of the reagent used in alkaline pretreatment. Alkalis (NaOH, KOH, Na 2 CO 3 , Ca(OH) 2 ) and NaOH recycled black liquor (successive batches) were used and their pretreatment effectiveness was assessed considering the solid composition and its enzymatic digestibility. In SSF process using NaOH-HC pretreatment SCB, 62.33% of total carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed and 17.26g/L of ethanol production (0.48g of ethanol/g of glucose and xylose consumed) was achieved. This proposed scheme of HC-assisted NaOH pretreatment together with our interconnected column reactors showed to be an interesting new approach for biorefineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  7. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  8. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  9. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and liquid wastes. However, no thorough auditing and characterization of the waste has been done that would guide potential value addition through bioconversions and waste management.

  10. Why rapid urbanization process cannot improve employment absorption capacity of service industry in China – also on the interactive mode innovation between service industry development with urbanization under the background of transformation and upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Shi-hong; Xia, Jie-chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: China is experiencing rapid urbanization and service industrial developement. Methods: In this paper, the relationship between urbanization and service employment is studied by using mathematical model and econometric test method. Results: This paper documents that there is a significant positive correlation between rapid urbanization process and services absorbing employment ability by the regression result using time-series data since China's reform and opening up. China's urban...

  11. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  12. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  13. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  14. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimabi Wahidullah

    Full Text Available As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl with salicylic acid (3-8 were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12, metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13 and β-carbolines, norharman (14, harman (15 and methyl derivative (16, which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  15. Development of rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology for ethanol production from extractive ammonia pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Yanping; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    High enzyme loading and low productivity are two major issues impeding low cost ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This work applied rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology (RaBIT) and extractive ammonia (EA) pretreatment for conversion of corn stover (CS) to ethanol at high solids loading. Enzymes were recycled via recycling unhydrolyzed solids. Enzymatic hydrolysis with recycled enzymes and fermentation with recycled yeast cells were studied. Both enzymatic hydrolysis time and fermentation time were shortened to 24 h. Ethanol productivity was enhanced by two times and enzyme loading was reduced by 30%. Glucan and xylan conversions reached as high as 98% with an enzyme loading of as low as 8.4 mg protein per g glucan. The overall ethanol yield was 227 g ethanol/kg EA-CS (191 g ethanol/kg untreated CS). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1713-1720. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bioconversion of cellulose to liquid fuel (ethanol). Final report, Stage 2, 1983-06-30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B

    1983-01-01

    The process routes of the conversion have been investigated. The material which contains lignocellulose should be pretreated, and the separate processes are to be integrated. The price of raw materials and enzymes influences the process economy. The efficiency of biocatalysts on fermentation and saccharification are being studied and the reuse of enzymes is discussed. The process for the production of ethanol out of lignocellulose is shown to be very complicated. The optimization of the process will necessitate computerized simulation.

  17. A technical and economic evaluation of wood conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, L J

    1990-08-08

    A technical and economic evaluation of the Iogen wood-to-ethanol bioconversion process was carried out using a computer simulation model based on an engineering analysis of the process. The model was used to run sensitivity analyses for the process and to estimate the parameters with significant economic impact and promise for future improvement to process economics. The most important parameters were then used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the potential for future improvements and to assess the commercial potential of the process. Finally, the process was subjected to second-law analysis, in which its thermodynamic efficiency was assessed in terms of lost work potential. The Iogen process is a highly optimized process using state-of-the-art enzymatic hydrolysis with steam explosion pretreatment; lactose sugar from cheese whey is used as the carbon source for enzyme production. The base case design would use 1000 tonnes/d of aspen wood and would produce 91 Ml/y of ethanol. Assuming no value for byproducts, the break-even price for ethanol would be 45-70{cents}/l, depending on the financing method employed. If byproduct credit is added for lignin and molasses, the required ethanol selling price would drop to 30-50{cents}/l. Forecasts for future technology improvements show that it is possible to construct scenarios where the ethanol price could be as low as 10-20{cents}/l including byproduct credits. Potential improvements to the process include reduced enzyme production cost; xylose fermentation to ethanol; lower-cost feedstock; and substitution of wood sugars for lactose. 48 refs., 39 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Requirements of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae,Y 10 for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose Substrates to Ethanol under Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Younis, N.A.; Sidkey, N.M.; Ouda, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol production increased gradually with increasing the incubation period to a maximum value at 72 hrs for rice straw, bagasse and CHW (Cellulosic hospital wastes) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation technique (SSF). bagasse was the best substrate for maximum production . maximum Values of ethanol were recorded when crude cellulses were 1.79, 0.597 and 1.19 (FPU /ml fermentation medium) for substrates respectively. the optimum inoculum number of yeast was (9x10 8 free cells / ml for rice straw, (1.2x10 9 cells/ml) of immobilized and free yeast for bagasse and CHW respectively. Maximum yield was recorded with ph 5 at 30 degree C for the three substrates. Fe SO 4 .7H 2 O(0.05%) increased ethanol production from pretreated bagasse and CHW .L-Iysine increased the productivity for both bagasse and CHW. molasses (9 g/l) achieved the highest productivity from treated rice straw, while thiamine B1 (100 and 200 ppm) for treated bagsse and CHW respectively. Gamma rays at doses 0.05 and 0.8 K.Gy increased ethanol yield 7.5 and 2 % for treated bagasse and CHW respectively. Highest values recorded at 300,200 and 100 rpm. for treated rice straw, bagasse and CHW, respectively

  19. Pilot plant studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.

    1977-09-30

    Work for the period July 1 to September 30, 1977 is summarized briefly. Results of the following studies are reported: analysis and evaluation of potential raw materials--chemical analysis of the Kudzu plant and effect of NO/sub x/ pretreatments on the hydrolysis of wheat straw; utilization of hemicellulose sugars; process design and economic studies--hydrolysis process and ethanol fermentation; pilot plant process development and design studies--enhanced cellulase production and continuous hydrolysis. (JGB)

  20. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  1. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  2. Simulations of Technology-Induced and Crisis-Led Stochastic and Chaotic Fluctuations in Higher Education Processes: A Model and a Case Study for Performance and Expected Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmet, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simple model of the provision of higher educational services that considers and exemplifies nonlinear, stochastic, and potentially chaotic processes. I use the methods of system dynamics to simulate these processes in the context of a particular sociologically interesting case, namely that of the Turkish higher education…

  3. [Phase transfer catalyzed bioconversion of penicillin G to 6-APA by immobilized penicillin acylase in recyclable aqueous two-phase systems with light/pH sensitive copolymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ke-ming; Cao, Xue-jun; Su, Jin; Ma, Li; Zhuang, Ying-ping; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Si-liang

    2008-03-01

    Immobilized penicillin acylase was used for bioconversion of penicillin PG into 6-APA in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of a light-sensitive polymer PNBC and a pH-sensitive polymer PADB. Partition coefficients of 6-APA was found to be about 5.78 in the presence of 1% NaCl. Enzyme kinetics showed that the reaction reached equilibrium at roughly 7 h. The 6-APA mole yields were 85.3% (pH 7.8, 20 degrees C), with about 20% increment as compared with the reaction of single aqueous phase buffer. The partition coefficient of PG (Na) varied scarcely, while that of the product, 6-APA and phenylacetic acid (PA) significantly varied due to Donnan effect of the phase systems and hydrophobicity of the products. The variation of the partition coefficients of the products also affected the bioconversion yield of the products. In the aqueous two-phase systems, the substrate, PG, the products of 6-APA and PA were biased in the top phase, while immobilized penicillin acylase at completely partitioned at the bottom. The substrate and PG entered the bottom phase, where it was catalyzed into 6-APA and PA and entered the top phase. Inhibition of the substrate and products was removed to result in improvement of the product yield, and the immobilized enzyme showed higher efficiency than the immobilized cells and occupied smaller volume. Compared with the free enzyme, immobilized enzyme had greater stability, longer life-time, and was completely partitioned in the bottom phase and recycle. Bioconversion in two-phase systems using immobilized penicillin acylase showed outstanding advantage. The light-sensitive copolymer forming aqueous two-phase systems could be recovered by laser radiation at 488 nm or filtered 450 nm light, while pH-sensitive polymer PADB could be recovered at the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). The recovery of the two copolymers was between 95% and 99%.

  4. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account.

  5. Becoming Self-Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  6. Microbial community structures in high rate algae ponds for bioconversion of agricultural wastes from livestock industry for feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Murinda, Shelton E; Murry, Marcia A; Schwartz, Gregory; Lundquist, Trygve

    2017-02-15

    Dynamics of seasonal microbial community compositions in algae cultivation ponds are complex. However, there is very limited knowledge on bacterial communities that may play significant roles with algae in the bioconversion of manure nutrients to animal feed. In this study, water samples were collected during winter, spring, summer, and fall from the dairy lagoon effluent (DLE), high rate algae ponds (HRAP) that were fed with diluted DLE, and municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent which was included as a comparison system for the analysis of total bacteria, Cyanobacteria, and microalgae communities using MiSeq Illumina sequencing targeting the 16S V4 rDNA region. The main objective was to examine dynamics in microbial community composition in the HRAP used for the production of algal biomass. DNA was extracted from the different sample types using three commercially available DNA extraction kits; MoBio Power water extraction kit, Zymo fungi/bacterial extraction kit, and MP Biomedicals FastDNA SPIN Kit. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) using distance matrices on each variable showed significant differences (P=0.001) in beta-diversity based on sample source. Environmental variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT; P<0.031), total N (P<0.002), total inorganic N (P<0.002), total P (P<0.002), alkalinity (P<0.002), pH (P<0.022), total suspended solid (TSS; P<0.003), and volatile suspended solids (VSS; P<0.002) significantly affected microbial communities in DLE, HRAP, and WWTP. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified to phyla level, the dominant classes of bacteria identified were: Cyanobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Epsilon-, and Delta-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes. Our data suggest that microbial communities were significantly affected in HRAP by different environmental variables, and care must be taken in extraction procedures when evaluating specific groups of microbial communities for

  7. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuofin, F.O., E-mail: funmifrank2009@gmail.com; Mnkeni, P.N.S., E-mail: pmnkeni@ufh.ac.za

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup -1} resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg{sup −1} feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered.

  8. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unuofin, F.O.; Mnkeni, P.N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg -1 resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg −1 dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg −1 resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg −1 feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered

  9. Tartronate semialdehyde reductase defines a novel rate-limiting step in assimilation and bioconversion of glycerol in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production. Currently, it has limited applications with low bioconversion efficiency to most metabolites reported. This is partly attributed to the poor knowledge on the glycerol metabolic pathway in bacteria and fungi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have established a fast screening method for identification of genes that improve glycerol utilization in Ustilago maydis. This was done by comparing the growth rates of T-DNA tagged mutant colonies on solid medium using glycerol as the sole carbon source. We present a detailed characterization of one of the mutants, GUM1, which contains a T-DNA element inserted into the promoter region of UM02592 locus (MIPS Ustilago maydis database, MUMDB, leading to enhanced and constitutive expression of its mRNA. We have demonstrated that um02592 encodes a functional tartronate semialdehyde reductase (Tsr1, which showed dual specificity to cofactors NAD(+ and NADP(+ and strong substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for D-glycerate. Improved glycerol assimilation in GUM1 was associated with elevated expression of tsr1 mRNA and this could be phenocopied by over-expression of the gene. Glycolipid accumulation was reduced by 45.2% in the knockout mutant whereas introduction of an extra copy of tsr1 driven by the glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase promoter increased it by 40.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that tartronate semialdehyde reductase (TSR plays an important role in glycerol assimilation in U. maydis and defines a novel target in genetic engineering for improved conversion of glycerol to higher value products. Our results add significant depth to the understanding of the glycerol metabolic pathway in fungi. We have demonstrated, for the first time, a biological role of a eukaryotic TSR.

  10. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth.

  11. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH42SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH42SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a for both yeasts (NH42SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

  12. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  13. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  14. Proceedings of the 10. world congress on anaerobic digestion 2004 : anaerobic bioconversion, answer for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference reviewed the broad scope of anaerobic process-related activities taking place globally and confirmed the possibilities of using anaerobic processes to add value to industrial wastewaters, municipal solid wastes and organic wastes while minimizing pollution and greenhouse gases. It focused on biomolecular tools, instrumentation of anaerobic digestion processes, anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated organics, and thermophilic and mesophilic digestion. Several papers focused on the feasibility of using waste products to produce hydrogen and methane for electricity generation. The sessions of the conference were entitled acidogenesis; microbial ecology; process control; sulfur content; technical development; domestic wastewater; agricultural waste; organic municipal solid wastes; instrumentation; molecular biology; sludges; agricultural feedstock; bioremediation; industrial wastewater; hydrogen production; pretreatments; sustainability; and integrated systems. The conference featured 387 posters and 192 oral presentations, of which 111 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. What Is the Role of Education in the Recruitment Process? Employers' Practices and Experiences of Graduates from Tertiary Educational Institutions in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Ellu; Unt, Marge; Helemäe, Jelena; Oras, Kaja; Täht, Kadri

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, growing globalisation and economic restructuring coupled with expansion of tertiary education contributed to tremendous change in the labour market entry process in Europe. Most previous studies have been quantitative, concentrated on the supply aspect and analysed the role of education as the explanatory variable of youth labour…

  16. The Perceived Influence of Industry-Sponsored Credentials on the Recruitment Process in the Information Technology Industry: Employer and Employee Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Horwitz, Sujin K.; Ipe, Minu; Liu, Yuwen

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the number of industry-sponsored credential programs raises many questions for career and technical education. This study investigated the perceived influence of industry-sponsored credentials on the recruitment process in the information technology (IT) field. Influence is examined from the perspective of Human Resource (HR)…

  17. Pilot plant studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.

    1977-01-31

    Progress is reported in several areas of research. The following cellulosic raw materials were selected for study: wheat, barley, and rice straws, rice hulls, sorghum, corn stover, cotton gin trash, newsprint, ground wood, and masonite steam-treated Douglas fir and redwood. Samples were collected, prepared, and analyzed for hexosans, pentosans, lignin, ash, and protein. Results of acid extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis are discussed. Yields of glucose, polyglucose, xylose, and arabinose are reported. Progress in process design and economic studies, as well as pilot plant process development and design studies, is summarized. (JGB)

  18. Use of Swine Wastewater as Alternative Substrate for Mycelial Bioconversion of White Rot Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwoo; Shin, Seung Gu; Ahn, Jinmo; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Kwanghyun; Kim, Woong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2017-02-01

    Seven white rot fungal species were tested for growth as mycelia using swine wastewater (SW), an agro-waste with tremendous environmental footprint, as the sole nutrient source. The SW contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen components, which could support nutritional requirements for mycelial growth. Out of the seven species, Pleurotus ostreatus and Hericium erinaceus were successfully cultivated on the SW medium using solid-state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the combination of pH, temperature (T), and substrate concentration (C) that maximizes mycelial growth rate (Kr) for the two species. The optimum condition was estimated as pH = 5.8, T = 28.8 °C, and C = 11.2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L for P. ostreatus to yield Kr of 11.0 mm/day, whereas the greatest Kr (3.1 mm/day) was anticipated at pH = 4.6, T = 25.5 °C, and C = 11.9 g COD/L for H. erinaceus. These Kr values were comparable to growth rates obtained using other substrates in the literature. These results demonstrate that SW can be used as an effective substrate for mycelial cultivation of the two white rot fungal species, suggesting an alternative method to manage SW with the production of potentially valuable biomass.

  19. Pilot-scale demonstration of SPORL for bioconversion of lodgepole pine to bioethanol and lignosulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2016-01-01

    The process sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) has been the focus of this study. Pilot-scale (50 kg) pretreatment of wood chips of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were conducted at 165°C...

  20. Evaluation energy efficiency of bioconversion knot rejects to ethanol in comparison to other thermochemically pretreated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaojiang Wang; Menghua Qin; J.Y. Zhu; Guoyu Tian; Zongquan. Li

    2013-01-01

    Rejects from sulfite pulp mill that otherwise would be disposed of by incineration were converted to ethanol by a combined physical–biological process that was comprised of physical refining and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The energy efficiency was evaluated with comparison to thermochemically pretreated biomass, such as those pretreated by...

  1. Low-k SiOCH Film Etching Process and Its Diagnostics Employing Ar/C5F10O/N2 Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Mikio; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Okamoto, Hidekazu

    2006-09-01

    We proposed an environmental harmonic etching gas of C5F10O (CF3CF2CF2OCFCF2), and demonstrated the etching of low-k SiOCH films employing a dual-frequency capacitively coupled etching system. Dissociative ionization cross sections for the electron impact ionizations of C5F10O and c-C4F8 gases have been measured by quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS). The dissociative ionization cross section of CF3+ from C5F10O gas was much higher than those of other ionic species, and 10 times higher than that of CF3+ from C4F8 gas. CF3+ is effective for increasing the etching rate of SiO2. As a result, the etching rate of SiOCH films using Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma was about 1000 nm/min, which is much higher than that using Ar/C4F8/N2 plasma. The behaviours of fluorocarbon radicals in Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma, which were measured by infrared diode laser absorption spectroscopy, were similar to those in Ar/C4F8/N2 plasma. The densities of CF and CF3 radicals were markedly decreased with increasing N2 flow rate. Etching rate was controlled by N2 flow rate. A vertical profile of SiOCH with a high etching rate and less microloading was realized using Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma chemistry.

  2. The Employer Perspective on Sustainable Employability in the Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. METHODS: Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. RESULTS: Employers

  3. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  4. Bioconversion of Scutellaria baicalensis extract can increase recovery of auditory function in a mouse model of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Isabel; Hong, Bin Na; Nam, Youn Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Geun Ha; Ji, Min Gun; Kang, Tong Ho

    2017-09-01

    In noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), noise exposure damages cochlear sensory hair cells, which lack the capacity to regenerate. Following noise insult, intense metabolic activity occurs, resulting in a cochlear free radical imbalance. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme alterations, including lipoxygenase upregulation, have been linked to chronic inflammation, which contributes to hearing impairment. We previously proposed Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) extract as an alternative therapeutic for preventing NIHL and attributed its pharmacological effects to baicalein. Although baicalein was most effective, its concentration in SB extract is much lower compared to baicalin. In this study, we performed enzymatic bioconversion using an Sumizyme (SM) enzyme to increase baicalein concentration in SB extract and consequently improve its therapeutic efficacy. HPLC analysis revealed that baicalein concentration in SB extract after bioconversion (BSB) was significantly increased. Moreover, BSB-treated mice exhibited significantly improved auditory function compared with control mice and tended to have improved auditory function compared with SB-treated mice. We also demonstrated that BSB effectively stimulates hair cell regeneration compared to SB that did not achieve the same effect in a zebrafish model. Finally, when compared the abilities of SB and BSB to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX), BSB showed a greater efficacy. Cumulatively, our data suggest that BSB exhibits improved pharmacological properties for treating NIHL compared with SB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of corn stalks and their subsequent bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awafo, V [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Lignocellulosic biomass like corn stalk is an abundant and renewable resource from which food, feed and chemicals may be derived. Enzymatic hydrolysis of native lignocellulosic material is prohibitively slow due to their compositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. In this work, ground corn stalks (20 mesh) were subjected to gamma irradiation (10-170 Mrads) as pretreatments to make them more susceptible for bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757. The irradiation was carried out in air in a {sup 60}Co Underwater Calibrator (UC-15, Nordion International) at a dose rate of 2.5 Mrads/h as measured by Fricke dosimetry. No apparent structural differences were observed under the light microscope. However, the protein synthesis and the proportion of mycelial biomass increased with the increase in both the dose of irradiation and time of fermentation during the bioconversion of 1% corn stalk into mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju. Gamma irradiation at the dose of 50 Mrads or lower did not produce any appreciable increase in the amount of protein synthesised. At 170 Mrads, the final product contained 28% protein representing a 2-fold increase from non-irradiated corn stalk and an efficiency of 36% conversion of total utilizable polysaccharides of corn stalks into mycelial biomass. The lag phase during mycelial biomass production was much more prolonged at very high doses indicating possible production of some toxic substances during irradiation. (author). 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Bioconversion Studies of Methyl Laurate to Dodecanedioic Acid using a Wild-type of Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmalina Rifkah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of dodecanedioic acid (DDDA, a platform chemical used as raw material for various commodities and polymers, has been studied through a biological process. This process was conducted by using a wild-type of Candida tropicalis which can be obtained easily from natural resources. The aim of this research was to study the characteristics of DDDA production from methyl laurate through batch fermentation process. Growth phase was carried out for 20 h, as the beginning of fermentation, then continued to conversion phase for 5 until 6 days. Utilization of methyl laurate and production of DDDA were analysed using gas chromatography, which proved the ability of C. tropicalis in assimilating methyl laurate to convert it become DDDA. The highest value of cells yield (Yx/s and DDDA yield (Yp/s successfully obtained were 0.86 g cells/g methyl laurate and 0.20 g DDDA/g methyl laurate, respectively. This study also showed the possibility of fermentation products accumulation as intermediate, or accumulation of DDDA inside the cells. Thus, this study can be applied as an alternative in addition to the use of mutant microorganism in producing DDDA.

  7. Perspectives of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  8. Making sense of employer collectivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article argues that preferences of employers for collective action cannot be reduced to rational actors making decisions based on market structures or institutional logics. Both markets and institutions are inherently ambiguous and employers therefore have to settle for plausible...... – rather than accurate – rational strategies among many alternatives through so-called sensemaking. Sensemaking refers to the process by which employers continuously make sense of their competitive environment by building causal stories of competitive advantages. The article therefore tries to provide......, unlike countries in similar situations, for example Finland and Sweden, Danish employers retained a coordinated industry-level bargaining system, which makes it an interesting paradox to study from the vantage point of sensemaking....

  9. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  10. Employment in Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenberg, Gene; Huston, Jane

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in employment in agribusiness. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment information (training plans/agreements and wages, taxes, and fringe benefits); human relations (employer/employee/customer relations and communication skills);…

  11. Social innovation in employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  12. The swimming polarity of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes can change during an isolation process employing magnets: evidence of a relation between swimming polarity and magnetic moment intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Roger Duarte; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Magnetotactic microorganisms are characterized by swimming in the direction of an applied magnetic field. In nature, two types of swimming polarity have been observed: north-seeking microorganisms that swim in the same direction as the magnetic field, and south-seeking microorganisms that swim in the opposite direction. The present work studies the reversal in the swimming polarity of the multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis following an isolation process using high magnetic fields from magnets. The proportion of north- and south-seeking organisms was counted as a function of the magnetic field intensity used during the isolation of the organisms from sediment. It was observed that the proportion of north-seeking organisms increased when the magnetic field was increased. The magnetic moment for north- and south-seeking populations was estimated using the U-turn method. The average magnetic moment was higher for north- than south-seeking organisms. The results suggest that the reversal of swimming polarity must occur during the isolation process in the presence of high magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. It is shown for the first time that the swimming polarity reversal depends on the magnetic moment intensity of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes, and new studies must be undertaken to understand the role of magnetic moment polarity and oxygen gradients in determination of swimming polarity.

  13. Study of the boron homogenizing process employing an experimental low-pressure bench simulating the IRIS reactor pressurizer – Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jair de Lima; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Bezerra da Silva, Mário Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental bench with test section made of transparent acrylic, simulating the pressurizer reactor IRIS. ► Workbench used to study the process of homogenization of boron in the pressurizer IRIS nuclear reactor. ► Results were obtained through videos and digital photos of the test section. - Abstract: The reactivity control of a nuclear reactor to pressurized water is made by means of controlling bars or by boron dilution in the water from the coolant of a primary circuit. The control with boron dilution has great importance, despite inserting small variations in the reactivity in the reactor, as it does not significantly affect the distribution of the neutron flux. A simplified experimental bench with a test section manufactured in transparent acrylic, was built in reduced scale as to be used in a boron homogenizing process, simulating an IRIS reactor pressurizer (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). The bench was assembled in the Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), an entity linked to the Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Recife – PE

  14. Study of the boron homogenizing process employing an experimental low-pressure bench simulating the IRIS reactor pressurizer – Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jair de Lima; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Silva, Mário Augusto Bezerra da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental bench with test section made of transparent acrylic, simulating the pressurizer reactor IRIS. • Workbench used to study the process of homogenization of boron in the pressurizer IRIS nuclear reactor. • Results were obtained through videos and digital photos of the test section. - Abstract: The reactivity control of a nuclear reactor to pressurized water is made by means of controlling bars or by boron dilution in the water from the coolant of a primary circuit. The control with boron dilution has great importance, despite inserting small variations in the reactivity in the reactor, as it does not significantly affect the distribution of the neutron flux. A simplified experimental bench with a test section manufactured in transparent acrylic, was built in reduced scale as to be used in a boron homogenizing process, simulating an IRIS reactor pressurizer (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). The bench was assembled in the Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), an entity linked to the Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Recife–PE

  15. Modelling and sequential simulation of multi-tubular metallic membrane and techno-economics of a hydrogen production process employing thin-layer membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiee, Alireza

    2016-09-24

    A theoretical model for multi-tubular palladium-based membrane is proposed in this paper and validated against experimental data for two different sized membrane modules that operate at high temperatures. The model is used in a sequential simulation format to describe and analyse pure hydrogen and hydrogen binary mixture separations, and then extended to simulate an industrial scale membrane unit. This model is used as a sub-routine within an ASPEN Plus model to simulate a membrane reactor in a steam reforming hydrogen production plant. A techno-economic analysis is then conducted using the validated model for a plant producing 300 TPD of hydrogen. The plant utilises a thin (2.5 μm) defect-free and selective layer (Pd75Ag25 alloy) membrane reactor. The economic sensitivity analysis results show usefulness in finding the optimum operating condition that achieves minimum hydrogen production cost at break-even point. A hydrogen production cost of 1.98 $/kg is estimated while the cost of the thin-layer selective membrane is found to constitute 29% of total process capital cost. These results indicate the competiveness of this thin-layer membrane process against conventional methods of hydrogen production. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC

  16. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  17. Molecular characterization of genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 involved in bioconversion of vanillin to protocatechuate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    1997-01-01

    The gene loci vdh, vanA, and vanB, which are involved in the bioconversion of vanillin to protocatechuate by Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM 7063), were identified as the structural genes of a novel vanillin dehydrogenase (vdh) and the two subunits of a vanillate demethylase (vanA and vanB), respectively. These genes were localized on an EcoRI fragment (E230), which was cloned from a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in the cosmid pVK100. The vdh gene was identified on a subfragment (HE35) of E230, and the vanA and vanB genes were localized on a different subfragment (H110) of E230. The nucleotide sequences of fragment HE35 and part of fragment H110 were determined, revealing open reading frames of 1062, 951, and 1446 bp, representing vanA, vanB, and vdh, respectively. The vdh gene was organized in one operon together with a fourth open reading frame (ORF2), of 735 bp, which was located upstream of vdh. The deduced amino acid sequences of vanA and vanB exhibited 78.8 and 62.1% amino acid identity, respectively, to the corresponding gene products from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 19151 (F. Brunel and J. Davison, J. Bacteriol. 170:4924-4930, 1988). The deduced amino acid sequence of the vdh gene exhibited up to 35.3% amino acid identity to aldehyde dehydrogenases from different sources. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF2 exhibited up to 28.4% amino acid identity to those of enoyl coenzyme A hydratases. Escherichia coli strains harboring fragment E230 cloned in pBluescript SK- converted vanillin to protocatechuate via vanillate, indicating the functional expression of vdh, vanA, and vanB in E. coli. High expression of vdh in E. coli was achieved with HE35 cloned in pBluescript SK-. The resulting recombinant strains converted vanillin to vanillate at a rate of up to 0.3 micromol per min per ml of culture. Transfer of vanA, vanB, and vdh to Alcaligenes eutrophus and to different Pseudomonas strains, which were unable to utilize vanillin or vanillate as

  18. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  19. Bioconversion of hydrolyzed cashew peduncle bagasse for ethanol and xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena L. de Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agro-industrial waste deposited in the environment causes problems in nature that can be solved with the use and generation of bioproducts. Thus, the objective was to study the lignocellulosic fraction of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. peduncle bagasse and fermentation on large scale (8-16 times using the strain Candida guilliermondii CCT-3544 as production agent. According to the obtained results, it can be noted that the dry cashew peduncle bagasse has 21.45% of cellulose, 10.96% of hemicellulose and 35.39% of lignin. During fermentation, C. guilliermondii 3544-CAT was able to grow on medium containing hydrolysate, with maximum cell growth concentration of 3.5 g L-1. The behavior of the sugars in the fermentation process was similar in the different variables, with maximum production of ethanol and xylitol at 48 h of fermentation.

  20. Microbial and Bioconversion Production of D-xylitol and Its Detection and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Chen, Sanfeng; Qin, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    D-Xylitol is found in low content as a natural constituent of many fruits and vegetables. It is a five-carbon sugar polyol and has been used as a food additive and sweetening agent to replace sucrose, especially for non-insulin dependent diabetics. It has multiple beneficial health effects, such as the prevention of dental caries, and acute otitis media. In industry, it has been produced by chemical reduction of D-xylose mainly from photosynthetic biomass hydrolysates. As an alternative method of chemical reduction, biosynthesis of D-xylitol has been focused on the metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida strains. In order to detect D-xylitol in the production processes, several detection methods have been established, such as gas chromatography (GC)-based methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods, LC-MS methods, and capillary electrophoresis methods (CE). The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are compared in this review. PMID:21179590

  1. Bioconversion of oil sludge into biomass of lipid metabolites for use as a source of biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchemelinina, T. N.; Matistov, N. V.; Markarova, M. Yu; Anchugova, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities for the generation of biofuel from the results of the accumulation of lipids in oil-contaminated environments were studied. This type of accumulation occurs in the biomass of yeast strains Rhodotorula sp. VKM Y-2993D; in bacteria like Pseudomonas libanensis B-3041D and in consortia of microalgal strains such as Acutodesmus obliquus Syko-A Ch-055-12, Chlorella sp. SYKO A Ch-011-10, Monoraphidium sp., and Anabaena sp. The most promising of these for processing petroleum hydrocarbons into biofuels was found to be the consortium of microalgal strains, the content of palmitic acid of which reached 49.0 %, thereby achieving a mid-range cetane number.

  2. Bioconversion potential of Trichoderma viride HN1 cellulase for a lignocellulosic biomass Saccharum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqtedar, Mehwish; Nadeem, Mohammad; Naeem, Hira; Abdullah, Roheena; Naz, Shagufta; Qurat ul Ain Syed; Kaleem, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    The industrialisation of lignocellulose conversion is impeded by expensive cellulase enzymes required for saccharification in bioethanol production. Current research undertakes cellulase production from pretreated Saccharum spontaneum through Trichoderma viride HN1 under submerged fermentation conditions. Pretreatment of substrate with 2% NaOH resulted in 88% delignification. Maximum cellulase production (2603 ± 16.39 U/mL/min carboxymethyl cellulase and 1393 ± 25.55 U/mL/min FPase) was achieved at 6% substrate at pH 5.0, with 5% inoculum, incubated at 35°C for 120 h of fermentation period. Addition of surfactant, Tween 80 and metal ion Mn(+2), significantly enhanced cellulase yield. This study accounts proficient cellulase yield through process optimisation by exploiting cheaper substrate to escalate their commercial endeavour.

  3. Butanol production by bioconversion of cheese whey in a continuous packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raganati, F; Olivieri, G; Procentese, A; Russo, M E; Salatino, P; Marzocchella, A

    2013-06-01

    Butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 fermentation was investigated. Unsupplemented cheese whey was adopted as renewable feedstock. The conversion was successfully carried out in a biofilm packed bed reactor (PBR) for more than 3 months. The PBR was a 4 cm ID, 16 cm high glass tube with a 8 cm bed of 3mm Tygon rings, as carriers. It was operated at the dilution rate between 0.4h(-1) and 0.94 h(-1). The cheese whey conversion process was characterized in terms of metabolites production (butanol included), lactose conversion and biofilm mass. Under optimized conditions, the performances were: butanol productivity 2.66 g/Lh, butanol concentration 4.93 g/L, butanol yield 0.26 g/g, butanol selectivity of the overall solvents production 82 wt%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioconversion of paper mill sludge to bioethanol in the presence of accelerants or hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Raghu Nandan; Al-Shannag, Mohammad; Lecher, Nicholas Joshua; Duncan, Shona M; Singsaas, Eric Lawrence; Alkasrawi, Malek

    2015-09-01

    In this study we investigated the technical feasibility of convert paper mill sludge into fuel ethanol. This involved the removal of mineral fillers by using either chemical pretreatment or mechanical fractionation to determine their effects on cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. In addition, we studied the effect of cationic polyelectrolyte (as accelerant) addition and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. We present results showing that removing the fillers content (ash and calcium carbonate) from the paper mill sludge increases the enzymatic hydrolysis performance dramatically with higher cellulose conversion at faster rates. The addition of accelerant and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment further improved the hydrolysis yields by 16% and 25% (g glucose / g cellulose), respectively with the de-ashed sludge. The fermentation process of produced sugars achieved up to 95% of the maximum theoretical ethanol yield and higher ethanol productivities within 9h of fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  6. Investigating the inhibitory effect of cyanide, phenol and 4-nitrophenol on the activated sludge process employed for the treatment of petroleum wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, V J; Malamis, S; Omirkhan, A; Nauruzbayeva, J; Makhtayeva, Z; Seidakhmetov, T; Kudarova, A

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the inhibitory effect of cyanide, phenol and 4-nitrophenol on the activated sludge process was investigated. The inhibition of the aerobic oxidation of organic matter, nitrification and denitrification were examined in batch reactors by measuring the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR), the specific ammonium uptake rate (sAUR) and the specific nitrogen uptake rate (sNUR) respectively. The tested cyanide, phenol and 4-nitrophenol concentrations were 0.2-1.7 mg/L, 4.8-73.1 mg/L and 8.2-73.0 mg/L respectively. Cyanide was highly toxic as it significantly (>50%) inhibited the activity of autotrophic biomass, heterotrophic biomass under aerobic conditions and denitrifiers even at relatively low concentrations (1.0-1.7 mgCN - /L). The determination of the half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) confirmed this, since for cyanide IC 50 values were very low for the examined bioprocesses (25 mg/L) for the tested bioprocesses since appreciable concentrations were required to accomplish significant inhibition. The autotrophic bacteria were more sensitive to phenol than the aerobic heterotrophs. The denitrifiers were found to be very resistant to phenol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Employment effects of biofuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, B.O.; Hektor, B.

    1992-01-01

    Effects on employment - national and regional - from an expanding market for biofuels in Sweden are estimated in this article. The fuels considered are: Peat, straw, energy crops, silviculture, forestry waste, wood waste, by-products from paper/wood industry and processed fuels from these sources. (22 refs., tabs.)

  8. Bioconversion of potatoes residues or surplus potatoes to ethanol under non axenic conditions [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaudière, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels can offer an alternative to fossil fuels in the context of climate change and fossil reserves depletion. With 3 million tons of potatoes produced in 2007 and a high yield per hectare of 47 tons, Belgium is the 19th largest producer in the world. The residual and surplus potatoes could be used to produce bioethanol by fermentation. We examined the feasibility of a simple ethanol fermentation process under non axenic conditions. The substrate was pretreated with commercial amylases or by adding as low as 10% FM (Fresh Matter barley malt. It was then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol and volatile fatty acids were analyzed by GC-FID and soluble sugars were analyzed with the Anthrone method. Starch from potatoes was hydrolyzed to soluble sugars. Hydrolysis seems to continue with 10% FM of barley malt after 48 h while the hydrolysis stopped or decelerated with commercial enzymes. With 10% FM of malt, 3 h of hydrolysis and 7 days of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 42 g.l-1 was obtained and the conversion yield was 139 gethanol.kg-1 DM. The fermentation conversion yield of soluble sugars to ethanol was > 82% and the endogenous competition was limited. However, starch hydrolyzing seems to be a limiting step under the conditions tested. Commercial enzymes did not provide better results under the same conditions.

  9. Integrated cellulosic enzymes hydrolysis and fermentative advanced yeast bioconversion solution ready for biomass biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-05-04

    These are slides from this conference. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  10. Bioconversion of Sugarcane Vinasse into High-Added Value Products and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Vinasse, a residue from bioethanol production containing high organic matter concentration, was used as substrate in submerged fermentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 for biosurfactant production. About 2.7 g/L of rhamnolipids was obtained, with surface tension of 29.2 mN/m and critical micelle concentration of 80.3 mg/L. After separation of rhamnolipid and biomass, residual fermentation media were submitted to anaerobic biodegradation in mesophilic conditions. The residual medium derived from fermentation with vinasse diluted to 1 : 1, without addition of nitrogen, C : N 21, and for 168 h, led to 63.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 97.6 mL CH4/g CODremoved. Compared to results obtained with fresh vinasse (73.7% COD removal and 112.4 mL CH4/g CODremoved), it could be concluded that both processes can be integrated in order to add value to the residue and obtain energy, reducing production costs and at the same time environmental impacts related to vinasse disposal. PMID:29250551

  11. Bioconversion of corn stover hydrolysate to ethanol by a recombinant yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Xia, Liming

    2010-12-15

    Three corn stover hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysates prepared from acid and alkaline pretreatments separately and hemicellulosic hydrolysate prepared from acid pretreatment, were evaluated in composition and fermentability. For enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment, ethanol yield on fermentable sugars and fermentation efficiency reached highest among the three hydrolysates; meanwhile, ethanol yield on dry corn stover reached 0.175 g/g, higher than the sum of those of two hydrolysates from acid pretreatment. Fermentation process of the enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment was further investigated using free and immobilized cells of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-10. Concentrated hydrolysate containing 66.9 g/L glucose and 32.1 g/L xylose was utilized. In the fermentation with free cells, 41.2 g/L ethanol was obtained within 72 h with an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.416 g/g. Immobilized cells greatly enhanced the ethanol productivity, while the ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.411 g/g could still be reached. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized cells was further attempted up to six batches. The ethanol yield on fermentable sugars maintained above 0.403 g/g with all glucose and more than 92.83% xylose utilized in each batch. These results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of ethanol production from corn stover hydrolysates. (author)

  12. Multi-scale individual-based model of microbial and bioconversion dynamics in aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joao B; De Kreuk, Merle K; Picioreanu, Cristian; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2007-09-15

    Aerobic granular sludge is a novel compact biological wastewater treatment technology for integrated removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand), nitrogen, and phosphate charges. We present here a multiscale model of aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) describing the complex dynamics of populations and nutrient removal. The macro scale describes bulk concentrations and effluent composition in six solutes (oxygen, acetate, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate). A finer scale, the scale of one granule (1.1 mm of diameter), describes the two-dimensional spatial arrangement of four bacterial groups--heterotrophs, ammonium oxidizers, nitrite oxidizers, and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAO)--using individual based modeling (IbM) with species-specific kinetic models. The model for PAO includes three internal storage compounds: polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), poly phosphate, and glycogen. Simulations of long-term reactor operation show how the microbial population and activity depends on the operating conditions. Short-term dynamics of solute bulk concentrations are also generated with results comparable to experimental data from lab scale reactors. Our results suggest that N-removal in GSBR occurs mostly via alternating nitrification/denitrification rather than simultaneous nitrification/denitrification, supporting an alternative strategy to improve N-removal in this promising wastewater treatment process.

  13. Bioconversion of Agricultural Waste to Ethanol by SSF Using Recombinant Cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Mutreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun, Azadirachta indica (neem, Saracens indica (asoka, bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo, Populas nigra (poplar, Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass, Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus, and Mangifera indica (mango, were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L.

  14. Bioconversion of Agricultural Waste to Ethanol by SSF Using Recombinant Cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutreja, Ruchi; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Dinesh; Goyal, Arun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun), Azadirachta indica (neem), Saracens indica (asoka), bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo), Populas nigra (poplar), Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass), Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus), and Mangifera indica (mango), were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L.

  15. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  16. Bioconversion of lignocellulose-derived sugars to ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Anjali; Srivastava, Aradhana; Kondo, Akihiko; Bisaria, Virendra S

    2012-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural and agro-industrial residues represents one of the most important renewable resources that can be utilized for the biological production of ethanol. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for the commercial production of bioethanol from sucrose or starch-derived glucose. While glucose and other hexose sugars like galactose and mannose can be fermented to ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the major pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose remain unutilized. Nevertheless, D-xylulose, the keto isomer of xylose, can be fermented slowly by the yeast and thus, the incorporation of functional routes for the conversion of xylose and arabinose to xylulose or xylulose-5-phosphate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can help to improve the ethanol productivity and make the fermentation process more cost-effective. Other crucial bottlenecks in pentose fermentation include low activity of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and competitive inhibition of xylose and arabinose transport into the cell cytoplasm by glucose and other hexose sugars. Along with a brief introduction of the pretreatment of lignocellulose and detoxification of the hydrolysate, this review provides an updated overview of (a) the key steps involved in the uptake and metabolism of the hexose sugars: glucose, galactose, and mannose, together with the pentose sugars: xylose and arabinose, (b) various factors that play a major role in the efficient fermentation of pentose sugars along with hexose sugars, and (c) the approaches used to overcome the metabolic constraints in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose-derived sugars by developing recombinant S. cerevisiae strains.

  17. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jordan T; Shan, Chin Wei; Budsberg, Erik; Morgan, Hannah; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure compatible hydrocarbon biofuel proposed to qualify as renewable transportation fuel under the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) is evaluated. The process uses a hybrid poplar feedstock, which undergoes dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugars are fermented to acetic acid, which undergoes conversion to ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethylene, and finally a saturated hydrocarbon end product. An unfermentable lignin stream may be burned for steam and electricity production, or gasified to produce hydrogen. During biofuel production, hydrogen gas is required and may be obtained by various methods including lignin gasification. Both technical and economic aspects of the biorefinery are analyzed, with different hydrogen sources considered including steam reforming of natural gas and gasification of lignin. Cash operating costs for jet fuel production are estimated to range from 0.67 to 0.86 USD L -1 depending on facility capacity. Minimum fuel selling prices with a 15 % discount rate are estimated to range from 1.14 to 1.79 USD L -1 . Capacities of 76, 190, and 380 million liters of jet fuel per year are investigated. Capital investments range from 356 to 1026 million USD. A unique biorefinery is explored to produce a hydrocarbon biofuel with a high yield from bone dry wood of 330 L t -1 . This yield is achieved chiefly due to the use of acetogenic bacteria that do not produce carbon dioxide as a co-product during fermentation. Capital investment is significant in the biorefinery in part because hydrogen is required to produce a fully de-oxygenated fuel. Minimum selling price to achieve reasonable returns on investment is sensitive to capital financing options because of high capital costs. Various strategies, such as producing alternative, intermediate products, are investigated with the intent to reduce risk in building the proposed facility. It appears that producing and selling these

  18. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that

  19. Information Literacy and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Information Literacy (IL) and its relationship to third level graduates’ employability has gained more attention in recent years. This article examines how IL has evolved from skills initially associated with academic libraries into a key workplace skill set of the knowledge economy. It outlines the challenges interviewees encounter when selling IL to employers, how IL can be utilised when preparing for upcoming interviews and suggests a distinction between workplace IL and employability IL. ...

  20. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Alhazzaa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA, and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB method on cell culture system (cells with medium enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1 of cell protein.hour(-1 Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  1. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...

  2. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  3. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...... and what kind of services do EOs offer employers? This article explores these questions using two comprehensive surveys on EOs in Denmark – a prominent case of coordinated market economies. The main finding of the analyses is that collective activities vis-à-vis trade unions and government are still...

  4. Evaluation of inflammatory processes in temporomandibular joint employing technetium-99m-labelled autologous leukocytes in an animal model; Avaliacao de processos inflamatorios na articulacao temporomandibular empregando leucocitos autologos marcados com tecnecio-99m em modelo animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Claudia Borges [Centro Universitario Newton Paiva, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudiabb.prof@newtonpaiva.br; cbbrasileiro@bol.com.br; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Ruckert, Bianca [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2006-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at identifying temporomandibular joint inflammatory processes employing technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO)-labeled autonomous leukocytes. Materials and methods: we have utilized an experimental model of arthritis induction in ten adult male New Zealand rabbits by means of ovalbumin intra-articular injection into each left temporomandibular joint. For control purposes, saline solution was injected. After leukocytes radiolabeling with 99mTc-HMPAO and injection into rabbits, scintigraphic images were obtained. Results: a higher 99mTc-HMPAO-leukocytes uptake was observed in left temporomandibular joint in comparison with the contralateral joint. Wilcoxon non-parametric test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a statistically significant difference between counts of radioactivity per minute in the inflamed joint and the contralateral one (p = 0.0073). Conclusion: the method employing 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled autologous leukocytes allows an early and accurate detection of inflammatory processes, contributing to the adoption of a therapeutic conduct for patients before structural alterations have occurred. (author)

  5. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  6. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  7. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  8. Does Supported Employment Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  9. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for bioregenerative life support following thermal water treatment and biodegradation by Fibrobacter succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, Geert; Verstraete, Willy; Albrecht, Tobias; Brunner, Gerd; Creuly, Catherine; Seon, Jerome; Dussap, Gilles; Lasseur, Christophe

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of a life support project. The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e., a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g(-1) VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T approximately 310-350 degrees C, p approximately 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis at near-critical conditions offers interesting features for (nearly) complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste in a bioregenerative life support context.

  10. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...

  11. Employers meet employees

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    "Leaping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data" is the title of a paper by Daniel S Hammermesh published in Labour Economics in 1999. I quote it here, since it captures much of my motivation for the work included in this thesis. Considering applied micro econometrics and labor economics my main elds of interest, the development of linked employer-employee data that took place in Denmark around the time of the new mille...

  12. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  14. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  15. Mental illness and employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  16. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  17. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  18. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  19. From 'precarious informal employment' to 'protected employment': The 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Melisa R.; Xhafa, Edlira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the discussions on the challenge of transitioning from precarious informal employment to more protected employment. This paper looks into a rather under-researched area - the role of trade unions in facilitating this process of 'transitioning' as well as in containing the spread of this type of employment. We refer to this process, along with its outcomes, as the 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions. Through 10 case studies from nine countries (Br...

  20. Role of employers in the process of Civil Engineering curriculum development: A case in Poland = El papel de los empleadores en el desarrollo curricular de los Ingenieros Civiles: Un caso en Polonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kosior-Kazberuk

    2017-04-01

    áticos Abstract The latest amendments to the Law on Higher Education strengthened the role and importance of cooperation between the universities and socio-economic environment. The idea of curriculum based on learning outcomes should facilitate cooperation of universities with external stakeholders (e.g. employers, representatives of professional organizations in the process of educational offer development. The employers expect graduates to have a high level of competence that are a synthesis of theoretical knowledge, practical skills and personal features. In their opinion, the role of the education system is to  prepare  graduates practically for the profession and to provide them with a wide array of professional skills. Most frequently mentioned weakness of university graduates is the lack of experience and practical skills. Initially, the participation of employers in curriculum design was symbolic. It was the result of lack of interest or the requirement for graduates for very specific skills needed for a given position in the company. The participation of employers in the curriculum design and evaluation of its quality has increased since the representatives of employers were included in the external evaluation committees. The most effective forms of employers' participation in creating a curriculum of study e.g. dual study, common post-graduate study, internships, technical trips, dedicated lectures etc. were discussed on the basis of civil engineering in technical university. The participation of employers is increasingly more conscious. However, there is still a need to seek mechanisms and methods for consulting that would really involve employers into cooperation, and at the same time would not generate more red tape on any side.

  1. Disability Employment 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  2. Discrimination in Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Bella

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, expressly focuses on discrimination in employment, asserting that this has had the most direct effect on minorities and women in the country; while legal protections have grown stronger, they have not been used effectively. (Author/JM)

  3. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  4. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  5. Employment Challenges in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    of foreigners in rural trade, use of work permits to limit employment of expatriates, .... as social and trade union protection, job security, and wage negotiations to the worker. .... are Republic of Korea (1960–2001); Malaysia (1967–1997); Malta ...

  6. Transitional Employment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulle, Paul J.; And Others

    The paper examines the need and implementation of transitional employment programs for handicapped youth. Effects on the handicapped of future automation are considered along with the need for school-business cooperation to prepare for the future. The importance of initial success in any innovation is noted. A Chicago transitional employment…

  7. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark...

  8. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma

    2014-01-01

    whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications...

  9. The Employment Mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  10. 49 CFR 25.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment; (2) Hiring... pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, leave for persons of either sex to care for children or dependents, or...

  11. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li; Jianzhong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  12. Soymilk residue (okara as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiudong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and

  13. Bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol into lipids and carotenoids by an oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507 in an airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowattana, Atchara; Techapun, Charin; Watanabe, Masanori; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak

    2018-01-01

    Here we tested the bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by the oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507 in two bioreactors types (stirred-tank and airlift). High production yields (biomass, 10.62 ± 0.21 g/L; lipids, 3.26 ± 0.13 g/L; β-carotene, 30.64 ± 0.05 mg/L; total carotenoids, 46.59 ± 0.07 mg/L) were achieved in a 3.0 L airlift bioreactor under uncontrolled pH regimes (initial pH 5.63). Under optimized conditions (6.0 vvm aeration rate; 60 ± 5% constant dissolved oxygen [DO] maintained by flushing pure oxygen [O 2 ] into the vessel; 10,000 Lux light irradiation) volumetric production in the airlift bioreactor was further increased (biomass, 19.30 ± 1.07 g/L; lipids, 6.61 ± 0.04 g/L, β-carotene, 109.75 ± 0.21 mg/L; total carotenoids 151.00 ± 2.71 mg/L). Production was also recorded at a S. pararoseus KM281507 growth rate of 0.16 ± 0.00 h -1 (lipids, 0.94 ± 0.04 g/L/d; β-carotene, 15.68 ± 0.40 mg/L/d; total carotenoids, 21.56 ± 0.20 mg/L/d). Lipids from S. pararoseus KM281507 had a high unsaturated fatty acid content, with oleic acid (C18:1) accounting for 80% of all fatty acids. This high oleic acid content makes S. pararoseus KM281507 well-suited as a third generation biodiesel feedstock. Our findings show that airlift bioreactors are suitable for bioconversion of crude glycerol into lipids and carotenoids using S. pararoseus KM281507. This approach is advantageous because of its ease of operation, cost efficiency, and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Sponsors in the Private Nonfarm Sector in the United States, 1978-79," Volume IV, Description and Analysis of Plans and Plan Sponsors, NTIS # PB81-180366...Labor finds to be collectively bargained plans, and those organized by rural electrical cooperatives and rural telephone cooperatives. Thus, except for...their existence and generally higher cost than uninsured plans no doubt contributed to the development of other types of multiple employer

  15. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tackney, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop ...

  16. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  17. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  18. Environment, employment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. INDUSTRIAL WASTE BIOCONVERSION INTO SURFACTANTS BY Rhodococcus erythropolis ІMV Ас-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ІMV В-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii ІMV В-7405

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to realize an alternative processing of toxic industrial waste into surfactants by strains Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 for remediation of environment. The studied strains were grown in liquid media containing such sources of carbon as waste (fried sunflower oil, technical glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production, and aromatic compounds. The synthesis of surfactants was evaluated by emulsification index, conditional concentration of surfactants and concentration of extracellular surfactants, which was determined gravimetrically after their extraction from supernatant by the mixture of methanol and chloroform. The concentration of oil in water and soil was analyzed by gravimetric method after extraction with hexane. It was shown that with increasing concentration of the inoculum up to 10−15% and two times increase of nitrogen source content in medium containing 7−8% (v/v of crude glycerol, concentration of surfactants synthesized by R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B 7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 was 3.4; 5.0 and 5.3 g/l, respectively, that is 1.6−1.7 times higher as compared with values on basal medium with the same content of substrate. The maximum concentration (3.9−4.3 g/l of surfactants synthesized by A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 on fried sunflower oil (4% was achieved by using the inoculum grown on refined oil. The ability of R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 to decompose aromatic compounds (phenol, naphthalene, toluene, hexachlorobenzene, benzoic and N-phenylanthranilic acid with simultaneous synthesis of extracellular metabolites with surface-active and emulsifying properties was established. In the presence of surfactants in the form of culture liquid (5−10%, the degree of degradation of complex oil with heavy metal (Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, 0.01−0.5 mmol

  20. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  1. Effect of irradiation, as a pretreatment, on bioconversion of corn stover into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awafo, V.A.; Chahal, D.S.; Charbonneau, R. [Universite du Quebec (Canada). Applied Microbiology Research Center

    1995-10-01

    Application of irradiation for food preservation, for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for rumen animals have been reported in the literature. In the present study, irradiation (100 KGy to 1.7 MGy) of corn stover as a pretreatment to make it susceptible for its bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757 has been compared with that of mild alkali treatment (0.01 to 0.15 g NaOH/g corn stover), the most commonly used pretreatment. Protein synthesis increased with the increase in doses of irradiation as well as with the increase in concentration of NaOH. Combination pretreatment with NaOH and {gamma}-irradiation reduced the quantity of NaOH and doses of irradiation required to get optimum yields of protein indicating a strong synergistic effect. The highest protein content of the final product, mycelial biomass, was about 45% on dry weight basis. More than 90% utilization of corn stover polysaccharides for the synthesis of protein-rich mycelial biomass of P. sajor-caju was recorded. (author).

  2. Effect of irradiation, as a pretreatment, on bioconversion of corn stover into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awafo, V.A.; Chahal, D.S.; Charbonneau, R.

    1995-01-01

    Application of irradiation for food preservation, for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for rumen animals have been reported in the literature. In the present study, irradiation (100 KGy to 1.7 MGy) of corn stover as a pretreatment to make it susceptible for its bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757 has been compared with that of mild alkali treatment (0.01 to 0.15 g NaOH/g corn stover), the most commonly used pretreatment. Protein synthesis increased with the increase in doses of irradiation as well as with the increase in concentration of NaOH. Combination pretreatment with NaOH and γ-irradiation reduced the quantity of NaOH and doses of irradiation required to get optimum yields of protein indicating a strong synergistic effect. The highest protein content of the final product, mycelial biomass, was about 45% on dry weight basis. More than 90% utilization of corn stover polysaccharides for the synthesis of protein-rich mycelial biomass of P. sajor-caju was recorded. (author)

  3. Effect of irradiation, as a pretreatment, on bioconversion of corn stover into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awafo, V.A.; Chahal, D.S.; Charbonneau, R.

    1995-01-01

    Application of irradiation for food preservation, for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for rumen animals have been reported in the literature. In the present study, irradiation (100 KGy to 1.7 MGy) of corn stover as a pretreatment to make it susceptible for its bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757 has been compared with that of mied alkali treatment (0.01 to 0.15 g NaOH/g corn stover), the most commonly used pretreatment. Protein synthesis increased with the increase in doses of irradiation as well as with the increase in concentration of NaOH. Combination pretreatment with NaOH and γ-irradiation reduced the quantity of NaOH and doses of irradiation required to get optimum yields of protein indicating a strong synergistic effect. This highest protein content of the final product, mycelial biomass, was about 45% on dry weight basis. More than 90% utilization of corn stover polysaccharides for the synthesis of protein-rich mycelial biomass of P.sajor-caju was recorded. (author)

  4. Functional characterization of CYP52G3 from Aspergillus oryzae and its application for bioconversion and synthesis of hydroxyl flavanone and steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tomohide; Yanase, Takeshi; Imaishi, Hiromasa

    2017-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a fungus widely used in traditional Japanese fermentation industries. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are ubiquitously distributed in nature and display a broad range of enzymatic activities. A novel CYP52 (CYP52G3) gene was found in A. oryzae. In this study, we report the functional characterization of CYP52G3. The recombinant protein was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, and its membrane fraction isolated. CYP52G3 showed activities for 7-ethoxycoumarin and α-naphtoflavone. Furthermore, CYP52G3 hydroxylated flavanone at the 4' and 6 position and metabolized some hydroxyl-flavanones and steroids. Bioconversion experiments indicated that CYP52G3 could convert flavanone and testosterone in a synthetic medium. The conversion rates of flavanone and testosterone at 24 H were 50% and 70%, respectively. These results support that CYP52G3 could prove a useful enzyme for the efficient production of new compounds from flavonoids and steroids. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  6. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  7. Leaving Employment to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    : the relative inattention paid to other human resources beyond the founder, and the hetero-geneous context where employee startups may be established. We use a rich matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, and estimate a multi-stage model addressing the issues of self-selection in entrepreneurship...... outcomes of arrival fi rms, and also for developing theories on labor markets for entrepreneurship. It also constitutes an important step towards unpacking the mechanisms through which mobile human capital affects the performance of receiving firms....

  8. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong......Building on the convergence/divergence approach, this paper examines whether recent new public management (NPM) inspired reforms entailing inter alia cutbacks in the public sector, marketisation and management by performance measures have had significant implications for service provision...... traditions of collective bargaining in the public sector. However, this restructuring is taking its toll on the work environment....

  9. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  10. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  11. Life Sciences and employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand J. Boshoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  13. İşveren Markası Yönetimi Sürecinde İşe Alım Öncesi Dönem ve İşgören Seçimi: Kavramsal Bir Değerlendirme (Pre-Recruitment Period and Employee Selection in Employer Brand Management Process: A Conceptual Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru GÖZEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays constantly renewing itself technological , socio-economic and cultural changes have dragged the companies to the tight competition. They can sustain their assets depends on finding the right labor and employment abilities. The quality and success of the human resources departments mostly depends on the process of finding employee. This process forms the basis of the other HR processes. One of the components of employer branding is Pre-Recruitment Period and Employee Selection. In this study, pre- recruitment and employee selection process is presented from the perspective of employer brand management. On this basis, it’s targeted to make suggestions for future researchers. The literature on this subject is very limited in our country. So this study is important to contribute to the literature

  14. Employer perceptions of the employability of workers in a social business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Terry; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Lysaght, Rosemary; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2016-06-01

    This study examined employer perceptions of employability of job candidates working in a social business for people with mental illnesses. Using an analogue research design, 99 employers participated in a simulated job hiring process, rating 2 applicants on potential to do the job, fit with workplace culture and likelihood of hiring. One job applicant worked in a social business, and the second was either (a) working in a conventional business, (b) with employment lapse attributable to mental health issues, or (c) with an unexplained employment lapse. Paired samples t tests were used to compare ratings. Qualitative data were collected regarding the rationale for rankings and a content analysis was conducted. Employer rankings were significantly higher for the applicant working in a social business compared to either applicant with an employment lapse. Employers rated the candidate working in a conventional business significantly higher compared with the candidate in a social business only on ratings of likelihood to hire. Employers valued the recency of work experience in the social business, citing concerns about risks associated with employment lapses. Their comments suggested a lack of understanding of the nature of social business. Experience in a social business appears to lessen the disadvantage of unemployment in the job hiring process, but does not appear to be ranked on par with experience in the conventional workforce. The social business sector could benefit from considering ways to publically portray these work opportunities to enhance acceptance and inclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  16. Welfare Effects of Employment Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.; Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Employment protection is often related to costs incurred by the firms when they hire a worker.The stability of the employment relationship, enhanced by employment protection, is also favorable to the productivity of the job.We analyze employment protection focusing on this trade-off between

  17. Employment Maintenance and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna S; Maler, Jeff

    2016-05-18

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. Negative outcomes of IPV affect women's attainment and maintenance of employment. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework that described and explained the process by which women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain employment. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze interviews of 34 women who had experienced IPV. Analysis suggested that women who had experienced IPV could attain employment; however, they had difficulty maintaining employment. Entanglement of work and IPV was experienced by all 34 participants because of the perpetrator controlling their appearance, sabotaging their work, interfering with their work, or controlling their finances. Some women described ways in which they disentangled work from IPV through a dynamic unraveling process, with periods of re-entanglement, resulting in job security and satisfaction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. VIA større employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    At studerende udvikler employability under studiet er et centralt indsatsområde for uddannelsesinstitutionerne. Fokus herpå har aldrig været større. Dette projekt ser nærmere på VIA-dimittenders personlige oplevelse og erfaring med ”deres employability” under studiet og hvordan den sættes i spil...... efterfølgende på arbejdsmarkedet. Formålet er at finde muligheder til at forbedre tilbud om employability-skabende processer og aktiviteter og tilpasse disse processer og aktiviteter til konkrete behov. På baggrund af en række kvalitative interviews og personlighedstest af deltagerne foreslås en styrket...... personlig tilgang i arbejdet med employability, der samtidig sikrer en bred vifte af tilbud, som tilgodeser differentierede personlige og faglige tilgange til at udvikle employability....

  19. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, B.W.; Schonberner, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  20. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study of employm......Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study...... of employment and work parameters in light of religious teachings on the social question at national, organizational, or firm-specific levels. The function of a criterion variable is described, noting that the switch from a dependent variable approach introduces an open-system dynamism to social science...

  1. Why Are Black Employers More Likely Than White Employers To Hire Blacks? Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Michael A.; Raphael, Steven; Holzer, Harry J.

    This study investigated why black employers tend to hire blacks at higher rates than do white employers and examined individual steps in the hiring process, the role of the hiring agent's race, and the degree to which variation in black application rates related to differences in observable characteristics, such as an establishment's physical…

  2. Biological, epidemiological, sanitary-hygienic, medical and behavioral occupational health risk factors for stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises, contacting brucellar animals and infected meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ereniev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied sanitary-hygienic characteristics of working conditions, charts with results of sanitary-epidemiologic examination performed in a zoogenous nidus, outpatient clinic cards and questionnaires filled in by 202 patients living in Omsk region and suffering from occupational brucellosis. The disease usually prevails among stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises. Our goal was to detect risks of occupational, production-induced and general pathology evolvement. Working conditions which all the examined people had to work in corresponded to hazardous (3.3 or even dangerous (4 category as per occurrence of contacts with infectious agents and parasites (biological risk. Apart from biological factor, a number of workers were under complex exposure to ammonia concentrations (higher than MPC, noise higher than MPL, vibration, cooling microclimate, uncomfortable lighting environment, labor process hardness and intensity. There were several factors causing epidemiologic risks as well. Disinfectants were absent or their quantity was not sufficient; industrial and amenity rooms were not well-organized; there was no central hot water supply or shower rooms, separate rooms for meals, specialized implements for removing abortus and stillborn fetuses and afterbirths, correctly organized burial grounds, or first aid kits. Hygienic health risks were caused by insufficient cleaning agents supply, absence of centralized protecting clothing laundering, and insufficient provision with personal protection means. Occupational health risks resulted from absence of preliminary medical examinations in standard recruitment procedures, irregularity and low quality of periodical medical examinations. Our qualitative assessment of behavioral health risks revealed that a lot of workers tended to have irresponsible medical and hygienic behavior, there were disorders in their work and rest regime (shift work with shifts rotation

  3. Innovation and employment

    OpenAIRE

    Vivarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Studies find that technological change has contributed 
to the decline in manufacturing and to persistent unemployment in many advanced economies. While 
process innovation can be job-destroying, product innovation can imply the emergence of new firms, new sectors, and thus new jobs. But even for process innovation, the final impact on labor demand is shaped by market mechanisms that can compensate for the direct job-destroying impact if market and institutional rigidities do not impede them....

  4. Womens employment discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyaeva, V. N.; Черняева, В. Н.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the difficulties faced by women in employment, about stereotypes, that prevent them from getting a decent job and advance their own careers, and the ways to solve this problem. В статье говорится о трудностях, с которыми женщины сталкиваются при трудоустройстве, о стереотипах, которые мешают им получать достойную работу и продвигаться по службе, и о путях решения этой проблемы....

  5. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  6. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas mediterranea and P. corrugata plant pathogens during accumulation of medium-chain-length PHAs by glycerol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Grazia; Ferraro, Rosario; Russo, Marcella; Strozzi, Francesco; Catara, Antonino F; Bella, Patrizia; Catara, Vittoria

    2017-07-25

    Pseudomonas corrugata and P. mediterranea are soil inhabitant bacteria, generally living as endophytes on symptomless plants and bare soil, but also capable of causing plant diseases. They share a similar genome size and a high proteome similarity. P. corrugata produces many biomolecules which play an important role in bacterial cell survival and fitness. Both species produce different medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs) from the bioconversion of glycerol to a transparent film in P. mediterranea and a sticky elastomer in P. corrugata. In this work, using RNA-seq we investigated the transcriptional profiles of both bacteria at the early stationary growth phase with glycerol as the carbon source. Quantitative analysis of P. mediterranea transcripts versus P. corrugata revealed that 1756 genes were differentially expressed. A total of 175 genes were significantly upregulated in P. mediterranea, while 217 were downregulated. The largest group of upregulated genes was related to transport systems and stress response, energy and central metabolism, and carbon metabolism. Expression levels of most genes coding for enzymes related to PHA biosynthesis and central metabolic pathways showed no differences or only slight variations in pyruvate metabolism. The most relevant result was the significantly increased expression in P. mediterranea of genes involved in alginate production, an important exopolysaccharide, which in other Pseudomonas spp. plays a key role as a virulence factor or in stress tolerance and shows many industrial applications. In conclusion, the results provide useful information on the co-production of mcl-PHAs and alginate from glycerol as carbon source by P. mediterranea in the design of new strategies of genetic regulation to improve the yield of bioproducts or bacterial fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot scale repeated fed-batch fermentation processes of the wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis for mass production of resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsiao-Ping; Wang, Reuben; Lin, Yi-Sheng; Lai, Jinn-Tsyy; Lo, Yi-Chen; Huang, Shyue-Tsong

    2017-11-01

    Resveratrol has long been used as an ingredient in functional foods. Currently, Polygonum cuspidatum extract is the greatest natural source for resveratrol because of high concentrations of glycosidic-linked resveratrol. Thus, developing a cost-effective procedure to hydrolyze glucoside could substantially enhance resveratrol production from P. cuspidatum. This study selected Dekkera bruxellensis from several microorganisms based on its bioconversion and enzyme-specific activities. We demonstrated that the cells could be reused at least nine times while maintaining an average of 180.67U/L β-glucosidase activity. The average resveratrol bioconversion efficiency within five rounds of repeated usage was 108.77±0.88%. This process worked effectively when the volume was increased to 1200L, a volume at which approximately 35mgL -1 h -1 resveratrol per round was produced. This repeated fed-batch bioconversion process for resveratrol production is comparable to enzyme or cell immobilization strategies in terms of reusing cycles, but without incurring additional costs for immobilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  10. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...... insecure and that the burden of unemployment risk mostly lies with the employees rather than the employer. Corporatist – or social democratic – employment relations models are, in contrast to the liberal models, often characterized by stricter regulation of the labor market and by high standards...

  11. Employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system......Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system...

  12. Atypical work and employment continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Surfield, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Atypical employment arrangements such as agency temporary work and contracting have long been criticized as offering more precarious and unstable work than regular employment. Using data from two datasets – the CAEAS and the NLSY79 – we determine whether workers who take such jobs rather than regular employment, or the alternative of continued job search, subsequently experience greater or lesser employment continuity. Observed differences between the various working arrangements are starkest...

  13. Receptiveness to Flexible Employment at Hungarian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Essősy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, only companies that are adaptable and flexible in their structure and processes can survive. The basis for a motivated company aiming for peak performance is organisational innovation. Hungary is one of the less innovative countries in Europe. Only organisations that can integrate new solutions smoothly into their everyday operations will remain truly competitive. The Government of Hungary, in its Partnership Agreement with the European Union, set out the goals for improving and supporting the adaptability of enterprises, the promotion of flexible and family-friendly workplace practices and services, and the employment of women with young children. The aim of this study is to demonstrate, through a Hungarian example, the receptiveness of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises to flexible forms of employment. The effect of flexible employment on economic adaptability and competitiveness through workforce efficiency and retention is examined. Its aim is the raise the awareness of options to increase employment among Hungarian SME managers.

  14. Bioconversion of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using apple filter cake Bioconversão de hidrocarbonetos de petróleo no solo pelo uso de bagaço de maçã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecilia Medaura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using apple filter cake, a fruit-processing waste to enhance the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. A rotating barrel system was used to study the bioconversion of the xenobiotic compound by natural occurring microbial population. The soil had been accidentally polluted with a total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 41,000 ppm. Although this global value was maintained during the process, microbial intervention was evidenced through transformation of the petroleum fractions. Thus, fractions that represent a risk for the environment (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics i.e., C6 to C10-12; DRO, Diesel Range Organics i.e., C8-12 to C24-26 and RRO, Residual Range Organics i.e., C25 to C35 were significantly reduced, from 2.95% to 1.39%. On the contrary, heavier weight fraction from C35 plus other organics increased in value from 1.15% to 3.00%. The noticeable diminution of low molecular weight hydrocarbons content and hence environmental risk by the process plus the improvement of the physical characteristics of the soil, are promising results with regard to future application at large scale.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigara viabilidade de aplicação de bagaço de maçã, um resíduo do processamento de frutas, para melhorar a biorremediação de solo contaminado com petróleo. Para estudar a bioconversão de compostos xenobióticos pela população microbiana naturalmente presente empregou-se um sistema de barril rotativo. O solo havia sido acidentalmente contaminado com um total de hidrocarbonetos de petróleo na concentração de 41.000 ppm. Embora esse valor tenha se mantido durante o processo, a intervenção microbiana ficou evidenciada através da transformação de frações do petróleo. Assim, as frações de risco para o meio ambiente (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics, i.e., C6 a C10-12; DRO, Diesel Ramge Organics, i.e. C8-12 a C24-26 e RRO, Residual Range Organics

  15. The Netherlands: self-employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    This is the national contribution to the CAR on self-employed workers in the Netherlands. In this national contribution information is provided on self-employed workers in relation to (1) legal provisions and social security, (2) recent trends in self-employment with no employees, (3) collective

  16. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.

  17. Combining Employment and Caregiving: An Intricate Juggling Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, Nancy; Maheu, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The process that allows family caregivers to combine employment and elder care was examined in interviews with 25 caregivers. The effects of elder care on employment are the result of the degree to which caregivers manage to maintain balance between different life spheres: personal and social life, family life, caregiving, and employment. (53…

  18. Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Coproduct, and High Solids Fermentation without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; J.Y. Zhu; Xiaolin Luo; Shao-Yuan Leu; Xiaolei Wu; Roland Gleisner; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald E. Hector; Dongjie Yang; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle killed Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) wood chips were pretreated using an acidic sulfite solution of approximately pH = 2.0 at a liquor to wood ratio of 3 and sodium bisulfite loading of 8 wt % on wood. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF), formulated from reaction kinetics, was used to design a scale-up...

  19. Bioconversion of beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL: Process scale-up design, lignin co-product, and high solids fermentation without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain pine beetle killed Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) wood chips were pretreated using an acidic sulfite solution of approximately pH = 2.0 at a liquor to wood ratio of 3 and sodium bisulfite loading of 8 wt % on wood. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF), formulated from rea...

  20. Interaction of Microbial and Abiotic Processes in Soil Leading to the (Bio)Conversion and Ultimate Attenuation of New Insensitive Munitions Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) NC Camp Butner soil (alternative abbreviation, soil is from North Carolina) NCBI National Center for Biotechnology ...knowledge and perspectives of bioelimination of xenobiotic compounds. Journal of Biotechnology 51, 287-295, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168...McKenzie, R. M. The synthesis of birnessite, cryptomelane, and some other oxides and hydroxides of manganese. Mineralogical Magazine 38, 493-502

  1. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-03-15

    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Concept of self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita; Dumčiuvienė, Daiva

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the theories that explain the growth of self-employment and help to determine the presumptions of the self-employment growth. Self-employment theories are classified to several groups, i.e. the economic and sociological-psychological as well as the “push” and “pull” theories. Economic theories of self-employment interpret financial motives of the person to pursue own business, while sociologicalpsychological theories of self-employment determine non-financial objectives...

  3. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...

  4. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  5. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  6. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  7. 31 CFR 28.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection... §§ 28.500 through 28.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for...-sponsored activities, including social or recreational programs; and (10) Any other term, condition, or...

  8. A systematic methodology to extend the applicability of a bioconversion model for the simulation of various co-digestion scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovalovszki, Adam; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Fotidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Detailed simulation of anaerobic digestion (AD) requires complex mathematical models and the optimization of numerous model parameters. By performing a systematic methodology and identifying parameters with the highest impact on process variables in a well-established AD model, its applicability...... was extended to various co-digestion scenarios. More specifically, the application of the step-by-step methodology led to the estimation of a general and reduced set of parameters, for the simulation of scenarios where either manure or wastewater were co-digested with different organic substrates. Validation...... experimental data quite well, indicating that it offers a reliable reference point for future simulations of anaerobic co-digestion scenarios....

  9. Employment strategy of the Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borisovich Toreev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the crisis it is especially important to choose a correct employment strategy. Every employee uses an employment strategy, as he/she selects the direction of long-term employment consciously or intuitively. The choice of strategy is determined by a number of factors shaping the person’s attitudes: health, character, upbringing, education, social environment, institutional environment. The employment strategies of the young people newly entering the labor market differ from lab our strategies of workers. Young people do not have such experience and can plan their life “from scratch”. The Soviet specialists, people who started their career in the planned economy, have their own features of employment strategies. The article describes employment strategies of the Russians

  10. 78 FR 17423 - Filing Procedures for Employment Authorization and Automatic Extension of Existing Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... (Form I-9) and E-Verify processes. DATES: The 6-month automatic extension of employment authorization... information on DED, including guidance on the application process for EADs and additional information on... for Certain Liberians Pursuant to his constitutional authority to conduct the foreign relations of the...

  11. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  12. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  13. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  14. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  15. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...... that the employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over...

  16. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Recent labour market reforms in Europe have been aimed at activating non-employed people and shortening unemployment duration. While this should indisputably be a central policy aim, the exclusive focus on quick re-employment neglects the importance of its quality and stability. Therefore......, this paper analyses the effect of labour market policy on re-employment stability in Europe. Combining EU-SILC longitudinal survey data with macro-data on labour market policy, we conduct multi-level survival analysis. Empirical evidence suggests that countries with more generous unemployment insurance......, and their positive effect on re-employment stability on the other hand....

  17. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment program--self-employment. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    This document amends the vocational rehabilitation and employment regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) concerning self-employment for individuals with qualifying disabilities. We are making changes to conform VA's regulations for self-employment programs for veterans, and for servicemembers awaiting discharge, to statutory provisions, including provisions limiting eligibility for certain supplies, equipment, stock, and license fees to individuals with the most severe service-connected disabilities. We are also making related changes in VA's regulations affecting eligibility for such assistance for certain veterans' children with birth defects in self-employment programs. In addition, we are amending our regulations regarding the approval authority for self-employment plans to make certain requirements less restrictive and less burdensome, to remove a vague and overly broad requirement, to make changes to reflect longstanding VA policy, and to make nonsubstantive clarifying changes.

  18. Breastfeeding and employment: an assessment of employer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C

    2002-08-01

    Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.

  19. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  20. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment. Exceptions...

  1. Bioconversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in thin stillage-based media by engineered Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-04-01

    Thin stillage (TS) is a waste residue that remains after bioethanol production, and its disposal reflects the high costs of bioethanol production. Thus, the development of cost-effective ways to process TS is a pending issue in bioethanol plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of TS for the production of the valuable chemical, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), by Lactobacillus panis PM1. Different fermentation parameters, including temperature, pH and strains [wild-type and a recombinant strain expressing a NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (YqhD) gene] were tested in batch and fed-batch cultivations. The highest 1,3-PDO concentration (12.85 g/L) and yield (0.84 g/g) were achieved by batch fermentation at pH-4.5/30 °C by the YqhD recombinant strain. Furthermore, pH-controlled batch fermentation reduced the total fermentation period, resulting in the maximal 1,3-PDO concentration of 16.23 g/L and yield of 0.72 g/g in TS without an expensive nutrient or nitrogen (e.g., yeast extract, beef extract, and peptone) supplementation. The addition of two trace elements, Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), in TS increased 1,3-PDO yield (0.74 g/g) without 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde production, the only intermediate of 1,3-PDO biosynthetic pathway in L. panis PM1. Our results suggest that L. panis PM1 can offer a cost-effective process that utilizes the TS to produce a value-added chemical, 1,3-PDO.

  2. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  3. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K C [Exxon International (United States)

    1992-07-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime.

  4. Bioconversion of different sizes of microcrystalline cellulose pretreated by microwave irradiation with/without NaOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Huadong; Chen, Hongzhang; Qu, Yongshui; Li, Hongqiang; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High concentration of alkali or temperature was necessary in cellulose degradation. • Effects of alkali pretreatment could be enhanced with the addition of microwave irradiation. • The structures diversities of microcrystalline cellulose were eliminated in the fermentation. • The significance of particle size and treat condition varied with reaction time. - Abstract: The process of microwave irradiation (MWI) pretreatment on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with different sizes with/without NaOH was investigated on the variation of the ratio of degradated solid residue (R DS ), particle size, crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size (Sc) and specific surface area (SSA). High concentration of alkali or high temperature was necessary in dissolving or decomposing the cellulose. Appropriate pretreatment severity eliminated the effects of structural diversities in feedstocks, which led to convergence in the ethanol fermentation. After the reaction proceeded to 120 h, the samples could be converted to glucose completely and the highest ethanol yield of the theoretical was 58.91% for all the samples pretreated by the combined treatment of MWI and NaOH. In addition, the statistical analysis implied that when reaction time got to 24 h, particle size and pretreatment condition affected much more significant than other factors

  5. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  6. Innovation, Industry Evoluation and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of articles on the links between innovation, the evolution of industry and employment. These relations provide the building blocks of a new industrial policy. The articles are included in Innovation, Industry Evolution and Employment

  7. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  8. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  9. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  10. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  11. Multi-scale process and supply chain modelling: from lignocellulosic feedstock to process and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Shah, Nilay

    2011-04-06

    There is a large body of literature regarding the choice and optimization of different processes for converting feedstock to bioethanol and bio-commodities; moreover, there has been some reasonable technological development in bioconversion methods over the past decade. However, the eventual cost and other important metrics relating to sustainability of biofuel production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process, but also by the performance of the entire supply chain from feedstock production to consumption. Moreover, in order to ensure world-class biorefinery performance, both the network and the individual components must be designed appropriately, and allocation of resources over the resulting infrastructure must effectively be performed. The goal of this work is to describe the key challenges in bioenergy supply chain modelling and then to develop a framework and methodology to show how multi-scale modelling can pave the way to answer holistic supply chain questions, such as the prospects for second generation bioenergy crops.

  12. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.

    1994-01-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  13. The measurement of employment benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtraw, D

    1994-07-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income.

  14. Additional employer and employee obligations of the contract of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskaitė, Vaida

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth since 2001 till 2008 start leaded to higher incomes for both employers and employees, many new jobs were created. The unemployment rate in Lithuania was particularly low, moreover, according to official statistics, nearly half a million people emigrated from Lithuania. Labor market challenges and economic patterns determined the principles of the labor law and the content of the norms, public social and political conditions. Employers, through businesses, noticed that it has b...

  15. Pressing Issues of Disability Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabunova Aleksandra Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability employment is a major tool for creating inclusive society. In Russia, the main obstacles to employment of the disabled are imperfect statutory measures aimed at improving competitiveness of this population group in the labor market; low prestige of jobs for people with disabilities; the employers’ unwillingness to hire disabled people. The purpose of this study is to determine the barriers disabled people face on the labor market and to justify the expedience of investing public funds in activities aimed at promoting disabled employment. Works of Russian and foreign authors, national statistics, results of sociological surveys of the population and people with disabilities conducted on the territory of the Vologda Oblast in 2013–2015 represent the information base of the study. The article reviews the impact of employment quotas for the disabled; in particular, it has been established that the number of the employed under such quotas during the period from 2008 to 2014 has declined. Based on the results of domestic research the authors have determined the reasons underlying lack of effectiveness of this social policy tool. One of the problems of promoting disability employment is training and re-training of the disabled. According to official statistics, only 38% of the employed disabled who live in a city are employed in the area of their specialty. At the same time, the results of research h of Russian authors show that training of an expert (even with consideration of their health capacities pays off within 4 years. Using the example of the Vologda Oblast, the authors show that annual tax revenues in employment of the disabled to jobs with wages close to the regional average may reach 33 million rubles. They also estimate the approximate regional cost of workplace equipment for the disabled. Finally, the authors propose a list of key courses of action on increasing competitiveness of the disabled in the labor market

  16. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  17. Employability of Nursing Care Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donik Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students’ and employers’ point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates’ employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students’ academic performance.

  18. Employer Branding: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norasyikin binti Shaikh Ibrahim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses employer branding from an Islamic perspective. Islam is away of life and so do the employer and employee relationship, which strengthensemployer branding in an organization. The definition, importance and processrelated to employer branding are discussed in the context of human resource management, such as job satisfaction and work environment. In addition to that, related human resource management practices such as recruitment andselection were discussed in an Islamic context. Related concepts such as employeevalue proposition (EVP, ethics and Islamic values were discussed with referencefrom Al-Quran and Hadith. The paper concludes with a few suggestions andrecommendations on instilling Islamic values for effective employer branding.

  19. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP ... LABOR DEPARTMENT Español A to Z Index Agencies Office of Inspector General Leadership Team Contact Us Subscribe ...

  20. Consultation Services for the Employer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is sensitive to the difficulties faced by employers who are genuinely concerned with their employees' safety and health and who wish to comply with OSHA regulations...

  1. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Job Veterans.Gov Apprenticeship Occupations and Careers Women Who Served Programs & Services Transition GPS Frequently Asked Questions Hire a Veteran Find qualified Veterans Policy & Compliance Employer Toolkit Apprenticeships HIRE Vets Medallion Program Service Providers Grants & ...

  2. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  3. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    experience, economic environment, and rules and restrictions with respect to active labor market policies. A few studies show that organizational structures and managerial organization within the unemployment offices also influence the employability of unemployed clients. But until now, no studies have...... empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  4. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  5. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina A.V.; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  6. Employment impacts of alcohol taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H

    2017-12-01

    There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Rebaudioside M Isomer from a Bioconversion Reaction of Rebaudioside A and NMR Comparison Studies of Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2, from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4 to rebaudioside D (3, was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2 is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1 and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR techniques when identifying complex steviol glycosides. Numerous NMR spectroscopy studies of rebaudioside M (1, rebaudioside D (3, and mixture of 1 and 3 led to the discovery that SG17 which was previously reported in literature, is a mixture of rebaudioside D (3, rebaudioside M (1, and possibly other related steviol glycosides.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Rebaudioside M Isomer from a Bioconversion Reaction of Rebaudioside A and NMR Comparison Studies of Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P.; Charan, Romila D.; Ramirez, Catherine; Priedemann, Christopher; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2), from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4) to rebaudioside D (3), was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2) is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1) and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY) and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR techniques when identifying complex steviol glycosides. Numerous NMR spectroscopy studies of rebaudioside M (1), rebaudioside D (3), and mixture of 1 and 3 led to the discovery that SG17 which was previously reported in literature, is a mixture of rebaudioside D (3), rebaudioside M (1), and possibly other related steviol glycosides. PMID:24970220

  10. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of creation of highly efficient renewable resources and bioconversion technologies; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabini bio conversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey is conducted concerning environmentally friendly industrial technologies that utilize renewable resources, which are technologies of creating highly renewable resources and converting renewable resources by breeding industrial vegetation. In relation with the creation technologies, the state of research and development of basic technologies is surveyed, which involves the fabrication of environmental stress resisting vegetation, studies for the application of the gene expression control mechanism, introduction of multigenes and site-directed genes, etc. Concerning the respective target products expected to be produced by industrial vegetation, as much information as possible relative to genes is collected on the current state of production, metabolism in vegetation and microbials, and biosynthesis. Surveyed in relation with the bioconversion technology are the conversion of vegetation-derived polymers, construction of environmentally friendly ligno-bioprocess, conversion of sugar, production of biofuels, etc. Furthermore, the technology of treating ligneous wastes with supercritical water is surveyed, this to determine the practicality of the technology at the current stage. (NEDO)

  11. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements; Estudo do processo de lixiviacao controlada da escoria de aciaria em extrator Soxhlet visando emprego em pavimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves, E-mail: kissyla.avila@gmail.com.br, E-mail: cap-guimaraes@hotmail.com, E-mail: marceloreis@ime.eb.br, E-mail: cl_deny@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  12. Bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B; Mandenius, C F; Mattiasson, B; Nilsson, B; Axelsson, J P; Hagander, P

    1985-06-20

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated sallow gives highest yields of soluble sugars when hemicellulose is degraded already in the pretreatment step. The steam pretreatment equipment is rebuilt so that 75 g (dry matter) material instead of 7 g can be treated each time. The cellulose production has been increased 123% by the utilization of aqueous two-phase systems as compared to regular growth medium. The cellulase activity per gram of cellulose has been increased from 42 FPU in regular growth medium to 156 FPU in aqueous two-phase systems. Crude dextran can be used for enzyme production. Enzyme recovery up to 75% has been achieved by combining aqueous two-phase technique with membrane technique. Using the enzyme glucose isomerase in combination with S. cerevisiae theoretical yields in pentose fermentations have been achieved, with a product concentration of 60 g/L and a productivity of 2 g/L x h. Yeast and enzyme can be recirculated using membrane technique. Computer simulation shows that the rate equation for enzymatic hydrolysis with respect to inhibiting sugar concentrations can be used to interpolate with respect to sugar concentrations. Computer simulations show that hydrolysis experiments should focus on high substrate concentrations (>10%) using fed-batch technique and enzyme concentrations in the range of 2-8% in relation to substrate dry matter. The combined 'flow injection analysis', FIA, and enzyme reactor probe has been adapted to enzymatic saccarifications of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. The gas membrane sensor for ethanol has been utilized in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. A literature study concerning pervaporation for ethanol up-grading has been made.(Author).

  13. Employer attractiveness from a generational perspective: Implications for employer branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the employer attractiveness factors prioritized by different generations: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. The survey was conducted with a sample of 937 professionals, working in various areas and companies, most of them were managers and had a high education level. The Employer Attractiveness Scale proposed by Berthon et al. (2005 was adopted and the results indicate that, when choosing a company, the generations under study have specific features regarding the attractiveness attributes they prioritize. It was also observed that Generation Y discriminates and ranks such attributes more clearly than the others. Possible implications for employer branding and research limitations are discussed at the end of the article.

  14. Employee to employer communication skills: balancing cancer treatment and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy

    2013-02-01

    Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    I analyze the job separation process to learn about gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability. An essential finding is that employer-employee data are required to identify gender differences in job separation probabilities because of labor market segregation. Failure...... workplaces. Finally, women's employment stability is relatively low because they are more likely to move from a job and into unemployment or out of the labor force, and less likely to make job-to-job transitions....

  16. The TEES process cleans waste and produces energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.C.; Silva, L.J.

    1995-02-01

    A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350 degrees C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can be fed as a solution or slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system >99% conversions of organic waste to medium-Btu fuel gas can be achieved

  17. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao

    2013-01-01

    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  18. Employers' Attitudes toward Employing People with Mental Handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, John W. L.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 66 Hong Kong companies and factories identified factors affecting employers' decisions to hire workers with mental handicaps. The five most important factors were emotional problems and personalities of workers, workers' ability to perform the job, availability of low-level jobs, productivity of workers, and possible special…

  19. 29 CFR 779.19 - Employer, employee, and employ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO... of oppressive child labor. The Act provides its own definitions of “employer,” “employee”, and... relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a...

  20. Graduates' Employability: What Do Graduates and Employers Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsouka, Kyriaki; Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the views of university graduates and human resource managers (HRMs) on graduates' employability in terms of the soft skills required by the labour market. Soft skills (personal attributes that enhance an individual's interactions, job performance and career prospects) are necessary in the labour…

  1. Using Employer Hiring Behavior to Test the Educational Signaling Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, J.W.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of the educational signaling hypothesis.If employers use education as a signal in the hiring process, they will rely more on education when less is otherwise known about applicants.We nd that employers are more likely to lower educational standards when an informal, more

  2. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  3. Employers' experience of employees with cancer: trajectories of complex communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedtke, C. M.; Dierckx de Casterlé, B.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Greidanus, M. A.; Tamminga, S. J.; de Rijk, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Remaining in paid work is of great importance for cancer survivors, and employers play a crucial role in achieving this. Return to work (RTW) is best seen as a process. This study aims to provide insight into (1) Dutch employers' experiences with RTW of employees with cancer and (2) the

  4. A novel process for volatile fatty acids production from syngas by integrating with mesophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Yue; Wan, Jingjing; Liu, Yafeng

    2018-01-01

    The present study proposed and demonstrated a novel process for the bioconversion of syngas (mainly CO and H2) to valuable volatile fatty acids (VFA) by integrating with mesophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS). The results showed that although pH 9 was suitable for VFA...... to the mesophilic alkaline fermentation of WAS at pH 10 not only resulted in the enrichment of some known bacteria related with syngas conversion, but also changed the microbial community compositions for the fermentation of WAS....

  5. EMPLOYER BRAND AND ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As companies and individuals to live their best release? What should companies and individuals were the most successful? What job would bring the most satisfaction and opportunities for further development? What would be the fastest way led to the realization of corporate goals and their own? Answers to these questions can be obtained through analysis of employer brand and Analysis of individual potential (AIP. Employer brand analysis and analysis of individual potential is the process of identifying the strengths and potential of the company as well as a person. In this way, determining what it is that a company or person works best, how to motivate people and to the field of application of discovered talent. The main objective of this procedure is the development of an overall as well as personal and professional development of individuals in the direction of those activities and areas that will bring long-term satisfaction

  6. Childcare Programs Benefit Employers, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Donald J.; Massengill, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    The person selecting a childcare program should consider how various plans would benefit employers as well as employees. The needs of the employees and the company must be considered and the options, benefits, and drawbacks of programs must be studied. (JOW)

  7. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand

  8. Comparative research on women's employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Dijk, L. van

    2002-01-01

    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings.

  9. Sustainable employability and sensor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Hilbrand; Polstra, Louis; Velthuijsen, Hugo; de Groot, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Employees’ level of sustainable employability is influenced by their health. In our study we tested whether self-tracking devices – devices that provide the user with reliable and continuous feedback on one or more health domains – can be useful tools in order to increase employees’ health and, as a

  10. Leisure Education in Supported Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Opportunities, Inc., Raleigh, NC.

    This manual provides a leisure education program for individuals with disabilities, to facilitate leisure functioning in their homes and communities. The program is first introduced to participants and families upon admission into supported employment and is designed to be facilitated by a training specialist or job coach. The program can be…

  11. Intergenerational Attitudes toward Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…

  12. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...

  13. Employment and Unemployment in Lagos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Fapohunda (Olanrewaju)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractWage-earning employment was non-existent in Nigeria before the advent of the white man and the British administration. The average Nigerian engaged in subsistence agriculture or some cottage industry like weaving, pottery or carving. The first wage earners in Nigeria were probably the

  14. Physical Attractiveness, Employment, and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  15. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  16. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  17. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  18. Patient advocacy versus employer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, David; Sturm, Richard E

    2002-01-01

    In a departure from the usual Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews article, this piece comprises responses from two occupational physicians to the question of how balance is achieved between employer and patient interests in occupational medicine. The authors discuss the ethical dilemmas that may arise in such relationships, negotiation of confrontations, physician responsibilities, and conflict resolution.

  19. Youth Employability Training: Two Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…

  20. Employers' Perspectives of Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of seven representative studies pertaining to the employers' perceptions of online education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper retrieved and analysed representative studies on the subject from two scholarly databases and Google. Findings: The results indicate that…

  1. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  2. Speaking Strategies Employed by Second Year Students at Mettu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicative language teaching should not just aim to teach learners the ... the speaking strategies employed by second year English major students at Mettu ... activities and strategy training in teaching learning process of speaking skills.

  3. Social Enterprises and Employment: Mainstreaming SMEs and Employment Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzona, Leonardo Jr. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that mainstreaming small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and social enterprises (SEs) into various international treaties will require the assumption of positive externalities, which markets cannot fully evaluate. To show this, the possible influence that SEs may have on SME development and, eventually, on employment will be discussed. SEs are small- and medium-sized commercial businesses providing valuable social service to customers and sustainable jobs and training for up t...

  4. Development of the University of Washington Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals Process Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [University of Washington

    2014-02-04

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design and build a bioconversion steam explosion reactor and ancillary equipment such as a high pressure boiler and a fermenter to support the bioconversion process research. This equipment has been in constant use since its installation in 2012. Following are research projects that it has supported: • Investigation of novel chip production method in biofuels production • Investigation of biomass refining following steam explosion • Several studies on use of different biomass feedstocks • Investigation of biomass moisture content on pretreatment efficacy. • Development of novel instruments for biorefinery process control Having this equipment was also instrumental in the University of Washington receiving a $40 million grant from the US Department of Agriculture for biofuels development as well as several other smaller grants. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  5. EEO Review : youth employment measures, 2010 - Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Debono, Manwel

    2010-01-01

    This report explores youth employment measures in Malta. It outlines the trends in youth employment. Then it examines measures taken to promote youth employment, focusing on school education and training policies, labour market and employment-related policies, and access to benefits. Finally, the report focuses on the roles of labour market actors in the promotion of youth employment.

  6. Teenage employment and career readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents recent nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study suggesting that limited hours of paid work do not crowd out developmentally appropriate after-school activities. A review of the literature also supports the idea that employment for limited hours in good jobs can promote career readiness and positive development. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of youth work for practitioners and policymakers who are delivering career-related programming. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. The Employed Neurosurgeon: Essential Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzil, Deborah L; Zusman, Edie E

    2017-04-01

    Neurosurgeons are highly specialized surgeons whose pride is mastery of the complexity of form and function that is the nervous system and then knowing when and how these require surgical intervention. Following years of arduous postgraduate education, neurosurgeons enter the world of practice that is not only daunting in its intricacies of regulations, mandates, and unknown business practices, but also changing at a meteoric pace. Overwhelmingly, graduating residents and fellows are choosing to practice as employed physicians, a trend that is new in its magnitude and also changed because of the rapid evolution of large health systems. Case studies of challenges other employed surgical specialists have faced can provide critical and important education for any neurosurgeon in this arena. As with the lessons of all case studies, the teachings are remarkably universal, but how those lessons apply to an individual's specific situation will require personalized adaptation. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  8. Employment growth and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rikard; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies...... in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002...... economies, we find that, although in general these economies react relatively similarly to changes, embarking on a narrower analysis of the individual sectors reveals marked national differences. This indicates that context matters in the analysis of regional economic dynamics in terms of structure, system...

  9. An integrated model for the technical and economic evaluation of an enzymatic biomass conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q A; Saddler, J N [Forintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, Ontario (CA). Dept. of Biotechnology and Chemistry

    1991-01-01

    A process simulation model was constructed, using the Lotus 123 spreadsheet, to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a lignocellulosic-to-ethanol bioconversion process. The major components of the process were: steam pretreatment, fractionation, enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis, ethanol fermentation of glucose and xylose, product recovery, and waste treatment. The model provided an estimation of the price of ethanol and evaluated the interdependence of process parameters and their effect on the production cost of ethanol. A case study of a plant processing 500 tonnes of aspenwood per day showed that the parameters which had the most significant impact on the price of ethanol were: the cost of wood, cost of enzymes, efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis, ethanol yield from xylose, efficiency of the fractionation process, and the selling price of the lignin by-product. (author).

  10. Population and Employment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Keyfitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    China's effectiveness in population control can be credited to the direct line of command through party and administrative cadres that extends from the leadership in Beijing down to the production team in a distant rural commune. The reason that the administrative machine has devoted so much attention to population control is twofold: the perceived limits of the natural environment, as indicated by slowness of growth of food supplies, and the difficulty of arranging productive employment for ...

  11. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  12. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  13. Virtual reality for employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina

    2017-01-01

    We showed a variety of virtual reality technologies, and through examples, we discussed how virtual reality technology is transforming work styles and workplaces. Virtual reality is becoming pervasive in almost all domains starting from arts, environmental causes to medical education and disaster management training, and to supporting patients with Dementia. Thus, an awareness of the virtual reality technology and its integration in curriculum design will provide and enhance employability ski...

  14. Artificial Intelligence, Employment, and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) will have profound societal effects. It promises potential benefits (and may also pose risks) in education, defense, business, law and science. In this article we explore how AI is likely to affect employment and the distribution of income. We argue that AI will indeed reduce drastically the need of human toil. We also note that some people fear the automation of work by machines and the resulting of unemployment. Yet, since the majority of us probably would rathe...

  15. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.

  16. Global Employer and Business Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business coordinat......Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business...... coordination. This study analyses all the global peak associations (International Chamber of Commerce, International Organisation of Employers, World Chambers Federation, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD, B20 Coalition, World Economic Forum and World Business Council for Sustainable...... leadership functions, while global associations meet a variety of demands from their diverse constituencies and assist members in building capacities. These relations take many different forms, but they are important in all global associations, and the analysis of these patterns of collective action have...

  17. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Omar A; Axtell, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  18. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Guerrero

    Full Text Available It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN. This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  19. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received

  20. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  1. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  2. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  3. Contingent Employment in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Pot, F.; Koene, Bas; Paauwe, Jaap

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade the Dutch labour market has demonstrated an admirable capacity to generate jobs. Consequently, the unemployment rate has significantly decreased. However, the newly generated jobs are a-typical in the sense that they are not full-time jobs based on open-ended contracts. Instead, the job growth has relied on the growth of part-time and contingent jobs. While the creation of part-time jobs seems to be employee-driven, contingent employment, in contrast, seems to b...

  4. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  5. ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS OF EMPLOYERS, EMPLOYEES AND PARENTS ABOUT THE EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja STANKOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to work is one of the fundamental human rights in all developed countries around the world. The employment, actually the right to work of persons with disability is the final phase of the long and complex process of their rehabilitation that affects the possibility of their integration in the community.The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of employment of people with autism, based on the attitudes and opinions of employers, employees and parents of the children with autism.The basic tasks of this research are: to determine whether the employers would employ a person with autism; weather employers and the employees know what autism is; weather according to employers and employees people with autism are able to perform their job duties in complete and weather the parents of children with autism would like their child to be employed.We conducted this research in a period of 3 months and included 130 respondents. Obtained data were collected, grouped, tabled and processed with standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Exact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and the interpretation of the results, we concluded that in the Republic of Macedonia do not exist positive atmosphere, for employment of the persons with autism, the employers do not want to employ a person with autism. The professionals must engage more deeply in this problematic in order to achieve a complete integration of the people with autism in the society.

  6. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-11-01

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  7. Energy mix and employment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodopia, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    ''Energy Mix and Employment Effects'' is a subject not to be reduced to the so-called ''job argument''. It also involves the question whether it will be possible to achieve consensus again about the composition of a balanced sustainable energy mix. This term must not be interpreted in a static sense; after all, the framework conditions of energy policy are changing. However, this must not render energy policy unsteady. This requirement should be imposed on economic policy in general, i.e. political interventions, it they are really unavoidable, must be predictable on a long term. This contribution also examines the meaning of the term ''energy mix.'' Aspects of the debate about the climate, especially potential factors influencing the climate, are discussed against the backdrop of scientific validity. Other key points covered are the description and analysis of the energy policy framework. One major aspect under study are all kinds of ''subsidies'' of energy resources and the consequences to the whole economy arising from these financial support mechanisms. The findings are projected onto the employment effects. Finally, the question is raised how to design an energy mix sustainable for the future, and how to achieve it politically and in society. (orig.)

  8. Specifics of the employment process in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca DIMITRIU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The labour legislation applicable in public sector is very different from the one applicable in private sector. Unlike the private sector where the market is the most efficient regulator and sanctions all errors made by the assessor, in the public sector there isn’t always a feed-back from the economic realities that may prove the accuracy and the efficiency of the assessment. Consequently, the law goes further on and imposes requirements, deadlines and procedures. While the private sector enjoys a certain flexibility regarding the assessment of the staff, in order to adjust it to the requirements of the economic realities, in the public sector, flexibility can lead to manifestations of subjectivism and arbitrariness. On the other hand, the excessive amount of regulations applicable in public sector may provide versatile and even contradictory results.

  9. Department's Negotiated Rulemaking Process for Gainful Employment. Final Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Education (Department) is required to use negotiated rulemaking to develop proposed regulations for programs authorized under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA). Under negotiated rulemaking, the Department works to develop the proposed regulations in collaboration with representatives of the parties…

  10. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  11. 77 FR 76074 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Department of Labor's Veterans' Employment and Training Services' (VETS) core programs and new initiatives... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and Training Service, Labor. ACTION: Notice of open meeting...

  12. The measurement and enhancement of employability and career success: over different life and career stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The employability of workers enables organizations to cope with their fluctuating demand for numerical and functional flexibility. Clear definitions and instruments are needed to facilitate this process. For individual workers, professional expertise and employability are needed to deliver high

  13. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer responsibilities. 1656.7 Section 1656.7... SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program are responsible for: (a) Complying with the employment agreement with Selective Service; (b) Providing a clear...

  14. 43 CFR 41.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 41.500 Section 41.500 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  15. 41 CFR 101-4.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employment. 101-4.500... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  16. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  17. 6 CFR 17.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 17.500 Section 17.500 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefore, whether...

  18. 28 CFR 54.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 54.500 Section 54.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  19. 40 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  20. 45 CFR 618.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 618.500 Section 618.500 Public Welfare... the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.500 Employment. (a... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection...