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Sample records for bioconversion processes employing

  1. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karcher Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, packed bed reactor (PBR, fluidized bed reactor (FBR, airlift reactor (ALR, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  2. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  3. Synergistic effects of mixing hybrid poplar and wheat straw biomass for bioconversion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Rodrigo Morales; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Background Low cost of raw materials and good process yields are necessary for future lignocellulosic biomass biorefineries to be sustainable and profitable. A low cost feedstock will be diverse, changing as a function of seasonality and price and will most likely be available from multiple sources to the biorefinery. The efficacy of the bioconversion process using mixed biomass, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. Considering the seasonal availability of wheat straw and the year r...

  4. Biomass production and bioconversion to both fuel and food employing solar energy technology - An alternative to conventional farming and the conversion of food to fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    A process for the bioconversion of high-yield biomass to both fuel and food, judged more efficient than the conventional production of soybean meal and methanol, is described. Attention is given the diversion of farm land for the production of a conventional food/energy crop, such as corn, that will be subsequently converted to a liquid fuel. The technique presented involves growing biomass at optimum crop yield, then converting it to synthesis gas and finally, through bioconversion, to single-cell protein and methanol. Background for the various aspects of the system and its preliminary engineering economics are provided.

  5. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  6. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  7. Removal of heteroatoms and metals from heavy oils by bioconversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    Biocatalysts, either appropriate microorganisms or isolated enzymes, will be used in an aqueous phase in contact with the heavy oil phase to extract heteroatoms such as sulfur from the oil phase by bioconversion processes. Somewhat similar work on coal processing will be adapted and extended for this application. Bacteria such as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans will be studied for the reductive removal of organically-bound sulfur and bacteria such as Rhodococcus rhodochrum will be investigated for the oxidative removal of sulfur. Isolated bacteria from either oil field co-produced sour water or from soil contaminated by oil spills will also be tested. At a later time, bacteria that interact with organic nitrogen may also be studied. This type of interaction will be carried out in advanced bioreactor systems where organic and aqueous phases are contacted. One new concept of emulsion-phase contacting, which will be investigated, disperses the aqueous phase in the organic phase and is then recoalesced for removal of the contaminants and recycled back to the reactor. This program is a cooperative research and development program with the following companies: Baker Performance Chemicals, Chevron, Energy BioSystems, Exxon, Texaco, and UNOCAL. After verification of the bioprocessing concepts on a laboratory-scale, the end-product will be a demonstration of the technology at an industrial site. This should result in rapid transfer of the technology to industry.

  8. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  9. Optimization of process parameters for the bioconversion of activated sludge by Penicillium corylophilum,using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarkar Mannan; Ahmadun Fakhru'l-Razi; Md Zahangir Alam

    2007-01-01

    The optimization of process parameters for the bioconversion of activated sludge by Penicillium corylophilum was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters namely temperature of 33(C, agitation of 150 r/min, and pH of 5 were chosen as center point from the previous study of fungal treatment. The experimental data on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (%) were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using multiple regression analysis. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing response surface three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot and by solving the regression model equation with Design Expert software. Box-Behnken design technique under RSM was used to optimize their interactions, which showed that an incubation temperature of 32.5(C, agitation of 105 r/min, and pH of 5.5 were the best conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted yield of COD removal was 98.43%. These optimum conditions were used to evaluate the trail experiment, and the maximum yield of COD removal was recorded as 98.5%.

  10. Optimization of process parameters for pilot-scale liquid-state bioconversion of sewage sludge by mixed fungal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Barghash, Hind F A; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique has great potential for application in bioremediation of sewage sludge. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum level of LSB process of sewage sludge treatment by mixed fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The optimization of process factors was investigated using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design considering hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate influent concentration (S0) on nine responses for optimizing and fitted to the regression model. The optimum region was successfully depicted by optimized conditions, which was identified as the best fit for convenient multiple responses. The results from process verification were in close agreement with those obtained through predictions. Considering five runs of different conditions of HRT (low, medium and high 3.62, 6.13 and 8.27 days, respectively) with the range of S0 value (the highest 12.56 and the lowest 7.85 g L(-1)), it was monitored as the lower HRT was considered as the best option because it required minimum days of treatment than the others with influent concentration around 10 g L(-1). Therefore, optimum process factors of 3.62 days for HRT and 10.12 g L(-1) for S0 were identified as the best fit for LSB process and its performance was deviated by less than 5% in most of the cases compared to the predicted values. The recorded optimized results address a dynamic development in commercial-scale biological treatment of wastewater for safe and environment-friendly disposal in near future.

  11. Optimization of process parameters for pilot-scale liquid-state bioconversion of sewage sludge by mixed fungal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Barghash, Hind F A; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique has great potential for application in bioremediation of sewage sludge. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum level of LSB process of sewage sludge treatment by mixed fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The optimization of process factors was investigated using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design considering hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate influent concentration (S0) on nine responses for optimizing and fitted to the regression model. The optimum region was successfully depicted by optimized conditions, which was identified as the best fit for convenient multiple responses. The results from process verification were in close agreement with those obtained through predictions. Considering five runs of different conditions of HRT (low, medium and high 3.62, 6.13 and 8.27 days, respectively) with the range of S0 value (the highest 12.56 and the lowest 7.85 g L(-1)), it was monitored as the lower HRT was considered as the best option because it required minimum days of treatment than the others with influent concentration around 10 g L(-1). Therefore, optimum process factors of 3.62 days for HRT and 10.12 g L(-1) for S0 were identified as the best fit for LSB process and its performance was deviated by less than 5% in most of the cases compared to the predicted values. The recorded optimized results address a dynamic development in commercial-scale biological treatment of wastewater for safe and environment-friendly disposal in near future. PMID:26111620

  12. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  13. Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1981-04-01

    Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

  14. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  15. COMBINED COMPOST AND VERMICOMPOSTING PROCESS IN THE TREATMENT AND BIOCONVERSION OF SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alidadi, A. R. Parvaresh and M. R. Shamansouri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional thermophillic composting is commonly for treatment of sludge. A related technique as vermicomposting process, using earthworms to breakdown sludge, is also becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. The combined approach suggested in this study to enhance the overall process and improve the products qualities. Two systems,vermicomposting and combined compost vermicomposting processes, have been investigated in this study. The sludge used in this study was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant.The sludge mixed with sawdust to provide C/N ratio of 25/1.Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting processes.The results obtained indicates reduction in the amount of volatile solids,total carbon and C/N ratio with the vermicompost age,which indicates the reduction in the biodegradable organic content and mineralization of sludge. Also increase in phosphorus concentration by the end process because of mineralization of organic matter. The results indicate that, a system that combines the two mentioned processes not only shortens stabilization time, but also improves the products quality. Combining the two systems resulted in a product that was more stable and homogenous; the product could meet the pathogen reduction requirements.

  16. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    OpenAIRE

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi; Md. Zahangir Alam; M. Fahrurrazi Tompang

    2010-01-01

    The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for ...

  17. Process development studies on the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1979-12-01

    Preliminary studies show minimal conversion of wood by sulfur dioxide at pressures of 38 psi at room temperature. Evaluation studies of Rut-C-30 and Rut-L-5 Trichoderma viride strains were compared. Studies on the continuous production system by manipulating temperature, pH, Tween 80 level substrate concentration, and dilution rate were performed. The known major components of cellulases were characterized. Studies on the reduction of the cost of producing sugar from corn stover were performed. Development of medium for continuous ethanol fermentation is discussed. Experiments show that the growth limiting factors for continuous fermentation were in the yeast extract. Biotin, pantothenic acid, and pyridoxine appear to be growth limiting factors. Addition of other vitamins had no effect on cell yield but increased ethanol production. The flash ferm process is discussed. Utilization of hemicellulose sugars is described. (DC)

  18. Integrated two-liquid phase bioconversion and product-recovery processes for the oxidation of alkanes: process design and economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys; Schmid; Witholt

    1999-08-20

    Pseudomonas oleovorans and recombinant strains containing the alkane oxidation genes can produce alkane oxidation products in two-liquid phase bioreactor systems. In these bioprocesses the cells, which grow in the aqueous phase, oxidize apolar, non-water soluble substrates. The apolar products typically accumulate in the emulsified apolar phase. We have studied both the bioconversion systems and several downstream processing systems to separate and purify alkanols from these two-liquid phase media. Based on the information generated in these studies, we have now designed bioconversion and downstream processing systems for the production of 1-alkanols from n-alkanes on a 10 kiloton/yr scale, taking the conversion of n-octane to 1-octanol as a model system. Here, we describe overall designs of fed-batch and continuous-fermentation processes for the oxidation of octane to 1-octanol by Pseudomonas oleovorans, and we discuss the economics of these processes. In both systems the two-liquid phase system consists of an apolar phase with hexadecene as the apolar carrier solvent into which n-octane is dissolved, while the cells are present in the aqueous phase. In one system, multiple-batch fermentations are followed by continuous processing of the product from the separated apolar phase. The second system is based on alkane oxidation by continuously growing cultures, again followed by continuous processing of the product. Fewer fermentors were required and a higher space-time-yield was possible for production of 1-octanol in a continuous process. The overall performance of each of these two systems has been modeled with Aspen software. Investment and operating costs were estimated with input from equipment manufacturers and bulk-material suppliers. Based on this study, the production cost of 1-octanol is about 7 US$kg-1 when produced in the fed-batch process, and 8 US$kg-1 when produced continuously. The comparison of upstream and downstream capital costs and production

  19. Quantifying pretreatment degradation compounds in solution and accumulated by cells during solids and yeast recycling in the Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycling Technology process using AFEX™ corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarks, Cory; Higbee, Alan; Piotrowski, Jeff; Xue, Saisi; Coon, Joshua J; Sato, Trey K; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    Effects of degradation products (low molecular weight compounds produced during pretreatment) on the microbes used in the RaBIT (Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycling Technology) process that reduces enzyme usage up to 40% by efficient enzyme recycling were studied. Chemical genomic profiling was performed, showing no yeast response differences in hydrolysates produced during RaBIT enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrations of degradation products in solution were quantified after different enzymatic hydrolysis cycles and fermentation cycles. Intracellular degradation product concentrations were also measured following fermentation. Degradation product concentrations in hydrolysate did not change between RaBIT enzymatic hydrolysis cycles; the cell population retained its ability to oxidize/reduce (detoxify) aldehydes over five RaBIT fermentation cycles; and degradation products accumulated within or on the cells as RaBIT fermentation cycles increased. Synthetic hydrolysate was used to confirm that pretreatment degradation products are the sole cause of decreased xylose consumption during RaBIT fermentations.

  20. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  1. REALITIES OF THE SELF-EMPLOYMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina STAN; Daniela SARPE; Iordachescu, Mihaela

    2006-01-01

    The present analyse was developed within the framework of Self-Employment project, i.e. “Guidance and counselling for self-employment”, financed under EU Leonardo da Vinci Programme. The aim of this project is to identify the location and the value of guidance and counselling services addressed to people considering self-employment. The project conducted a survey of existing guidance and counselling services in different location addressed to educatedand experienced persons who wish to start ...

  2. REALITIES OF THE SELF-EMPLOYMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina STAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present analyse was developed within the framework of Self-Employment project, i.e. “Guidance and counselling for self-employment”, financed under EU Leonardo da Vinci Programme. The aim of this project is to identify the location and the value of guidance and counselling services addressed to people considering self-employment. The project conducted a survey of existing guidance and counselling services in different location addressed to educatedand experienced persons who wish to start their own business, how they were assisted and provided necessary guidance. The project partners are from Austria, Poland, Romania and Finland.This complementary partnership represents the background of counselling and guidance, academic and education, research and analysis fields strengthen by small business orientation and experience in self-employment project. They represent environments of different level of national awareness, policies andeducational offer. The present paper is based on the findings of the field study, aiming to identify the real needs of the self-employed and of the people considering selfemployment and if supporting services available are suited to their needs.

  3. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels. PMID:27039400

  4. Employing expert systems for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic features of expert systems are explained in detail, and the systems' application in process control engineering. Four points of main interest are there, namely: Applications for diagnostic tasks, for safety analyses, planning, and training and expert training. For the modelling of the technical systems involved in all four task fields mentioned above, an object-centred approach has shown to be the suitable method, as process control techniques are determined by technical objects that in principle are specified by data sheets, schematic representations, flow charts, and plans. The graphical surface allows these data to be taken into account, so that the object can be displayed in the way best suited to the individual purposes. (orig./GL)

  5. Bioconversion of anhydrosugars: Emerging concepts and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacik, John-Paul; Jarboe, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    As methods for the use of anhydrosugars in chemical and biofuel production continue to develop, our collective knowledge of anhydrosugar processing enzymes continues to improve, including their mechanistic details, structural dynamics and modes of substrate binding. Of particular interest, anhydrosugar kinases, such as levoglucosan kinase (LGK) and 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase (AnmK), utilize an unusual mechanism whereby the sugar substrate is both cleaved and phosphorylated. The phosphorylated sugar can then be routed to other metabolic pathways, thereby allowing its further bioconversion. Advanced engineering efforts to improve the catalytic efficiency and stability of LGK have been steadily progressing. Other enzymes that cleave the glycosidic bond of disaccharide sugars containing an anhydrosugar component are also being identified and characterized. Accordingly, the potential future use of these enzymes in large-scale production strategies is becoming increasingly viable. Here, a mini-review of the observed characteristics of anhydrosugar processing enzymes is presented along with recent developments in the bioconversion of these sugars. © 2016 IUBMB Life 68(9):700-708, 2016. PMID:27416973

  6. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  7. An empirical model on extractive lactic acid bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Yunus, R; Roychoudhury, P K

    1999-01-01

    The commercial production of lactic acid through fermentation process has always been in competition with its chemical synthesis process (Kirk Othmer, 1995). Lactic acid produced through the fermentation process has to cope with the problems of purification to meet the required quality standards. An attempt to improve the fermentative production is possible by proper design of an industrial process involving low capital cost for the plant. Also, the low energy costs both in its fermentation and purification, are required. In the commercial interest, the investment cost should be minimised, which is possible only when the cell density in fermenter is high. It means that the inhibitory effect of the product on process kinetics must be minimised. Based on these requirements, the extractive bioconversion technique is one of the approaches to achieve the commercially viable lactic acid production. Extractive lactic acid bioconversion using ion-exchange resin process has already been described in our earlier publications (Srivastava e al., 1992: Roychoudhury et al., 1995) It is always an advantage to develop a process model, thus opening an area of biotechnological improvements to the process. In the present paper, an empirical mathematical model has been described to explain this extractive bioconversion using ion-exchange resin process. It was based on generalised Monod's growth model and Leudeking and Piret equation. The system was defined with the assumption that the microbial growth can be represented as a single reaction; only a very little part of the substrate is utilised for the maintenance of the cells. The effect of end product inhibition on growth and product formation kinetics has also been considered in this model. A non-linear regression technique was used for evaluation of bioconversion kinetic parameters. The fourth order Runge Kutta method was used for solving the differential equations. The results of this process simulation are also discussed in the

  8. Microbial bioconversion of pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovleva, L.A.; Aliyeva, R.M.; Naumova, R.P.; Gvozdyak, P.I. (Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms totally detoxicate xenobiotics of various chemical structures, which are serious and, in some cases, very hazardous pollutants. At present, the efforts of a number of researchers promoted the establishment in this country of a collection of microorganisms able to degrade volatile toxic pollutants--toluene, isomeric xylenes, styrene, alpha-methylstyrene, crotonaldehyde; widely distributed xenobiotics chlorobenzoic acids; isomeric aryldicarboxylic acids; and ecologically hazardous pollutants such as aromatic nitrocompounds. The active strains-destructors are mainly representatives of the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Research into their physiological characteristics, key enzymes, pathways of xenobiotics degradation, genetic mechanisms determining the degradation of these foreign compounds, and behaviour of the strains in a real environment made it possible to develop the theoretical principles of using these microbial cultures to purify real industrial wastes and remediate polluted areas of soil and water. Improvement of the methods of immobilizing the active xenobiotics-degrading strains on cheap and efficient carriers made it possible to significantly intensify the cleanup process of industrial wastes and eliminate a number of problems during the development of the biotechnologies for industrial waste cleanup. Successfully operated at present are the biotechnologies of the local cleanup of waste waters of terephthalate production, microbial purification of industrial waste waters in nylon-66 production from hexamethylenediamine, purification of coke production wastes from phenols, waste waters of polyisocyanate production from aromatic amines, local purification of waste waters in synthetic rubber production from alpha-methylstyrene, acetaldehyde production wastes from crotonaldehyde and mercury. 97 references.

  9. Employee Selection Process: Integrating Employee Needs and Employer Motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brian J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for managers relative to the employee selection process, focusing on the identification of a potential employee's needs and the employer's motivators that affect employee productivity. Discusses the use of a preemployment survey and offers a questionnaire that allows matching of the employee's needs with employment…

  10. BIOCONVERSION OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING PRECURSORS AND RELATED SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS USING PLANT-CELL CULTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRAS, N

    1992-01-01

    The nearly unlimited enzymatic potential of cultured plant cells can basically be employed for bioconversion purposes. Plant enzymes are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific reactions and can therefore be applied to the production of compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Naturally occurring as

  11. Challenges and pitfalls of P450-dependent (+)-valencene bioconversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavira, Carole; Höfer, René; Lesot, Agnès; Lambert, Fanny; Zucca, Joseph; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2013-07-01

    Natural nootkatone is a high value ingredient for the flavor and fragrance industry because of its grapefruit flavor/odor, low sensorial threshold and low availability. Valencene conversion into nootkatol and nootkatone is known to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, but so far development of a viable bioconversion process using either native microorganisms or recombinant enzymes was not successful. Using an in silico gene-mining approach, we selected 4 potential candidate P450 enzymes from higher plants and identified two of them that selectively converted (+)-valencene into β-nootkatol with high efficiency when tested using recombinant yeast microsomes in vitro. Recombinant yeast expressing CYP71D51v2 from tobacco and a P450 reductase from arabidopsis was used for optimization of a bioconversion process. Bioconversion assays led to production of β-nootkatol and nootkatone, but with low yields that decreased upon increase of the substrate concentration. The reasons for this low bioconversion efficiency were further investigated and several factors potentially hampering industry-compatible valencene bioconversion were identified. One is the toxicity of the products for yeast at concentrations exceeding 100 mg L⁻¹. The second is the accumulation of β-nootkatol in yeast endomembranes. The third is the inhibition of the CYP71D51v2 hydroxylation reaction by the products. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of nootkatone from β-nootkatol is not P450-dependent but catalyzed by a yeast component. Based on these data, we propose new strategies for implementation of a viable P450-based bioconversion process. PMID:23518241

  12. Bioconversion of Rebaudioside I from Rebaudioside A

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Prakash; Cynthia Bunders; Devkota, Krishna P.; Romila D. Charan; Catherine Ramirez; Snyder, Tara M.; Christopher Priedemann; Avetik Markosyan; Cyrille Jarrin; Robert Ter Halle

    2014-01-01

    To supply the increasing demand of natural high potency sweeteners to reduce the calories in food and beverages, we have looked to steviol glycosides. In this work we report the bioconversion of rebaudioside A to rebaudioside I using a glucosyltransferase enzyme. This bioconversion reaction adds one sugar unit with a 1→3 linkage. We utilized 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY and NOESY) and mass spectral data to fully characterize rebaudioside I.

  13. Bioconversion of Rebaudioside I from Rebaudioside A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To supply the increasing demand of natural high potency sweeteners to reduce the calories in food and beverages, we have looked to steviol glycosides. In this work we report the bioconversion of rebaudioside A to rebaudioside I using a glucosyltransferase enzyme. This bioconversion reaction adds one sugar unit with a 1→3 linkage. We utilized 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY and NOESY and mass spectral data to fully characterize rebaudioside I.

  14. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  15. CYCLODEXTRINS AS A USEFUL TOOL FOR BIOCONVERSIONS IN PLANT-CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANUDEN, W; WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N

    1994-01-01

    The application of cyclodextrins as precursor solubilizers in biotechnological processes, in which plant cells are involved, is new. In this paper the possibilities for cyclodextrin facilitated bioconversions by freely suspended and/or immobilized plant cells or plant enzymes are demonstrated. After

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODELING, AUTOMATION AND CONTROL OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF SORBITOL TO SORBOSE IN THE VITAMIN C PRODUCTION PROCESS I. MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonomi A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, the Biotechnology and the Control Systems Groups of IPT started developing a system for the control and automation of fermentation processes, applied to the oxidation of sorbitol to sorbose by the bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans, the microbial step of the vitamin C production process, that was chosen as a case study. Initially, a thirteen-parameter model was fitted to represent the batch operation of the system utilizing a nonlinear regression analysis, the flexible polyhedron method. Based on these results, a model for the continuous process (with the same kinetic equations was constructed and its optimum operating point obtained

  17. Evaluation of fungal potentiality for bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Zahangir Alam; A. Fakhru'l-Razi; Abul H. Molla

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to screen the filamentous fungi isolated from its relevant habitats(wastewater, sewage sludge and sludge cake) for the bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge. A total of 35 fungal strains were tested against wastewater sludge (total suspended solids, TSS 1%-5% w/w) to evaluate its potentiality for enhancing the biodegradability and dewaterability using liquid state bioconversion(LSB) process. The strains were divided into five groups i. e. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Basidiomycete and Miscellaneous, respectively. The strains WWZP1003, SCahmA103, SCahmT105 and PC-9 among their respective groups of Penicillium,Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Basidiomycete played potential roles in terms of separation (formation of pellets/flocs/filaments ),biodegradation(removal of COD) and filtration(filterability) of treated domestic wastewater sludge. The Miscellaneous group was not considered due to its unsatisfactory results as compared to the other groups. The pH value was also influenced by the microbial treatment during fermentation process. The filterability of treated sludge was improved by fungal treatment, and lowest filtration time was recorded for the strain WWZP1003 and SCahmA103 of Penicillium and Aspergillus groups respectively compared with other strains.

  18. Realities of the Self-Employment Process in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Sarpe; Mihaela Iordachescu; Catalina Stan

    2006-01-01

    The present analyse was developed within the framework of Self-Employment project, i.e. “Guidance and counselling for self-employment”, financed under EU Leonardo da Vinci Programme. The aim of this project is to identify the location and the value of guidance and counselling services addressed to people considering self-employment. The project conducted a survey of existing guidance and counselling services in different location addressed to educated and experienced persons who wish to start...

  19. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  20. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  1. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  2. The transition process: joint responsibility of nurse educators and employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, M R; MacFarlane, M E

    1992-01-01

    The transition between school and work is a time of critical development for the beginning practitioner. Have nurse neophytes been set up for failure by academics? Are seasoned practitioners and administrators "eating our young" in service settings? What must be done to prepare confident and competent beginning practitioners? What must be done to ensure a working environment that encourages and nurtures the development of young nurses? Results of a brief survey conducted to determine if Canadian university schools of nursing invite feedback about competencies of new graduates, and a review of literature published about the subject, reveal that there is a limited interface in evaluating competencies of new graduates between university schools of nursing and clinical practice agencies. This paper discusses common issues in evaluation of new baccalaureate graduates' performance from the perspective of educators and employers. This paper also discusses issues related to the evaluation of new graduates as they are documented in the literature, findings of the aforementioned survey, and implications of the findings for nurse administrators and nurse educators. PMID:1472512

  3. 29 CFR 1691.5 - Agency processing of complaints of employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency processing of complaints of employment discrimination. 1691.5 Section 1691.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION FILED AGAINST RECIPIENTS...

  4. Bioconversion of biodegradable municipal solid waste (BMSW) to glucose for bio-ethanol production.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, A

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW), as an emerging biomass source, presents a unique opportunity for large-scale second-generation bioethanol production. Feedstock supply is reliable and in sufficient quantity, making it a promising biomass source but the conversion yield is currently too low to make it financially attractive. This work presented in this thesis provides a better understanding of bioconversion systems, in particular of pre-treatment and hydrolysis processes which contribute to more t...

  5. Unintended Consequences Of Equal Employment Opportunity: Unequal Parties In The Selection Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Orife

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There arevarious regulations that are intended to promote equal employment opportunityand avoid illegal discrimination in the employment process. These regulationsdetermine what information employers may seek, and require that informationsought be job-related or it is illegal to seek such information as age, maritalstatus, or religion. Information that is not a bona fide occupationalqualification (BFOQ is usually out of bounds as employers gather informationto determine the suitability of applicants for employment.  Since one of thebedrock laws affecting the employment relationship is the “at will” doctrinethat assumes both employer and applicant come together as equal partners in theformation of the employment contract, this paper raises the issues aboutwhether such regulations unintentionally leave the employer at an informationdisadvantage by negating the concept of equality assumed by the “at will”doctrine. Some suggestions for practical ways of reducing the identifiedemployer information disadvantages are provided.

  6. Processes for microemulsion polymerization employing novel microemulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Eric J.; Smith, Richard D.; Fulton, John L.

    1990-06-12

    This invention is directed to a microemulsion system comprising a first phase including a low-polarity fluid material which is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, and which has a cloud-point density. It also includes a second phase including a polar fluid, typically water, a monomer, preferably a monomer soluble in the polar fluid, and a microemulsion promoter for facilitating the formation of micelles including the monomer in the system. In the subject process, micelles including the monomer are formed in the first phase. A polymerization initiator is introduced into the micelles in the microemulsion system. The monomer is then polymerized in the micelles, preferably in the core of the micelle, to produce a polymeric material having a relatively high molecular weight.

  7. Optimising the anaerobic co-digestion of urban organic waste using dynamic bioconversion mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.;

    2016-01-01

    strategies for controlling and optimising the co-digestion process. The model parameters were maintained in the same way as the original dynamic bioconversion model, albeit with minor adjustments, to simulate the co-digestion of food and garden waste with mixed sludge from a wastewater treatment plant......Mathematical anaerobic bioconversion models are often used as a convenient way to simulate the conversion of organic materials to biogas. The aim of the study was to apply a mathematical model for simulating the anaerobic co-digestion of various types of urban organic waste, in order to develop...... in a continuously stirred tank reactor. The model's outputs were validated with experimental results obtained in thermophilic conditions, with mixed sludge as a single substrate and urban organic waste as a co-substrate at hydraulic retention times of 30, 20, 15 and 10 days. The predicted performance parameter...

  8. Can Rural Employment Benefit from Changing Labor Skills in U.S. Processed Food Trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Gerald; Lee, Chinkook

    2002-01-01

    The 1990s saw a gain in rural food-processing employment, particularly meat packing and poultry processing, as the industry's demand for low-skilled workers increased. Analysis links the change in worker skills to international trade. While increased rural employment may seem beneficial, the jobs often do not appeal to rural domestic workers, and…

  9. The effects on employment of the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Thomas

    An analysis of how the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector in Finland has affected the employment development in the telecommunications sector......An analysis of how the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector in Finland has affected the employment development in the telecommunications sector...

  10. Bioconversion of R-(+-limonene to perillic acid by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonieta Ferrara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perillyl derivatives are increasingly important due to their flavouring and antimicrobial properties as well as their potential as anticancer agents. These terpenoid species, which are present in limited amounts in plants, may be obtained via bioconversion of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons. In this study, seventeen yeast strains were screened for their ability to oxidize the exocyclic methyl group in the p-menthene moiety of limonene into perillic acid. Of the yeast tested, the highest efficiency was observed for Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 18942. The conversion of R (+-limonene by Y. lipolytica was evaluated by varying the pH (3 to 8 and the temperature (25 to 30 ºC in a reaction medium containing 0.5% v/v limonene and 10 gµL of stationary phase cells (dry weight. The best results, corresponding to 564 mgµL of perillic acid, were obtained in buffered medium at pH 7.1 that was incubated at 25 ºC for 48 h. The stepwise addition of limonene increased the perillic acid concentration by over 50%, reaching 855 mgµL, whereas the addition of glucose or surfactant to the reaction medium did not improve the bioconversion process. The use of Y. lipolytica showed promise for ease of further downstream processing, as perillic acid was the sole oxidised product of the bioconversion reaction. Moreover, bioprocesses using safe and easy to cultivate yeast cells have been favoured in industry.

  11. Antibacterial potency of housefly larvae extract from sewage sludge through bioconversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaocheng Zheng; Lixiang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Use of the fly to convert sewage sludge into nutrient-rich soil conditioner and amendment is an attractive approach for sludge bioconversion.During this process,fecal coliforms,an indicating pathogen,in sludge were reduced to 5.3 × 102 most probable number /g dry solid from initial 3.32 × 106 MPN/g dry solid.It was also found that the extract of larvae grown in sludge during bioconversion have an observable inhibitory effect against bacteria compared to larvae grown in wheat bran as measured by minimum bacterial concentration tests.In vitro antimicrobial assay tests over time also showed that the extract had strong inhibitory efficiencies of ca.99% against Bacillus cereus,Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,and Serratia marcescens,while the efficiency was 69% and 57% against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae,respectively.The observed pathogenic bacterial cell membrane damage was found to be responsible for the phenomenon mentioned above,with nuclear acids leaching out quickly and alkaline phosphatase increasing in the outer membrane,followed by an increase of β-galactosidase in the inner membrane.Clearly,housefly larvae extract from sewage sludge through bioconversion possesses antibacterial potency against pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Elimination of gender-related employment disparities through statistical process control

    OpenAIRE

    Mary E. Graham; Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach that has the potential to hasten the eradication of gender disparities in employment. This approach relies upon the concept of statistical process control (SPC) to more systematically remedy disparate employment outcomes for women. SPC also serves as a new vehicle for conceptualizing the influence of industry on equal employment opportunity (EEO) outcomes. Using data from U.S. Current Population Surveys, we compare industries on EEO performance as assessed...

  13. Processes of Middle-Class Reproduction in a Graduate Employment Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Sarah; Hutchings, Merryn; Maylor, Uvanney; Mendick, Heather; Menter, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Teach First is an educational charity that places graduates to teach in "challenging" schools for two years. It is marketed as an opportunity to develop employability while "making a difference". In this paper, I examine the process of class reproduction occurring in this graduate employment scheme through examining the discourses used in Teach…

  14. 29 CFR 1640.7 - Processing of charges of employment discrimination filed with the EEOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing of charges of employment discrimination filed with the EEOC. 1640.7 Section 1640.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... charges (as defined in 29 CFR 1601.21) that also fall within the jurisdiction of a section 504 agency...

  15. Bioconversion of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using apple filter cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaura, M. Cecilia; Ércoli, Eduardo C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using apple filter cake, a fruit-processing waste to enhance the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. A rotating barrel system was used to study the bioconversion of the xenobiotic compound by natural occurring microbial population. The soil had been accidentally polluted with a total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 41,000 ppm. Although this global value was maintained during the process, microbial intervention was evidenced through transformation of the petroleum fractions. Thus, fractions that represent a risk for the environment (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics i.e., C6 to C10–12; DRO, Diesel Range Organics i.e., C8–12 to C24–26 and RRO, Residual Range Organics i.e., C25 to C35) were significantly reduced, from 2.95% to 1.39%. On the contrary, heavier weight fraction from C35 plus other organics increased in value from 1.15% to 3.00%. The noticeable diminution of low molecular weight hydrocarbons content and hence environmental risk by the process plus the improvement of the physical characteristics of the soil, are promising results with regard to future application at large scale. PMID:24031241

  16. Employer differences in upper-body musculoskeletal disorders and pain among immigrant Latino poultry processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Mora, Dana C; Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Between-employer differences in working conditions may lead to variable injury rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the difference in the prevalence of epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, and low back pain among immigrant Latino poultry workers at plants of three different employers. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study among 286 poultry processing workers. Community-based sampling was used to recruit participants in western North Carolina. Rotator cuff syndrome (26.7%) and low back pain (27.9%) were more prevalent among employees of one specific employer. Multivariate analysis showed significant associations of low back pain and rotator cuff syndrome with age, task performed in the processing line, and employer. Employer is a major predictor of musculoskeletal disorders and pain. Line speed and work pace may account for these differences and provide an opportunity for regulation and intervention to protect the health of workers. PMID:25275404

  17. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  18. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  19. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  20. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Q; Guarnieri, MT; Tao, L; Laurens, LML; Dowe, N; Pienkos, PT

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Bioconversion of Natural Gas to Liquid Fuel. Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Qiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laurens, Lieve M. L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dowe, Nancy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Moreover, methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. Our review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  2. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stoilkovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the problem of the concept of equal employment opportunities in the HR recruitment and selection process. Due to the fact that in these processes, both the HR managers and the applicants are involved, this research is conducted separately among them. Thus, it will be determined if both sides share the same opinion with respect to the existence of this concept in the mentioned processes. Providing equal employment opportunities is crucial for any company and represents a key for selecting the real employees. Therefore, the research includes the existence of prejudices in the recruitment and selection process such as discrimination based on national and social origin, gender and sexual orientation, age, political affiliation etc. As an essential part of this concept, the legislation in the Republic of Macedonia and its impact in the process of generating equal opportunities will be considered.

  3. Bioconversion of heavy oil : influence on reservoir recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlar, H.K. [Statoil Research Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Markussen, S.; Winnberg, A.A. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2009-07-01

    Most of the world reserves of fossil hydrocarbons lie within heavy to extra heavy oil reservoirs. Enhancing the recovery rate by just a small percentage would provide significant economic incentive to develop these reservoirs. Moreover, if this could be done by a bio-process, it would have significant implications for environmental issues raised against heavy oil extraction. However, one of the major challenges, is the huge mobility ratio between the water phase and the oil phase. Different process technologies are available to extract these oils. These include steam assisted gravity drainage, vapour extraction and cold heavy oil extraction with sand. However, they are all expensive, energy-intensive, and high emission technologies and are also associated with other environmental concerns. This paper focused on the use of extremophile microorganisms as in situ biocatalysts for conversion of heavy oils. The paper outlined the experimental set-ups designed to mimic reservoir conditions, with particular emphasis on the biocatalytic processes involved in reducing the viscosity of the heavy oil components. However, another major challenge is the control and the regulation of these in situ bioprocesses in the oil reservoir. The paper also discussed the design of two different prototype reservoir models, introducing radial flow, including one with a central horizontal production well and one with a central vertical production well. The paper described the collection of enrichment cultures and injection of biocatalysts into the reservoir models. Testing of 5 different types of heavy oil was also described. The study results provide strong evidence of heavy oil bioconversion activities of several microbial consortia/ inoculums. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Bioconversion of Styrene to Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) by the New Bacterial Strain Pseudomonas putida NBUS12

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Chen, Chia-Lung; Ge, Liya; Ling LI; Tan, Swee Ngin; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Styrene is a toxic pollutant commonly found in waste effluents from plastic processing industries. We herein identified and characterized microorganisms for bioconversion of the organic eco-pollutant styrene into a valuable biopolymer medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA). Twelve newly-isolated styrene-degrading Pseudomonads were obtained and partial phaC genes were detected by PCR in these isolates. These isolates assimilated styrene to produce mcl-PHA, forming PHA contents be...

  5. Motivating and hindering factors during the reemployment process: the added value of employment counselors' assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft

    2014-01-01

    Because unemployment negatively affects people’s well-being, it is of crucial importance that unemployed individuals move back to work. The process of getting reemployed, however, is difficult and complex. Therefore, many unemployed job seekers are assisted by employment counselors. The present stud

  6. HAS THE BOLOGNA PROCESS IMPROVED MASTER’S EDUCATION STANDARDS? PERSPECTIVES OF ALBANIAN EMPLOYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilika Kume

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research the professional innovation of the Master studies as per Bologna Process standards, observed from the possible buyers of such product, the Albanian Employers is studied.With the help of a survey, it has been tried to reflect the opinion of the employers about the quality of a Master degree according to the standarts of the Bologna Process. Around 53% of the employersthink that the Bologna system can qualitatively improve the employee’s qualification, but this should be observed in a long-term horizon. About 87% of employers would not pay more a prospective employee given the fact that he/she has earned a master degree according the Bologna Process standards. This individual, in the majority of Albanian companies, would not be considered as more qualified than other colleagues who are educated in another system. Moreover, 20% of employers with work experience 11-15 years believe that the Bologna Process worsens the quality of education in Albania.

  7. Opening the Learning Process: The Potential Role of Feature Film in Teaching Employment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of feature film to encourage more inclusive, participatory and open learning in the area of employment relations. Evaluations of student responses in a single postgraduate course over a five-year period revealed how feature film could encourage participatory learning processes in which students reexamined their…

  8. Bioconversion potential of plant enzymes for the production of pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, N; Woerdenbag, HJ; vanUden, W

    1995-01-01

    Plant enzymes are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific reactions. Freely suspended and immobilized plant cells as well as enzyme preparations can therefore be applied for the production of pharmaceuticals by bioconversion, as such or in combination with chemical syntheses. This review paper de

  9. Educational Processes – Research of the Needs and Experiences of Graduates Employers

    OpenAIRE

    Trčka, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The aim of this paper is to present the results of own research that demonstrates a part of the dissertation research project “Process management in higher education” (realized in the years 2010–2013). Presented 4th research phase is focused on a group of educational process external customers – employers of fresh graduates. This phase is called The research of the needs and experiences and summarizes suggestions for higher education optimization. Methodology/methods: ...

  10. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... rulemaking (NPRM). 74 FR 45906 (Sept. 4, 2009). After considering comments from the public on the subject... Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States, 75 FR 6884 (Feb. 12, 2010). The effect of..., Health professions, Immigration, Labor, Longshore and harbor work, Migrant workers, Nonimmigrant...

  11. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  12. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  13. ATTITUDES OF THE CONSUMERS REGARDING THE PROCESSING AND EMPLOYMENT OF THEIR PERSONAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusescu Marius

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the specific personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations’ extended attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers’ personal data. Paper explores the attitudes of the consumers regarding their personal data in terms of their disclosure, previous agreement consumers should grant to the companies or public institutions (authorities processing them, employment, registration and processing by the companies, and buying products and/or services as a result of a direct approach.

  14. The Process of Adapting the Employer Brand to Attract the Right Employees : A Case Study of How SEB Uses Employer Branding to Go Digital

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Tabea; Ferhatovic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Companies within the banking industry are facing the challenge to attract new competences in order to react to the forces of digitization. This paper examines how employer branding is used as a tool to achieve this through appealing to a broader target group. It also identifies problems that can arise in this process. We extend the theoretical knowledge on this topic by developing a theoretical framework, which combines corporate brand, employer branding, industry image and P-O fit literature...

  15. The employment process in tourist companies as a condition for their entrepreneurial advance

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovlev, Zlatko; Serafimova, Mimoza; Koteski, Cane

    2015-01-01

    Effective job search is a process through which almost every young person goes through. A small number of young people have the opportunity to learn and get information about the management of human resources, which treats the subject of employment and effective job in the tourism sector. Therefore, there is a great need for education and training of the unemployed about the techniques and activities for specialized knowledge in active job search, which in modern manageme...

  16. Unique educational methods to improve the veterinary employment selection process for rural mixed-animal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brad J; Gwinner, Kevin P; Andrus, David M; Prince, J Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The rural mixed-animal veterinarian is a critical control point for safe, wholesome, affordable food production and security. The population of students entering food-animal practice is decreasing, and future shortages are likely. Veterinary practice owners will continue to struggle to find associates to fill open positions. Identifying and hiring the correct veterinarian for an open position is a challenging proposition for the rural practitioner. Kansas State University hosted a forum to facilitate the hiring process and provide education regarding the mechanism of an effective selection interview. A unique experiential technique known as "speed interviews" was used to facilitate communication between conference participants and to practice newly acquired skills. A survey of participants revealed similar viewpoints toward most job attributes. Veterinary students and prospective employers expressed realistic expectations of job requirements, salaries, and debt load. Students expressed willingness to work and desire to practice in the types of practices defined by the veterinarians. The symposium provided valuable insight for practitioners and students regarding the recruitment process. Appropriate and accurate representation at the time of job/associate selection is critical for long-term success and employee retention. The goal of the event was to provide a service to both prospective employers and students by offering education regarding the employment selection interview process and placing attendees in an environment rich with people who have complimentary goals. PMID:18287482

  17. Motivating and hindering factors during the reemployment process: the added value of employment counselors' assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A J

    2014-01-01

    Because unemployment negatively affects people's well-being, it is of crucial importance that unemployed individuals move back to work. The process of getting reemployed, however, is difficult and complex. Therefore, many unemployed job seekers are assisted by employment counselors. The present study focuses on motivating and hindering factors in the reemployment process, examining the added value of the counselors' assessment of job seekers' attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors. The results of a 3-wave study with job seeker self-ratings and counselor-ratings indicated that perceived health problems is the most consistent predictor of job search and reemployment status. The findings further provide some convergent validity evidence for self- and counselor-rated situational-level motivators (i.e., attitude, social pressure, self-efficacy) and job search intensity. Although method effects did not seem to threaten the validity of the prediction of job search intensity and procrastination, employment counselors' assessments of job seekers' job search intensity and procrastination were significantly more strongly related to reemployment success than job seekers' self-ratings. Future research should therefore include other-reports, in addition to job seeker self-reports, to get a more complete view of people's job search behavior. Also reemployment counseling firms may want to use the expert knowledge of their employment counselors more systematically.

  18. Motivating and hindering factors during the reemployment process: the added value of employment counselors' assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A J

    2014-01-01

    Because unemployment negatively affects people's well-being, it is of crucial importance that unemployed individuals move back to work. The process of getting reemployed, however, is difficult and complex. Therefore, many unemployed job seekers are assisted by employment counselors. The present study focuses on motivating and hindering factors in the reemployment process, examining the added value of the counselors' assessment of job seekers' attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors. The results of a 3-wave study with job seeker self-ratings and counselor-ratings indicated that perceived health problems is the most consistent predictor of job search and reemployment status. The findings further provide some convergent validity evidence for self- and counselor-rated situational-level motivators (i.e., attitude, social pressure, self-efficacy) and job search intensity. Although method effects did not seem to threaten the validity of the prediction of job search intensity and procrastination, employment counselors' assessments of job seekers' job search intensity and procrastination were significantly more strongly related to reemployment success than job seekers' self-ratings. Future research should therefore include other-reports, in addition to job seeker self-reports, to get a more complete view of people's job search behavior. Also reemployment counseling firms may want to use the expert knowledge of their employment counselors more systematically. PMID:24447217

  19. Bacterial biodegradation and bioconversion of industrial lignocellulosic streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulose is a term for plant materials that are composed of matrices of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignocellulose is a renewable feedstock for many industries. Lignocellulosic materials are used for the production of paper, fuels, and chemicals. Typically, industry focuses on transforming the polysaccharides present in lignocellulose into products resulting in the incomplete use of this resource. The materials that are not completely used make up the underutilized streams of materials that contain cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These underutilized streams have potential for conversion into valuable products. Treatment of these lignocellulosic streams with bacteria, which specifically degrade lignocellulose through the action of enzymes, offers a low-energy and low-cost method for biodegradation and bioconversion. This review describes lignocellulosic streams and summarizes different aspects of biological treatments including the bacteria isolated from lignocellulose-containing environments and enzymes which may be used for bioconversion. The chemicals produced during bioconversion can be used for a variety of products including adhesives, plastics, resins, food additives, and petrochemical replacements.

  20. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population. PMID:27493995

  1. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population.

  2. Employing Young Talent from Underserved Populations: Designing a Flexible Organizational Process for Assimilation and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mark Langer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an ongoing 13-year-old program designed to improve the ability of organizations to assimilate young talent from underserved populations, mostly students who have recently graduated from high school. Although many firms have internship and orientation programs, few have well-tested organizational approaches for assimilating 17-20 year-olds into their organizations in an efficient and productive manner. The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate the solution introduced by Workforce Opportunity Services (WOS, a non-profit agency that provides organizations with well-trained talent from underserved local communities. The WOS model is a systemic design involving a lead agency (WOS, corporate clients, training partnerships with local colleges and universities, and underutilized human capital. Over 290 students have completed the WOS program and obtained long-term employment, mostly in IT jobs that normally are outsourced. The results of the study show that companies have success employing young talent when they follow the WOS organizational process. Companies need to have patience with WOS student employees, but within six months most members of the WOS program make positive contributions to their sponsoring firm and have a strong likelihood of becoming permanently employed. Implications of the WOS model for organization design are discussed.

  3. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population. PMID:27493995

  4. Employment of the covariance matrix in parameter estimation for stochastic processes in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, R.; Dieterich, P.

    2013-08-01

    The dynamics of movements of biological cells can be described with models from correlated stochastic processes. In order to overcome problems from correlated and insufficient data in the determination of the model parameters of such processes we employ the covariance matrix of the data. Since the covariance suffers itself from statistical uncertainty it is corrected by a renormalization treatment [1]. For the example of normal and fractional Brownian motion, which allows both to access all quantities on full theoretical grounds and to generate data similar to experiment, we discuss our results and those of previous works by Gregory [2] and Sivia [3]. The presented approach has the potential to estimate the aging correlation function of observed cell paths and can be applied to more complicated models.

  5. Low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing silver nanowires as top electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Fushan; Yang, Kaiyu; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we reported a low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell employing silver nanowires as the top electrode and ZnO nanoparticles as the electron transport layer. The CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite was grown as the light absorber via two-step spin-coating technique. The as-fabricated perovskite solar cell exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.21% with short circuit current density of 19.75 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage of 1.02, and fill factor value of 0.457. The solar cell's performance showed negligible difference between the forward and reverse bias scan. This work paves a way for realizing low cost solution processable solar cells.

  6. Bioconversion of Carotenoids in Five Fruits and Vegetables to Vitamin A Measured by Retinol Accumulation in Rat Livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Carrillo-Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and major nutritional problems in developing countries, especially in young children. In many countries, a substantial proportion of dietary vitamin A is commonly derived from pro-vitamin A carotenoids obtained from colored fruits and orange or green vegetables. However, the bioavailability of retinol derived from carotenoids from these plant sources is not well known. Approach: The present study analyzed β-Carotene and Total Carotenoids (TC composition of carrots (Daucus carota, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Spinach (Spinacea oleracea, mangoes (Mangifera indica and papayas (Carica papaya and determined the bioconversion of their carotenoids to vitamin A by monitoring the levels of retinol accumulated in liver and plasma of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus. Products were freeze-dried, β-Carotene content analyzed by HPLC and TC by Spectrophotometry. Results: Carrots presented the highest content of β-carotene followed by parsley with 32.8 and 19.6 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Spinach had the highest content of TC followed by parsley with 60.7 and 56.7 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Four-week-old male Wistar rats received a standard diet as an adaptation period, a diet free of Carotenoids and Vitamin A (CVA-diet as depletion period and finally a Fruit or Vegetable (FoV based diet as repletion period. The highest β-carotene bioconversion was for mango and the lowest for parsley, whereas the highest TC bioconversion was for carrots and the lowest for parsley. There were no significant differences in plasma retinol between treatments. Conclusion/Recommendations: There was no relation between carotenoids content in FoV-based diet and retinol status in plasma. Furthermore, the employment of a general retinol conversion factor is regarded as not appropriate. So, it is recommended to consider specific conversion factors for groups of horticultural crops, for example, a factor for green leafy

  7. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... rates were published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 7293, Feb. 18, 2010. The Department has determined... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens...

  8. 77 FR 12723 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Final Rule'', 75 FR 6884, 6891-6901, Feb. 12, 2010 (the 2010... FR 77110, Dec. 18, 2008. We stated in the preamble to the 2010 H-2A Final Rule that he FLS is... Administration 20 CFR Part 655 Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in...

  9. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...\\ Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS), 77 FR 54578 (Sept. 5, 2012); see also... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens...

  10. 29 CFR 1640.9 - Processing of complaints or charges of employment discrimination filed with a designated agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing of complaints or charges of employment discrimination filed with a designated agency and either a section 504 agency, the EEOC, or both. 1640.9 Section 1640.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY...

  11. 29 CFR 1640.8 - Processing of complaints or charges of employment discrimination filed with both the EEOC and a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing of complaints or charges of employment discrimination filed with both the EEOC and a section 504 agency. 1640.8 Section 1640.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR COORDINATING...

  12. 29 CFR 1640.6 - Processing of complaints of employment discrimination filed with an agency other than the EEOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing of complaints of employment discrimination filed with an agency other than the EEOC. 1640.6 Section 1640.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... COMPLAINTS OR CHARGES OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION BASED ON DISABILITY SUBJECT TO THE AMERICANS...

  13. The Role of Character in the Hiring Process: A Pilot Study Survey of College Seniors' Potential Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Proemmel, Elizabeth; McDivitt, Sarah; Evens, Jennifer; Gibbs, Lew

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 31 prospective employers (65% response rate) regarding their views on character as part of the employment selection process. The results showed character qualities superordinate, relative to skills that prospective employees bring to potential jobs. We discuss survey results in light of business educators' responsibility for helping…

  14. New approaches to improve a WCDMA SIR estimator by employing different post-processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnart Chaichoet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For effective control of transmission power in WCDMA mobile systems, a good estimate of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is needed. Conventionally, an adaptive SIR estimator employs a moving average (MA filter (Yoon et al., 2002 to encounter fading channel distortion. However, the resulting estimate seems to have high estimation error due to fluctuation in the channel variation. In this paper, an additional post-processing stage is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy by reducing the variation of the estimate. Four variations of post-processing stages, namely 1 a moving average (MA postfilter,2 an exponential moving average (EMA post-filter, 3 an IIR post-filter and 4 least-mean-squared (LMS adaptive post-filter, are proposed and their optimal performance in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE are then compared by simulation. The results show the best comparable performance when the MA and LMS post-filter are used. However, the MA post-filter requires a lookup table of filter order for optimal performance at different channel conditions, while the LMS post-filter can be used conveniently without a lookup table.

  15. Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Rice and Wetland Biota: employing integrated indices of processes that drive methylmercury risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.; Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands often are associated with elevated methylmercury (MeHg) production and food web bioaccumulation, making them potentially important sources of Hg to surrounding waters and to wetland-dependent fish and wildlife. However, the cycling of MeHg through wetlands can vary markedly with wetland type. Agricultural wetlands such as rice fields can exhibit particularly pronounced MeHg concentrations and bioaccumulation because their biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological characteristics facilitate the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg) to MeHg. Rice fields are characterized by a series of seasonal extreme wetting and drying cycles, sulfate-containing fertilizers, and high levels of labile organic carbon, all of which are key processes in the Hg cycle. Rice fields comprise approximately 20% of freshwater habitats and 11% of cultivated land area globally, providing critical wildlife habitat while offering substantial economic, human health, and ecosystem benefits. Thus, there is strong impetus to better understand the drivers of Hg cycling in rice fields and to develop useful management approaches for minimizing Hg risk associated with rice agriculture without compromising rice production. We examined the role of rice wetlands on MeHg bioaccumulation through foodwebs by employing biosentinel caged fish as integrators of MeHg cycling processes. With experimental field studies in California's Central Valley, we placed biosentinel fishes into nine rice wetlands that were subjected to three different harvest strategies, and into nine managed wetlands that encompassed three different hydrological regimes. We simultaneously measured a suite of biogeochemical processes in surface water, sediment, and pore water in order to link the response in fish Hg bioaccumulation with within-field processes that regulate MeHg cycling. Our preliminary results indicate that fish Hg concentrations were 1.6 times higher in rice wetlands than in managed wetlands. Additionally, fish Hg

  16. HBGS (hydrate based gas separation) process for carbon dioxide capture employing an unstirred reactor with cyclopentane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of CP (cyclopentane) as a promoter/additive, in the HBGS (hydrate based gas separation) process for pre-combustion gas mixture was investigated by employing an unstirred reactor configuration. Gas uptake measurements were performed at two different temperatures (275.7 K and 285.7 K) and at an experimental pressure of 6.0 MPa to determine the kinetics of hydrate formation. Experiments were conducted with three different volumes (7.5, 15 and 22 ml) of CP and based on induction time and the rate of hydrate growth, 15 ml of CP was determined to be the optimal volume for carbon dioxide capture at 6.0 MPa and 275.7 K. In addition, the effect of a kinetic promoter, SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), was investigated. Surprisingly, no improvement in kinetic performance was observed at 6.0 MPa and 275.7 K in the presence of SDS and CP. From the study, it was found that at the optimal 15 ml CP (CP layer thickness of 1.8 mm), the average composition of carbon dioxide in the hydrate phase was 90.36 mol% with a separation factor of 17.82. Furthermore, the unstirred reactor also yielded better kinetic performance over the stirred tank reactor with the unstirred reactor having a 2.28 times higher average gas uptake. - Highlights: • HBGS process for pre-combustion capture in an unstirred reactor is presented. • Effect of cyclopentane as a thermodynamic promoter and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a kinetic promoter is investigated. • Cyclopentane significantly reduces the operating conditions and improves the kinetics for the HBGS process. • In this study, kinetic performance in an unstirred reactor is better than stirred tank reactor

  17. Bioconversion of Birch Wood Hemicellulose Hydrolyzate to Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Shimotori, Yasutaka; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Harada, Akira; Aoyama, Masakazu

    2015-06-01

    A sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °C for 1 h. During the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. These inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto a steam-activated charcoal followed by treatment with an anion exchange resin. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolyzate to xylitol by the yeast Candida magnoliae was investigated under the microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 9.6 to 22.3 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). The best fermentative performance of C. magnoliae in the birch wood hydrolyzate (xylitol yield 0.74 g xylitol g xylose(-1); volumetric productivity 1.0 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at the OTR of 12.6 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). PMID:25894947

  18. Elimination of sulphur odours at landfills by bioconversion and the corona discharge plasma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangfang; Liu, Xin; Kang, Ying; He, Ruo; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) contributes a lot to odours at landfills, which is a threat to the environment and the health of the staff therein. To mitigate its emission, the bioconversion within landfill cover soils (LCSs) was introduced. H2S emission and concentration both in the field air above the landfill and in microcosm testing were surveyed. Results indicated that H2S emission and concentration in the landfill varied with landfill seasons and sites. There existed relationship between H2S concentration and fluxes spatially and temporally. To characterize and assess the spatial and temporal diversity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the LCSs, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was employed. Using the functional genes of dsrB and soxB, SOB, including Halothiobacillus, Rhodothalassium, Paracocccus, Allochromatium, and Thiobacillus, and SRB, including Desulfovibrio, Syntrophobacter, Desulfomonile and Desulfobacca, were identical and exhibited the dominant role in the LCSs. By employing an alternative available corona reactor, more than 90% removal efficiencies of sulphides were demonstrated, suggesting that the LCSs for eliminating odours in a lower concentration would be feasible. PMID:25244028

  19. Elimination of sulphur odours at landfills by bioconversion and the corona discharge plasma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangfang; Liu, Xin; Kang, Ying; He, Ruo; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) contributes a lot to odours at landfills, which is a threat to the environment and the health of the staff therein. To mitigate its emission, the bioconversion within landfill cover soils (LCSs) was introduced. H2S emission and concentration both in the field air above the landfill and in microcosm testing were surveyed. Results indicated that H2S emission and concentration in the landfill varied with landfill seasons and sites. There existed relationship between H2S concentration and fluxes spatially and temporally. To characterize and assess the spatial and temporal diversity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the LCSs, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was employed. Using the functional genes of dsrB and soxB, SOB, including Halothiobacillus, Rhodothalassium, Paracocccus, Allochromatium, and Thiobacillus, and SRB, including Desulfovibrio, Syntrophobacter, Desulfomonile and Desulfobacca, were identical and exhibited the dominant role in the LCSs. By employing an alternative available corona reactor, more than 90% removal efficiencies of sulphides were demonstrated, suggesting that the LCSs for eliminating odours in a lower concentration would be feasible.

  20. Solution-Processed Gas Sensors Employing SnO2 Quantum Dot/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wenkai; Yu, Haoxiong; Gao, Liang; Song, Zhilong; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Wang, Yang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-01-13

    Solution-processed SnO2 colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as an important new class of gas-sensing materials due to their potential for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. Here we employed the design strategy based on the synergetic effect from highly sensitive SnO2 CQDs and excellent conductive properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to overcome the transport barrier in CQD gas sensors. The attachment and coverage of SnO2 CQDs on the MWCNT surfaces were achieved by simply mixing the presynthesized SnO2 CQDs and MWCNTs at room temperature. Compared to the pristine SnO2 CQDs, the sensor based on SnO2 quantum dot/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited a higher response upon exposure to H2S, and the response toward 50 ppm of H2S at 70 °C was 108 with the response and recovery time being 23 and 44 s. Because of the favorable energy band alignment, the MWCNTs can serve as the acceptor of the electrons that are injected from H2S into SnO2 quantum dots in addition to the charge transport highway to direct the electron flow to the electrode, thereby enhancing the sensor response. Our research results open an easy pathway for developing highly sensitive and low-cost gas sensors.

  1. The Effects on Employment of the Liberalisation Process in the Telecommunications Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Wulff, Thomas

    An analysis of the effects of the policies of liberalisation and privatisation in the telecommunications field on the employment development in the telecommunications sector.......An analysis of the effects of the policies of liberalisation and privatisation in the telecommunications field on the employment development in the telecommunications sector....

  2. Copper sulfate improves pullulan production by bioconversion using whole cells of Aureobasidium pullulans as the catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Ju, Xiaomin; Zhang, Gaochuan; Wang, Donghua; Wei, Gongyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of mineral salts on pullulan production by bioconversion using whole cells of Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 as the catalyst were investigated. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) improved pullulan production by 36.2% and 42.3% when added at the optimum concentration of 0.2mg/L to the bioconversion broth or seed medium, respectively, as compared with controls without CuSO4 addition. Pullulan production was further enhanced when CuSO4 was added to both seed medium and bioconversion broth simultaneously. In order to probe the mechanism of CuSO4 improvement, cell viability, membrane integrity, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the activities of key enzymes involved in pullulan biosynthesis were determined. As a result, CuSO4 increased the activities of key biosynthetic enzymes, maintained intracellular ATP at a higher level, and accelerated the rate of pullulan secretion, all of which contributed to improved pullulan production by bioconversion.

  3. Terpene bioconversion--how does its future look?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf Guenter

    2010-09-01

    The usage of essential oils as such or of volatile fractions thereof is widespread in the flavor and fragrance industry to aromatize perfumery and cosmetic products, foodstuffs, and many household and pharmaceutical products. The increased market share of convenience food together with consumers' request for constant high quality and natural products have established a lasting increase in the demand for natural flavorings that cannot be satisfied by the traditional plant materials. This review summarizes selected work on terpene bioconversion/transformation and focuses on recently published papers dealing with novel strains and products, high product yields, intriguing genetic engineering approaches, and integrated bioprocesses. The future perspectives of an industrial realization of a biotechnological production of terpene-derived natural flavors are critically evaluated. PMID:20923013

  4. Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production.

  5. Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

  6. Employability Planning Process. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Four reports are presented detailing procedures for improving the employability of students enrolled in the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). Each report was submitted by one of the four STIP II programs: Los Angeles Southwest College's program for computer programming; the programs for…

  7. The staff nurse employment interview selection process: judgment and decision errors and how to avoid them. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslin, K A; Faux, S A

    1991-01-01

    The employee interview is a complex decision-making process which has a potential effect on the future of the organization. It is in the organization's best interest to ensure that the interview process results in the selection of candidates who most clearly meet predetermined selection criteria. Reliable and valid interviews improve the probability of selecting candidates who are most likely to succeed. A review of employment interview literature is discussed relating to judgement and decision errors, and the reliability and validity of the employment interview. Part II will review the development of a semistructured, employment interview questionnaire which was based on College of Nurses of Ontario Standards of Practice (1984) and staff nurse position description.

  8. Can employability do the trick? Revealing paradoxical tensions and responses in the process of adopting innovative employability enhancing policies and practices in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Lam, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a ‘paradox lens’ to contribute to employability debates in HRM by examining the effectiveness of employability enhancing policies and practices (hereafter EP&Ps) in three case organizations. We identify three organizing paradoxes reflecting the complexities of the Dutch economic, pol

  9. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Real time acquisition, processing, and archiving of Doublet III diagram data employing table driven software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the diagnostic data acquisition, processing and archiving computer system for the Doublet III fusion research device. This paper's emphasis is mainly on the software, but provides a description of the hardware configuration

  11. Anaerobic bioconversion of cellulose by Ruminococcus albus, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and Methanosarcina barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T L; Currenti, E; Wolin, M J

    2000-10-01

    A system is described that combines the fermentation of cellulose to acetate, CH4, and CO2 by Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter smithii with the fermentation of acetate to CH4 and CO2 by Methanosarcina barkeri to convert cellulose to CH4 and CO2. A cellulose-containing medium was pumped into a co-culture of the cellulolytic R. albus and the H2-using methanogen, Mb. smithii. The effluent was fed into a holding reservoir, adjusted to pH 4.5, and then pumped into a culture of Ms. barkeri maintained at constant volume by pumping out culture contents. Fermentation of 1% cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was accomplished during 132 days of operation with retention times (RTs) of the Ms. barkeri culture of 7.5-3.8 days. Rates of acetate utilization were 9.5-17.3 mmol l(-1) day(-1) and increased with decreasing RT. The Ks for acetate utilization was 6-8 mM. The two-stage system can be used as a model system for studying biological and physical parameters that influence the bioconversion process. Our results suggest that manipulating the different phases of cellulose fermentation separately can effectively balance the pH and ionic requirements of the acid-producing phase with the acid-using phase of the overall fermentation. PMID:11092623

  12. The Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 summarizes the recent debate in the political science literature on analytical approaches to learning, which has gradually developed in a direction of being less and less individualistic. Section 3 follows up on this development and introduces a social...... constructivist approach to learning that redefines learning as changes in language-constituted relations to others. In section 4 this argument is elaborated into a model for mutual learning. Section 5 contains a qualitative analysis of the organisation of the EES in practice with regard to the possibilities...... of policy diffusion of the EES learning processes as predicted in the model in section 4. Section 6 deals with the conflictual views on the size and character of the learning processes of the EES in recent studies and proposes a new methodological path to investigate the mutual learning processes based upon...

  13. Competency-Based Training in International Perspective: Comparing the Implementation Processes Towards the Achievement of Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boahin, Peter; Eggink, Jose; Hofman, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparison of competency-based training (CBT) systems in a number of countries with the purpose of drawing lessons to support Ghana and other countries in the process of CBT implementation. The study focuses on recognition of prior learning and involvement of industry since these features seem crucial in achieving…

  14. Collaborative Assessment for Employment Planning: Transition Assessment and the Discovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Fowler, Catherine H.

    2016-01-01

    As the Workforce Innovation and Opportunities Act (WIOA) is implemented across the nation, special education and vocational rehabilitation professionals will need to increase their level of collaboration. One area of potential collaboration is assessment--transition assessment for the field of special education and the discovery process for adult…

  15. Processing of gamma-ray spectra employing a Fourier deconvolver for the analysis of complex spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of a nuclear spectrum e.g. gamma ray spectrum is concerned with the estimation of energies and intensities of radiation. The processing involves filtering, peak detection and its significance, baseline delineation, the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of singlets and multiplets present in the spectrum. The methodology for the analysis of singlets is well established. However, the analysis of multiplets provides a challenge and is a extremely difficult problem. This report incorporates a Fourier deconvolver for the quantitative analysis of doublets separated by more than a full width at half maximum. The method is easy to implement. The report discusses the methodology, mathematical analysis, and the results obtained by analyzing both synthetic and observed spectra. A computer program, developed for the analysis of a nuclear spectrum, was verified by analyzing a 152Eu gamma ray spectrum. The proposed technique compared favourably with SAMPO and MDFT method. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Signal Processing for Fibre-optic Distributed Sensing Techniques Employing Brillouin Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shang-hui; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    As fibre optic distributed scattering sensing systems are providing innovative solutions for the monitoring of large structures, Brillouin-based distributed scattering sensing techniques represent a new physical approach for structures health monitoring, which seems extremely promising and is receiving most attentions. This paper comprehensively presents some methods of signal interrogation for fibre optic Brillouin-based distributed scattering sensing technology, especially establishes an accurate Pseudo-Voigt model of Brillouin gain spectrum and gives some results on spectrum analysis and data processing.

  17. Multi-beam backscatter image data processing techniques employed to EM 1002 system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.; Chakraborty, B.

    data for bathymetric depths such as backscatter images. The available algorithms are found to be limited in application aspects from the scientific user point of view. Moreover output file formats are as decided by manufacturer, which brings... incompatibility issues with other analyzing other systems such as ArcGIS etc [5]. Due to these problems, during the past we have developed algorithms for processing the backscatter intensities for other multi-beam systems (Hydrosweep -manufactured by STN ATLAS...

  18. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.;

    2009-01-01

    design. It incorporates a model driven approach to the experimental design that minimises the number of experiments to be performed, while still generating accurate values of kinetic parameters. The approach has been illustrated with the transketolase mediated asymmetric synthesis of L...... experimental design.]it comparison with conventional methodology, the modelling approach enabled a nearly 4-fold decrease in the number of experiments while the microwell experimentation enabled a 45-fold decrease in material requirements and a significant increase in experimental throughput. The approach......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments...

  19. Determination of risk identification process employed by NHS for a PFI hospital project in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Mohamed Ghazali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term concession contracts associated with Private Finance Initiative (PFI projects, such as National Health Service (NHS hospitals, are subject to substantial risks, which may not only emerge from project activities such as design and construction, but also from global issues beyond the control of project parties, such as commercial, legal and political risks. Therefore, the principal parties involved must manage risks effectively and efficiently, as early as the project initiation stage, in order to ensure a successful delivery. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk identification process of the NHS PFI hospital in the UK, as a case study, in order to determine the techniques used in risk identification, and their significance, based on estimated probabilities of occurrence. These objectives were achieved through interviews with key personnel within the NHS Trust involved. Results found the sole technique used in risk identification to be brainstorming, through which more than thirty risks were identified and classified under six risk categories: planning, pre-commissioning, design, land purchasing, construction and operation. Thirteen risks were identified as significant based on their estimated probability of occurrence had the project been developed via public procurement. The results of this research will enable public sector clients like the NHS Trust to not only identify the significant risks, which will allow them to focus more attention on developing appropriate mitigation strategies and contingency plans, but also to improve its risk identification process through the use of other techniques in order to support findings from the brainstorming process.

  20. Effects of Applied Load on 6061-T6 Aluminum Joined Employing a Novel Friction Bonding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Hallinan, Neil P.; Shropshire, Karen L.; Wells, Peter B.

    2008-12-01

    Friction bonding is under consideration for use in mass production of plate-type nuclear fuels for research reactors. This article discusses the effects of applied load (the most important process parameter for fabrication of these fuels) on temperature distribution, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Friction bonding experiments showed that tool geometry caused temperature gradients across the tool surface. Temperatures at the joint interface suggested the advancing side of the tool produced a majority of the frictional heat, while the retreating side of the tool mainly forged the plasticized material while bonding increased with applied load. The microstructure across the tool surface was also altered and, as a function of applied load, affected the mechanical properties. The 6061 aluminum alloy had mechanical properties close to a T4 temper after processing. Results documented in this article will aid in continual enhancement of friction bonding for nuclear fuel plate fabrication, and will hopefully contribute to continued advancement of friction stir welding (FSW) state of the art.

  1. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address two normative and interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC): First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes of the European Employment Strategy (EES......)? Second, how should mutual learning processes be diffused among the Member States in order to be efficient? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on the literature and participatory observations, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors. At the end of the paper a path for empirical...

  2. Xanthobacter sp. C20 contains a novel bioconversion pathway for limonene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Keijzer, P.M.; Schaft, P.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Xanthobacter sp. C20 was isolated from sediment of the river Rhine using cyclohexane as sole source of carbon and energy. Xanthobacter sp. C20 converted both enantiomers of limonene quantitatively into limonene-8,9-epoxide, a not previously described bioconversion product of limonene. With (4R)-limo

  3. Novel multispecies microbial consortia involved in lignocellulose and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural bioconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Korenblum, Elisa; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    To develop a targeted metagenomics approach for the analysis of novel multispecies microbial consortia involved in the bioconversion of lignocellulose and furanic compounds, we applied replicated sequential batch aerobic enrichment cultures with either pretreated or untreated wheat straw as the sour

  4. The prospects of cellulase-producing bacteria for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Maki, Kam Tin Leung, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and abundant resource with great potential for bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. However, the biorefining process remains economically unfeasible due to a lack of biocatalysts that can overcome costly hurdles such as cooling from high temperature, pumping of oxygen/stirring, and, neutralization from acidic or basic pH. The extreme environmental resistance of bacteria permits screening and isolation of novel cellulases to help overcome these challenges. Rapid, efficient cellulase screening techniques, using cellulase assays and metagenomic libraries, are a must. Rare cellulases with activities on soluble and crystalline cellulose have been isolated from strains of Paenibacillus and Bacillus and shown to have high thermostability and/or activity over a wide pH spectrum. While novel cellulases from strains like Cellulomonas flavigena and Terendinibacter turnerae, produce multifunctional cellulases with broader substrate utilization. These enzymes offer a framework for enhancement of cellulases including: specific activity, thermalstability, or end-product inhibition. In addition, anaerobic bacteria like the clostridia offer potential due to species capable of producing compound multienzyme complexes called cellulosomes. Cellulosomes provide synergy and close proximity of enzymes to substrate, increasing activity towards crystalline cellulose. This has lead to the construction of designer cellulosomes enhanced for specific substrate activity. Furthermore, cellulosome-producing Clostridium thermocellum and its ability to ferment sugars to ethanol; its amenability to co-culture and, recent advances in genetic engineering, offer a promising future in biofuels. The exploitation of bacteria in the search for improved enzymes or strategies provides a means to upgrade feasibility for lignocellulosic biomass conversion, ultimately providing means to a 'greener' technology.

  5. Preliminary analysis of projected construction employment effects of building the defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates the probable effects of constructing the DWPF on the surrounding labor markets. Analyses are based on data from the local and regional labor markets, information from experts on local construction activities, information on the labor requirements of the Vogtle Power Plant (two nuclear reactors) being built by Georgia Power Company in Burke County, Georgia, and an econometric model of the construction labor market, based on several surveys of workers building three Tennessee Valley Authority nuclear power plants. The results of this study are reported in three parts. In Part I, completed in May 1980, we describe the 1979 (base year) employment levels within the local and regional labor markets surrounding SRP, from which most DWPF construction workers are likely to be drawn. In Part II, completed in June 1980, we define the four local sources of construction employment that will compete for craftsmen when DWPF is built. Also in Part II, most of the projected impacts of the DWPF reference immobilization alternative (one of several alternatives that may be chosen) are reported. Several construction schedules and labor demand scenarios for the reference alternative are considered. In Part III, completed in January 1981, most of the estimated impacts of the DWPF alternative referred to as the staged process alternative are reported. Several construction schedules and labor demand scenarios for this alternative are considered

  6. A PATH-DEPENDENT MODEL OF INVESTMENT AND EMPLOYMENT FLOW IN A LARGE ECONOMY IN A PROCESS OF INTEGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU An-guo; YANG Kai-zhong

    2004-01-01

    This paper meant to analyze the spatial evolution of a large country in its process of integration with the world economy in general, and, to look into the possible effect of China's accession into WTO on the future development of its spatial economy in particular. Through an approach of increasing returns, external economy, product differentiation and path-dependence, with foreign trade costs incurred by different regions within the large country discriminated, a model of investment and employment flow is developed as a simulation of a large country's process of integration with the world economy. The modeling indicates that in the process of integration, as there exist differences in foreign trade costs among different regions within the large country, either the spatial economy of the country deviates from its symmetric structure in autarky and falls into a core-periphery relationship, or the effect of industrial agglomeration is reinforced, amplified and locked in, if the agglomeration had been started. The economic gap on either the aggregate or structural basis between different regions within the large country will increase rapidly as the integration proceeds.

  7. Modeling of Selected Ceramic Processing Parameters Employed in the Fabrication of 238PuO 2 Fuel Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, R. A.; Kramer, D. P.; Barklay, C. D.; Cairns-Gallimore, D.; Brown, J. L.; Huling, J. C.; Van Pelt, C. E.

    Recent deep space missions utilize the thermal output of the radioisotope plutonium-238 as the fuel in the thermal to electrical power system. Since the application of plutonium in its elemental state has several disadvantages, the fuel employed in these deep space power systems is typically in the oxide form such as plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2). As an oxide, the processing of the plutonium dioxide into fuel pellets is performed via "classical" ceramic processing unit operations such as sieving of the powder, pressing, sintering, etc. Modeling of these unit operations can be beneficial in the understanding and control of processing parameters with the goal of further enhancing the desired characteristics of the 238PuO2 fuel pellets. A finite element model has been used to help identify the time-temperature-stress profile within a pellet during a furnace operation taking into account that 238PuO2 itself has a significant thermal output. Results of the modeling efforts will be discussed.

  8. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  9. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Pienkos, Philip T; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to "green" chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  10. Proteolysis and bioconversion of cereal proteins to glutamate and γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) in Rye malt sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromeck, Achim; Hu, Ying; Chen, Lingyun; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-02-23

    This study aimed to achieve the conversion of cereal proteins to the alternative end products glutamate or γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Rye malt, fungal proteases, and lactobacilli were employed to convert wheat gluten or barley proteins. Glutamate and GABA formations were strain-dependent. Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 and Lactobacillus rossiae 34J accumulated glutamate; L. reuteri LTH5448 and LTH5795 accumulated GABA. Glutamate and GABA accumulation by L. reuteri TMW1.106 and LTH5448 increased throughout fermentation time over 96 h, respectively. Peptides rather than amino acids were the main products of proteolysis in all doughs, and barley proteins were more resistant to degradation by rye malt proteases than wheat gluten. However, addition of fungal protease resulted in comparable degradation of both substrates. Glutamate and GABA accumulated to concentrations up to 63 and 90 mmol kg(-1) DM, respectively. Glutamate levels obtained through bioconversion of cereal proteins enable the use of hydrolyzed cereal protein as condiment. PMID:21271723

  11. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 776.17 Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of... process or occupation directly essential to the production thereof, in any State.” 77 Prior to the Fair... criteria for determining whether a process or occupation is “closely related” to production cannot...

  12. Improving the bioconversion yield of carbohydrates and ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewanick, Shannon M.

    Improving the efficiency of lignocellulosic ethanol production is of the utmost importance if cellulosic bioethanol is to be competitive with fossil fuels and first generation bioethanol from starch and sucrose. Improvements in individual processes (pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation) have been ongoing, but few researchers have considered the effect that the incoming raw biomass can have on the process. It is important to understand how biomass can be altered to provide the maximum yield of hydrolysable and fermentable sugars from whatever is available. Since the moisture content is highly variable and easily altered, the effect of drying and rewetting on bioconversion was studied on switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse and hybrid poplar. For switchgrass and sugarcane bagasse, the ethanol yield after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was improved 18-24% by increasing the moisture content by soaking prior to pretreatment. It was also found that soaking had no effect when the samples were not catalyzed with SO2 confirming that the effect of moisture content is directly related to SO2 uptake and diffusion into the biomass. In hybrid poplar, the results were similar to herbaceous biomass for chips with less than 2% absorbed SO2. However, when the SO2 uptake was increased to 3% even the air dried chips exhibited high digestibility, indicating that increased SO2 uptake can overcome the poor diffusion in dried biomass. Alongside controlling the biomass moisture content, improving knowledge and control of the processes can also increase efficiency and product yields. By monitoring reactions continuously with accurate, robust, on-line sensors, operators can detect when reactions deviate from the norm, and when they are complete. Avoiding process upsets and contamination could be the difference between an economically viable biorefinery and one that struggles to compete. Real time, continuous Raman spectroscopy was used to continuously monitor both a

  13. [Biodegradation of Cellulose-Containing Substrates by Micromycetes Followed by Bioconversion into Biogas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, L I; Osmolovskii, A A; Egorova, M A; Malakhova, D V; Netrusov, A I; Tsavkelova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of micromycetes Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. Office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. The cellulolytic activity of T. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of A. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 U/mLwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. The micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucrose cosubstrate addition, seeding method) and the conditions of the fungus biomass treatment for its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities were optimized. It was shown that pretreatment improves the efficiency of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials under seeding with microbial community of bovine animal manure. After pretreatment of the Jerusalem artichoke phytomass (stems and leaves) and its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by methanogenic community, the biogas yield was increased by 1.5 times.

  14. Advancing lignocellulose bioconversion through direct assessment of enzyme action on insoluble substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goacher, Robyn E.; Selig, Michael J.; Master, Emma R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial utilization of lignocellulose from plant cell walls is integral to carbon cycling on Earth. Correspondingly, secreted enzymes that initiate lignocellulose depolymerization serve a crucial step in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Genome and metagenome ....... In this context, the development and application of imaging, physicochemical, and spectromicroscopic techniques that allow direct assessment of enzyme action on relevant lignocellulosic substrates is reviewed.......Microbial utilization of lignocellulose from plant cell walls is integral to carbon cycling on Earth. Correspondingly, secreted enzymes that initiate lignocellulose depolymerization serve a crucial step in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Genome and metagenome...... sequencing efforts that span the past decade reveal the diversity of enzymes that have evolved to transform lignocellulose from wood, herbaceous plants and grasses. Nevertheless, there are relatively few examples where ‘omic’ technologies have identified novel enzyme activities or combinations thereof...

  15. Metabolic pathway reconstruction of eugenol to vanillin bioconversion in Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Suchita; Luqman, Suaib; Khan, Feroz; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Darokar, Mahendra P

    2010-01-01

    Identification of missing genes or proteins participating in the metabolic pathways as enzymes are of great interest. One such class of pathway is involved in the eugenol to vanillin bioconversion. Our goal is to develop an integral approach for identifying the topology of a reference or known pathway in other organism. We successfully identify the missing enzymes and then reconstruct the vanillin biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus niger. The procedure combines enzyme sequence similarity sea...

  16. Whole-cell bioconversion of vanillin to vanillic acid by Streptomyces viridosporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pometto, A L; Crawford, D L

    1983-01-01

    A two-step batch fermentation-bioconversion of vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) to vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) was developed, utilizing whole cells of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. In the first step, cells were grown in a yeast extract-vanillin medium under conditions where cells produced an aromatic aldehyde oxidase. In the second step, vanillin was incubated with the active cells and was quantitatively oxidized to vanillic acid which accumulated in the growth ...

  17. Mass spectrometric analysis of isotope effects in bioconversion of benzene to cyclohexanone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, In-Hyun; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Young-Mo; Yang, In-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-06-01

    Pseudomonas veronii strain PH-03 has been shown to convert benzene to cyclohexanone through phenol. Mass spectrometry results revealed that unusual isotopic effects have been occurred in the transformation product, cyclohexanone. The isotopic composition was strongly depends on the compound specific hydrogen or oxygen source. The exchange of labile deuterium atoms has been investigated through electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric analysis of biotransformation products enabled the proposal of a corresponding bioconversion pathway.

  18. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ling Tang; Osman Hassan; Jamaliah Md-Jahim; Wan Aida Wan Mustapha; Mohamad Yusof Maskat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF), coconut coir fiber (CCF), pineapple peel (PP), pineapple crown leaves (PCL), kenaf bast fiber (KBF), and kenaf core fiber (KCF), as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol) and alkaline treatment (NaOH), to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The findi...

  19. Multidisciplinary research program directed toward utilization of solar energy through bioconversion of renewable resources. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W. R.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported in four research areas of solar bioconversion. The first program deals with the genetic selection of superior trees, physiological basis of vigor, tissue culture, haploid cell lines, and somatic hybridization. The second deals with the physiology of paraquat-induced oleoresin biogenesis. Separate abstracts were prepared for the other two program areas: biochemical basis of paraquat-induced oleoresin production in pines and biochemistry of methanogenesis. (JSR)

  20. Bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated sorghum bagasse to ethanol by Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Gkounta, Olga; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zografou (Greece). Biotechnology Lab.

    2012-07-15

    Bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SB), the lignocellulosic solid residue obtained after extraction of sugars from sorghum stalks, can further improve the energy yield of the crop. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a cost-efficient bioconversion of SB to ethanol at high solids loadings (16 % at pretreatment and 8 % at fermentation), low cellulase activities (1-7 FPU/g SB) and co-fermentation of hexoses and pentoses. The fungus Neurospora crassa DSM 1129 was used, which exhibits both depolymerase and co-fermentative ability, as well as mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A dilute-acid pretreatment (sulfuric acid 2 g/100 g SB; 210 C; 10 min) was implemented, with high hemicellulose decomposition and low inhibitor formation. The bioconversion efficiency of N. crassa was superior to S. cerevisiae, while their mixed cultures had negative effect on ethanol production. Supplementing the in situ produced N. crassa cellulolytic system (1.0 FPU/g SB) with commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase mixture at low activity (6.0 FPU/g SB) increased ethanol production to 27.6 g/l or 84.7 % of theoretical yield (based on SB cellulose and hemicellulose sugar content). The combined dilute-acid pretreatment and bioconversion led to maximum cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis 73.3 % and 89.6 %, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of sewage sludge bioremediation at different hydraulic retention times using mixed fungal inoculation by liquid-state bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Fakhru'l-Razi, A

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable, environmental friendly, and safe disposal of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge is a global expectation. Bioremediation performance was examined at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in 3-10 days and organic loading rates (OLR) at 0.66-7.81 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter per day, with mixed filamentous fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation by liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique as a continuous process in large-scale bioreactor. Encouraging results were monitored in treated sludge by LSB continuous process. The highest removal of total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, and COD were achieved at 98, 99, and 93%, respectively, at 10 days HRT compared to control. The minimum volatile suspended solid/suspended solid implies the quality of water, which was recorded 0.59 at 10 days and 0.72 at 3 days of HRT. In treated supernatant with 88% protein removal at 10 days of HRT indicates a higher magnitude of purification of treated sludge. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) quantifies the performance of dewaterability; it was recorded minimum 0.049 × 10(12) m kg(-1) at 10 days of HRT, which was equivalent to 97% decrease of SRF. The lower OLR and higher HRT directly influenced the bioremediation and dewaterability of STP sludge in LSB process. The obtained findings imply encouraging message in continuing treatment of STP sludge, i.e., bioremediation of wastewater for environmental friendly disposal in near future.

  2. Assessment of sewage sludge bioremediation at different hydraulic retention times using mixed fungal inoculation by liquid-state bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Fakhru'l-Razi, A

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable, environmental friendly, and safe disposal of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge is a global expectation. Bioremediation performance was examined at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in 3-10 days and organic loading rates (OLR) at 0.66-7.81 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter per day, with mixed filamentous fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation by liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique as a continuous process in large-scale bioreactor. Encouraging results were monitored in treated sludge by LSB continuous process. The highest removal of total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, and COD were achieved at 98, 99, and 93%, respectively, at 10 days HRT compared to control. The minimum volatile suspended solid/suspended solid implies the quality of water, which was recorded 0.59 at 10 days and 0.72 at 3 days of HRT. In treated supernatant with 88% protein removal at 10 days of HRT indicates a higher magnitude of purification of treated sludge. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) quantifies the performance of dewaterability; it was recorded minimum 0.049 × 10(12) m kg(-1) at 10 days of HRT, which was equivalent to 97% decrease of SRF. The lower OLR and higher HRT directly influenced the bioremediation and dewaterability of STP sludge in LSB process. The obtained findings imply encouraging message in continuing treatment of STP sludge, i.e., bioremediation of wastewater for environmental friendly disposal in near future. PMID:23881591

  3. Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A; Hussin, S Nahdatul I S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal.

  4. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Employing graduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittaway, Luke; Clark, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    This manual provides managers in the tourism sector with guidance on the likely effects for their business of employing graduates, tourism being a sector with a currently low level of graduate employment.

  6. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on creation of high-efficiency renewable resources, and bioconversion technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabi ni bioconversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey was made on material production technology using creation technology of high-efficiency renewable resources (photosynthesis reaction of plants). Industrially usable plant resources in overseas countries and Japan were arranged, and plant resources unused for food were also surveyed. The present state of genetic engineering necessary for metabolic engineering of higher plants such as fit and high-expression technology of genes, plant cell cultivation, and control technology of plant cell multiplication is described, and elementary technologies required for future gene-recombined plants are predicted. Survey was also made on the trend of creation technology of industrial plants for fat and oil, biodegradable polyester, amino acid, cellulose, fiber (cotton) and forest wood. A patent list on plant biotechnology was prepared, and study on bioconversion of plant resources was also surveyed. Overseas R & D trends on conversion and effective use technologies of renewable bio- resources are reported, and process design and its profitability were evaluated through a case study. 414 refs., 87 figs., 55 tabs.

  7. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Nan; Yan, Bing-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Di; Qiu, Ye; Guo, Yun-Long; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Compound K (CK), a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO₄ without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C-50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1→Rd→F2→CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes. PMID:26512632

  8. Utilization of fruit peels as carbon source for white rot fungi biomass production under submerged state bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunnisola Kola Saheed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of nutrient rich waste streams within the food and hospitality industry is inevitable and remained a matter of concern to stakeholders. Three white rot fungal strains were cultivated under submerged state bioconversion (SmB. Fermentable sugar conversion efficiency, biomass production and substrate utilization constant were indicators used to measure the success of the process. The substrates – banana peel (Bp, pineapple peel (PAp and papaya peel (Pp were prepared in wet and dried forms as substrates. Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium, Panus tigrinus M609RQY, and RO209RQY were cultivated on sole fruit wastes and their composites. All fungal strains produced profound biomass on dry sole wet substrates, but wet composite substrates gave improved results. P. tigrinus RO209RQY was the most efficient in sugar conversion (99.6% on sole substrates while P. tigrinus M609RQY was efficient on composite substrates. Elevated substrate utilization constant (Ku and biomass production heralded wet composite substrates. P. chrysosporium was the most performing fungal strain for biomass production, while PApBp was the best composite substrate.

  9. Bioconversion of styrene to poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) by the new bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida NBUS12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Chen, Chia-Lung; Ge, Liya; Li, Ling; Tan, Swee Ngin; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Styrene is a toxic pollutant commonly found in waste effluents from plastic processing industries. We herein identified and characterized microorganisms for bioconversion of the organic eco-pollutant styrene into a valuable biopolymer medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA). Twelve newly-isolated styrene-degrading Pseudomonads were obtained and partial phaC genes were detected by PCR in these isolates. These isolates assimilated styrene to produce mcl-PHA, forming PHA contents between 0.05±0.00 and 23.10±3.25% cell dry mass (% CDM). The best-performing isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida NBUS12. A genetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phaZ genes revealed P. putida NBUS12 as a genetically-distinct strain from existing phenotypically-similar bacterial strains. This bacterium achieved a final biomass of 1.28±0.10 g L(-1) and PHA content of 32.49±2.40% CDM. The extracted polymer was mainly comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ), and 3-hydroxytetradecanoate (C14 ) monomers at a ratio of 2:42:1257:17:1. These results collectively suggested that P. putida NBUS12 is a promising candidate for the biotechnological conversion of styrene into mcl-PHA. PMID:25740622

  10. Isolation and Purification of Bacterial Strains from Treatment Plants for Effective and Efficient Bioconversion of Domestic Wastewater Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C.A. Jalal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK sewage treatment plant, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM treatment plant-1,-2 and –3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates and 47.8% (22 isolates in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants respectively. The results showed that the higher microbial population (9-10x104 cfu mLˉ1 was observed in the secondary clarifier of IWK treatment plant. Only the gram-staining identification was done in the strains isolated from IWK treatment plant not to be determined from IIUM. Among the isolates from IWK, 10 isolates of gram-positive bacillus (GPB and gram-positive cocci (GPC, 10 isolates of gram-negative bacillus (GNB and rest were both or undetermined. Gram-negative cocci (GNC were not found in the isolates from IWK.

  11. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Nan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Compound K (CK, a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO4 without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C–50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1 → Rd → F2 → CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  12. PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF THE ENZYME INVOLVED IN BIOCONVERSION OF ARTEANNUIN B TO ARTEMISNIN FROM A STREPTOMYCES SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARCH SREENIVASA RAO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin and its derivatives are the most rapidly acting antimalarial drugs effective against falciparum malaria including multidrug resistant infection. An enzyme catalyzing the bioconversion of arteannin-B, a biogenetic precursor of artemisinin to the later is partiallt purified from a soil isolate, Streptomyces sp. Crude cell free extract of a 72 h old culture of Streptomyces sp. on incubation with the precursor arteannuin B had shown bioconversion of 17.64% to artemisinin on molor basis with a specific activity of 0.11 units/mg. Partial pruification of the enzyme by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography has resulted in .5.60 fold increase of specific activity with 64.71% of bioconversion

  13. 49 CFR 40.21 - May an employer stand down an employee before the MRO has completed the verification process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer... your organization are treated the same way with respect to stand-down; (iv) Your means of ensuring that a covered employee will be subject to stand-down only with respect to the actual performance...

  14. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediating between Career Calling and Perceived Employability and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praskova, Anna; Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    We tested a cross-sectional, mediation model of career calling, in which career calling was associated positively with life satisfaction and perceptions of future employability, and these relationships were explained by the self-regulatory mechanisms of work effort, career strategies, and emotional regulation. Using a sample of 664 emerging adults…

  15. Employment persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischman, Charles A.; Joshua H. Gallin

    2001-01-01

    The recent U.S. expansion has provided employment experience to individuals at tail of the skill distribution. Will these opportunities bestow persistent benefits in the form of greater future employability? Using synthetic cohorts constructed from the CPS, this paper estimates the degree of persistence in cohort-level employment rates in excess of persistence in aggregate macroeconomic conditions. This approach is in some ways superior to testing for hysteresis in the aggregate unemployment ...

  16. Comparison of different cellulolytic fungi for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1986-08-01

    The suitability of three ascomycetous fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Trichoderma reesei, as well as two basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, for bioconversion of apple distillery slop was compared. Trichoderma and Phanerochaete degraded raw fibres by 20%, producing filter cakes with 17% to 22% raw protein contents. Aspergillus spp. were superior in filtration time and COD reduction and were of the same efficiency in protein synthesis as Trichoderma and Phanerochaete, but did not degrade fibres. Pleurotus ostreatus did not degrade lignin under fermentation conditions used and could not compete with other fungi due to its slower growth.

  17. 78 FR 1260 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... requirements contained at 20 CFR 655.120(a) by permitting an employer to offer, advertise in the course of its.../sw1vh5dg3r/ http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/ARMS/resourceregions/resourceregions.htm#older . The States used.../sw1vh5dg3r/http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/ARMS/resourceregions/resourceregions.htm#older . The States...

  18. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  19. Engaging Employers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  20. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to xylitol: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswar Rao, Linga; Goli, Jyosthna Khanna; Gentela, Jahnavi; Koti, Sravanthi

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes include agricultural and forest residues which are most promising alternative energy sources and serve as potential low cost raw materials that can be exploited to produce xylitol. The strong physical and chemical construction of lignocelluloses is a major constraint for the recovery of xylose. The large scale production of xylitol is attained by nickel catalyzed chemical process that is based on xylose hydrogenation, that requires purified xylose as raw substrate and the process requires high temperature and pressure that remains to be cost intensive and energy consuming. Therefore, there is a necessity to develop an integrated process for biotechnological conversion of lignocelluloses to xylitol and make the process economical. The present review confers about the pretreatment strategies that facilitate cellulose and hemicellulose acquiescent for hydrolysis. There is also an emphasis on various detoxification and fermentation methodologies including genetic engineering strategies for the efficient conversion of xylose to xylitol. PMID:27142629

  1. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final report, September 29, 1992--December 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1995-01-15

    The proposed research project consists of an integrated, two-stage fermentation and a highly energy-efficient product separation scheme. In the first fermentation, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) into butyric acid and acetic acids which are then converted into butanol, ethanol, and a small amount of acetone in the second stage fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. An advanced separation system process, based on pervaporation, removes the alcohols from the fermentation broth as they are formed, along with some of the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), to minimize possible inhibition of the fermentations. This bioconversion process offers a critical advantage over conventional, catalytic processes for synthesis gas conversion: the microorganisms are several orders of magnitude more sulfur tolerant than metallic catalysts. The catalysts require sulfur removal to the parts per million level, while the microorganisms are unaffected by H{sub 2}S and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at one part per hundred--roughly the composition of sulfur in raw synthesis gas. During the two-year course of this project, the following major objectives have been accomplished: demonstrated long-term cell recycle of continuous fermentation of synthesis gas; demonstrated cell immobilization of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum; identified trickle-bed reactor as a viable alternative fermentation method; modulated metabolic pathways to increase C4 formation during synthesis gas fermentation; recovered carbon and electrons from H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with pathway modulation for increased C4 production; developed bacterial strains with improved selectivity for butyrate fermentation; demonstrated two-stage CO to alcohol fermentation; and concentrated alcohol from solventogenic fermentation by pervaporation.

  2. Bioconversion of heavy crude oils: A basis for new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.

    1995-10-01

    Systematic studies of chemical mechanisms by which selected microorganisms react with crude oils have led to the identification of biochemical markers characteristic of the interactions of microbes with oils. These biomarkers belong to several groups of natural products ranging from saturate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons containing heterocyclics to organometallic compounds. The biochemical conversions of oils can be monitored by these chemical markers, which are particularly useful in the optimization of biochemical processing, cost efficiency, and engineering studies. Recent results from these studies will be discussed in terms of biochemical technology for the processing of crude oils.

  3. Bioconversion of pinoresinol into matairesinol by use of recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Han-Jung; Wei, Zhi-Yu; Lu, Pei-Chun; Huang, Pung-Ling; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-05-01

    Lignans, a class of dimeric phenylpropanoid derivative found in plants, such as whole grains and sesame and flax seeds, have anticancer activity and can act as phytoestrogens. The lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol can be converted in the mammalian proximal colon into enterolactone and enterodiol, respectively, which reduce the risk of breast and colon cancer. To establish an efficient bioconversion system to generate matairesinol from pinoresinol, the genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SDH) were cloned from Podophyllum pleianthum Hance, an endangered herb in Taiwan, and the recombinant proteins, rPLR and rSDH, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The two genes, termed plr-PpH and sdh-PpH, were also linked to form two bifunctional fusion genes, plr-sdh and sdh-plr, which were also expressed in E. coli and purified. Bioconversion in vitro at 22°C for 60 min showed that the conversion efficiency of fusion protein PLR-SDH was higher than that of the mixture of rPLR and rSDH. The percent conversion of (+)-pinoresinol to matairesinol was 49.8% using PLR-SDH and only 17.7% using a mixture of rPLR and rSDH. However, conversion of (+)-pinoresinol by fusion protein SDH-PLR stopped at the intermediate product, secoisolariciresinol. In vivo, (+)-pinoresinol was completely converted to matairesinol by living recombinant E. coli expressing PLR-SDH without addition of cofactors.

  4. Novel bioconversion of wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer in a solid-state bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Sun, Fubao

    2007-03-01

    In order to increase the eco-efficiency and overall availability of naturally renewable resource, the novel bioconversion of steam-exploded wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer containing N(2)-fixer, P and K solubilizers was investigated. The conversion was performed in solid-state fermentation (SSF) with periodic air-forced pressure oscillation (PAPO). The results showed that SSF-PAPO was competitive with the conventional solid-state fermentation (cSSF) in biomass accumulation and wheat straw digestion. With solid-liquid ratio 1:3, microbial biomass production at 72 h was high up to 2 x 10(11) cfu g(-1), nearly twice as that in cSSF. The degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after fermentation in SSF-PAPO reached 48.57 +/- 10.66, 84.77 +/- 2.75 and 2.15 +/- 10.11, respectively, which was greater than that of 29.30 +/- 10.28%, 33.47 +/- 4.85% and 0.53 +/- 9.07% in cSSF, correspondingly. The SSF-PAPO system displayed unique advantage, by a novel gas phase control strategy on gas concentration and heat gradient, on the bioconversion of wheat straw to the bio-organic fertilizer.

  5. Bioconversion of methyl ricinoleate to 4-hydroxy-decanoic acid and to gamma-decalactone by yeasts of the genus Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, A; Belin, J M

    1995-01-01

    The capacity of several strains of yeasts to do the bioconversion of methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone, was studied in a medium containing this methylic ester of fatty acid as sole carbon source. Amongst the strains which are able to do this bioconversion, two types of behaviour are observed: some of the strains produce gamma-decalactone during all the incubation in bioconversion medium while others produce this aroma compound very quickly and then consume it fast too. The tested strains produce at the same time gamma-decalactone and the corresponding acid form (4-hydroxy-decanoic acid), and this, in variable proportions. PMID:8568639

  6. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is solely to address two interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), using the European Employment Strategy as a case: First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes...... of the European Employment Strategy (EES)? Second, how is mutual learning processes diffused among the Member States? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on this concept of learning, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors....

  7. Bioconversion of cellulose into electrical energy in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid

    .5, 53 and 47 mWm-2, respectively. The anode potential varied under the different circuit loads employed. Higher coulombic efficiencies were achieved in MFCs with lower external resistance. The effect of different external resistances on the bacterial diversity and metabolism in cellulose-fed MFCs was investigated as the fourth objective. DGGE analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes showed clear differences between the planktonic and the anode-attached populations at various external resistances. Cellulose degradation was complete (acids (SCFA) revealed that anaerobic degradation of cellulose was accompanied by production of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, and lactic acids, with acetic acid being predominant. The profile of metabolites was different among the MFCs. The concentrations of SCFA were higher in MFCs with larger external resistance. High levels of SCFA indicated that fermentative metabolism dominated over anaerobic respiration, resulting in relatively low coulombic efficiencies. The accumulation of SCFA at higher circuit resistances corresponded to lower power outputs. Methanogenesis shifts the flow of electrons available from the substrate away from electricity generation in MFCs. The fifth objective of this research was to assess the influence of methane formation on the performance of cellulose-fed MFCs under long-term operation. A maximum volumetric power density of 3.5 W m-3 was achieved in R20O MFCs, which was three times greater than that obtained with R100O MFCs (1.03 W m-3). The diversity of methanogens in cellulose-fed MFCs was also characterized. It was shown that the suppression of methanogenesis was accompanied by a decrease in the diversity of methanogens and changes in the concentration of SCFA, as revealed by DGGE analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and HPLC analysis, respectively. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene Sequences indicated that the most predominant methanogens were related to the fam

  8. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  9. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...

  10. Haloalkaline Bioconversions for Methane Production from Microalgae Grown on Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; Sorokin, Dimitry; Kruse, Olaf; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Strous, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Microalgal biomass can be converted to biofuels to replace nonsustainable fossil fuels, but the widespread use of microalgal biofuels remains hampered by the high energetic and monetary costs related to carbon dioxide supply and downstream processing. Growing microalgae in mixed culture biofilms reduces energy demands for mixing, maintaining axenic conditions, and biomass concentration. Furthermore, maintaining a high pH improves carbon dioxide absorption rates and inorganic carbon solubility, thus overcoming the carbon limitation and increasing the volumetric productivity of the microalgal biomass. Digesting the microalgal biomass anaerobically at high pH results in biogas that is enriched in methane, while the dissolved carbon dioxide is recycled to the phototrophic reactor. All of the required haloalkaline conversions are known in nature. PMID:26968613

  11. Physically secured orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network employing noise-based encryption and signal recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Zhang, Chongfu; Yuan, Weicheng

    2016-02-01

    We propose a physically enhanced secure scheme for direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network (DD-OFDM-PON) and long reach coherent detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network (LRCO-OFDM-PON), by employing noise-based encryption and channel/phase estimation. The noise data generated by chaos mapping are used to substitute training sequences in preamble to realize channel estimation and frame synchronization, and also to be embedded on variable number of key-selected randomly spaced pilot subcarriers to implement phase estimation. Consequently, the information used for signal recovery is totally hidden as unpredictable noise information in OFDM frames to mask useful information and to prevent illegal users from correctly realizing OFDM demodulation, and thereby enhancing resistance to attackers. The levels of illegal-decryption complexity and implementation complexity are theoretically discussed. Through extensive simulations, the performances of the proposed channel/phase estimation and the security introduced by encrypted pilot carriers have been investigated in both DD-OFDM and LRCO-OFDM systems. In addition, in the proposed secure DD-OFDM/LRCO-OFDM PON models, both legal and illegal receiving scenarios have been considered. These results show that, by utilizing the proposed scheme, the resistance to attackers can be significantly enhanced in DD-OFDM-PON and LRCO-OFDM-PON systems without performance degradations.

  12. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M. K.; Worden, R. M.; Grethlein, A.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H2-CO2; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following: butyrate production was enhanced during H2/CO2 (50/50) batch fermentation; isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress; pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability; polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support; cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8; trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing; and pervaporation system was constructed (No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up).

  13. Compounds inhibiting the bioconversion of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-05-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment using liquid hot water, steam explosion, or dilute acids enhances the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose by altering the chemical and/or physical structures of lignocellulosic biomass. However, compounds that inhibit both enzymes and microbial activity, including lignin-derived phenolics, soluble sugars, furan aldehydes, and weak acids, are also generated during pretreatment. Insoluble lignin, which predominantly remains within the pretreated solids, also acts as a significant inhibitor of cellulases during hydrolysis of cellulose. Exposed lignin, which is modified to be more recalcitrant to enzymes during pretreatment, adsorbs cellulase nonproductively and reduces the availability of active cellulase for hydrolysis of cellulose. Similarly, lignin-derived phenolics inhibit or deactivate cellulase and β-glucosidase via irreversible binding or precipitation. Meanwhile, the performance of fermenting microorganisms is negatively affected by phenolics, sugar degradation products, and weak acids. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the contributions of inhibitors present in whole pretreatment slurries to the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and fermentation. Furthermore, we discuss various biological strategies to mitigate the effects of these inhibitors on enzymatic and microbial activity to improve the lignocellulose-to-biofuel process robustness. While the inhibitory effect of lignin on enzymes can be relieved through the use of lignin blockers and by genetically engineering the structure of lignin or of cellulase itself, soluble inhibitors, including phenolics, furan aldehydes, and weak acids, can be detoxified by microorganisms or laccase.

  14. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  15. The efforts of sulfide minerals employing at BM-179 uranium ore Kalan-Kalbar to produce H2SO4 using contact process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Remaja BM-179 uranium ore processing conducted by BATAN to obtain U3O8 seems to be inefficient because at leaching state, it consumpts H2SO4 125 kg per ton ore. There is no information about the efforts of mineral sulfide employing at BM-179 ore to support uranium processing. The purpose of the study was the efforts to employ of mineral sulfide at ore's low uranium to produce H2SO4 using contact process, which it would be, used at leaching state of Eko Remaja BM-179 uranium ore processing Kalan-Kalbar. Magnetic separator, flotation, knelson concentrator and shake table could conduct the enrichment of sulfide minerals. The study reveals that magnetic separator method and flotation methods increased sulfur content significantly. Magnetic separator succeed to increase sulfur content to 9.58 times from sulfur's initial and produce 28.44 % H2SO4, while the flotation method increased sulfur's content to 4.71 times from sulfur's initial and produce 22.19 % H2SO4

  16. Production of Cellulase from Oil Palm Biomass as Substrate by Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Z. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state bioconversion (SSB of lignocellulosic material oil palm biomass (OPB generated from palm oil industries as waste was conducted by evaluating the enzyme production through filamentous fungus in lab-scale experiment. OPB in the form of empty fruit bunches (EFB was used as the solid substrate and treated with the fungus Trichoderma harzianum to produce cellulase. The results presented in this study revealed that the higher cellulase activity of 0.0413 unit was achieved at the day 3 of fermentation. While the optimum study indicated the enzyme production of 0.0433 unit with moisture content of 50%, 0.0413 unit with 5% v/w of inoculum size and 0.0413 unit with co-substrate concentration of 2% (w/w at days 9, 9 and 12 of fungal treatment, respectively. The parameters glucosamine and reducing sugar were observed to evaluate the growth and substrate utilization in the experiment.

  17. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-09-01

    A β-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract→Rd→F2→compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively.

  18. Bioconversion of (+)-valencene in submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Krings, Ulrich; Nanzad, Tsevegsuren; Berger, Ralf G

    2005-06-01

    Submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum oxidised the exogenous sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to nootkatone via the stereoselective generation of alpha-nootkatol. Inhibition experiments suggested that the first introduction of oxygen, the rate-limiting step of the bioconversion, may have been catalysed by a cytochrome-P450-monooxygenase. However, nootkatone was not the final metabolite: further flavour-active and inactive, non-volatile oxidation products were identified. (+)-Valencene and the flavour-active mono-oxyfunctionalised transformation products, alpha-nootkatol, nootkatone, and valencene-11,12-epoxide accumulated preferably inside the fungal cells. Di- and poly-oxygenated products, such as nootkatone-11,12-epoxide, were found solely in the culture medium, indicating an active transport of these metabolites into the extracellular compartment during (+)-valencene detoxification. These metabolic properties may have contributed to the high tolerance of the fungus towards the exogenous hydrocarbon. PMID:15602686

  19. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF, coconut coir fiber (CCF, pineapple peel (PP, pineapple crown leaves (PCL, kenaf bast fiber (KBF, and kenaf core fiber (KCF, as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol and alkaline treatment (NaOH, to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The finding showed that the highest amount of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid was produced from CCF and PP, respectively. This study also found that organosolv treatment was the superior method for phenolic compound extraction, whereas alkaline treatment was the selective method for lignin extraction. Vanillic acid production by Aspergillus niger I-1472 was only observed when the fermentation broth was fed with liquors from PP and PCL, possibly due to the higher levels of ferulic acid in those samples.

  20. Direct bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen by a new strain Clostridium sp. FS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Xia; Li, Xiao-Hu; Li, Wei-Wei; Bai, Yan-Xia; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2014-04-01

    A new strain FS3 which could achieve an efficient bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen had been isolated from anaerobic acclimated sludge, and identified as Clostridium butyricum on the basis of a series of physiological and biochemical experiments and 16S rDNA gene sequence. The strain could utilize various carbon sources to produce hydrogen. On the basis of single-factor experiments, the response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the media for hydrogen production. The maximum hydrogen yield of 92.9ml/g was observed under the optimal conditions: 20g/l raw corn stalk, 1.76g/l NH4HCO3, 0.91g/l KH2PO4 and 10.4ml/l nutrient solution. This finding opens a new avenue for direct conversion of raw cellulosic biomass to bio-hydrogen.

  1. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  2. Science employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    Rapid growth in private sector high-technology companies coupled with the expected unprecedented U.S. peacetime defense buildup paint an optimistic picture for future employment in scientific and engineering fields, according to forecasts by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Between 1982 and 1987, up to nearly 750,000 new positions will be created in scientific, engineering, or technical fields, a new NSF report states. By 1987 these occupations will account for 4 million jobs, or 3.5% of the total U.S. work force. New positions in the earth sciences are predicted to increase about 2% per year.

  3. 军队文职人员招聘面试规范的建立%Establishment of Normalized Interview Process of Employing Civilian Personnel in the Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴冬梅; 时利民; 李晓武; 郭艳; 王胜利

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨规范军队文职人员招聘面试的流程与办法。方法制定考核标准;成立保障组织;建立保障流程;实施保障演练;落实考前培训;实施面试考核。结果建立文职人员统一招聘面试题库;形成文职人员统一招聘面试基本保障模式;编写文职人员统一招聘面试《考务人员培训手册》;规范文职人员统一招聘面试考务人员培训程序;完成文职人员统一招聘面试各项程序;制作文职人员统一招聘面试示范教学录像片。结论建立军队文职人员招聘面试考区基本保障模式,对规范军队文职人员招聘面试程序和标准进行有益探索。%Objective To normalize the interview process and method of employing civilian personnel. Method We formulated the evaluation criteria, established the security organization and process, implemented se-curity drill and exam training, and carried interview assessment.Result We established the interview questions, formulated the basic security mode, compiled the training manual of examiners, standardized the training program, completed the interview, and made the teaching tapes.Conclusion We established the basic support mode and explored the interview process and standard for the interview of employing civilian personnel in the army.

  4. Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reductions in additional costs for inventory management; 50% of the resources used for loading the containers; and an 11.4% increment in the efficiency of operations. In addition, the new planning strategy was also evaluated with either a positive or negative variation of the demand. It should be underscored that the improved scenarios (out of those simulated do not involve investments in facilities or in machinery purchasing.  

  5. Removal of h2s during anaerobic bioconversion of dairy manure%去除牛粪厌氧生物转化过程中的H2S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jam Saifullah Lar; 李秀金

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this research was the experimental study at lab scale to check the absorption technolOgytor the in situ removal of H2S from biogas during anaerobic digestion process.The reagent FeCll was used to check the removal efficiency of H,S produced from dairy manure during anaerobic bioconversion process.The expenments werc conducted under mesophilic conditions.Thc composition of biogas was analyzed by gas chromatography analyzer equipped with flame photometer and thermal conductivity detectors.Experimental results under the same conditions demonstrate that high concentration of HES in the form of FeS can be removed totally from the biogas using FeCl3 dosing with in anaerobic batch digester.

  6. Bioconversion of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed Abdel-Monaem; AlZahrani, Abdulraheem Ahmad; Noweir, Madbuli Hamed; El-Marakby, Fadia Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5-8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500 mg/L at pH values 8.0-8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8-8.5.

  7. The Preparation of Bioimprinted Whole-cell Biocatalyst and Its Application in Bioconversion of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel. Lipase is the most popular enzyme for biodiesel production and immobilization has been deployed to improve enzyme stability and reusability. Exploitation of high activity lipase is the key point for biodiesel production. Whole-cell biocatalysts have been applied in the biosynthesis of biodiesel and bioimprinting is a promising approach for enzyme performances improvement. In this study, based on the S. cerevisiae cell-surface display system with &alpha-agglutinin as anchor, a whole-cell biocatalyst of codon-optimized Rhizopus oryzae lipase was constructed and bioimprinted with oleic acid, gaining 5-fold increase on enzymatic activity in the alcoholysis of soybean oil to biodiesel. Moreover, the conversion of FAME was up to 95.45±2.73% after a 27-h reaction at 60°C. Our results indicated that combining bioimprinting with yeast display technique to prepare whole-cell biocatalyst could result in potential enzymes for bioconversion of biodiesel in organic solvents.

  8. Physiological and Chemical Studies on the Bioconversion of Glycyrrhizin by Aspergillus niger NRRL595

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refai, A. M. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizin (GL, the well-known sweet saponin of licorice, has been used as a food-additive and as a medicine. Its aglycone, glycyrrhetic acid (GA showed antiinflamatory, antiulcer and antiviral properties. GA is now produced form GL by acid hydrolysis. However, it is difficult to obtain GA in a good yield by using this method, because many by-productsare also produced. Screening of different microorganisms (13 bacteria, 2 yeasts and 23 fungi for production of GA from GL revealed that Aspergillus niger NRRL 595 produced the highest yield of GA. The bioconversion of GL by A. niger NRRL 595 for 96 h, followed by isolation and purification of the transformation products led to the separation of two conversion products, namely: GA and 3-oxo-GA. Confirmation of the identity of these products was established by determination of their Rf values, m.p., and IR, UV, MS and NMR spectra. The conditions for cultivation of this fungus with the maximum hydrolytic activity for the maximum yield of GA were investigated. Based on the results, A. niger NRRL 595 was cultivated with a medium composed of 1.75 % GL, 0.5 % glucose, 0.8 % corn steep liquor at pH 6.5 at 32 °C for 96 h. The cultivation of fungal cells under the latter conditions afforded GA and 3-oxo-GA in a yield of 65 % and 22 %, respectively.

  9. Physico-chemical Profile and Microbial Diversity During Bioconversion of Sugarcane Press Mud Using Bacterial Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Chandra SARKER

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the physico-chemical and microbial diversity for rapid composting of sugarcane press mud (PM leading to organic manure. Five bacterial strains (Cellulomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp., Salmonella sp. were tested under in vivo conditions for bioconversion of PM using pile method. Results revealed that combined inoculation of bacterial consortia was found to be the best decomposer of PM resulting reduction of organic carbon content (26.75%, C:N ratio (12.44%. In parallel, it increased the nitrogen (2.34%, phosphorous (1.15% and potassium (1.37% content along with the population of microorganisms i.e. bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. However, the population of tested bacteria was gradually depleted after completion of PM decomposition together with pathogenic bacteria and fungi due to full conversion of carbon component into other minerals, i.e. N, P, K etc. Taken together, these findings certainly pinpoints the effective role of bacterial suspension for composting sugarcane press mud which the eventually be used as organic manure.

  10. Solid-state bioconversion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by Rhizopus oligosporus to improve total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Magaña, Luis Martin; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Ayala-Rodríguez, Ana Edith; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of time during solid state bioconversion (SSB) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of chickpea. Chickpea cotyledons were inoculated with a suspension of Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 35 °C for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 108 h. The best time to produce bioprocessed chickpea (added with seed coats) flour with the highest AoxA was 108 h. SSB substantially increased TPC and AoxA of chickpea extracts in 2.78 and 1.80-1.94 times, respectively. At 36 and 96 h of fermentation, the SSB process improved in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (AI and GI indexes) activities of chickpea extracts in 83 and 370%, respectively. SSB is a good strategy to enhance health-linked functionality of chickpea, due to improved TPC, AoxA and content of strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes.

  11. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  12. Study of the pigments elementary chemical composition of a painting in process of attribution to Gainsborough employing a portable X-rays fluorescence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, C. R.; Blonski, M. S.; Parreira, P. S.; Souza, L. A. C.

    2007-09-01

    The investigated painting, named as "The woodman" by its owners, is in process of authenticity verification as a Thomas Gainsborough (XVIII century) painting and is under investigation at the Laboratory of Conservation Science (LACICOR), CECOR/EBA/UFMG. The authentication process is still in course. The measurements were carried out in the place where the painting was on custody, with a portable X-rays fluorescence (XRF) system constituted of a X-rays tube with Ag anode, a Si-PIN diode detector, nuclear electronic chain and a specially designed mechanical system for the detector and X-rays tube positioning, that enables angular and XYZ movements of the excitation-detection system. The employed voltage and current intensity of the X-rays tube were 17 kV and 3 μA, respectively. The time of acquisition for each measurement was 500 s. XRF spectra were analyzed using the AXIL-WinQXAS software. Three measurements in each of the following regions of the painting were done: face, leaves, arm, sky and firewood. The carried out analysis indicated the following pigments: White (lead white and calcium sulfate, identified by the elements Pb, Ca and S), Blue (Prussian blue, identified by the key element Fe), Red (Vermilion, identified by the elements Hg and S) and Brown (mixture of Fe and Mn oxides, identified by the elements Fe and Mn). Elements belonging to modern pigments (after XVIII century) corresponding to the same colors were absent in the analyzed spectra.

  13. Study of the pigments elementary chemical composition of a painting in process of attribution to Gainsborough employing a portable X-rays fluorescence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigated painting, named as 'The woodman' by its owners, is in process of authenticity verification as a Thomas Gainsborough (XVIII century) painting and is under investigation at the Laboratory of Conservation Science (LACICOR), CECOR/EBA/UFMG. The authentication process is still in course. The measurements were carried out in the place where the painting was on custody, with a portable X-rays fluorescence (XRF) system constituted of a X-rays tube with Ag anode, a Si-PIN diode detector, nuclear electronic chain and a specially designed mechanical system for the detector and X-rays tube positioning, that enables angular and XYZ movements of the excitation-detection system. The employed voltage and current intensity of the X-rays tube were 17 kV and 3 μA, respectively. The time of acquisition for each measurement was 500 s. XRF spectra were analyzed using the AXIL-WinQXAS software. Three measurements in each of the following regions of the painting were done: face, leaves, arm, sky and firewood. The carried out analysis indicated the following pigments: White (lead white and calcium sulfate, identified by the elements Pb, Ca and S), Blue (Prussian blue, identified by the key element Fe), Red (Vermilion, identified by the elements Hg and S) and Brown (mixture of Fe and Mn oxides, identified by the elements Fe and Mn). Elements belonging to modern pigments (after XVIII century) corresponding to the same colors were absent in the analyzed spectra

  14. The measurement of sucrose concentration by two-tapered all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing different coupling structures and manufacture processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Hsin-Wen; Hsu, Yi-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The sucrose concentration measurement and characteristics of light coupling taper structure on sensitivity with various fabrication processes of taper structure for all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (AFMZI) are presented. Using fusion splicer with electrical discharge, the standard single-mode fiber is employed to be fabricated as conical coupling/decoupling taper structure. The basic two fabrication processes are designed as single fusion-stretching (SFS), multiple fusions without stretching (MF). The third advanced process is composed of SFS and multiple fusions without stretching processes, and called multiple fusions with single stretching (MFSS). Various types of coupling/decoupling taper structures were fabricated based on the three kinds of fabrication processes. The effects of geometry shape including taper waist, taper angle, and sensing length on sensing sensitivity of AFMZIs are estimated. The modifications of fiber core and cladding induced by thermal effect affect the refractive index distributions and shapes of taper structure. The effects of refractive index changes of fiber core and cladding on sensing sensitivity are also discussed. The AFMZI was tested by measuring aqueous sucrose solution of refractive index unit (RIU) from 1.333 to 1.420 RIU. The optical spectrums are measured by a spectrometer. The spectrum dip shifts and sensing sensitivity was measured and calculated, respectively. As shown in results, sensing sensitivities of AFMZIs of taper structure fabricated by MFSS and multiple fusions without stretching processing are generally higher than SFS. The reasons could be aimed on materials modification through thermal effect on blurring fiber core-cladding interface and proper taper angle of taper structure. The more homogeneous refractive index distribution on fiber core-cladding interface, the more detecting light power decoupled through core-cladding interface to interact with exterior environment and enhance the sensing sensitivity

  15. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  16. Bioconversion of low quality lignocellulosic agricultural waste into edible protein by Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer was cultivated on selected agro wastes viz. cotton stalks, groundnut haulms, soybean straw, pigeon pea stalks and leaves and wheat straw, alone or in combinations. Cotton stalks, pigeon pea stalks and wheat straw alone or in combination were found to be more suitable than groundnut haulms and soybean straw for the cultivation. Organic supplements such as groundnut oilseed cake, gram powder and rice bran not only affected growth parameters but also increased yields. Thus bioconversion of lignocellulosie biomass by P. sajor-caju offers a promising way to convert low quality biomass into an improved human food.

  17. EFFECTS OF REACTION AND PROCESSING PARAMETERS ON ETHYLENE POLYMERIZATION USING DIFFERENT ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYSTS:EMPLOYMENT OF TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Najafi; Vahid Haddadi-Asl

    2007-01-01

    Different Ziegler-Natta catalysts were employed to polymerize ethylene.To investigate the influences of reaction parameters,namely Al/Ti molar ratio,hydrogen and processing parameters,I.e.ethylene pressure and temperature,a Taguchi experimental design was worked out.An L27 orthogonal array was chosen to take the above-mentioned parameters and relevant interactions into account.Response surface method was the tool used to analyze the experimental design results.Al/Ti,ethylene pressure and temperature were selected as experimental design factors.and catalyst activity and polymerization yield were the response parameters.Increasing pressure,due to an increment in monomer accessibility,and rising Al/Ti,because of higher reduction in the catalysts,cause an increase in both polymerization yield and catalyst activity.Nonetheless,a higher temperature,thanks to reducing ethylene solubility in the slurry medium and partially catalyst destruction.lead to a reduction in both response parameters.A synergistic eflfect was also observed between temperature and pressure.All catalyst activities will reduce in the presence of hydrogen.Molecular weight also shows a decline in the presence of hydrogen as a transfer agent.However,the polydispersity index remains approximately intact.Using SEM,various morphologies,owing to different catalyst morphologies,were seen for the polyethylene.

  18. Metabolic responses in Candida tropicalis to complex inhibitors during xylitol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Li, Hao; Fan, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jingkun; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-09-01

    During xylitol fermentation, Candida tropicalis is often inhibited by inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysate. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic responses to inhibitor stress and the resistances to inhibitors are still not clear. To understand the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors, a GC/MS-based metabolomics approach was performed on C. tropicalis treated with and without complex inhibitors (CI, including furfural, phenol and acetic acid). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to determine the metabolic variability between CI-treated groups and control groups, and 25 metabolites were identified as possible entities responsible for the discrimination caused by inhibitors. We found that xylose uptake rate and xylitol oxidation rate were promoted by CI treatment. Metabolomics analysis showed that the flux from xylulose to pentose phosphate pathway increased, and tricarboxylic acid cycle was disturbed by CI. Moreover, the changes in levels of 1,3-propanediol, trehalose, saturated fatty acids and amino acids showed different mechanisms involved in metabolic responses to inhibitor stress. The increase of 1,3-propanediol was considered to be correlated with regulating redox balance and osmoregulation. The increase of trehalose might play a role in protein stabilization and cellular membranes protection. Saturated fatty acids could cause the decrease of membrane fluidity and make the plasma membrane rigid to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane. The deeper understanding of the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors will provide us with more information on the metabolism regulation during xylitol bioconversion and the construction of industrial strains with inhibitor tolerance for better utilization of bioresource. PMID:26127015

  19. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  20. Enzymes and microorganisms in food industry waste processing and conversion to useful products: a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroad, P.A.; Wilke, C.R.

    1976-12-01

    Bioconversion of food processing wastes is receiving increased attention with the realization that waste components represent an available and utilizable resource for conversion to useful products. Liquid wastes are characterized as dilute streams containing sugars, starches, proteins, and fats. Solid wastes are generally cellulosic, but may contain other biopolymers. The greatest potential for economic bioconversion is represented by processes to convert cellulose to glucose, glucose to alcohol and protein, starch to invert sugar, and dilute waste streams to methane by anaerobic digestion. Microbial or enzymatic processes to accomplish these conversions are described.

  1. EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIEL CLAUDIU MURSA

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses the relationship between the education degree of the working force and employment. The recent studies show that the major causes of the contemporary unemployment constitute the absence of knowledge, aptitudes, qualifications supposed by the dynamics of the modern economic system. The work demonstrates that the education gathers a more and more important economic value because of the increase in the complexity of the productive process imposed by the necessity to provide a...

  2. Δ-6 Desaturase substrate competition: dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6) has only trivial effects on α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) bioconversion in the teleost rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, James A; Hermon, Karen; Hamid, Noor K A; Donald, John A; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, in vertebrates, omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compete for Δ-6 desaturase enzyme in order to be bioconverted into long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA). However, recent studies into teleost fatty acid metabolism suggest that these metabolic processes may not conform entirely to what has been previously observed in mammals and other animal models. Recent work on rainbow trout has led us to question specifically if linoleic acid (LA, 18∶2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18∶3n-3) (Δ-6 desaturase substrates) are in direct competition for access to Δ-6 desaturase. Two experimental diets were formulated with fixed levels of ALA, while LA levels were varied (high and low) to examine if increased availability of LA would result in decreased bioconversion of ALA to its LC-PUFA products through substrate competition. No significant difference in ALA metabolism towards n-3 LC-PUFA was exhibited between diets while significant differences were observed in LA metabolism towards n-6 LC-PUFA. These results are evidence for minor if any competition between substrates for Δ-6 desaturase, suggesting that, paradoxically, the activity of Δ-6 desaturase on n-3 and n-6 substrates is independent. These results call for a paradigm shift in the way we approach teleost fatty acid metabolism. The findings are also important with regard to diet formulation in the aquaculture industry as they indicate that there should be no concern for possible substrate competition between 18∶3n-3 and 18∶2n-6, when aiming at increased n-3 LC-PUFA bioconversion in vivo. PMID:23460861

  3. Δ-6 Desaturase substrate competition: dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6 has only trivial effects on α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3 bioconversion in the teleost rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Emery

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that, in vertebrates, omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compete for Δ-6 desaturase enzyme in order to be bioconverted into long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA. However, recent studies into teleost fatty acid metabolism suggest that these metabolic processes may not conform entirely to what has been previously observed in mammals and other animal models. Recent work on rainbow trout has led us to question specifically if linoleic acid (LA, 18∶2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18∶3n-3 (Δ-6 desaturase substrates are in direct competition for access to Δ-6 desaturase. Two experimental diets were formulated with fixed levels of ALA, while LA levels were varied (high and low to examine if increased availability of LA would result in decreased bioconversion of ALA to its LC-PUFA products through substrate competition. No significant difference in ALA metabolism towards n-3 LC-PUFA was exhibited between diets while significant differences were observed in LA metabolism towards n-6 LC-PUFA. These results are evidence for minor if any competition between substrates for Δ-6 desaturase, suggesting that, paradoxically, the activity of Δ-6 desaturase on n-3 and n-6 substrates is independent. These results call for a paradigm shift in the way we approach teleost fatty acid metabolism. The findings are also important with regard to diet formulation in the aquaculture industry as they indicate that there should be no concern for possible substrate competition between 18∶3n-3 and 18∶2n-6, when aiming at increased n-3 LC-PUFA bioconversion in vivo.

  4. High-yield enzymatic bioconversion of hydroquinone to α-arbutin, a powerful skin lightening agent, by amylosucrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Ho; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Ha, Suk-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Kug; Jung, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Baek, Nam-In; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-06-01

    α-Arbutin (α-Ab) is a powerful skin whitening agent that blocks epidermal melanin biosynthesis by inhibiting the enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). α-Ab was effectively synthesized from hydroquinone (HQ) by enzymatic biotransformation using amylosucrase (ASase). The ASase gene from Deinococcus geothermalis (DGAS) was expressed and efficiently purified from Escherichia coli using a constitutive expression system. The expressed DGAS was functional and performed a glycosyltransferase reaction using sucrose as a donor and HQ as an acceptor. The presence of a single HQ bioconversion product was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HQ bioconversion product was isolated by silica gel open column chromatography and its chemical structure determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The product was determined to be hydroquinone-O-α-D-glucopyranoside with a glucose molecule linked to HQ through an α-glycosidic bond. However, the production yield of the transfer reaction was significantly low (1.3%) due to the instability of HQ in the reaction mixture. The instability of HQ was considerably improved by antioxidant agents, particularly ascorbic acid, implying that HQ is labile to oxidation. A maximum yield of HQ transfer product of 90% was obtained at a 10:1 molar ratio of donor (sucrose) and acceptor (HQ) molecules in the presence of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid.

  5. Inhibitory effect of acetic acid on bioconversion of xylose in xylitol by Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate Efeito inibitório do ácido acético na bioconversão de xilose em xilitol por Candida guilliermondii em hidrolisado de bagaço de cana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora D.V. Silva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (initial acetic acid concentration = 3.5g/L, was used as a fermentation medium for conversion of xylose into xylitol by the yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. Acetic acid (2.0g/L was added to the medium at different times of fermentation, with the aim of evaluating its effects on the bioconversion process. The addition of acetic acid to the medium after 12h of fermentation resulted in the strongest inhibition of the yeast metabolism. In this case, the xylose consumption and cell growth were, respectively, 23.22 and 11.24% lower than when acid was added to the medium at the beginning of fermentation. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect, lower values of the xylitol yield (0.39g/g and productivity (0.22g/L.h were observed, corresponding to a reduction of 36 and 48%, respectively, in relation to the values obtained with the addition of acetic acid after other fermentation times. The results obtained allowed to conclude that, under the experimental conditions employed in this work, the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on the xylose-xylitol bioconversion depends on the fermentation time when this acid was added, and not only on its concentration in the medium.Hidrolisado de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo uma concentração inicial de ácido acético de 3,5g/L foi utilizado como meio de fermentação para a bioconversão de xilose em xilitol pela levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. Ácido acético (2,0g/L foi adicionado ao meio em diferentes tempos de fermentação, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito deste ácido neste bioprocesso. O maior efeito inibitório deste ácido na bioconversão de xilose em xilitol pela levedura ocorreu quando este foi adicionado ao meio após 12h de fermentação. Nesta condição observou-se uma redução de 23,22% e 11,24%, respectivamente, no consumo de xilose e no crescimento celular em relação à fermentação em que a adição deste ácido ocorreu no tempo inicial

  6. Rational inattention and employer learning

    OpenAIRE

    Habermalz, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Research on employer learning has provided important insights into the dynamic process that determines individual wages, especially during the early part of a worker's career. However, the recent evidence on the absence of employer learning for college graduates by Arcidiacono et al. (2008) and results that economic conditions at labor market entry have persistent effects on wages (for example Oreopoulos et al. (2008)) cast doubt on the model's validity. This paper extends the employer learni...

  7. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of bioavailability and bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan Wang,; Xiaoying Xu,; Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Lugtenburg, J.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI LC-MS) was developed for the quantification of the bioavailability of retinyl palmitate and -carotene and the bioconversion of -carotene to retinol in humans. Following oral admi

  8. EMPLOYERS EXPECTATIONS AND STUDENTS EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sudha;

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the increased competition and rapid changing economy, entry and survival of graduates in industries is tougher than ever before. The employers' expectations are changing day by day and graduates have to obtain new skills for their sustainability. Mere academic skill alone will not help the graduates for better employment. Due to lack of employability skills graduates are not employable even though there are opportunities. In this study an attempt is made to find out the organiz...

  9. Employer's investments in hospital workers' employability and employment opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, E.J.; Knies, E.; Leisink, P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employer’s investments (through job characteristics and managerial support) and employees’ employment opportunities, with employability, conceptualized as perceived up-to-date expertise and willingness to change, as a mediati

  10. Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William D.; And Others

    Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…

  11. Employment Polarization and Immigrant Employment Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Wielandt, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Building on the task-based approach of technological change, this paper discusses the interaction between occupational polarization (e.g. a gradual increase of native employment in the lowest and highest-paying jobs) and employment opportunities of immigrant workers. Using high quality administrative data for Germany, I first show that technological change is positively related to employment growth of natives in low-paying occupations that are also typically held by immigrant workers. In...

  12. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  13. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  14. Employability-miles and worker employability awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Gerards, R.; Grip, A. de; Witlox, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the use and impact of a firm-sponsored training ("Employability-miles") voucher scheme that aims to stimulate employees to develop a more active attitude toward their own employability. Using data from two surveys of the firm's workforce, we find that voucher use is related to various personality traits and personal characteristics. In particular, a worker's ambition, goal setting, and education level are positively related to voucher use. In addition, women and those wit...

  15. Use of employments on swimming in pulling in and restoration microcycles in the training process of the highly skilled sportsmen of the highly skilled heavy weight sambo wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakorko I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedience of the use of the sporting and health swimming is grounded in precontest preparation of the highly skilled sportsmen unarmed self-defence. 10 sportsmen took part in research (weight over 90 kg. Offered to recommendation on the use of swimming in renewal of sportsmen after the competition and trainings loadings. On employments, swimming was utillized a method crawl on a breast and by a method breast-stroke. Length of path of pool is 25 meters. The level of influence of trainings is set on swimming of different orientation on the general consisting of the sportsman unarmed self-defence of context of preparation and renewal during the specialized competition activity. It is recommended in training on swimming to utillize overcoming at full pelt of cutting-off 250 meters in the mode to 5 minutes (time of competition fight is in the fight of sambo-5 of minutes.

  16. Production of natural flavors and fragrances by bioconversion%生物转化合成天然香料香精

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虹; 陈蔚青; 梅建凤

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview was given of understanding the production of natural flavors and fragrances by bioconversion, ln the paper,the advantages in, perspectives for and basic principle of production of nature flavors and fragrances by bioconversion were put forward.The production of vanillin and 2- phenylethanol by bioconversion were illustrated to give a better understanding this topic.It is hoped that the paper can stimulate people' s interests in research and development of this field.%分析了生物转化法合成天然香料香精的优势与发展前景,概述了生物转化法合成天然香料香精的基本原理,介绍了生物转化法合成天然香兰素和2-苯乙醉的方法,旨在推动对生物转化法合成天然香料香精的研究和开发.

  17. Efficient gamma-aminobutyric acid bioconversion by employing synthetic complex between glutamate decarboxylase and glutamate/GABA antiporter in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Ko, Ji-seun; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2013-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a precursor of one of the most promising heat-resistant biopolymers, Nylon-4, and can be produced by the decarboxylation of monosodium glutamate (MSG). In this study, a synthetic protein complex was applied to improve the GABA conversion in engineered Escherichia coli. Complexes were constructed by assembling a single protein-protein interaction domain SH3 to the glutamate decarboxylase (GadA and GadB) and attaching a cognate peptide ligand to the glutamate/GABA antiporter (GadC) at the N-terminus, C-terminus, and the 233rd amino acid residue. When GadA and GadC were co-overexpressed via the C-terminus complex, a GABA concentration of 5.65 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l MSG, which corresponds to a GABA yield of 93 %. A significant increase of the GABA productivity was also observed where the GABA productivity increased 2.5-fold in the early culture period due to the introduction of the synthetic protein complex. The GABA pathway efficiency and GABA productivity were enhanced by the introduction of the complex between Gad and glutamate/GABA antiporter.

  18. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  19. Graduate Identity and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  20. The Perceived Influence of Industry-Sponsored Credentials on the Recruitment Process in the Information Technology Industry: Employer and Employee Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Horwitz, Sujin K.; Ipe, Minu; Liu, Yuwen

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the number of industry-sponsored credential programs raises many questions for career and technical education. This study investigated the perceived influence of industry-sponsored credentials on the recruitment process in the information technology (IT) field. Influence is examined from the perspective of Human Resource (HR)…

  1. China's Employment Promotion Law Guarantees Right to Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU XUEYUN

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's legislature is soliciting comments and suggestions to the draft of Employment Promotion Law as an endeavor to democratize its process of legislation. Up to April 25 the National People's Congress had received over 11,000items of comments and suggestions.

  2. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  3. Globalisation and the contested process of international corporate restructuring: employment reorganisation and the issue of labour consent in the international oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Cumbers; Jane Atterton

    2000-01-01

    Labour is typically treated as a passive victim of corporate restructuring processes in discourses on globalisation, rendered helpless by rationalisation and downsizing, and structurally place-bound and defenceless against increasingly mobile and footloose capital. This paper forms part of a growing body of work in the geographical literature that seeks to contest this view, reinserting labour as an actor in the context of globalisation. Specifically, we consider labour as an autonomous agent...

  4. 以形成正确认知为基础的就业指导工作流程%Employment Guidance Work Process Based on the Formation of Correct Cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凌宇

    2013-01-01

    职业发展的基础是合理择业,合理择业的基础是正确认知,正确认知的基础是:第一,制定合理的就业指导工作流程;第二,建立健全分层次递进可持续指导的就业指导服务内容体系、组织体系。%The basis of career development is reasonable career selection, and the basis of reasonable career selection is correct cognition. The basis of correct cognition is, first, to establish reasonable employment guidance work process, and second, to establish and improve the hierarchical progressive and sustainable employment guidance service content system and organization system.

  5. The employer's perspective on retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Henkens; H.P. van Dalen

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the literature with respect to the role of employers in retirement processes of older workers and provide suggestions for future research. In the first part of this chapter we will review existing theoretical insights regarding the employers’ actions and attitudes toward o

  6. The employer's perspective on retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, C.J.I.M.; van Dalen, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the literature with respect to the role of employers in retirement processes of older workers and provide suggestions for future research. In the first part of this chapter we will review existing theoretical insights regarding the employers’ actions and attitudes toward o

  7. Foreigner's Employment in China During Refugee Status Determination Process%论难民地位甄别期间外国人在华就业问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵向华

    2013-01-01

      《出境入境管理法》虽然使外国人在难民地位甄别期间可获得合法身份,但无法保障其在此期间的就业。允许外国人在难民地位甄别期间就业不仅不会影响我国的整体就业形势,而且有利减少中央和地方政府的财政负担,在当地培养包容和共生的文化,从而为我国难民法制建设的推进营造良好的社会氛围。%The Exit and Entry Administration Law ensures the legitimate status of foreigners during refugee status determi nation process.But foreigners can not claim the right to work in the process under this law .Recognizing the above -mentioned right for foreigners will not disturb our labor market order , it will not only alleviate the central and local government's financial burden, but also promote the emergence of symbiosis culture .

  8. Occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant employing anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic and UV processes in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Sui, Qian; Lu, Shu-Guang; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Qiu, Zhao-Fu; Miao, Zhou-Wei; Yu, Gang

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including caffeine (CF), N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), carbamazepine, metoprolol, trimethoprim (TMP), and sulpiride in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Shanghai, China were studied in January 2013; besides, grab samples of the influent were also taken every 6 h, to investigate the daily fluctuation of the wastewater influent. The results showed the concentrations of the investigated PPCPs ranged from 17 to 11,400 ng/L in the WWTP. A low variability of the PPCP concentrations in the wastewater influent throughout the day was observed, with the relative standard deviations less than 25 % for most samples. However, for TMP and CF, the slight daily fluctuation still reflected their consumption patterns. All the target compounds except CF and DEET, exhibited poor removal efficiencies (treatment process, probably due to the low temperature in the bioreactor, which was unfavorable for activated sludge. While for the two biodegradable PPCPs, CF, and DEET, the anaerobic and oxic tank made contributions to their removal while the anoxic tank had a negative effect to their elimination. The tertiary UV treatment removed the investigated PPCPs by 5-38 %, representing a crucial polishing step to compensate for the poor removal by the biologic treatment process in winter.

  9. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunMei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production.

  10. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production.

  11. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung-waste paper mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuofin, F O; Mnkeni, P N S

    2014-11-01

    Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung-paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg(-1) dry weight of cow dung-waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1) resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of 1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg(-1) feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered. PMID:24997095

  12. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  13. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  14. Kinetic studies on recombinant UDP-glucose: sterol 3-O-β-glycosyltransferase from Micromonospora rhodorangea and its bioconversion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Huu; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Kim, Byul; Park, Je Won

    2016-12-01

    Kinetics of a recombinant uridine diphosphate-glucose: sterol glycosyltransferase from Micromonospora rhodorangea ATCC 27932 (MrSGT) were studied using a number of sterols (including phytosterols) as glycosyl acceptors. The lowest K m value and the highest catalytical efficiency (k cat/K m) were found when β-sitosterol was the glycosyl acceptor in the enzymatic reaction. In contrast to the enzyme's flexibility toward the glycosyl acceptor substrate, this recombinant enzyme was highly specific to uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose as the donor substrate. Besides, the UDP-glucose-dependent MrSGT was able to attach one glucose moiety specifically onto the C-3 hydroxyl group of other phytosterols such as fucosterol and gramisterol, yielding stereo-specific fucosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and gramisterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, respectively. Based on kinetic data obtained from the enzyme's reactions using five different sterol substrates, the significance of the alkene (or ethylidene) side chains on the C-24 position in the sterol scaffolds was described and the possible relationship between the substrate structure and enzyme activity was discussed. This is the first report on the enzymatic bioconversion of the above two phytosteryl 3-O-β-glucosides, as well as on the discovery of a stereospecific bacterial SGT which can attach a glucose moiety in β-conformation at the C-3 hydroxyl group of diverse sterols, thus highlighting the catalytic potential of this promiscuous glycosyltransferase to expand the structural diversity of steryl glucosides. PMID:27485517

  15. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  16. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimabi Wahidullah

    Full Text Available As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl with salicylic acid (3-8 were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12, metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13 and β-carbolines, norharman (14, harman (15 and methyl derivative (16, which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  17. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [compatibility of land use classification system with computer processing techniques employed for land use mapping from ERTS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.

  18. An integrative process of bioconversion of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber to ethanol with on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Youshuang; Xin, Fengxue; Zhao, Ying; Chang, Yunkang

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to efficiently convert oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB), one of the most commonly generated lingo-wastes in Southeast Asia, into both cellulase and bioethanol. The unprocessed cellulase crude (37.29%) produced under solid-state fermentation using OPEFB as substrate showed a better reducing sugar yield using filter paper than the commercial enzyme blend (34.61%). Organosolv pretreatment method could efficiently reduce hemicellulose (24.3-18.6%) and lignin (35.2-22.1%) content and increase cellulose content (40.5-59.3%) from OPEFB. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated OPEFB using the crude cellulase with 20% solid content, enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g OPEFB at 50 °C, and pH 5.5 resulted in a OPEFB hydrolysate containing 36.01 g/L glucose after 72 h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate medium produced 17.64 g/L ethanol with 0.49 g/g yield from glucose and 0.088 g/g yield from OPEFB at 8 h using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24839153

  19. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    , it becomes possible to specify employment relations parameters between the indirect and direct employer and employees in a manner that will ensure working conditions consistent with these traditions, substantially enhancing the prospect of authenticity in employment relations. This theology of the workplace...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  20. Deficiency of employability capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pelse I.; Vilka L.

    2012-01-01

    Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a ...

  1. Assessing employment in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Aaron George

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the total number of employed and the full-time equivalent employment in Malta are estimated for the last three decades. These series give a new picture of the historical development of employment and productivity in Malta. The estimated full-time equivalent time series, in spite of its limitations, is a first step on the way towards a comprehensive statistical measure of labour input in Malta

  2. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all current outside employment held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officers) approved by the Ethics Commission....

  3. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...

  4. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  5. The Cause of Information Asymmetry and Improvements Countermeasures of Migrant Workers in the Process of Employment%农民工就业信息不对称的原因及改进对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 马玉婷; 李俏

    2014-01-01

    Based on the empirical survey data of migrant workers from Zhengzhou city in Henan province ,this paper examined the individual employment problem of migrant workers from the theoretical perspective of informa -tion asymmetry in-depth ,analyzed the performances and causes of asymmetric information in the process of mi-grant workers’ employment ,and further explored social equity and harmony aspirations on the macro level .Final-ly ,this paper proposed five specific measures to correct information asymmetry ,w hich are building social capital , strengthening policy advocacy ,establishing and improving employment service agencies ,strengthening social su-pervision and the establishing employment and training system .%基于对河南郑州等地农民工的实地调研数据,从信息不对称的理论视角深入考察了农民工个体的就业问题,深刻剖析了信息不对称在农民工就业中的表现及成因,并进一步探讨了宏观层面上的社会公平与和谐诉求问题,最后从构建社会资本、加强政策宣传、建立和完善就业服务机构、强化社会监管以及建立就业培训制度等五个方面提出了矫正信息不对称的具体措施。

  6. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  7. Investor Sentiment and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Montone (Maurizio); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We find that investor sentiment should affect a firm's employment policy in a world with moral hazard and noise traders. Consistent with the model's predictions, we show that higher sentiment among US investors leads to: (1) higher employment growth worldwide; (2) lower

  8. Listening to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalski, Jan; Riley, Alison; Aubrey, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Various government initiatives have highlighted the importance of employer engagement in schools, further education and higher education. However, speaking as a team of lecturers in HE the authors have found that there is a tension between the perceptions of government and those of employers. Clearly, it would be a good thing if, particularly in…

  9. Employment Retention Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, E; Stafford, B.

    2007-01-01

    This Report investigates the potential for a statutory model of employment retention leave. A Private Members Bill (HC Bill 2006-07) [79] currently in progress through Parliament would, if enacted, offer disabled employees the right to paid leave for employment assessment, rehabilitation or re-training.

  10. Conditions of Seafarers' Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Xinwei

    2009-01-01

    @@ What are the COntents of Seafarers'employment agreements? Each Member shall adopt laws and regulations specifying the matters that are to be included in all seafarers'employment agreements governed by its national law.Seafarers'employment agreements shall in all cases contain the following particulars: (a)the seafarer's full name,date of birth or age,and birthplace; (b)the shipowner's name and address; (c)the place where and date when the seafarers' employment agreement is entered into; (d)the capacity in which the seafarer is to be employed; (e)the amount of the seafarer's wages or,where applicable,the formula used for calculating them; (f)the amount of paid annual leave or,where applicable,the formula used for calculating it;

  11. Evaluation of inflammatory processes in temporomandibular joint employing technetium-99m-labelled autologous leukocytes in an animal model; Avaliacao de processos inflamatorios na articulacao temporomandibular empregando leucocitos autologos marcados com tecnecio-99m em modelo animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Claudia Borges [Centro Universitario Newton Paiva, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudiabb.prof@newtonpaiva.br; cbbrasileiro@bol.com.br; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Ruckert, Bianca [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2006-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at identifying temporomandibular joint inflammatory processes employing technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO)-labeled autonomous leukocytes. Materials and methods: we have utilized an experimental model of arthritis induction in ten adult male New Zealand rabbits by means of ovalbumin intra-articular injection into each left temporomandibular joint. For control purposes, saline solution was injected. After leukocytes radiolabeling with 99mTc-HMPAO and injection into rabbits, scintigraphic images were obtained. Results: a higher 99mTc-HMPAO-leukocytes uptake was observed in left temporomandibular joint in comparison with the contralateral joint. Wilcoxon non-parametric test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a statistically significant difference between counts of radioactivity per minute in the inflamed joint and the contralateral one (p = 0.0073). Conclusion: the method employing 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled autologous leukocytes allows an early and accurate detection of inflammatory processes, contributing to the adoption of a therapeutic conduct for patients before structural alterations have occurred. (author)

  12. Employment Protection Regulations and Their Impact on Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Pointner

    2006-01-01

    Employment protection legislation (EPL) forms part of the institutional framework governing labor market allocation processes. It increases the costs enterprises incur when terminating contracts, either directly via severance payments or indirectly via procedural costs (e.g. notice periods or court trials). EPL is often considered to be the main reason for the high unemployment level in several euro area countries. While the empirical evidence for this correlation is generally rather weak, mo...

  13. Tartronate semialdehyde reductase defines a novel rate-limiting step in assimilation and bioconversion of glycerol in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production. Currently, it has limited applications with low bioconversion efficiency to most metabolites reported. This is partly attributed to the poor knowledge on the glycerol metabolic pathway in bacteria and fungi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have established a fast screening method for identification of genes that improve glycerol utilization in Ustilago maydis. This was done by comparing the growth rates of T-DNA tagged mutant colonies on solid medium using glycerol as the sole carbon source. We present a detailed characterization of one of the mutants, GUM1, which contains a T-DNA element inserted into the promoter region of UM02592 locus (MIPS Ustilago maydis database, MUMDB, leading to enhanced and constitutive expression of its mRNA. We have demonstrated that um02592 encodes a functional tartronate semialdehyde reductase (Tsr1, which showed dual specificity to cofactors NAD(+ and NADP(+ and strong substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for D-glycerate. Improved glycerol assimilation in GUM1 was associated with elevated expression of tsr1 mRNA and this could be phenocopied by over-expression of the gene. Glycolipid accumulation was reduced by 45.2% in the knockout mutant whereas introduction of an extra copy of tsr1 driven by the glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase promoter increased it by 40.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that tartronate semialdehyde reductase (TSR plays an important role in glycerol assimilation in U. maydis and defines a novel target in genetic engineering for improved conversion of glycerol to higher value products. Our results add significant depth to the understanding of the glycerol metabolic pathway in fungi. We have demonstrated, for the first time, a biological role of a eukaryotic TSR.

  14. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuofin, F.O., E-mail: funmifrank2009@gmail.com; Mnkeni, P.N.S., E-mail: pmnkeni@ufh.ac.za

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup -1} resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg{sup −1} feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered.

  15. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg-1 resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg−1 dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg−1 resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg−1 feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered

  16. Isolation and evaluation of native cellulose degrading microorganisms for efficient bioconversion of weed biomass and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, K; Jha, D K; Rajkhowa, D J; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose decomposing microorganisms (CDMs) are important for efficient bioconversion of plant biomasses. To this end, we isolated seven fungal isolates (Aspergillus wentii, Fusarium solani, Mucor sp., Penicillum sp., Trichoderma harzaianum, Trichoderma sp.1 and Trichoderma sp.2) and three bacterial isolates (bacterial isolate I, II and III) from partially decomposed farm yard manure, rice straw and vermicompost, and evaluated them for decomposition of rice straw (Oryza sativa), Ipomoea camea and Eichhornia crassipes biomass. CDMs inoculation, in general, reduced the composting period by 14-28 days in rice straw, 14-34 days in Eichhornia and 10-28 days in Ipomoea biomass over control. Of the 10 CDMs tested, Mucor sp. was found to be the most effective as Mucor-inoculated biomass required minimum time, i.e. 84, 68 and 80 days respectively for composting of rice straw, Eichhornia and Ipomoea biomass as against 112, 102 and 108 days required under their respective control. CDMs inoculation also narrowed down the C:N ratio of the composts which ranged from 19.1-22.7, 12.9-14.7 and 10.5-13.1 in rice straw, Eichhornia and Ipomoea biomass respectively as against 24.1, 17.1 and 16.2 in the corresponding control treatments. Aspergillus wentii, Fusarium solani, Mucor sp., and Penicillum sp. were found most effective (statistically at par) in reducing C:N ratio and causing maximum loss of carbon and dry matter in composted materials. These benefits of CDMs inoculation were also accompanied by significant increase in NPK contents in the composted materials. PMID:25004759

  17. Retail Employment Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Robert Walters, one of the world’s leading professional specialist recruitment consultancies, has recently released a report on employment opportunities in China’s consumer goods retail industry in the first half of this year. Excerpts follow:

  18. Pilot plant studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.

    1977-06-30

    Progress is reported in the following studies on analysis and evaluation of potential raw materials: preliminary pretreatment studies using wheat straw; extraction of wheat straw with alcohol and water at elevated temperatures; extraction of ground wood with alcohol and water at elevated temperatures; and, delignification of newsprint with ethylene glycol. Other research in progress includes studies on: utilization of hemicellulose sugars; process design and economics of hydrolysis processes and ethanol fermentation; and, pilot plant process development and design, including cell-recycle systems for cellulase production, continuous hydrolysis, countercurrent hydrolysis, and ethanol fermentation studies. (JGB)

  19. Employability through covenants

    OpenAIRE

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    How can a sustainable employment insurance system be guaranteed as a major element of the ESM? First a summary overview of the Lisbon targets and their impact on the policies of and in the member states of the European Union is given. Then follow data and problems associated with the target of enhancing employability by means of pushing continuous vocational training (CVT). Next, some Dutch experiences are sketched with covenants, and point to critical success factors. The contribution elabor...

  20. English for Employability: India

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Gore, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper situates the issue of employability skills in India in relation to the world economic changes and their impact on the job market. An overview of the last decade's government policies shows numerous initiatives trying to address the skills gap. In 2013, large scale India-based employability studies started to show the criticality of the skills situation in the Indian upcoming workforce (Wheebox 2013, Aspiring Minds 2014). This summary from the latest reports has been frequently quot...

  1. Employment by Lotto Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Bettina; Klijn, Flip

    2006-01-01

    We study employment by lotto (Aldershof et al., 1999), a procedurally fair matching algorithm for the so-called stable marriage problem. We complement Aldershof et al.'s (1999) analysis in two ways. First, we give an alternative and intuitive description of employment by lotto in terms of a probabilistic serial dictatorship on the set of stable matchings. Second, we show that Aldershof et al.'s (1999) conjectures are correct for small matching markets but not necessarily correct for large mat...

  2. Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ) is the institution which main task is to maintain the optimum conditions for dynamic development of its members' activities, their business activities and to maintain the common or individual interests o fits members. To meet this objective, the association: - maintains the interests of association members during discussions with representative authorities, central state administration bodies and the trade unions regarding the economic and social policy and the questions which are to be the subject matter of collective bargaining, conclusion of contracts and the collective agreements of higher force; - is the member of enterprising, negotiating and advisory authorities; - coordinates the procedure and promotes the common interests of its members in relation to the representative authorities and the central state administration bodies, central trade union authorities and in relation to the international organisation of employers and the International Labour Organisation; maintains the commercial and business activities of the members of association; submits the proposals, filling with the courts and makes interventions regarding the preparation of economic and political decisions on the national and international level; engages with the legal entities in the Slovak Republic and enters the foreign international organisations. ZPZ, originally Gas Association (PZ), was founded by the General Assembly on 27th January 1995. It was registered in compliance with the Act No. 83/1990 Coll. on Association of Citizens as amended by the act No. 300/90 Coll., as the organisation of employers with the legal personality. The Employer's Gas Association was a member of the Employers' Associations in Slovak Republic till 31st March 2004, after this date it is represented by the Republican Union of Employers in SR (RUZ SR), which was established to maintain employer's associations interests on more qualitative level. The list of members

  3. İşveren Markası Yönetimi Sürecinde İşe Alım Öncesi Dönem ve İşgören Seçimi: Kavramsal Bir Değerlendirme (Pre-Recruitment Period and Employee Selection in Employer Brand Management Process: A Conceptual Evaluation)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru GÖZEN

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays constantly renewing itself technological , socio-economic and cultural changes have dragged the companies to the tight competition. They can sustain their assets depends on finding the right labor and employment abilities. The quality and success of the human resources departments mostly depends on the process of finding employee. This process forms the basis of the other HR processes. One of the components of employer branding is Pre-Recruitment Period and Employee Se...

  4. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

  5. Graduates and initial employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydon, Sharon Elizabeth; Rolleston, Anna; Mackie, Joan

    2008-07-01

    This research project was undertaken to inform nurse educators in the Department of Nursing and Health Studies of Manukau Institute of Technology of the employment opportunities for new graduate nurses emerging from the three year degree and registration programme. The research study aimed to contribute evidence for informed discussion when issues around curriculum development arose, particularly those issues that affect employment success of graduates. A literature review was undertaken of local and international studies and this highlighted a number of studies that examined the experience of new graduates in employment. There was however little evidence that studies had focused on the experiences of graduates as they initially sought employment or their perceptions of how their ability to successfully gain employment was linked to the nursing programme they were exiting from. The data collection tool was a survey consisting of a number of closed questions which required respondents to indicate the option most closely fitting their experience. Analysis of these results was undertaken using SPSS. The last section of the survey invited respondents to comment on any aspect of the focus of the study and qualitative analysis was undertaken of these comments. Graduates from the programme for the previous three years were targeted and names and addresses were available from departmental and institute databases. The research was submitted to the MIT Research and Ethics Committee who stated that the project did not require ethical approval as a retrospective, anonymous survey. 89.8% of graduates across the three years were successful in gaining employment in the first three months post registration. The number of graduates employed within a District Health Board (DHB) declined across the three years but there were no significant differences between cohorts. Overall, 73% of graduates were employed into new graduate positions. The majority of graduates felt that their

  6. Bioconversion of xylan for drugs, energy and chemical intermediates%木聚糖生物转化药物、能源和化工中间体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海洪; 孙晓锋; 吴耀国

    2011-01-01

    Xylan, the second most abundant polysaccharide compared to cellulose,is a kind of polysaccharide widely existing in the nature. It has tremendous potential applications in many fields, especially in the pharmaceutical,energy and chemicals. Bioconversion with advantages of non-polluting and low-energy consumption expands the applications of xylan. The structure of xylan and itS mechanism of enzymatic lycosylation are introduced. The research on bioconversion of xylan into drugs ( xylo-oligosaccharides and xylitol) , energy ( fuel ethanol and 2, 3-butanediol) , and chemical intermediates ( lactic acid and furfural) are described in detail. Enzymatic species , hacteria , zymotic factors and detective methods are comparably studied as well.%介绍了木聚糖的结构与酶糖化机理,综述了国内外对木聚糖生物转化方面的研究.详细介绍了木聚糖转化为低聚木糖和木糖醇等医药食品、燃料乙醇和2,3-丁二醇等能源物质、乳酸和糠醛等化工中间体的研究进展.

  7. 10 CFR 1042.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether full-time or part-time... 1042.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment; (2..., termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay...

  8. 49 CFR 25.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether full-time or part... to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment; (2) Hiring..., application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any...

  9. 22 CFR 229.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether full-time or part... to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment; (2) Hiring..., application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any...

  10. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether full-time or part... to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment; (2) Hiring..., application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any...

  11. 6 CFR 17.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefore, whether... through 17.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment; (2..., termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay...

  12. Young People in the Secondary Employment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonovskii, V.; Belousova, R.

    2007-01-01

    The phrase "secondary employment" has been familiar to the majority of Russians since back in the Soviet era, and can reasonably be viewed as part of a broader process of adaptation to new economic conditions since the end of the late 1980s. With young people, however, this approach to the phenomenon of secondary employment is not entirely…

  13. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  14. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications...

  15. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements of...

  16. Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Esposito, E.; de Mendonca, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Apple production in the world has increased significantly over the last 10 years. A considerable fraction of these fruits, mainly those not approved for fresh consumption, is industrially processed to produce juices, flavours and concentrates. During this processing, a large amount of solid......, into an enriched substrate with increased digestibility for use as ruminant feed. After C. utilis fermentation, the protein level increased 100% and the mineral content 60%, accompanied by 8.2% of increase in the digestibility. The level of free sugars decreased 97% after substrate supplementation with ammonium...... sulphate (10 g l(-1)). After optimization, sequential fermentation with C. utilis and P. ostreatus achieved a high protein level with 500% of crude protein enrichment after 60 days of fermentation as well as a considerable increase in the mineral level. The level of free sugars increased after...

  17. High Value Organic Waste Treatment via Black Soldier Fly Bioconversion : Onsite Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mutafela, Richard Nasilele

    2015-01-01

    The desire for value addition to the organic waste management chain at Högbytorp using the Black Soldier Fly (BSF) process, as well as the problem of the escalating demand for protein in livestock feed motivated this study. Good quality crop land is devoted to growing feed for animals at the expense of human food, and ironically with a full understanding of the associated environmental footprints. Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) feed on organic waste voraciously while building their body com...

  18. Competing with Your Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    Eleventh in a series featuring the 22 principles of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Code of Ethics, this article presents a scenario: A training consultant decides to start his own company and convince 5 of his employers's clients to contract with him. Suggests that the complex ethical issues involved warrant seeking…

  19. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activi

  20. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The employer shall establish and maintain a safety management system, which is a part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the occupational health and safety risks associated with the business of the organization. In addition to meeting its legal responsibilities, the employer should aim to improve its occupational health and safety performance, and its safety management system, effectively and efficiently, to meet changing business and regulatory needs. Occupational radiation protection is also a part of its activities. The concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) presumes that any increment of radiation dose may produce a proportionate incremental risk, and that all radiation doses shall be kept ALARA, taking into account social and economic factors. Up to now, by implementing various activities in accordance with the principle of ALARA, employers have been minimizing the exposure dose of plant workers. Owing to improvements in hardware and administrative control, the exposure dose of workers has followed a remarkable downward trend, and now the number of workers exceeding 20 mSv/a is nearly zero. By implementing more thorough radiation protection and safety programmes, as well as by promoting safety consciousness among individual workers, the employers are continuing their efforts, respecting ALARA, to prevent workers from being exposed to radiation unnecessarily. As a consequence, the average individual dose of workers has dropped to 1 mSv/a or so. There may no longer be a discernible decrease in doses received at most of nuclear facilities

  1. Employer Engagement in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  2. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  3. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen;

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark, the...

  4. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  5. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  6. A comprehensive model of anaerobic bioconversion of complex substrates to biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, Lars; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    .e., carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, the concentration of intermediates such as volatile fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, and important inorganic components, i.e., ammonia, phosphate, cations, and anions. This allows dynamic changes of the process during a shift of substrate composition to be simulated......) constitute the primary modulating factors in the model. The model was rested with success in lab-scale reactors codigesting manure with glycerol trioleate or manure with gelatin. Finally, the model was validated using results from a full-scale biogas plant codigesting manure together with a proteinous...

  7. Bioconversion of Heavy oil: Characterizations of Microbial potential to bioconvert Mariner Maureen-, Peregrino- and Bressay oil

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbakk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    70 % of world’s oil reservoirs consist of heavy oil, and as the supply of conventional oil decreases, researchers are searching for new technologies to explore and enhance heavy oil recovery. One of the postulated technologies is microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), which is predicted to be a more environmental and economical process for improving oil recovery of heavy oil. The aim of this Master’s project was to give a qualitative indication of three selected consortia’s potential to bioc...

  8. Low Power Mass Spectrometer employing TOF Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low power Mass Spectrometer employing multiple time of flight circuits for parallel processing is possible with a new innovation in design of the Time of flight...

  9. Preparation of 6-APA by Enzymatic Bioconversion in an Emulsion Liquid Membrane Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆强; 胡鸣; 熊丹柳; 邓修

    2001-01-01

    Production of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) by hydrolysis using penicillin acylase (PA) was studied as a model of an enzymatic emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) process. The loss of PA activity was examined for various membrane compositions (organic solvent, surfactant, carrier). The effects of some experimental variables on the stability of emulsion were investigated. It was found that the choice of organic solvent greatly affected tilestability of the emulsion. Increasing the concentration of the carrier in the membrane phase increases the transfer rate of substrate and products but also has a destabilizing effect on the emulsion. The recovery of 6-APA obtained by a di-carrier system (N263-N1923) was much higher than those when either of the di-carriers was used separately.The whole process was controlled both by the enzymatic reaction rate and by the transfer rate of the substrate and the products, however, the ratio of them could be changed by varying the composition of the system. For an optimum condition, it was obtained that the recovery ratio of 6-APA was over 80% and the conversion of benzyl penicillin (PG) was up to 90% in the external phase after 30 minutes. Meanwhile, the breakage percentage of the emulsion was less than 2%.

  10. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  11. Bioconversion of paper mill sludge to bioethanol in the presence of accelerants or hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Raghu Nandan; Al-Shannag, Mohammad; Lecher, Nicholas Joshua; Duncan, Shona M; Singsaas, Eric Lawrence; Alkasrawi, Malek

    2015-09-01

    In this study we investigated the technical feasibility of convert paper mill sludge into fuel ethanol. This involved the removal of mineral fillers by using either chemical pretreatment or mechanical fractionation to determine their effects on cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. In addition, we studied the effect of cationic polyelectrolyte (as accelerant) addition and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. We present results showing that removing the fillers content (ash and calcium carbonate) from the paper mill sludge increases the enzymatic hydrolysis performance dramatically with higher cellulose conversion at faster rates. The addition of accelerant and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment further improved the hydrolysis yields by 16% and 25% (g glucose / g cellulose), respectively with the de-ashed sludge. The fermentation process of produced sugars achieved up to 95% of the maximum theoretical ethanol yield and higher ethanol productivities within 9h of fermentation. PMID:26086086

  12. Maximization of bioconversion of castor oil into ricinoleic acid by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, response surface methodology was applied to optimize process variables like temperature, pH, enzyme concentration (mg/g oil), and buffer concentration (g/g oil) for hydrolysis of castor oil using Candida rugosa lipase. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was used to develop the quadratic model that was subsequently optimized and the optimal conditions were as follows: temperature 40 degrees C, pH 7.72, enzyme concentration 5.28 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 1g/g oil and there was 65.5% conversion in 6 h. These predicted optimal conditions agreed well with the experimental results. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology in castor oil hydrolysis using C. rugosa lipase with higher percentage conversion in 6 h.

  13. Microbial and Bioconversion Production of D-xylitol and Its Detection and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Chen, Sanfeng; Qin, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    D-Xylitol is found in low content as a natural constituent of many fruits and vegetables. It is a five-carbon sugar polyol and has been used as a food additive and sweetening agent to replace sucrose, especially for non-insulin dependent diabetics. It has multiple beneficial health effects, such as the prevention of dental caries, and acute otitis media. In industry, it has been produced by chemical reduction of D-xylose mainly from photosynthetic biomass hydrolysates. As an alternative method of chemical reduction, biosynthesis of D-xylitol has been focused on the metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida strains. In order to detect D-xylitol in the production processes, several detection methods have been established, such as gas chromatography (GC)-based methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods, LC-MS methods, and capillary electrophoresis methods (CE). The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are compared in this review. PMID:21179590

  14. Microbial and Bioconversion Production of D-xylitol and Its Detection and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen, Zi-Hua Jiang, Sanfeng Chen, Wensheng Qin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available D-Xylitol is found in low content as a natural constituent of many fruits and vegetables. It is a five-carbon sugar polyol and has been used as a food additive and sweetening agent to replace sucrose, especially for non-insulin dependent diabetics. It has multiple beneficial health effects, such as the prevention of dental caries, and acute otitis media. In industry, it has been produced by chemical reduction of D-xylose mainly from photosynthetic biomass hydrolysates. As an alternative method of chemical reduction, biosynthesis of D-xylitol has been focused on the metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida strains. In order to detect D-xylitol in the production processes, several detection methods have been established, such as gas chromatography (GC-based methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-based methods, LC-MS methods, and capillary electrophoresis methods (CE. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are compared in this review.

  15. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  16. 油气藏埋存二氧化碳生物转化甲烷的机理和应用研究进展%Research Progress on the Mechanism and Potential Application of CH4 Bioconversion from CO2 in Oil and Gas Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小芳; 罗一菁; 刘可禹; 帅燕华

    2011-01-01

    The bioconversion of CH4 from the stored CO2 is a biotechnological solution that the injected CO2 is metabolized by indigenous microbes in depleted oil or gas reservoirs to produce CH4 by CO2 bioreduction pathway. It is potential applied and promising technology due to its environmental friendship for CO2 storage and sequestration, renewable energy of biogas CH4, extended oil and gas reservoirs development period, and the potential profit for enhanced gas or oil recovery. The CO2 Capture & Storage project and microbial diversity of reservoirs offer the solution feasibility. Hydrogenotrophic mesophilic or thermophilic methanogens are known to be common inhabitants in slightly saline formation water in oil and gas reservoirs. The distribution of CO2/H2 methanongens of biogas reservoirs changes with diagenetic stages. It has been shown that CO2can be potentially bioconverted to CH4 in reservoirs under certain conditions. However, oil and gas reservoirs are complicated systems and the bioconversion is constrained by the relationships among the methanogens, fermentative bacteria and hydrogen-producing bacteria. The methanogen community structure and the co-metabolization and competition between the two communities of Sulfate Reduction Bacteria ( SRB) and methanogens may also impact the CO2 reduction. Compared to the discovered knowledge that CO2 bioreduction pathway is permissible, the process may be quite complicated to be realized in reservoirs. It is difficult to realize the CO2 bioreduction pathway without synthetic H2 supply. It is still a big challenge for both microbiologists and petroleum engineers to realize CH4 bioconversion from CO2 by parameters control in reservoirs. At present, the CO2 reduction research is at experimental stage in the laboratory, the breakthrough is to activate the suited reservoirs microorganism consortium to realize the CH4 bioconversion in right way, to probe the profitable CH4 bioconversion rate and production velocity. Though the

  17. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  18. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    happens to public employment policies when they are contracted out to various non-public (for-profit and non-profit) agencies. The data consist of in-depth interviews with key respondents in the three countries, observations at service delivery agencies, and desk studies of existing research.......? The main objective of this article is to focus on the relationship between NPM structures (specifically contracting out) and shifts in the substance of policy (specifically employment policies). We propose that changes in management are capable of supporting policy changes by means of new implementation...... structures (and often do – whether intentionally or not). However, management reforms tend to be dominated by “technical” discourses on their alleged effectiveness and efficiency, whereas their consequences for policy content tend to be neglected or given limited attention. Even when NPM reforms do support...

  19. Rebirth through supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, David C

    2014-06-01

    In this column, the author describes how supported employment was a conduit for employment for him, and allowed for a remarkable journey of recovery, involving discovery and empowerment, incorporation, purpose, and belonging. After two decades of unemployment or underemployment, he began to see that work was possible through supported education at college, where he excelled. Federal and state grants paid for two thirds of his college education. He periodically met with a vocational rehabilitation counselor, who was very encouraging. He also had a case manager through a private psychiatric organization who provided support. The author concludes that the root of his problems was the lack of supports to help him become incorporated into society-a lack that ushered in a host of problems, probably similar to what others experience. When supports were given, many of those symptoms disappeared.

  20. Bioconversion of potatoes residues or surplus potatoes to ethanol under non axenic conditions [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaudière, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels can offer an alternative to fossil fuels in the context of climate change and fossil reserves depletion. With 3 million tons of potatoes produced in 2007 and a high yield per hectare of 47 tons, Belgium is the 19th largest producer in the world. The residual and surplus potatoes could be used to produce bioethanol by fermentation. We examined the feasibility of a simple ethanol fermentation process under non axenic conditions. The substrate was pretreated with commercial amylases or by adding as low as 10% FM (Fresh Matter barley malt. It was then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol and volatile fatty acids were analyzed by GC-FID and soluble sugars were analyzed with the Anthrone method. Starch from potatoes was hydrolyzed to soluble sugars. Hydrolysis seems to continue with 10% FM of barley malt after 48 h while the hydrolysis stopped or decelerated with commercial enzymes. With 10% FM of malt, 3 h of hydrolysis and 7 days of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 42 g.l-1 was obtained and the conversion yield was 139 gethanol.kg-1 DM. The fermentation conversion yield of soluble sugars to ethanol was > 82% and the endogenous competition was limited. However, starch hydrolyzing seems to be a limiting step under the conditions tested. Commercial enzymes did not provide better results under the same conditions.

  1. Novel bioconversions of municipal effluent and CO₂ into protein riched Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Li, Yuji; Cheng, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-03-01

    Batch, modified semi-continuous and continuous cultivations of Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN 2010 cells in municipal effluent were performed and analyzed. The experiments were carried out in 7.5-L photo-bioreactors, to which 2% of CO2 was supplied. Biomass and specific growth rate of C. vulgaris were 0.528-0.760gl(-1) and 0.200-0.374d(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, it could efficiently remove ammonia-N, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, CODCr and BOD5 by around 98.0%, 90.9-93.6%, 89.9-91.8%, 60.7-90.0% and 83.4-88.4%, respectively. Algal protein content was 550±30.0mgg(-1) of the harvested biomass of C. vulgaris which was rich in eight kinds of essential amino acids (around 44.5% of the total). The processes of cultivation of C. vulgaris in municipal effluent could be proposed as dual-beneficial approaches, which could produce profitable byproducts and simultaneously reduce the contaminations to environment. PMID:23399495

  2. Integrated cellulosic enzymes hydrolysis and fermentative advanced yeast bioconversion solution ready for biomass biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  3. Exclusion, employment and opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Tony; Hills, John

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between employment, education, opportunity, social exclusion and poverty are central to current policy debates. Atkinson argues that the concepts of poverty, unemployment and social exclusion are closely related, but are not the same. People may be poor without being socially excluded, and vice versa. Unemployment may cause poverty, but this can be prevented. Equally, marginal jobs do not ensure social inclusion. Britton argues that convential economic analysis misses a key ...

  4. The concept of employability

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald W.; Lindsay, Colin Dale

    2005-01-01

    The concept of ‘employability’ plays a crucial role in informing labour market policy in the UK, the EU and beyond. This paper analyses current and previous applications of the term and discusses its value as an exploratory concept and a framework for policy analysis. It then traces the development of the concept, discusses its role in current labour market and training strategies (with particular reference to the UK) and seeks to identify an approach to defining employability that can better...

  5. Employment without Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less work over more income and consumption. Lower work input to production can take many differnet forms, such as job sharing, lowering production efficiency, reduction in labor force, etc. In this light...

  6. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  7. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and

  8. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Alhazzaa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA, and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB method on cell culture system (cells with medium enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1 of cell protein.hour(-1 Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  9. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that

  10. Incapacity benefits and employment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Jonathan Michael; Snower, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the employment implications of allowing people the opportunity of using a portion of their incapacity benefits to provide employment vouchers for employers that hire them. The analysis indicates that introducing this policy could increase employment, raise the incomes of incapacity benefit recipients, and reduce employers? labor costs. The analysis explicitly derives the optimal voucher, i.e. the voucher that maximizes employment at no extra budgetary cost. This voucher is ...

  11. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  12. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen;

    2011-01-01

    Building on the convergence/divergence approach, this paper examines whether recent new public management (NPM) inspired reforms entailing inter alia cutbacks in the public sector, marketisation and management by performance measures have had significant implications for service provision...... and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong...

  13. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae; Kwak, Ja Hun; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  14. DOES SELF-EMPLOYMENT ENHANCE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    SAIMA BASHIR; TESFA GEBREMEDHIN; MUHAMMAD ARSHAD CHAWDHRY

    2014-01-01

    Creative and qualified self-employed individuals contribute to economic growth by inventing new products, production processes, distribution methods and employing other people. Researchers are interested in self-employment if it can provide jobs to the unemployed population and also for those who face job discrimination. However, increase in self-employment is uncertain because entrepreneurial skills are assumed to be risky and self-employed workers can learn their skills gradually after star...

  15. Dependent self-employment: workers between employment and self-employment in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Mühlberger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    "Analysing the British Labour Force Survey, we highlight that dependent self-employed workers constitute a group distinct from both employees and independent self-employed workers in the labour market group. Dependent self-employed workers show characteristics of a more volatile labour market attachment than employed or self-employed workers. We provide empirical evidence that dependent self-employed workers are rather pushed than pulled into this labour market status, making dependent self-e...

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF WHEAT BRAN MEDIUM PROCESSING CONDITIONS, ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL VALUE FOR SACCHAROMYCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Panfilov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnological methods have perhaps the greatest potential in deep processing of renewable raw materials. Bioconversion of lignocelluloses materials substantially increases its bioavailability and effectiveness of consumption by microorganisms. The enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis of wheat bran under mild conditions are compared in this study.The purpose of this study was to define microbiological and biochemical criteria for the bioconversion. Enzymatic hydrolysis of extruded bran was held with three enzyme preparations usually used in the conversion of vegetable raw materials: “Viscoferm,” “Cellic HTec2,” and “Celloviridin G20x.” The central composite design was used for parameter optimization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used for assessment of biological value of the slurry obtained. The content of crude protein of the product obtained was 1.9 times higher than the initial.

  17. Life Sciences and employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand J. Boshoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  18. Employment in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  19. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  20. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  1. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and sheltered employment. This chapter describes the various instruments supporting employment of disabled people applied in the EU Member States and the USA. Their effectiveness is assessed, based on...

  2. Employment patterns in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nickell, Stephen; Nunziata, Luca

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of labour demand and the determinants of employment rates across the OECD. We find: (i) labour demand adjusts less rapidly when employment protection is more strict and union density is higher; (ii) there is no evidence that overall job turnover is influenced by employment protection; (iii) union density and coverage are negatively related to employment/population ratios, although this effect can be entirely offset by coordination; (iv) strict employment protec...

  3. Employment training for disadvantaged or dependent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H

    1982-01-01

    The vocational rehabilitation process is viewed as having two dominant work-related components: the actual work-training experience and employability skills. The paper argues that both components are critical and must be integrated. The major role of the vocational rehabilitation agency is viewed as that of provider of employability (or job-seeking) skills programs. These programs consist of: (1) employability skills courses, (2) work performance demand standard setting, and (3) on-the-job rotational task schemes. Actual work skills can only be provided in the "real world" of work. Centralized work-training programs are viewed as creating inappropriate socialization and only moderately transferable skills. PMID:7076357

  4. Employment training for disadvantaged or dependent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H

    1982-01-01

    The vocational rehabilitation process is viewed as having two dominant work-related components: the actual work-training experience and employability skills. The paper argues that both components are critical and must be integrated. The major role of the vocational rehabilitation agency is viewed as that of provider of employability (or job-seeking) skills programs. These programs consist of: (1) employability skills courses, (2) work performance demand standard setting, and (3) on-the-job rotational task schemes. Actual work skills can only be provided in the "real world" of work. Centralized work-training programs are viewed as creating inappropriate socialization and only moderately transferable skills.

  5. İşveren Markası Yönetimi Sürecinde İşe Alım Öncesi Dönem ve İşgören Seçimi: Kavramsal Bir Değerlendirme (Pre-Recruitment Period and Employee Selection in Employer Brand Management Process: A Conceptual Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru GÖZEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays constantly renewing itself technological , socio-economic and cultural changes have dragged the companies to the tight competition. They can sustain their assets depends on finding the right labor and employment abilities. The quality and success of the human resources departments mostly depends on the process of finding employee. This process forms the basis of the other HR processes. One of the components of employer branding is Pre-Recruitment Period and Employee Selection. In this study, pre- recruitment and employee selection process is presented from the perspective of employer brand management. On this basis, it’s targeted to make suggestions for future researchers. The literature on this subject is very limited in our country. So this study is important to contribute to the literature

  6. The Employment Impact of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Paul W.; Register, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the macro employment effects of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act as amended. The results indicate mixed effects on the legislation on older workers and workers of traditional retirement age.

  7. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Rubina Khan; Tazin Aziz Chaudhury

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as a...

  8. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  9. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  10. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...... insecure and that the burden of unemployment risk mostly lies with the employees rather than the employer. Corporatist – or social democratic – employment relations models are, in contrast to the liberal models, often characterized by stricter regulation of the labor market and by high standards...

  11. Single-employer pension plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  12. Employability: wat beweegt de werknemer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luken, T.

    2003-01-01

    Dit artikel biedt een samenvatting van twee onderzoeksrapporten: een algemeen literatuuronderzoek rond employability en interviews bij een aantal bedrijven in de Metalektro. Hoofdvragen waren: hoe staat het met de employability? En hoe kan deze bevorderd worden?

  13. Employer Training Needs in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Woodbury

    1992-01-01

    The Survey of Employer Training Needs in Hawaii was undertaken to gather information and data on the needs and preferences of employers in Hawaii regarding government assistance with training. The need for such information was created by passage of Act 68, Session Laws of Hawaii 1991, which created the Hawaii Employment and Training Fund "to assist employers and workers through innovative programs to include, but not be limited to, business-specific training, upgrade training, new occupationa...

  14. Employability of nursing care graduates:

    OpenAIRE

    Donik Barbara; Pajnkihar Majda; Bernik Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students and employers point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between th...

  15. Ethnic minority self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, ethnic minority groups are over-represented in self-employment compared with the majority community. The kind of work done by minority entrepreneurs can therefore be an important driver of the economic well-being of their ethnic group. Furthermore, growing the self-employment sector is a policy objective for many governments, which see it as a source of innovation, economic growth, and employment. While self-employment might offer economic opportunities to minority groups, ...

  16. Performance of Local Employment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hanell, Tomas; Persson, Lars Olof

    2003-01-01

    At the national level the employment system consists of the set of institutions, and policies affecting institutions, which together moderate the level of production, employment and unemployment in the country (Schmid, G. & Gazier, B. eds. 2002. The Dynamics of Full Employment. Edward Elgar). These institutions include employment legislation, taxation policy and the education and training systems. However, the dynamics and the complexity of the national labour markets could only be understood...

  17. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed academic employment discrimination cases decided in 1998. Concludes that such cases added little to civil rights jurisprudence, but demonstrated the frustration felt by many over the fact that federal employment discrimination statures were not designed with universities in mind. The complexity of academic employment decisions ensures…

  18. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  19. Improving Groupworking Skills in Undergraduates Through Employer Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinch, Judy; Laybourn, Phyllis; MacLeod, Lucy; Stewart, Sheila

    1999-01-01

    A project involved employers in the development of teamwork skills of undergraduate accounting students, with the aims of increasing student awareness of group dynamics and processes, and promoting more effective group work. Employers observed students working in small groups and provided feedback on skills. Students, staff, and employers were…

  20. 提高女大学生就业能力的必要性及价值分析%Social Exclusion Condition Investigation in Female College Students' Employment Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚强; 梁彦红

    2012-01-01

    To understand the current employment status of female students, this paper analyzed the main reason for "the difficult employment" and social exclusion of female college students, and put forward relevant countermeasures. In the survey on female college students' employment, it found that the girls were more difficult to get a job than boys and the biggest harder that girls faced was sex discrimination and social exclusion. Government departments, the employer and the schools should adopt positive improvement measures to help female college students' employment and reduce social exclusion.%为把握了解当前女大学生的就业现状,分析女大学生“就业难”和社会排挤的主要原因,研究分析并提出相关对策建议,我们对某高校女大学生就业情况进行问卷调查.调查中我们发现就业过程中确实存在女生比男生更难就业,女生就业面临的最大困难就是性别歧视和社会排挤.政府部门、用人单位与学校应采用积极的改进措施帮助女大学生就业和减少社会排挤.

  1. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-05-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  2. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  3. A highly productive, whole-cell DERA chemoenzymatic process for production of key lactonized side-chain intermediates in statin synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ošlaj

    Full Text Available Employing DERA (2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase, we developed the first whole-cell biotransformation process for production of chiral lactol intermediates useful for synthesis of optically pure super-statins such as rosuvastatin and pitavastatin. Herein, we report the development of a fed-batch, high-density fermentation with Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 overexpressing the native E. coli deoC gene. High activity of this biomass allows direct utilization of the fermentation broth as a whole-cell DERA biocatalyst. We further show a highly productive bioconversion processes with this biocatalyst for conversion of 2-substituted acetaldehydes to the corresponding lactols. The process is evaluated in detail for conversion of acetyloxy-acetaldehyde with the first insight into the dynamics of reaction intermediates, side products and enzyme activity, allowing optimization of the feeding strategy of the aldehyde substrates for improved productivities, yields and purities. The resulting process for production of ((2S,4R-4,6-dihydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-ylmethyl acetate (acetyloxymethylene-lactol has a volumetric productivity exceeding 40 g L(-1 h(-1 (up to 50 g L(-1 h(-1 with >80% yield and >80% chromatographic purity with titers reaching 100 g L(-1. Stereochemical selectivity of DERA allows excellent enantiomeric purities (ee >99.9%, which were demonstrated on downstream advanced intermediates. The presented process is highly cost effective and environmentally friendly. To our knowledge, this is the first asymmetric aldol condensation process achieved with whole-cell DERA catalysis and it simplifies and extends previously developed DERA-catalyzed approaches based on the isolated enzyme. Finally, applicability of the presented process is demonstrated by efficient preparation of a key lactol precursor, which fits directly into the lactone pathway to optically pure super-statins.

  4. Beyond Lifetime Employment: Re-fabricating Japan's Employment Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Matanle, P

    2006-01-01

    Japanese working cultures have for many decades been dominated by the so-called system of lifetime employment in large organizations. Although the proportion of the working population employed under this system is often in dispute,1 it dominates the employment horizon. Moreover, the system radiates out beyond the boundaries of the Japanese firm. For example, it is the system to which the secondary and higher education systems are geared and towards which Japan's most academically successful s...

  5. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Gao; Lunqu Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on ...

  6. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  7. 15 CFR 8a.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether... §§ 8a.500 through 8a.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  8. 28 CFR 54.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether... §§ 54.500 through 54.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  9. 14 CFR 1253.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor... §§ 1253.500 through 1253.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  10. 41 CFR 101-4.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether... §§ 101-4.500 through 101-4.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  11. 43 CFR 41.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether... §§ 41.500 through 41.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  12. 31 CFR 28.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection... §§ 28.500 through 28.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  13. 45 CFR 618.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection... §§ 618.500 through 618.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  14. 40 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether... §§ 5.500 through 5.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for..., layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;...

  15. Does Employment Status Impact Learning Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, David

    2011-01-01

    Do individuals experience a change in the preferred method of learning as a result of employment? The answer to this question can greatly help educators and students be alike in the efficiency of the educational process. An introduction to this topic is provided followed by a research question and methodology for the research. Finally, results are…

  16. Synthesis of 2-Phenylethanol by Bioconversion in Aqueous-Organic Solvent Two-phase System%水-聚丙二醇两相体系中生物转化法合成2-苯乙醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虹; 陈蔚青; 张建芬

    2011-01-01

    研究了水-聚丙二醇两相体系中生物转化法合成2-苯乙醇的工艺条件,考察了聚丙二醇分子量、加量、转化振荡转速和底物浓度对2-苯乙醇合成的影响,确定了最佳的转化条件.结果表明,摇瓶中两相体系转化合成2-苯乙醇的最佳条件为:聚丙二醇分子量1500,加量为培养基体积的1/2,振荡转速250 r/min,底物浓度13g/L.在5L发酵罐中采用水-聚丙二醇两相体系生物转化法合成2-苯乙醇,浓度达6.87 g/L,产率为0.38 g/(L·h),较常规水相转化分别提高了42.2%和58.3%.%Production of 2-phenylethanol by byconversion was performed in a two-phase system composed of water and polypropylene glycol. The molecular weight and adding volume of polypropylene glycol, shaking speed for cultivation and concentration of L-phenylalanine were investigated to improve the productivity of 2-phenylethanol. The bioconversion process was carried out in a 5 L fermentor. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for 2-phenylethanol production in two-phase system were as follows: polypropylene glycol molecular weight was 1500, adding volume half of the volume of medium, shaking speed 250 r/min, and concentration of substrate 13 g/L. In the 5 L fermentor with polypropylene glycol by ISPR, the concentration and productivity of 2-phenylethanol were 6.87 g/L and 0.38 g/(Lh) respectively, compared with no polypropylene glycol extraction, which were improved by 42.2% and 58.3%.

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  18. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth....... It reviews the theoretical rationale, presents the growth patterns in GSDP and employment, and estimates the employment-productivity components of GSDP growth per capita using the Shapley decomposition analysis. The results show that Punjab has slipped in terms of GSDP per capita over this period...... to be positive. Finally, while the state was outpaced by other states in terms of growth rate in GSDP per capita and even employment, structural change in the economy has been a positive feature of growth in the state....

  19. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  20. Employability und WerkerInnen

    OpenAIRE

    Cordes, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Diese qualitative Studie untersucht das Employabilitykonzept am Beispiel von Werkern eines deutschen Werkes eines deutschen Automobilherstellers. Ihre Wahrnehmung des Konzepts Employability und die Hintergründe dieser Wahrnehmung sind im Fokus. Einem triangulativen Ansatz folgend wird weiterhin die Perspektive betrieblicher Vertreter auf das Konzept Employability erhoben. Es werden zudem betriebliche Prozesse und Strukturen erhoben, die als bedeutsam für auf Employability bezogene Wahrnehmung...

  1. Should firms employ personalized pricing?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments in information technology (IT) have enabled firms to employ personalized pricing. Should all firms employ personalized pricing even though the adaptation costs of such pricing strategies are not high? This paper theoretically demonstrates a situation in which all firms do not always employ personalized pricing even though the fixed costs to do so is zero. The model is based on those of Thisse and Vives (1988) and Shaffer and Zhang (2002). Our model incorporates the fac...

  2. Unions and Equal Employment Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan S. Leonard

    1984-01-01

    This paper analyzes differences in the growth of minority and female employment between union and non-union manufacturing plants in California during the late 1970's, In this sector, unionized plants do not exhibit anymore gross employment discrimination than do nonunion plants against black or Hispanic men, or against black or white women, despite ther ecessions of the 1970's that displaced low seniority workers. Black males actually enjoy faster growth of employment share in unionized plant...

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Šlaus; Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of populati...

  5. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  6. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  7. Conceptualizing Learning and Employability "Learning and Employability Framework"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanasiri, Erabaddage Gishan Tharanga; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have been done on employability and the factors that lead to employability. Previous studies have focused on career development programs, internships, work experience programs, soft-skill development programs, and even university admission criteria which can be considered external factors to university student learning…

  8. A dynamic analysis of net migration and state employment change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruidl, J S; Pulver, G C

    1991-01-01

    "The dynamic relationship of net migration and employment change is examined for ten selected states of the U.S. using a multivariate time series approach--a vector autoregression (VAR) model. Granger causality tests and dynamic multipliers provide information on the dynamic process. The results suggest a state-level process in which employment change occurs first, and net migration follows with a lag. The procedure appears promising in investigating the timing of net migration and regional employment change."

  9. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    that the employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over......This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...

  10. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  11. Employer Learning and the "Importance" of Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Audrey; McGee, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We ask whether the role of employer learning in the wage-setting process depends on skill type and skill importance to productivity. Combining data from the NLSY79 with O*NET data, we use Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores to measure seven distinct types of pre-market skills that employers cannot readily observe, and O*NET importance scores to measure the importance of each skill for the worker's current three-digit occupation. Before bringing importance measures into the analy...

  12. Bio-conversion rate and optimum harvest intervals for Moina australiensis using digested piggery effluent and Chlorella vulgaris as a food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A J; Kumar, M S

    2010-04-01

    The bio-conversion rate of Moina australiensis fed with Chlorella vulgaris grown on digested piggery effluent at three different feeding rates was determined and a 2, 3 and 4-day harvest interval strategy was investigated. This study indicates that C. vulgaris is a suitable food source for M. australiensis. A significant difference (P < or = 0.001) in the feeding rate against mean total populations was found among treatments. The increase in the amount of algae fed accelerated the production rate, and the population density peaked faster in the high C. vulgaris fed treatment. The BCR calculated from this experiment indicates that for every 1000 mg of C. vulgaris fed there was an increase of 437.9 mg of M. australiensis biomass produced. A significant difference (P < or = 0.001) in biomass production among the different harvest interval treatments was observed. The 2-day harvest interval treatment produced 7.78 g of M. australiensis followed by 6.89 g in the 3 day and 5.01 g in the 4-day harvest interval treatment. This study provides strong evidence that M. australiensis can utilise the bacterial blooms and bio-films associated with digested piggery effluent as a food source. PMID:20006491

  13. Bioconversion of Pinoresinol Diglucoside and Pinoresinol from Substrates in the Phenylpropanoid Pathway by Resting Cells of Phomopsis sp.XP-8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available Pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG and pinoresinol (Pin are normally produced by plant cells via the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study reveals the existence of a related pathway in Phomopsis sp. XP-8, a PDG-producing fungal strain isolated from the bark of the Tu-chung tree (Eucommiaulmoides Oliv.. After addition of 0.15 g/L glucose to Phomopsis sp. XP-8, PDG and Pin formed when phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were used as the substrates respectively. No PDG formed in the absence of glucose, but Pin was detected after addition of all these substrates except leucine. In all systems in the presence of glucose, production of PDG and/or Pin and the accumulation of phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, or p-coumaric acid correlated directly with added substrate in a time- and substrate concentration- dependent manner. After analysis of products produced after addition of each substrate, the mass flow sequence for PDG and Pin biosynthesis was defined as: glucose to phenylalanine, phenylalanine to cinnamic acid, then to p-coumaric acid, and finally to Pin or PDG. During the bioconversion, the activities of four key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway were also determined and correlated with accumulation of their corresponding products. PDG production by Phomopsis sp. exhibits greater efficiency and cost effectiveness than the currently-used plant-based system and will pave the way for large scale production of PDG and/or Pin for medical applications.

  14. Bioconversion of Pinoresinol Diglucoside and Pinoresinol from Substrates in the Phenylpropanoid Pathway by Resting Cells of Phomopsis sp.XP-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Liu, Laping; Gao, Zhenhong; Che, Jinxin; Shao, Dongyan; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-01-01

    Pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) and pinoresinol (Pin) are normally produced by plant cells via the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study reveals the existence of a related pathway in Phomopsis sp. XP-8, a PDG-producing fungal strain isolated from the bark of the Tu-chung tree (Eucommiaulmoides Oliv.). After addition of 0.15 g/L glucose to Phomopsis sp. XP-8, PDG and Pin formed when phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were used as the substrates respectively. No PDG formed in the absence of glucose, but Pin was detected after addition of all these substrates except leucine. In all systems in the presence of glucose, production of PDG and/or Pin and the accumulation of phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, or p-coumaric acid correlated directly with added substrate in a time- and substrate concentration- dependent manner. After analysis of products produced after addition of each substrate, the mass flow sequence for PDG and Pin biosynthesis was defined as: glucose to phenylalanine, phenylalanine to cinnamic acid, then to p-coumaric acid, and finally to Pin or PDG. During the bioconversion, the activities of four key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway were also determined and correlated with accumulation of their corresponding products. PDG production by Phomopsis sp. exhibits greater efficiency and cost effectiveness than the currently-used plant-based system and will pave the way for large scale production of PDG and/or Pin for medical applications.

  15. BIOCONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE INTO SECOND GENERATION BIOETHANOL AFTER ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS WITH IN-HOUSE PRODUCED CELLULASES FROM Aspergillus sp. S4B2F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Soni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was studied for in-house cellulase production, pretreatment, and enzymatic conversion of sugarcane bagasse into glucose followed by the production of second generation bioethanol. Solid state cultures of Aspergillus sp. S4B2F produced significant levels of cellulase complex on wheat bran, supplemented with 1% (w/w soyabean meal, moistened with 1.5 parts of distilled water after 96 h of incubation at 30oC. The highest productivities of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase were 66, 60, and 26 IU/g of fermented dry bran, respectively. The enzyme components had a temperature and pH optima at 50oC and 4.0, respectively and revealed high thermostability at 50oC, retaining 66, 54, and 84% residual activities after 72 h. Pretreatment with 2% alkali in combination with steam was the most efficient pre-hydrolysis method for enzymatic bioconversion and fermentation of cellulosic residue of sugarcane bagasse, which produced the highest cellulose conversion (67%, with glucose and alcohol yields of 323 mg and 175 l respectively per dry gram of bagasse.

  16. Bioconversion of Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside to Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Raspberry by Crude α-L-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taehwan; Jung, Hana; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-11-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) has been known to be more bioavailable than cyanidin-3- rutinoside (C3R), the most abundant anthocyanin in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins in black raspberry by cleaving L-rhamnose in C3R using crude enzyme extracts (CEEs) from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6956, A. awamori KCTC 60380, A. niger KCCM 11724, A. oryzae KCCM 12698, and A. kawachii KCCM 32819. The enzyme activities of the CEEs were determined by a spectrophotometric method using rho-nitrophenyl-rhamnopyranoside and rho-nitrophenyl-glucopyranoside. The CEE from A. usamii had the highest α-L-rhamnosidase activity with 2.73 U/ml at 60°C, followed by those from A. awamori and A. niger. When bioconversion of C3R to C3G in black raspberry was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, the CEEs from A. usamii and A. awamori hydrolyzed 95.7% and 95.6% of C3R to C3G, respectively, after 2 h incubation. The CEEs from A. kawachii and A. oryzae did not convert C3R to C3G in black raspberry.

  17. The Accessible City: Employment Opportunities in Time and Space

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lauren M.

    1999-01-01

    Explosive suburban employment growth, broad processes of economic restructuring, and rapid developments in transportation and telecommunications technologies have fundamentally altered the spatial and organizational composition of both where we work and where we live. How have these broad spatial processes impacted intra-metropolitan accessibility? The research presents an analytical framework for evaluating and monitoring intra-metropolitan accessibility to employment opportunities. More spe...

  18. Women's Employment Patterns after Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Annemette

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed data on employment after marriage for a cohort of women born around 1938. Results show a decline in the propensity to follow a conventional pattern of leaving the work force due to marriage or childbirth. The double track pattern of employment during childrearing is more common. (Author/JAC)

  19. Innovation, Industry Evoluation and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of articles on the links between innovation, the evolution of industry and employment. These relations provide the building blocks of a new industrial policy. The articles are included in Innovation, Industry Evolution and Employment pub

  20. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  1. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  2. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  3. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  4. Other Forms of Employment: Temporary Employment Agencies and Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Wadensjö, Eskil; Andersson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the majority of employed people are full-time employees with a non-temporary job and work at a workplace of the company in which they are employed. They are making careers at the employer they are employed by and most work-place changes are to other jobs of the same type. But it does not include large groups in the labour market. Many of those who have tenured positions work part-time, not full-time, and many both full-time and part-time workers have fixed-per...

  5. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  6. Employability Skills in Chennai Retail Market, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Paulrajan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the finding from study to outline the underlying skill set required in getting and sustaining employment in the organised grocery and vegetable retail industry. The focus was ‘Employability’ which is neither one time attainable nor marketable vocational and academic skills just to create opportunity to get employment. An exploratory study has been carried out to understand the requirement of skill set in organised grocery and vegetable retailing for entry level jobs. Personal interview and questionnaire were the instruments used. Scope of the study to understand and identify required skills for entry level job in the organised grocery and vegetable retailing. Skill Matrix and employability skill set are formulated based on the study for entry level jobs in organised grocery and vegetable retailing sector.This study presents a comprehensive framework for selecting stores level managerial jobs by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. AHP method, expresses to determine the attributes in a multiple criteria decision-making problem in selection of personnel. Further scope for future research is enormous; study in the area of different or entire profile of retail jobs and geographical employability which is an influencing and deciding factor in organised grocery and vegetable employment.

  7. Unequal Access to Employment, Unequal Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Farvaque, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Access to employment is a dynamical process. The extent of freedom of choice and opportunity sets people have is crucial in this process. Going from school to work indeed is a matter of having opportunities and of making choices. But this process is also constrained by existing structures and by other people’s choices in the labour market. Being able to get a job is not an individual search issue only: it involves recruiters’ forms of judgement on the candidate’s qualities, and l...

  8. Greater Springfield employment challenges: findings of employer survey and interviews

    OpenAIRE

    David Plasse; Marques Benton; Lynn E. Browne; Prabal Chakrabarti; DeAnna Green; Yolanda Kodrzycki; Ana Patricia Muñoz; Richard Walker; Bo Zhao

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from in-depth interviews and a survey of employers in the Greater Springfield area regarding (a) employment opportunities for entry-level workers with limited skills and (b) barriers that residents of Springfield's low-income neighborhoods face in accessing these jobs. The survey and interviews indicate that entry-level jobs that do not require college are available in the Springfield area. However, even entry-level jobs require the ability to perform a variet...

  9. 29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... employment relationship with a different employer. A determination of whether the employment by the employers... the employee by the other joint employer or employers. 4 Walling v. Friend, et al., 156 F. 2d 429...

  10. Employability of Nursing Care Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donik Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students’ and employers’ point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates’ employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students’ academic performance.

  11. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  12. 45 CFR 400.76 - Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employment services, participation in employability service programs, and acceptance of appropriate offers of... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment General Requirements § 400.76 Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability...

  13. The Employability Inventory: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the background, development, content, and validation of the Employability Inventory, an instrument designed to assess knowledge of job seeking, job retention, and job success. Discusses usefulness of the inventory in both counseling and education. (ABL)

  14. Racial Differences in Youth Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardecki, Rosella M.

    2001-01-01

    Work experience at an early age has a positive impact on labor force attachment of different racial groups. However, racial gaps in employment that are present in the early teen years seem to continue into adulthood. (Author/SK)

  15. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  16. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  17. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  18. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Careers Women Who Served Programs & Services Transition GPS Frequently Asked Questions Hire a Veteran Find qualified Veterans Policy & Compliance Employer Toolkit Strengthening Military Families Apprenticeships Service Providers Grants & Opportunities Compliance Assistance ...

  19. Youth employment and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  20. Employment and hours of work

    OpenAIRE

    Kudoh, Noritaka; Sasaki, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model of the labor market in which the degree of substitution between employment and hours of work is determined as part of a search equilibrium. Each firm chooses its demand for working hours and number of vacancies, and the earnings profile is determined by Nash bargaining. The earnings profile is generally nonlinear in hours of work, and defines the trade-off between employment and hours of work. Concave production technology induces firms to overemploy and, a...

  1. Employer branding - Living the brand

    OpenAIRE

    Rebrovic, Luna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study aims to link the body of knowledge on employer branding with the concept of organizational identity. Given the power of potentially instructing and directing organizational members, employer branding is not only seen as a marketing tool but also as a tool for forming and expressing key values of an organization (Alvesson, 2009; Kärreman and Rylander, 2008:103). The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between an employee and an organization's b...

  2. Domestic Violence, Employment, and Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Audra Bowlus; Shannon Seitz

    2005-01-01

    Using unique, representative data on domestic violence, we document several stylized facts on abuse: the average characteristics of abused wives and abusive husbands are markedly different than the characteristics of individuals in non-violent marriages, the vast majority of violent marriages end in divorce, and employment rates are lower for women who experience abuse. We then construct a sequential model of employment, marriage and abuse. The results indicate abuse is the primary factor in ...

  3. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - RURAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-01-01

    The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate...

  4. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  5. Employment Turnover and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Vicente Rodríguez Mora, José

    1997-01-01

    Two features distinguish European and US labour markets. First, most European countries have a considerably more generous unemployment insurance system. Second, the duration of unemployment and employment spells are substantially higher in Europe – employment turnover is lower. We show that self-insurance, i.e. saving and borrowing, is a good substitute for unemployment insurance when turnover is as high as in the United States. If the insurance system is less than perfectly actuarially fair,...

  6. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  7. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  8. How universities can assess employability skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Pelt, Véronique; Baumann, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    The SQALES (Students' Quality of Life and Employability Skills) project aims to help universities adopt the recommendations from Bergen (Communiqué 2005) within the framework of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area (EHEA, Communiqué de Louvain & European Council, 2009). Under the European Council declaration of 1999, universities have become subject to assessment in terms of productivity and competitiveness. Against that background, we aim to help universities: ...

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Rebaudioside M Isomer from a Bioconversion Reaction of Rebaudioside A and NMR Comparison Studies of Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Indra; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna; Charan, Romila; Ramirez, Catherine; Priedemann, Christopher; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2), from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4) to rebaudioside D (3), was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2) is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1) and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY) and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR...

  10. Employer attractiveness from a generational perspective: Implications for employer branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the employer attractiveness factors prioritized by different generations: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. The survey was conducted with a sample of 937 professionals, working in various areas and companies, most of them were managers and had a high education level. The Employer Attractiveness Scale proposed by Berthon et al. (2005 was adopted and the results indicate that, when choosing a company, the generations under study have specific features regarding the attractiveness attributes they prioritize. It was also observed that Generation Y discriminates and ranks such attributes more clearly than the others. Possible implications for employer branding and research limitations are discussed at the end of the article.

  11. Developing an employer index within the real estate industry

    OpenAIRE

    Farahvashi, Vida; Broström, Trude

    2012-01-01

    Employer brand establishes a firms’ identity as an employer. It distinguishes one firm from others, creating an identity that gives a competitive advantage in the search for skilled workforce. This identity is becoming harder to establish for each day and is said to be just as important as retaining loyal customers. A strong employer brand can lead to a better pool of applicants in the recruitment process and many other returns, both financial and other. In the real estate sector in Sweden th...

  12. Gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    I analyze the job separation process to learn about gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability. An essential finding is that employer-employee data are required to identify gender differences in job separation probabilities because of labor market segregation. Failure...... workplaces. Finally, women's employment stability is relatively low because they are more likely to move from a job and into unemployment or out of the labor force, and less likely to make job-to-job transitions....

  13. Employment Generation, Firm Size, and Innovation in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Alvarez; José Miguel Benavente; Rolando Campusano; Conrado Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    This paper compiles and analyzes several sources of information to shed light on the relationship between innovation and employment growth in the manufacturing industry in Chile in the last 15 years. Our overall conclusions are that process innovation is generally not found to be a relevant determinant of employment growth, and that product innovation is usually positively associated with an expansion in employment. These results seem to be similar regardless of firm size and hold for both lo...

  14. Every student counts: promoting numeracy and enhancing employability

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Vicki; Durrani, Naureen; Lloyd Jones, Roger; Nichol, David; Timmins, J. Geoffrey; Worthington, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This three-year project investigated factors that influence the development of undergraduates’ numeracy skills, with a view to identifying ways to improve them and thereby enhance student employability. Its aims and objectives were to ascertain: the generic numeracy skills in which employers expect their graduate recruits to be competent and the extent to which employers are using numeracy tests as part of graduate recruitment processes; the numeracy skills developed within a diversity of aca...

  15. Employment profiles in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, W M; Abresch, R T; Koch, T R; Brewer, M L; Bowden, R K; Wanlass, R L

    1997-01-01

    Consumer and rehabilitation provider factors that might limit employment opportunities for 154 individuals with six slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) were investigated. The NMDs were spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN), Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), and limb-girdle syndrome (LGS). Forty percent were employed in the competitive labor market at the time of the study, 50% had been employed in the past, and 10% had never been employed. The major consumer barrier to employment was education. Other important factors were type of occupation, intellectual capacity, psychosocial adjustment, and the belief by most individuals that their physical disability was the only or major barrier to obtaining a job. Psychological characteristics were associated with level of unemployment. However, physical impairment and disability were not associated with level of unemployment. There also were differences among the types of NMDs. Compared with the SMA, HMSN, BMD, and FSHD groups, the MMD and LGS groups had significantly higher levels of unemployment, lower educational levels, and fewer employed professional, management, and technical workers. Nonphysical impairment factors such as a low percentage of college graduates, impaired intellectual function in some individuals, and poor psychological adjustment were correlated with higher unemployment levels in the MMD group. Unemployment in the LGS group was correlated with a failure to complete high school. Major provider barriers to employment were the low level of referrals to Department of Rehabilitation by physicians and the low percentage of acceptance into the State Department of Rehabilitation. The low rate of acceptance was primarily attributable to the low number of referrals compounded by a lack of counselor experience with individuals with NMD. Both consumer and provider barriers may

  16. Europlat Employability Survey: Core findings and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek Stanislav; Mareš Jan; Neusar Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents the core findings of the Europlat employability survey focusing on employability issues related to the post-Bologna transformations of psychology study programmes across the European Union. The objectives of the survey were to find out: (1) how relevant the employability/employment issue is; (2) what the current problems are in the employability/employment area; and (3) to explore the best practices in dealing with employability/employment issues. Findings cover both the nation...

  17. Imaging radiometers employing linear thermoelectric arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Timothy J.; Mickelson, Steve

    1999-07-01

    Infrared Solutions, Inc. has developed a family of radiometers which employ silicon microstructure uncooled linear thermoelectric arrays, prepared by Honeywell Technology Center. Included in the family is a handheld imaging radiometer for predictive and preventive maintenance having a frame time of 1.4 sec, a linescanner radiometer for monitoring of industrial web process, an imaging radiometer for monitoring stationary industrial processes such as a die casting, and a linescanner radiometer for monitoring the temperature distribution of railcar wheels on trains moving at speeds up to 80 mph.

  18. International employment policies: employment and stabilisation in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens L

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of stabilization and adjustment policies (economic policy) on employment, Mexico, prospects for the 1980s - examines the transition from import substitution industrialization to an economic model based on export oriented industry, structural changes and subsequent financial collapse (financial policy), economic growth performance, 1978-1981, the external debt crisis, etc. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  19. Employer's Pocket Guide on Youth Employment. Youth Rules!

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Labor, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Through the YouthRules! initiative, the U.S. Department of Labor and its strategic partners seek to promote positive and safe work experiences for young workers. YouthRules! strives to educate teens, parents, educators, employers and the public on Federal and State rules regarding young workers. Components of the initiative include a website…

  20. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao

    2013-01-01

    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  1. Pre-Employment Training Resource Manual. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC.

    A collection of background notes and lesson plans from the pre-employment training programs under way at three refugee processing centers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand is presented. The pre-employment component of an educational program that also includes intensive English as a second language and cultural orientation training…

  2. [Chronic diseases and employment: impact on social health inequalities].

    OpenAIRE

    Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Differential consequences of ill health according to individuals' position on the social scale may constitute an important pathway underlying social health inequalities. In the current context, chronic diseases have major consequences on employment. These consequences may play a substantial role in the process of social health inequalities. Understanding the employment consequences of chronic diseases and their socially differentiated nature constitutes a...

  3. Simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation for bioconversion of cyclohexanone by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Yong-Cheol; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Kyungmoon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger oxidation converts cyclic ketones into optically pure lactones, which have been used as building blocks in organic synthesis. A recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pMM4 expressing CHMO originated from Acinetobacter sp. NCIB 9871 was used to produce epsilon-caprolactone through a simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation (SPO) process. A fed-batch process was designed to obtain high cell density for improving production of epsilon-caprolactone. The fed-batch SPO process gave the best results, 10.2 g/L of epsilon-caprolactone and 0.34 g/(L.h) of productivity, corresponding to a 10.5- and 3.4-fold enhancement compared with those of the batch SPO, respectively.

  4. Bioconversion of barley straw and corn stover to butanol (a biofuel) in integrated fermentation and simultaneous product recovery bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies concentrated sugar solutions of barley straw and corn stover hydrolysates were fermented with simultaneous product recovery and compared with the performance of a control glucose batch fermentation process. The control glucose batch fermentation resulted in the production of 23.25 g...

  5. Strategies Employed in Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛

    2008-01-01

    Idioms which are regarded as the essence of language have drawn great attention from scholars.Most of them just focus Oil its cultural consideration.In this thesis the author intends to make a comprehensive study on practical strategies employed in idiom translation.

  6. Employment and Unemployment in Lagos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Fapohunda (Olanrewaju)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractWage-earning employment was non-existent in Nigeria before the advent of the white man and the British administration. The average Nigerian engaged in subsistence agriculture or some cottage industry like weaving, pottery or carving. The first wage earners in Nigeria were probably the po

  7. Physical attractiveness, employment and earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  8. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  9. Transnational Education and Employability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors-Bourne, Robin; Jones, Elspeth; Woodfield, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation and employability development are important themes for UK higher education (HE) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA). One aspect of many UK HE institutions' internationalisation strategies has been to increase the number and range of UK programmes delivered "offshore" as transnational education (TNE)--through…

  10. Employers Often Distrust Online Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains why employers are reluctant to accept potential employees with online degrees. The results of several surveys of those who evaluate potential employees and make hiring decisions indicate a bias against online degrees, even as more and more colleges are offering programs online. To those officials, the words "online education"…

  11. Youth Employability Training: Two Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…

  12. Comparative research on women's employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Dijk, L. van

    2002-01-01

    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings. Nex

  13. Teenage Employment and Career Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents…

  14. Youth Employment and Job Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Tad

    A policy that addresses youth unemployment with monetary expansion for similar fiscal policies is criticized as compounding the problem, and alternative solutions are offered. Accordingly, a brief look at youth labor market characteristics, pertinent labor market theory, and the present industrial distribution of employed youth is offered. A…

  15. INDISPENSABILITY OF ENGLISH FOR EMPLOYABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun K Behera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how English acts as a binding language across the world. The advent of English as a force in the third world countries is dealt with in detail, including aspects like economic and financial growth of the third world countries. Moreover, the impact of the rise in educational and awareness levels, combined with the growth in per capita income on the employability of the citizens of the third world countries has also been taken up. Growing desires of the people, coupled with a deep - rooted need to have an improved standard of living has been touched upon. Attempts have been made here how these factors play a vital role in employability. The economic and cultural change in the third world countries and how it has impacted the employment opportunities, plus the reasons why English plays a vital role in all these are also covered in the paper. I have tried to deal with the attitudinal change in the government organizations and their role in adding to the burgeoning employment opportunities and the accompanying importance of English.

  16. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Graaf-Zijl

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  17. BIOCONVERSION OFWATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES) TO VERMICOMPOST BY THE EARTHWORM EUDRILUS EUGENIAE: AN IDEAL METHOD FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RAO.K.R; MUSHAN,L.C; KALE,P.V; ANKARAM,S.R

    2013-01-01

    Vermicomposting is a process in which organic waste can be converted to an energy rich byproduct by the action of microbial population present in the gut flora of earthworms. Earthworms are considered as bioengineers as they enrich the soil by adding micronutrient and macronutrients through their cast. This enriched soil will be useful for getting higher yield in the agricultural crops. The vermibiotechnology facilitates the recycling of industrial, agricultural, domestic an...

  18. Social enterprises and employment: Mainstreaming SMEs and employment creation

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Lanzona

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that mainstreaming small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and social enterprises (SEs) into various international treaties will require the assumption of positive externalities, which markets cannot fully evaluate. To show this, the possible influence that SEs may have on SME development and, eventually, on employment will be discussed. SEs are small- and medium-sized commercial businesses providing valuable social service to customers and sustainable jobs and training for up t...

  19. Developing a dancer wellness program employing developmental evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Terry eClark; Arun eGupta; Chester eHo

    2014-01-01

    Wellness programs are being increasingly employed with performing artists. Given their aim of reducing injuries, injury tracking is commonly employed as an outcome measure. Evaluating the development and process of a wellness program can also enhance its effectiveness. Developmental evaluation offers one methodological framework within which to conduct such investigations. This paper reports on a two year process involving feedback from professional ballet dancers, management and artistic sta...

  20. Integrated bioconversion of pulp and paper primary sludge to second generation bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26602.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cátia V T; Cruz, Crispin H G; Reis, Diana F N; Carvalho, M Graça V S; Rocha, Jorge M S

    2016-11-01

    Primary sludge, from different pulp and paper mills, was used as feedstock in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes to produce ethanol. SSF was carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26602 yeast and NS 22192 enzymatic extract using 150gL(-1) of carbohydrates (CH) from primary sludge. The effect of sterilization, reduction of enzyme dosage and fed-batch vs. batch conditions were studied. The removal of sterilization can be considered since no contamination or atypical by-products were observed, although SSF efficiency slightly decreased. The reduction of the enzyme dosage from 35 to 15FPUgCH(-1) was successful. Despite of initial mixing difficulties, batch SSF enabled higher ethanol concentration (41.7gL(-1)), conversion yield (48.9%) and productivity (0.78gL(-1)h(-1)), compared to the fed-batch process at the same conditions of low enzyme dosage of 5FPUgCH(-1) and high solids content of 21.7%, rarely found in literature.

  1. Integrated bioconversion of pulp and paper primary sludge to second generation bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26602.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cátia V T; Cruz, Crispin H G; Reis, Diana F N; Carvalho, M Graça V S; Rocha, Jorge M S

    2016-11-01

    Primary sludge, from different pulp and paper mills, was used as feedstock in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes to produce ethanol. SSF was carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26602 yeast and NS 22192 enzymatic extract using 150gL(-1) of carbohydrates (CH) from primary sludge. The effect of sterilization, reduction of enzyme dosage and fed-batch vs. batch conditions were studied. The removal of sterilization can be considered since no contamination or atypical by-products were observed, although SSF efficiency slightly decreased. The reduction of the enzyme dosage from 35 to 15FPUgCH(-1) was successful. Despite of initial mixing difficulties, batch SSF enabled higher ethanol concentration (41.7gL(-1)), conversion yield (48.9%) and productivity (0.78gL(-1)h(-1)), compared to the fed-batch process at the same conditions of low enzyme dosage of 5FPUgCH(-1) and high solids content of 21.7%, rarely found in literature. PMID:27566524

  2. Teenage Employment and Career Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? On the one hand, critics of teenage employment argue that most teenage jobs have little career potential, provide few new skills, take away time from schoolwork and extracurricular activities, foster negative attitudes toward work, and encourage problem behaviors. On the other hand, research shows that some early work experiences do not undermine academic performance and school activities, and some jobs can...

  3. Family Business, Employment, and GDP

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Dan; Sjögren, Hans; Bjuggren, Carl Magnus

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the proportion of family business and its contribution to employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Our analysis adds to the literature by including all listed firms and by investigating a longer period than has heretofore been reported. The main contribution is to extend the analysis to include all firms in the economy using census data. Our study is devoted to the case of Sweden. Family business makes up half of the listed firms, and three quarters of all firms, accounting for...

  4. Telecommunications dynamics, output and employment

    OpenAIRE

    Jungmittag, Andre; Welfens, Paul J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In EU countries, opening up of telecommunications markets and regulations have helped to reduce the price of digital services which is an important quasi-input factor in all firms. Integrating the use of telecommunications in a macroeconomic production function is the analytical starting point for our interdependent analysis of output, use of telecommunications and employment. Based on unit root and co-integration analysis as well as an error correction three-equation model which are estimate...

  5. Employment and Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur R. Khan

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of employment-intensive growth in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 ratified by setting specific targets with respect to eight different goals: eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality; reduction of child mortality; improved maternal health; combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring environmental sustainability; and promoting global partn...

  6. Ethical employment in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karlstrøm, Caroline Bay

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this paper is ethical employment in developing countries, and how multinational companies should conduct business in less developed countries. First three theories within ethics will be covered; utilitarianism, justice and human rights. Those are used to judge whether a case is unethical or not. Thereafter are the employees rights covered, and two international conventions that protects these rights are described; the International Labour Organizations and the UN G...

  7. Measures Taken to Secure Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi

    2009-01-01

    @@ The background In 2008, the financial crisis has swept the globe and its tentacles went across the Pacific Ocean to mainland China. Along with the global economic recession and the slowdown of domestic economic growth, the unemployed and the new em-ployees have become the direct victims of this economic cold wave. The issue of employment is the focus of attention of society from all walks of life.

  8. Entrepreneurial skills and wage employment

    OpenAIRE

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufí, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Promotion of entrepreneurial skills among the population is often considered as an adequate policy to enhance job creation and economic growth. However, neither the definition of entrepreneurial skills, nor the costs and benefits of such a policy are clear. Our aim is to check whether the benefits of entrepreneurial skills extent beyond self-employment. We use a sample of higher education graduates from Spain, from the year 2000 interviewed in 2005 (REFLEX survey). We denote entrepreneurial s...

  9. Regional variations in cyclical employment

    OpenAIRE

    M I Howland

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the author develops and tests a model of regional responses to national business-cycles. The model divides cyclical decline in each state into two sectors: a basic sector and a nonbasic sector. The industrial mix, capital - labor ratio, age of capital stock, level of unemployment insurance benefits, labor shortage, and extent of labor-force unionization of a state are hypothesized to influence the response to national recessions by the economy of a state. Employment decline in t...

  10. Maternal Employment and Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Anderson; Kristin F. Butcher; Levine, Phillip B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother/child data from the National Longitudin...

  11. Employment and SMEs during crises

    OpenAIRE

    Varum, C.A.; Rocha, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The persistent increasing duration of unemployment has become an issue during economic crises. Although lay-offs at large firms normally make headlines during crises, we still know little about the potential impact of firm size on adjustment behavior in a crisis. We studied effects of firm size on employment growth during economic slowdowns using a rich microeconomic database for the 1988-2007 period in Portuguese manufacturing industry. The results show that economic downturns affect firm gr...

  12. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy. PMID:7499512

  13. Employment Growth through Labor Flow Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Omar A.; Axtell, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market. PMID:23658682

  14. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Guerrero

    Full Text Available It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN. This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  15. The Employment of Symbolism in The Dubliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅

    2013-01-01

    The Dubliners is a famous novel by the eminent Irish novelist James Joyce. This book collection begins with new-born life and ends with death. The unity of form and content symbolizes the life process of a human being—from birth to death, there⁃fore we can say that Dubliners is the image of a human being. In this collection, Joyce employs several kinds of symbolic method and symbols play a very important role in the implied meanings of these short stories.

  16. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received

  17. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without... Temporary Employment Certification AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of the approval for...

  18. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  19. 78 FR 32470 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room...

  20. Gender differences in self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Yannis Georgellis; Wall, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that influence transitions into self-employment, paying particular attention to gender differences. We find that: (i) men are more responsive to the wage differential between wage/salaried employment and self-employment; (ii) liquidity constraints are more important for men; and (iii) the link between father’s self-employment status and the probability of self-employment is stronger for men. Taken together, these results suggest that, for women, self-employment...

  1. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  2. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.

    1994-07-18

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following. Butyrate production was enhanced during H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (50/50) batch fermentation. Isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress. Pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability. Polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support. Cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8. Trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing. Pervaporation system was constructed. No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up.

  3. Abordagem sobre os diferentes processos de secagem empregados na obtenção de extratos secos de plantas medicinais Approach on different drying processes employed for obtaining dry extracts from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria farmacêutica de fitoterápicos, o extrato seco é considerado tecnologicamente viável para fins de produção em larga escala, devido à estabilidade física, química e microbiológica, além da facilidade de padronização dos princípios ativos. Entre as técnicas de secagem empregadas na preparação de extratos secos, encontra-se a nebulização ou spray-dryer, o leito de jorro, a liofilização e a evaporação rotativa. A escolha do processo de secagem é motivada pela potencialidade dos diferentes equipamentos secadores, na secagem de materiais presentes na forma líquida, no caso, soluções extrativas de plantas medicinais, fornecendo um produto de alta qualidade e com investimento relativamente baixo.In the pharmaceutical industry of herbal medicines, the dried extract is considered technologically feasible for large-scale production, due to its physical stability, possibility of chemical and microbiological analyses and the ease of standardization of the active ingredients. Among the drying techniques used in the preparation of dry extracts are a mist or spray-dryer, the spouted bed, freeze-drying and rotary evaporation. The choice of the drying process is motivated by the potential of different drying equipments and materials present in liquid form, in this case, solutions of herbal extracts provide a high quality product and a relatively modest investment.

  4. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  5. INDISPENSABILITY OF ENGLISH FOR EMPLOYABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Arun K Behera

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how English acts as a binding language across the world. The advent of English as a force in the third world countries is dealt with in detail, including aspects like economic and financial growth of the third world countries. Moreover, the impact of the rise in educational and awareness levels, combined with the growth in per capita income on the employability of the citizens of the third world countries has also been taken up. Growing desires of the people, coupled wit...

  6. ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS OF EMPLOYERS, EMPLOYEES AND PARENTS ABOUT THE EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja STANKOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to work is one of the fundamental human rights in all developed countries around the world. The employment, actually the right to work of persons with disability is the final phase of the long and complex process of their rehabilitation that affects the possibility of their integration in the community.The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of employment of people with autism, based on the attitudes and opinions of employers, employees and parents of the children with autism.The basic tasks of this research are: to determine whether the employers would employ a person with autism; weather employers and the employees know what autism is; weather according to employers and employees people with autism are able to perform their job duties in complete and weather the parents of children with autism would like their child to be employed.We conducted this research in a period of 3 months and included 130 respondents. Obtained data were collected, grouped, tabled and processed with standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Exact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and the interpretation of the results, we concluded that in the Republic of Macedonia do not exist positive atmosphere, for employment of the persons with autism, the employers do not want to employ a person with autism. The professionals must engage more deeply in this problematic in order to achieve a complete integration of the people with autism in the society.

  7. Geocoding of German administrative data : the case of the Institute for Employment Research

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Theresa; Rauscher, Cerstin; Reiher, Jörg; Bachteler, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    "Economic research addressing spatial questions is often constrained by the availability of data at a sufficiently fine regional scale. For this reason the 2009 cross-section of the Integrated Employment Biographies (IEB) of the Institute for Employment Research was geocoded. The IEB are collected from administrative processes of the Federal Employment Agency and include employees and their employing establishment, unemployed, jobseekers, benefit recipients and participants of employment meas...

  8. Legal limits on the employer's freedom of choice in recruiting and selecting employees / Vusumuzi Francis Mthethwa

    OpenAIRE

    Mthethwa, Vusumuzi Francis

    2013-01-01

    Under common law an employer enjoyed complete freedom of choice when recruiting and selecting employees. An employer had unfettered discretion in recruiting and selecting employees. There were no legal restrictions on the prerogative of the employer to appoint employees. Developments in labour law have, however, gradually diminished the employer's freedom of choice during the recruitment and selection process. The Employment Equity Act No. 55 of 1998 and the Code of Good Practi...

  9. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  10. Enhancing Bioconversion Efficiency of the Earthworm Eudrilus Eugeniae (Kingberg by Fortifying the Filtermud Vermibed using an Organic Nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasanthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rapid urbanization and population growth are largely responsible for very high increasing rate of solid waste in the urban areas, its proper management and recycling is major problems of Municipal Corporation. Conversion of industrial wastes in to beneficial vermicompost not only solves solid waste accumulation but also yield highly nutritive organic manure. Approach: Enhancing the efficiency of earthworm that is involved in process of converting sugar mill filter press mud in to vermicompost, will be highly economical. An African earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae was used to convert the sugar mill filter press mud into nutritive vermicompost. To enhance vermicomposting efficiency, an organic nutrient preparation Jeevamirtham, an effective microbial suspension was supplemented. Results: The vermicompost yielded in Jeevamirtham supplemented vermibed had a significantly high nitrogen, phosphorus and micronutrient value. In the Jeeamirtham supplemeted vermicompost C/N ratio was 55.5% higher than that was present in the cowdung added vermicompost. In filtermud-Jeevamirtham, vermibed the mean egg production by a single worm at 45 days of growth was 12 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font

  11. The measurement and enhancement of employability and career success: over different life and career stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijde, van der Claudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The employability of workers enables organizations to cope with their fluctuating demand for numerical and functional flexibility. Clear definitions and instruments are needed to facilitate this process. For individual workers, professional expertise and employability are needed to deliver high qual

  12. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 86.51 Section 86.51 Public...

  13. 34 CFR 104.13 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 104.13 Section 104.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Employment Practices § 104.13 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use of any employment test...

  14. Employment Trends in the European Postal Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Henten, Anders;

    An analysis of the employments trends in the Danish postal sector and the different factors that influence theses employment trends......An analysis of the employments trends in the Danish postal sector and the different factors that influence theses employment trends...

  15. An analysis of the procedural components of supported employment programs associated with employment outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    McDonnell, J.; Nofs, D; Hardman, M.; Chambless, C

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the procedural components of supported employment programs and employment outcomes for 120 individuals with disabilities. These individuals were involved in supported employment programs established through the Utah Supported Employment Project. The results suggest that successful implementation of supported employment services led to ongoing employment of study participants in community work sites, increased wages, and ongoing opportunities for worker...

  16. 38 CFR 21.58 - Redetermination of employment handicap and serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment handicap and serious employment handicap. 21.58 Section 21.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (a) Prior to induction into a program. A determination as to employment handicap, serious employment handicap, or eligibility for a program of...

  17. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  18. Labor market transitions and self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen R. Rissman

    2007-01-01

    The self-employed are a heterogeneous group. Some are self-employed because they are good at it, while others are self-employed because they cannot find a better paying salaried job. Data from the CPS for prime age males show that workers are almost twice as likely to enter self-employment from unemployment as from paid employment. Furthermore, almost 22% of workers exit self-employment within the year with most returning to paid employment. This paper develops a framework for examining trans...

  19. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George

    2013-01-01

    Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends...... and the nature of policies introduced to tackle youth (un)employment. It provides an overview of the six papers that make up this special issue and shows how highlighting the complexities and diversities of youth employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa provides valuable lessons, both for enhancing current...... conceptualisations and theorisation of youth employment and in terms of related policy instruments....

  20. RETIREMENT AS AN EFFECT OF EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Turek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Employers are the key actors in defining conditions for retirement, as well as the conditions for retaining employees; their role, however, is still not well recognised and expressed in theoretical frameworks. In order to better understand individual retirement and to design successful ageing policies we should consider the behaviour and attitudes of employers.The article presents the organisational perspective on retirement and contributes to a theoretical consideration of the role of employers and work environments in the retirement process. It discusses the classic economic approaches, including the deferred payment model, and in referring to sociology of economy and management sciences it presents the employer’s perspective in relations with older workers. The main goal of the article is to consider the retirement process as an effect of employer-employee relations.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel rebaudioside M isomer from a bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A and NMR comparison studies of rebaudioside M isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Priedemann, Christopher; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2), from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4) to rebaudioside D (3), was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2) is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1) and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY) and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR techniques when identifying complex steviol glycosides. Numerous NMR spectroscopy studies of rebaudioside M (1), rebaudioside D (3), and mixture of 1 and 3 led to the discovery that SG17 which was previously reported in literature, is a mixture of rebaudioside D (3), rebaudioside M (1), and possibly other related steviol glycosides. PMID:24970220

  2. Isolation and characterization of a novel rebaudioside M isomer from a bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A and NMR comparison studies of rebaudioside M isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Priedemann, Christopher; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2), from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4) to rebaudioside D (3), was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2) is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1) and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY) and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR techniques when identifying complex steviol glycosides. Numerous NMR spectroscopy studies of rebaudioside M (1), rebaudioside D (3), and mixture of 1 and 3 led to the discovery that SG17 which was previously reported in literature, is a mixture of rebaudioside D (3), rebaudioside M (1), and possibly other related steviol glycosides.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Rebaudioside M Isomer from a Bioconversion Reaction of Rebaudioside A and NMR Comparison Studies of Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2, from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4 to rebaudioside D (3, was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2 is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1 and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR techniques when identifying complex steviol glycosides. Numerous NMR spectroscopy studies of rebaudioside M (1, rebaudioside D (3, and mixture of 1 and 3 led to the discovery that SG17 which was previously reported in literature, is a mixture of rebaudioside D (3, rebaudioside M (1, and possibly other related steviol glycosides.

  4. Why Do Individuals Choose Self-Employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Christopher; Henley, Andrew; Latreille, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes an analysis of the motivating factors cited by the self-employed in the UK as reasons for choosing self-employment. Very limited previous research has addressed the question of why individuals report that they have chosen self-employment. Two questions are addressed using large scale labour force survey data for the UK. The first concerns the extent to which the self-employed are self-employed out of necessity, opportunity, lifestyle decision or occupational choice. The ...

  5. The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1986-01-01

    Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...

  6. The Ethnic and Racial Character of Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert W. Fairlie; Bruce D. Meyer

    1994-01-01

    Using the 1980 and 1990 Censuses, we show that self-employment rates differ substantially across ethnic and racial groups in the U.S. These differences exist for both men and women, within broad combinations of ethnic/racial groups such as Europeans, Asians, Hispanics and blacks, and after controlling for variables such as age, education, immigrant status and time in the country. Although there are large differences in self-employment rates across ethnic/racial groups, the processes determini...

  7. Analysis of monofluoroacetic acid in urine by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and preparation of the positive sample by the bioconversion from monofluoroacetamide to monofluoroacetic acid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Min; Cai, Zeng-Xuan; Zhang, Jing-Shun; Ren, Yiping; Han, Jian-Long

    2016-08-01

    Whether as a rodenticide or as a natural product, monofluoroacetic acid (FAcOH) may cause poisoning to humans or animals for its high acute toxicity. Urine is one of the most typical specimens for forensic diagnosis when poisoning case about FAcOH happens. The positive sample containing FAcOH plays a key role for the development of an accurate and reliable analytical method. The bioconversion from monofluoroacetamide (FAcNH2) to FAcOH in urine in vitro was studied for the preparation of positive urine sample containing FAcOH without standard spiking or animal experiment. The average bioconversion rates were 0%, 18.6% and 41.3% when incubated the FAcNH2 spiked urine in vitro for 21days at -20°C, room temperature (RT) and 37°C, respectively. Afterwards, a fast and sensitive analytical method was developed for determination of FAcOH in urine. Samples were diluted with water containing formic acid and cleaned with polymeric anion exchange (PAX) cartridge. The acid eluate was neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and directly measured by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using basic mobile phase condition. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of FAcOH in urine were 2 and 5ngmL(-1), respectively. The linear range was 5-1000ngmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of r=0.9993 in urine calibrated with internal standard. The recoveries at four spiking levels (5, 10, 50 and 500ngmL(-1) in urine) were 87.2%-107% with relative standard deviations ranged between 4.3%-8.8%. PMID:27284971

  8. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys; Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; D'Espessailles, Amanda; Espinosa, Alejandra; Masson, Lilia; Varela, Patricia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Valenzuela, Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    High dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids may generate health disorders, such as cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fish consumption rich in n-3 fatty acids is low in Latin America, it being necessary to seek other alternatives to provide α-linolenic acid (ALA), precursor of n-3 LCPUFA (EPA and DHA). Two innovative oils were assayed, chia (Salvia hispanica) and rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa). This study evaluated hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, expression of PPAR-α, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I), and accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma and adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups were fed 21 days: sunflower oil (SFO, control); chia oil (CO); rosa mosqueta oil (RMO). Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids from plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and TLC. Expression of PPAR-α (RT-PCR) and ACOX1 and CAT-I (Western blot). CO and RMO increased plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p < 0.05, One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). CO increased levels of ALA and EPA compared to RMO (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for DHA levels. CO also increased the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I. Only CAT-I levels were increased by RO. CO and RMO may be a nutritional alternative to provide ALA for its bioconversion to EPA and DHA, and to increase the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I, especially CO-oil.

  9. Specifics of the employment process in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca DIMITRIU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The labour legislation applicable in public sector is very different from the one applicable in private sector. Unlike the private sector where the market is the most efficient regulator and sanctions all errors made by the assessor, in the public sector there isn’t always a feed-back from the economic realities that may prove the accuracy and the efficiency of the assessment. Consequently, the law goes further on and imposes requirements, deadlines and procedures. While the private sector enjoys a certain flexibility regarding the assessment of the staff, in order to adjust it to the requirements of the economic realities, in the public sector, flexibility can lead to manifestations of subjectivism and arbitrariness. On the other hand, the excessive amount of regulations applicable in public sector may provide versatile and even contradictory results.

  10. Interest Arbitration in Public Employment: An Arbitrator Views the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Tim

    1978-01-01

    Examines the inherent differences between the roles of grievance arbitrator, fact-finder, and interest arbitrator and discusses the skills and insights the interest arbitrator needs to fulfill his role. Available from: Commerce Clearing House, Inc., 4025 West Peterson Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60646. (JG)

  11. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  12. Catalytic cracking process employing an acid-reacted metakaolin catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, R.J.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a method for cracking hydrocarbons. It comprises: reacting a hydrocarbon feedstock under catalytic cracking conditions with a catalyst which comprises an acid reacted metakaolin composition having a mole composition of about 0.8 to 1.0 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2 SiO{sub 2} and characterized by a surface area of above bout 150 m{sup 2}/g.

  13. Department's Negotiated Rulemaking Process for Gainful Employment. Final Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Education (Department) is required to use negotiated rulemaking to develop proposed regulations for programs authorized under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA). Under negotiated rulemaking, the Department works to develop the proposed regulations in collaboration with representatives of the parties…

  14. Exploration on Measures of Adapting to the Employment Situation in the Process of Teaching on Vocational Computer Science and Technology%高职计算机科学与技术教学过程中适应就业形势的措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昶

    2015-01-01

    高职计算机教学过程中,不仅要让学生掌握基本理论知识,还要注重提高学生的实践技能,更好地适应就业形势,为社会输送更多优秀的人才.但目前教学未能有效采取对策提高学生实践技能,对教学质量的提高产生不利影响.文章指出,为转变这种情况,应该关注就业市场,综合采取有效教学对策,更为有效地顺应就业形势,为社会输送更多专业型和实践型人才,增强学生就业竞争力,在工作岗位上做出更大业绩.%Computer vocational teaching process,not only to enable students to master the basic theoretical knowledge,but also focus on improving the students' practical skills,to better adapt to the employment situation, conveying more good for the whole community of qualified personnel.But not effectively take measures to improve teaching students practical skills,improve adversely affect the quality of teaching.The paper points out that to change this situation,we should be concerned about the job market,a comprehensive and effective teaching strategies to take more effective comply with the employment situation,deliver more professional and practical talents for the whole community to enhance student employability and competitiveness,in the workplace to make greater performance.

  15. Employment and Economic Insecurity: A Commonsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Morel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal concern of this paper is with the need of a theoretical shift in economics for analyzing and devising efficient and innovative policy reforms to combat employment insecurity. Mainstream economics is unable to provide appropriate theorizing about economic phenomena, including economic insecurity. Thus, we must turn to economic theories which radically question the dominant paradigm in economics. John Rogers Commons's institutionalist theory accomplishes that. First, the author of this paper outlines the distinctive character of this theory by presenting some of its crucial methodological differences with neoclassical economics. Second, she explains how economic insecurity is conceptualized as an "instituted" process with this theory of institution. A better mastery of this specific school of thought in economics appears to escape the problems met by mainstream economics by proposing a real theoretical alternative for the development of a truly evolutionary, trans-disciplinary and ethical economic theory.

  16. Flexible employment, precarious employees? Job-, employer- and institutional explanations for numerical flexibility, and its relation to precarious employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Olsthoorn

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of numerical flexibility and its relation to precarious employment in contemporary labour markets. Precarious employment is defined as the situation in which an employee has both insecure employment and insecure finances. More specifically, precarious employees are

  17. Development of the University of Washington Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals Process Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [University of Washington

    2014-02-04

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design and build a bioconversion steam explosion reactor and ancillary equipment such as a high pressure boiler and a fermenter to support the bioconversion process research. This equipment has been in constant use since its installation in 2012. Following are research projects that it has supported: • Investigation of novel chip production method in biofuels production • Investigation of biomass refining following steam explosion • Several studies on use of different biomass feedstocks • Investigation of biomass moisture content on pretreatment efficacy. • Development of novel instruments for biorefinery process control Having this equipment was also instrumental in the University of Washington receiving a $40 million grant from the US Department of Agriculture for biofuels development as well as several other smaller grants. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  18. 45 CFR 400.82 - Failure or refusal to accept employability services or employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure or refusal to accept employability... SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment Failure Or Refusal to Accept Employability Services Or Employment § 400.82 Failure or refusal to accept...

  19. Transformation of employment conditions in information-network economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Viktorovich Kozlov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of information and network economy influence on the nature of employment are being analyzed. With the development of the fifth technological mode, mechanical movement of the labour forces from one industry to another one is impossible. This is prevented by a broad restructuring of the occupational structure of employment, the disappearance of many "old" professions and the emergence of the ones, which require special educational training. There is a growing share of employment mainly in mental labour and decrease of the proportion of persons employed in manual labour, which includes workers of all skill levels. The reduction of productive employment, partly related to labour productivity growth, is offset by its growth in non-manufacturing "computer" occupations - among various administrative support staff servicing computers, creators of peripheral equipment and programmers, operators of local networks etc. New information technologies make it possible to extend flexible forms of employment that do not require steady jobs. In this process, the information economy can provide a number of issues in employment related to the erosion of traditional social and labour relations, weakening of the legal protection of employees in the information business that requires adequate response of the society and the state.

  20. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed...