A Systems Model of Parkinson's Disease Using Biochemical Systems Theory.
Sasidharakurup, Hemalatha; Melethadathil, Nidheesh; Nair, Bipin; Diwakar, Shyam
2017-08-01
Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, affects millions of people and has gained attention because of its clinical roles affecting behaviors related to motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although studies on PD from various aspects are becoming popular, few rely on predictive systems modeling approaches. Using Biochemical Systems Theory (BST), this article attempts to model and characterize dopaminergic cell death and understand pathophysiology of progression of PD. PD pathways were modeled using stochastic differential equations incorporating law of mass action, and initial concentrations for the modeled proteins were obtained from literature. Simulations suggest that dopamine levels were reduced significantly due to an increase in dopaminergic quinones and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) relating to imbalances compared to control during PD progression. Associating to clinically observed PD-related cell death, simulations show abnormal parkin and reactive oxygen species levels with an increase in neurofibrillary tangles. While relating molecular mechanistic roles, the BST modeling helps predicting dopaminergic cell death processes involved in the progression of PD and provides a predictive understanding of neuronal dysfunction for translational neuroscience.
Kulasiri, Don
2011-01-01
We discuss the quantification of molecular fluctuations in the biochemical reaction systems within the context of intracellular processes associated with gene expression. We take the molecular reactions pertaining to circadian rhythms to develop models of molecular fluctuations in this chapter. There are a significant number of studies on stochastic fluctuations in intracellular genetic regulatory networks based on single cell-level experiments. In order to understand the fluctuations associated with the gene expression in circadian rhythm networks, it is important to model the interactions of transcriptional factors with the E-boxes in the promoter regions of some of the genes. The pertinent aspects of a near-equilibrium theory that would integrate the thermodynamical and particle dynamic characteristics of intracellular molecular fluctuations would be discussed, and the theory is extended by using the theory of stochastic differential equations. We then model the fluctuations associated with the promoter regions using general mathematical settings. We implemented ubiquitous Gillespie's algorithms, which are used to simulate stochasticity in biochemical networks, for each of the motifs. Both the theory and the Gillespie's algorithms gave the same results in terms of the time evolution of means and variances of molecular numbers. As biochemical reactions occur far away from equilibrium-hence the use of the Gillespie algorithm-these results suggest that the near-equilibrium theory should be a good approximation for some of the biochemical reactions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.
1989-01-01
Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process
Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.
Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John
2009-09-07
Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.
Stochastic analysis of biochemical systems
Anderson, David F
2015-01-01
This book focuses on counting processes and continuous-time Markov chains motivated by examples and applications drawn from chemical networks in systems biology. The book should serve well as a supplement for courses in probability and stochastic processes. While the material is presented in a manner most suitable for students who have studied stochastic processes up to and including martingales in continuous time, much of the necessary background material is summarized in the Appendix. Students and Researchers with a solid understanding of calculus, differential equations, and elementary probability and who are well-motivated by the applications will find this book of interest. David F. Anderson is Associate Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Wisconsin and Thomas G. Kurtz is Emeritus Professor in the Departments of Mathematics and Statistics at that university. Their research is focused on probability and stochastic processes with applications in biology and other ar...
Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mochamad Apri
Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.
Soft Measurement Modeling Based on Chaos Theory for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD
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Junfei Qiao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The precision of soft measurement for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD is always restricted due to various factors in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. To solve this problem, a new soft measurement modeling method based on chaos theory is proposed and is applied to BOD measurement in this paper. Phase space reconstruction (PSR based on Takens embedding theorem is used to extract more information from the limited datasets of the chaotic system. The WWTP is first testified as a chaotic system by the correlation dimension (D, the largest Lyapunov exponents (λ1, the Kolmogorov entropy (K of the BOD and other water quality parameters time series. Multivariate chaotic time series modeling method with principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN is then adopted to estimate the value of the effluent BOD. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has higher accuracy and better prediction ability than the corresponding modeling approaches not based on chaos theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Hong
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.
1990-02-21
LIDS-P-1953 Multiscale System Theory Albert Benveniste IRISA-INRIA, Campus de Beaulieu 35042 RENNES CEDEX, FRANCE Ramine Nikoukhah INRIA...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multiscale System Theory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...the development of a corresponding system theory and a theory of stochastic processes and their estimation. The research presented in this and several
Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petzold, Linda R.
2012-10-25
Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.
A Future of Communication Theory: Systems Theory.
Lindsey, Georg N.
Concepts of general systems theory, cybernetics and the like may provide the methodology for communication theory to move from a level of technology to a level of pure science. It was the purpose of this paper to (1) demonstrate the necessity of applying systems theory to the construction of communication theory, (2) review relevant systems…
Predictive hypotheses are ineffectual in resolving complex biochemical systems.
Fry, Michael
2018-03-20
Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed. However, in defining the genetic code whose biochemical basis was unclear, hypotheses were only partially effective and supplementary experimentation was required for its conclusive definition. Markedly, hypotheses were entirely inept in predicting workings of complex systems that included unknown elements. Thus, hypotheses did not predict the existence and function of mRNA, the multiple unidentified components of the protein biosynthesis machinery, or the manifold unknown constituents of the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein breakdown. Consequently, because of their inability to envision unknown entities, predictive hypotheses did not contribute to the elucidation of cation theories remained the sole instrument to explain complex bio-molecular systems, the philosophical question of alleged advantage of predictive over accommodative hypotheses became inconsequential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian, Hong
2011-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of biochemical reactions in a small-sized system on the order of a cell are stochastic. Assuming spatial homogeneity, the populations of n molecular species follow a multi-dimensional birth-and-death process on Z n . We introduce the Delbrück–Gillespie process, a continuous-time Markov jump process, whose Kolmogorov forward equation has been known as the chemical master equation, and whose stochastic trajectories can be computed via the Gillespie algorithm. Using simple models, we illustrate that a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations on R n emerges in the infinite system size limit. For finite system size, transitions among multiple attractors of the nonlinear dynamical system are rare events with exponentially long transit times. There is a separation of time scales between the deterministic ODEs and the stochastic Markov jumps between attractors. No diffusion process can provide a global representation that is accurate on both short and long time scales for the nonlinear, stochastic population dynamics. On the short time scale and near deterministic stable fixed points, Ornstein–Uhlenbeck Gaussian processes give linear stochastic dynamics that exhibit time-irreversible circular motion for open, driven chemical systems. Extending this individual stochastic behaviour-based nonlinear population theory of molecular species to other biological systems is discussed. (invited article)
1978-11-01
R 2. GOVT A $ SION NO. 3 RIEqLPýIVT’S.;TALOG NUMBER r/ 4. TITLE (and wbiFflT, -L M4 1 , FEEDBACK SYSTEM THEORY ~r Inter in- 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...ANNUAL REPORT FEEDBACK SYSTEM THEORY AFOSR GRANT NO. 76-2946B Air Force Office of Scientific Research for year ending October 31, 1978 79 02 08 L|I...re less stringent than in other synthesis techniques which cannot handle significant parameter uncertainty. _I FEEDBACK SYSTEM THEORY 1. Introduction
Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis
Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.
Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic
Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.
1991-01-01
The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.
Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus
2017-01-01
There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...... characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity...... compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains...
Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.
Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J
2017-06-01
There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto
1979-01-01
This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...
Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems
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Goutsias John
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for
Applied multidimensional systems theory
Bose, Nirmal K
2017-01-01
Revised and updated, this concise new edition of the pioneering book on multidimensional signal processing is ideal for a new generation of students. Multidimensional systems or m-D systems are the necessary mathematical background for modern digital image processing with applications in biomedicine, X-ray technology and satellite communications. Serving as a firm basis for graduate engineering students and researchers seeking applications in mathematical theories, this edition eschews detailed mathematical theory not useful to students. Presentation of the theory has been revised to make it more readable for students, and introduce some new topics that are emerging as multidimensional DSP topics in the interdisciplinary fields of image processing. New topics include Groebner bases, wavelets, and filter banks.
Intermittency route to chaos in a biochemical system.
De la Fuente, I M; Martinez, L; Veguillas, J
1996-01-01
The numerical analysis of a glycolytic model performed through the construction of a system of three differential-delay equations reveals a phenomenon of intermittency route to chaos. In our biochemical system, the consideration of delay time variations under constant input flux as well as frequency variations of the periodic substrate input flux allows us, in both cases, to observe a type of transition to chaos different from the 'Feigenbaum route'.
Pantazis, Yannis; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Vlachos, Dionisios G
2013-10-22
Stochastic modeling and simulation provide powerful predictive methods for the intrinsic understanding of fundamental mechanisms in complex biochemical networks. Typically, such mathematical models involve networks of coupled jump stochastic processes with a large number of parameters that need to be suitably calibrated against experimental data. In this direction, the parameter sensitivity analysis of reaction networks is an essential mathematical and computational tool, yielding information regarding the robustness and the identifiability of model parameters. However, existing sensitivity analysis approaches such as variants of the finite difference method can have an overwhelming computational cost in models with a high-dimensional parameter space. We develop a sensitivity analysis methodology suitable for complex stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters. The proposed approach is based on Information Theory methods and relies on the quantification of information loss due to parameter perturbations between time-series distributions. For this reason, we need to work on path-space, i.e., the set consisting of all stochastic trajectories, hence the proposed approach is referred to as "pathwise". The pathwise sensitivity analysis method is realized by employing the rigorously-derived Relative Entropy Rate, which is directly computable from the propensity functions. A key aspect of the method is that an associated pathwise Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) is defined, which in turn constitutes a gradient-free approach to quantifying parameter sensitivities. The structure of the FIM turns out to be block-diagonal, revealing hidden parameter dependencies and sensitivities in reaction networks. As a gradient-free method, the proposed sensitivity analysis provides a significant advantage when dealing with complex stochastic systems with a large number of parameters. In addition, the knowledge of the structure of the FIM can allow to efficiently address
Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems
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Daigle Bernie J
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods
Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.
Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan
2016-05-07
In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dekkers, Rob
2017-01-01
Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of systems and processes of ‘Applied Systems Theory’ makes it suitable for managers, engineers, students, researchers, academics and professionals from a wide range of disciplines; they can use this ‘toolbox’ for describing, analysing and designing biological, engineering and organisational systems as well as getting a better understanding of societal problems. This revised, updated and expanded second edition includes coverage of a...
BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS
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Ecaterina Emnova
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.
Dekkers, Rob
2014-01-01
Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and not having a grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of syst
Estimating rare events in biochemical systems using conditional sampling
Sundar, V. S.
2017-01-01
The paper focuses on development of variance reduction strategies to estimate rare events in biochemical systems. Obtaining this probability using brute force Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the stochastic simulation algorithm (Gillespie's method) is computationally prohibitive. To circumvent this, important sampling tools such as the weighted stochastic simulation algorithm and the doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm have been proposed. However, these strategies require an additional step of determining the important region to sample from, which is not straightforward for most of the problems. In this paper, we apply the subset simulation method, developed as a variance reduction tool in the context of structural engineering, to the problem of rare event estimation in biochemical systems. The main idea is that the rare event probability is expressed as a product of more frequent conditional probabilities. These conditional probabilities are estimated with high accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations, specifically the Markov chain Monte Carlo method with the modified Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Generating sample realizations of the state vector using the stochastic simulation algorithm is viewed as mapping the discrete-state continuous-time random process to the standard normal random variable vector. This viewpoint opens up the possibility of applying more sophisticated and efficient sampling schemes developed elsewhere to problems in stochastic chemical kinetics. The results obtained using the subset simulation method are compared with existing variance reduction strategies for a few benchmark problems, and a satisfactory improvement in computational time is demonstrated.
Stochastic chemical kinetics theory and (mostly) systems biological applications
Érdi, Péter; Lente, Gabor
2014-01-01
This volume reviews the theory and simulation methods of stochastic kinetics by integrating historical and recent perspectives, presents applications, mostly in the context of systems biology and also in combustion theory. In recent years, due to the development in experimental techniques, such as optical imaging, single cell analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical kinetic data inside single living cells have increasingly been available. The emergence of systems biology brought renaissance in the application of stochastic kinetic methods.
Dwivedi, Yogesh K; Schneberger, Scott L
2011-01-01
The overall mission of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding and coverage of the various theories and models used in IS research. Specifically, it aims to focus on the following key objectives: To describe the various theories and models applicable to studying IS/IT management issues. To outline and describe, for each of the various theories and models, independent and dependent constructs, reference discipline/originating area, originating author(s), seminal articles, level of analysis (i.e. firm, individual, industry) and links with other theories. To provide a critical revie
Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schwacke John H
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.
Information theory of molecular systems
Nalewajski, Roman F
2006-01-01
As well as providing a unified outlook on physics, Information Theory (IT) has numerous applications in chemistry and biology owing to its ability to provide a measure of the entropy/information contained within probability distributions and criteria of their information ""distance"" (similarity) and independence. Information Theory of Molecular Systems applies standard IT to classical problems in the theory of electronic structure and chemical reactivity. The book starts by introducing the basic concepts of modern electronic structure/reactivity theory based upon the Density Functional Theory
A New Theory for Calculation of Some Biochemical Parameters Concentration in Human Serum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moustafa, K.A.; Amien, A.I.
2009-01-01
The serum volumes of the blood samples are varied from one patient to another according to the packed cell volume (PCV %), so if the patient sample has low PCV %, it will have high serum volume and vice versa. To calculate a certain clinical parameter such as glucose in the serum of patients using the conventional calculation, it will give the concentration in units per deci liter serum, while by calculating the concentration according to the ratio of serum volume to the total volume of the blood, it will give different results. Thus, the present study aimed to find a new theory used for calculation of some biochemical parameters concentration taking into consideration the ratio of plasma volume to the total blood volume. The present study was conducted on 122 subjects. These subjects were categorized into 4 groups. Group 1 (G1) comprised 40 healthy subjects as control group, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 low PCV % patients, group 3 (G3) comprised 30 subjects with relatively high PCV % and group 4 comprised 22 diabetic patients. Each group of the previous groups was further subdivided into group a (G a ) and group b (G b ). In the later group, the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ), which is the ratio of plasma volume (V p ) to the blood volume (V b ) TSH hormone, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated and the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ) to get the results after correction. Compared the results before and after correction, there was a very highly significant (ρ p /V b ), thus we recommended that biochemical parameters results must be calculated as indicated in the present study to obtain actual results which might be useful in the correct diagnosis, monitoring and follow up of the different diseases
F.J. Bruggeman (Frank); H. Burchard; B. Kooi; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)
2006-01-01
textabstractBiochemical systems are bound by two mathematically-relevant restrictions. First, state variables in such systems represent non-negative quantities, such as concentrations of chemical compounds. Second, biochemical systems conserve mass and energy. Both properties must be reflected in
Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.
Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A
2016-08-31
An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.
Ergodic theory and dynamical systems
Coudène, Yves
2016-01-01
This textbook is a self-contained and easy-to-read introduction to ergodic theory and the theory of dynamical systems, with a particular emphasis on chaotic dynamics. This book contains a broad selection of topics and explores the fundamental ideas of the subject. Starting with basic notions such as ergodicity, mixing, and isomorphisms of dynamical systems, the book then focuses on several chaotic transformations with hyperbolic dynamics, before moving on to topics such as entropy, information theory, ergodic decomposition and measurable partitions. Detailed explanations are accompanied by numerous examples, including interval maps, Bernoulli shifts, toral endomorphisms, geodesic flow on negatively curved manifolds, Morse-Smale systems, rational maps on the Riemann sphere and strange attractors. Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems will appeal to graduate students as well as researchers looking for an introduction to the subject. While gentle on the beginning student, the book also contains a number of commen...
Hierarchical graphs for rule-based modeling of biochemical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Bin
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In rule-based modeling, graphs are used to represent molecules: a colored vertex represents a component of a molecule, a vertex attribute represents the internal state of a component, and an edge represents a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions. A rule that specifies addition (removal of an edge represents a class of association (dissociation reactions, and a rule that specifies a change of a vertex attribute represents a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises an executable model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Results For purposes of model annotation, we propose the use of hierarchical graphs to represent structural relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR complex. We also show that computational methods developed for regular graphs can be applied to hierarchical graphs. In particular, we describe a generalization of Nauty, a graph isomorphism and canonical labeling algorithm. The generalized version of the Nauty procedure, which we call HNauty, can be used to assign canonical labels to hierarchical graphs or more generally to graphs with multiple edge types. The difference between the Nauty and HNauty procedures is minor, but for completeness, we provide an explanation of the entire HNauty algorithm. Conclusions Hierarchical graphs provide more intuitive formal representations of proteins and other structured molecules with multiple functional components than do the regular graphs of current languages for
From chemical or biochemical microsensors to fast detection systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pistre, J.; Dejous, C.; Rebiere, D.
2011-01-01
The market of chemical and biochemical sensors is increasing and represents a large opportunity. The problem of chemical and biochemicaldetection involves the use of one/several transducing layer/interface. Several types of detection exist. Among them, acoustic wave devices present many advantages. The paper deals with surface acoustic waves devices and their implementation. The role and properties of the sensing layer are discussed for chemical sensors and biochemical sensors as well. Examples of realizations are presented taking into account the microfluidic approach.
On Restructurable Control System Theory
Athans, M.
1983-01-01
The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng-Yun Wu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Chlorella is a promising alternative source of lutein, as it can be cultivated heterotrophically with high efficiency. In this study, the carotenoids in Chlorella pyrenoidosa heterotrophically cultivated in a 19-litre fermentor have been analyzed and determined by using HPLC and HPLC-MS. A biochemical system theory (BST model was developed for understanding the regulatory features of carotenoid metabolism during the batch cultivation. Factors that influence lutein production by C. pyrenoidosa were discussed based on the model. It shows that low flux for lycopene formation is the major bottleneck for lutein production, while by-product syntheses and inhibitions affect the cellular lutein content much less. However, with further increase of the cellular lutein content, the inhibition on lycopene formation by lutein may become a limiting factor. Although speculative, these results may provide useful information for further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis in Chlorella and modifying its metabolic network to enhance lutein production.
General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.
Salisbury, David F.
1990-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)
Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
System Theory and Physiological Processes.
Jones, R W
1963-05-03
Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.
Trends in modern system theory
Athans, M.
1976-01-01
The topics considered are related to linear control system design, adaptive control, failure detection, control under failure, system reliability, and large-scale systems and decentralized control. It is pointed out that the design of a linear feedback control system which regulates a process about a desirable set point or steady-state condition in the presence of disturbances is a very important problem. The linearized dynamics of the process are used for design purposes. The typical linear-quadratic design involving the solution of the optimal control problem of a linear time-invariant system with respect to a quadratic performance criterion is considered along with gain reduction theorems and the multivariable phase margin theorem. The stumbling block in many adaptive design methodologies is associated with the amount of real time computation which is necessary. Attention is also given to the desperate need to develop good theories for large-scale systems, the beginning of a microprocessor revolution, the translation of the Wiener-Hopf theory into the time domain, and advances made in dynamic team theory, dynamic stochastic games, and finite memory stochastic control.
Fibre optic system for biochemical and microbiological sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penwill, L A; Slater, J H; Hayes, N W; Tremlett, C J
2007-01-01
This poster will discuss state-of-the-art fibre optic sensors based on evanescent wave technology emphasising chemophotonic sensors for biochemical reactions and microbe detection. Devices based on antibody specificity and unique DNA sequences will be described. The development of simple sensor devices with disposable single use sensor probes will be illustrated with a view to providing cost effective field based or point of care analysis of major themes such as hospital acquired infections or bioterrorism events. This presentation will discuss the nature and detection thresholds required, the optical detection techniques investigated, results of sensor trials and the potential for wider commercial application
Strategy-Driven Exploration for Rule-Based Models of Biochemical Systems with Porgy
Andrei , Oana; Fernández , Maribel; Kirchner , Hélène; Pinaud , Bruno
2016-01-01
This paper presents Porgy – an interactive visual environment for rule-based modelling of biochemical systems. We model molecules and molecule interactions as port graphs and port graph rewrite rules, respectively. We use rewriting strategies to control which rules to apply, and where and when to apply them. Our main contributions to rule-based modelling of biochemical systems lie in the strategy language and the associated visual and interactive features offered by Porgy. These features faci...
Medium Theory and Social Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tække, Jesper
the possibility for observation both of a social micro and a social macro level from a medium perspective. In the next section the paper frames the macro level by a tentative synthesis of the medium theory and the sociological systems theory briefly describing a socio......-evolutionary process where new media alter the societal capacity to handle complexity in time and space. In this section it becomes probable that by means of different media, social systems give different possibilities for actual social performance. In a way, social systems themselves can be...... seen as medium for formation. Finally the paper takes the micro level perspective by applying the theory to newsgroups, interpreting them as self-organizing interactive systems giving a differentiated and diversified scope for social inclusion. ...
Systemic Thinking in Career Development Theory: Contributions of the Systems Theory Framework
McMahon, Mary; Patton, Wendy
2018-01-01
This article considers systemic thinking in relation to the Systems Theory Framework (STF) and to career theory. An overview of systems theory and its applications is followed by a discussion of career theory to provide a context for the subsequent description of STF. The contributions of STF to career theory and to theory integration are…
Dynamical systems V bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory
1994-01-01
Bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory are two of the best known areas within the field of dynamical systems. Both are studies of smooth systems, focusing on properties that seem to be manifestly non-smooth. Bifurcation theory is concerned with the sudden changes that occur in a system when one or more parameters are varied. Examples of such are familiar to students of differential equations, from phase portraits. Moreover, understanding the bifurcations of the differential equations that describe real physical systems provides important information about the behavior of the systems. Catastrophe theory became quite famous during the 1970's, mostly because of the sensation caused by the usually less than rigorous applications of its principal ideas to "hot topics", such as the characterization of personalities and the difference between a "genius" and a "maniac". Catastrophe theory is accurately described as singularity theory and its (genuine) applications. The authors of this book, the first printing of w...
Varenicline in Autism: Theory and Case Report of Clinical and Biochemical Changes.
Mostafavi, Mojdeh; Hardy, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene
2016-11-01
To explore the potential benefits of varenicline (CHANTIX ® ), a highly specific partial agonist of neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), for autistic symptoms, and present resulting biochemical changes in light of dopamine-related genotype. The clinical and biochemical changes exhibited by a 19-year-old severely autistic man following the use of low-dose varenicline in an ABA experiment of nature, and his genotype, were extracted from chart review. Clinical outcome was measured by the Ohio Autism Clinical Impression Scale and 12 relevant urine and saliva metabolites were measured by Neuroscience Laboratory. With varenicline, this patient improved clinically and autonomic biochemical indicators in saliva and urine normalized, including dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), epinephrine, norepinephrine, taurine, and histamine levels. In addition, with varenicline, the dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) antibody titer as well as the percent of baseline calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM KII) activity dropped significantly. When varenicline stopped, he deteriorated; when it was resumed, he again improved. Doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg daily were tried before settling on a dose of 1.5 mg daily. He has remained on varenicline for over a year with no noticeable side effects. This report is, to the best of our knowledge, only the second to demonstrate positive effects of varenicline in autism, the first to show it in a severe case, and the first to show normalization of biochemical parameters related to genotype. As with the previous report, these encouraging results warrant further controlled research before clinical recommendations can be made.
IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cosma Sorinel
2010-12-01
Full Text Available World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic exchange relationship. Our world system is characterized by mechanisms which bring about a redistribution of resources from the periphery to the core. His analytical approach has made a significant impact and established an institutional base devoted to the general approach.
Statistical physics approaches to subnetwork dynamics in biochemical systems
Bravi, B.; Sollich, P.
2017-08-01
We apply a Gaussian variational approximation to model reduction in large biochemical networks of unary and binary reactions. We focus on a small subset of variables (subnetwork) of interest, e.g. because they are accessible experimentally, embedded in a larger network (bulk). The key goal is to write dynamical equations reduced to the subnetwork but still retaining the effects of the bulk. As a result, the subnetwork-reduced dynamics contains a memory term and an extrinsic noise term with non-trivial temporal correlations. We first derive expressions for this memory and noise in the linearized (Gaussian) dynamics and then use a perturbative power expansion to obtain first order nonlinear corrections. For the case of vanishing intrinsic noise, our description is explicitly shown to be equivalent to projection methods up to quadratic terms, but it is applicable also in the presence of stochastic fluctuations in the original dynamics. An example from the epidermal growth factor receptor signalling pathway is provided to probe the increased prediction accuracy and computational efficiency of our method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Brim
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel computational technique for finite discrete approximation of continuous dynamical systems suitable for a significant class of biochemical dynamical systems is introduced. The method is parameterized in order to affect the imposed level of approximation provided that with increasing parameter value the approximation converges to the original continuous system. By employing this approximation technique, we present algorithms solving the reachability problem for biochemical dynamical systems. The presented method and algorithms are evaluated on several exemplary biological models and on a real case study.
Scheduling theory, algorithms, and systems
Pinedo, Michael L
2016-01-01
This new edition of the well-established text Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems provides an up-to-date coverage of important theoretical models in the scheduling literature as well as important scheduling problems that appear in the real world. The accompanying website includes supplementary material in the form of slide-shows from industry as well as movies that show actual implementations of scheduling systems. The main structure of the book, as per previous editions, consists of three parts. The first part focuses on deterministic scheduling and the related combinatorial problems. The second part covers probabilistic scheduling models; in this part it is assumed that processing times and other problem data are random and not known in advance. The third part deals with scheduling in practice; it covers heuristics that are popular with practitioners and discusses system design and implementation issues. All three parts of this new edition have been revamped, streamlined, and extended. The reference...
Inoue, Kentaro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Yu; Kurata, Hiroyuki
2014-09-01
Mathematical modeling has become a standard technique to understand the dynamics of complex biochemical systems. To promote the modeling, we had developed the CADLIVE dynamic simulator that automatically converted a biochemical map into its associated mathematical model, simulated its dynamic behaviors and analyzed its robustness. To enhance the feasibility by CADLIVE and extend its functions, we propose the CADLIVE toolbox available for MATLAB, which implements not only the existing functions of the CADLIVE dynamic simulator, but also the latest tools including global parameter search methods with robustness analysis. The seamless, bottom-up processes consisting of biochemical network construction, automatic construction of its dynamic model, simulation, optimization, and S-system analysis greatly facilitate dynamic modeling, contributing to the research of systems biology and synthetic biology. This application can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/CADLIVE_MATLAB/ together with an instruction.
Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie
2009-11-15
Micro-total analysis systems (microTAS) integrate different analytical operations like sample preparation, separation and detection into a single microfabricated device. With the outstanding advantages of low cost, satisfactory analytical efficiency and flexibility in design, highly integrated and miniaturized devices from the concept of microTAS have gained widespread applications, especially in biochemical assays. Electrochemistry is shown to be quite compatible with microanalytical systems for biochemical assays, because of its attractive merits such as simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, reduced power consumption, and sample/reagent economy. This review presents recent developments in the integration of electrochemistry in microdevices for biochemical assays. Ingenious microelectrode design and fabrication methods, and versatility of electrochemical techniques are involved. Practical applications of such integrated microsystem in biochemical assays are focused on in situ analysis, point-of-care testing and portable devices. Electrochemical techniques are apparently suited to microsystems, since easy microfabrication of electrochemical elements and a high degree of integration with multi-analytical functions can be achieved at low cost. Such integrated microsystems will play an increasingly important role for analysis of small volume biochemical samples. Work is in progress toward new microdevice design and applications.
Linear response theory for quantum open systems
Wei, J. H.; Yan, YiJing
2011-01-01
Basing on the theory of Feynman's influence functional and its hierarchical equations of motion, we develop a linear response theory for quantum open systems. Our theory provides an effective way to calculate dynamical observables of a quantum open system at its steady-state, which can be applied to various fields of non-equilibrium condensed matter physics.
Systems Theory and Communication. Annotated Bibliography.
Covington, William G., Jr.
This annotated bibliography presents annotations of 31 books and journal articles dealing with systems theory and its relation to organizational communication, marketing, information theory, and cybernetics. Materials were published between 1963 and 1992 and are listed alphabetically by author. (RS)
Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Jia
Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.
Biochemical Space: A Framework for Systemic Annotation of Biological Models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klement, M.; Děd, T.; Šafránek, D.; Červený, Jan; Müller, Stefan; Steuer, Ralf
2014-01-01
Roč. 306, JUL (2014), s. 31-44 ISSN 1571-0661 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biological models * model annotation * systems biology * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Introduction to the theory of infinite systems. Theory and practices
Fedorov, Foma M.
2017-11-01
A review of the author's work is given, which formed the basis for a new theory of general infinite systems. The Gaussian elimination and Cramer's rule have been extended to infinite systems. A special particular solution is obtained, it is called a strictly particular solution. Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of the nontrivial solutions of homogeneous systems are given.
Theory of multi-bunch feedback systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohaupt, R.D.
1991-06-01
In this article the theory of multibunch feedback systems is developed in a rigorous way including the fact that the elements of feedback systems are localized in the ring. The results of the theory which can be used for any strength of the systems are the base for the multibunch feedback systems for PETRA and HERA, already tested successfully in PETRA. (orig.)
Biochemical systems approaches for the analysis of histone modification readout.
Soldi, Monica; Bremang, Michael; Bonaldi, Tiziana
2014-08-01
Chromatin is the macromolecular nucleoprotein complex that governs the organization of genetic material in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. In chromatin, DNA is packed with histone proteins into nucleosomes. Core histones are prototypes of hyper-modified proteins, being decorated by a large number of site-specific reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), which contribute to the maintenance and modulation of chromatin plasticity, gene activation, and a variety of other biological processes and disease states. The observations of the variety, frequency and co-occurrence of histone modifications in distinct patterns at specific genomic loci have led to the idea that hPTMs can create a molecular barcode, read by effector proteins that translate it into a specific transcriptional state, or process, on the underlying DNA. However, despite the fact that this histone-code hypothesis was proposed more than 10 years ago, the molecular details of its working mechanisms are only partially characterized. In particular, two questions deserve specific investigation: how the different modifications associate and synergize into patterns and how these PTM configurations are read and translated by multi-protein complexes into a specific functional outcome on the genome. Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a versatile tool to investigate chromatin biology, useful for both identifying and validating hPTMs, and to dissect the molecular determinants of histone modification readout systems. We review here the MS techniques and the proteomics methods that have been developed to address these fundamental questions in epigenetics research, emphasizing approaches based on the proteomic dissection of distinct native chromatin regions, with a critical evaluation of their present challenges and future potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.
Salisbury, David F.
The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…
Unified kinetic theory in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hitchcock, D.A.; Hazeltine, R.D.
1980-12-01
The kinetic theory of toroidal systems has been characterized by two approaches: neoclassical theory which ignores instabilities and quasilinear theory which ignores collisions. In this paper we construct a kinetic theory for toroidal systems which includes both effects. This yields a pair of evolution equations; one for the spectrum and one for the distribution function. In addition, this theory yields a toroidal generalization of the usual collision operator which is shown to have many similar properties - conservation laws, H theorem - to the usual collision operator
BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment
Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.
2009-01-01
The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for
Differential geometric methods in system theory.
Brockett, R. W.
1971-01-01
Discussion of certain problems in system theory which have been or might be solved using some basic concepts from differential geometry. The problems considered involve differential equations, controllability, optimal control, qualitative behavior, stochastic processes, and bilinear systems. The main goal is to extend the essentials of linear theory to some nonlinear classes of problems.
The kinetic theory of open systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimontovich, Yu.L.
2001-01-01
This paper begins with a survey of recently obtained results in the statistical theory of open systems, including quantum open systems. Then the definition of the thermal flux in the kinetic theory is considered, further the collision nature of the Landau damping. Finally the Lamb shift and Bethe's formula are analyzed. (orig.)
A computable type theory for control systems
P.J. Collins (Pieter); L. Guo; J. Baillieul
2009-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper, we develop a theory of computable types suitable for the study of control systems. The theory uses type-two effectivity as the underlying computational model, but we quickly develop a type system which can be manipulated abstractly, but for which all allowable operations
Theories are knowledge organizing systems (KOS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2015-01-01
The notion “theory” is a neglected concept in the field of information science and knowledge organization (KO) as well as generally in philosophy and in many other fields, although there are exceptions from this general neglect (e.g., the so-called “theory theory” in cognitive psychology......-laden. The concept of knowledge organization system (KOS) is briefly introduced and discussed. A theory is a fundamental form of KOS and theories are the point of departure of any KOS. It is generally understood in KO that concepts are the units of KOS, but the theory-dependence of concepts brings theories...
Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Beard, Daniel A; Dash, Ranjan K
2009-01-01
Identification of a complex biochemical system model requires appropriate experimental data. Models constructed on the basis of data from the literature often contain parameters that are not identifiable with high sensitivity and therefore require additional experimental data to identify those parameters. Here we report the application of a local sensitivity analysis to design experiments that will improve the identifiability of previously unidentifiable model parameters in a model of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and tricaboxylic acid cycle. Experiments were designed based on measurable biochemical reactants in a dilute suspension of purified cardiac mitochondria with experimentally feasible perturbations to this system. Experimental perturbations and variables yielding the most number of parameters above a 5% sensitivity level are presented and discussed.
pH measurements of FET-based (bio)chemical sensors using portable measurement system.
Voitsekhivska, T; Zorgiebel, F; Suthau, E; Wolter, K-J; Bock, K; Cuniberti, G
2015-01-01
In this study we demonstrate the sensing capabilities of a portable multiplex measurement system for FET-based (bio)chemical sensors with an integrated microfluidic interface. We therefore conducted pH measurements with Silicon Nanoribbon FET-based Sensors using different measurement procedures that are suitable for various applications. We have shown multiplexed measurements in aqueous medium for three different modes that are mutually specialized in fast data acquisition (constant drain current), calibration-less sensing (constant gate voltage) and in providing full information content (sweeping mode). Our system therefore allows surface charge sensing for a wide range of applications and is easily adaptable for multiplexed sensing with novel FET-based (bio)chemical sensors.
Titchmarsh-Weyl theory for canonical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keshav Raj Acharya
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop Titchmarsh- Weyl theory of canonical systems. To this end, we first observe the fact that Schrodinger and Jacobi equations can be written into canonical systems. We then discuss the theory of Weyl m-function for canonical systems and establish the relation between the Weyl m-functions of Schrodinger equations and that of canonical systems which involve Schrodinger equations.
Development of similarity theory for control systems
Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.
2018-05-01
The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.
Control Systems and Number Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuhuo Li
2012-01-01
and PID-controllers are applied successfully in the EV control by J.-Y. Cao and B.-G. Cao 2006 and Cao et al. 2007, which we may unify in our framework. Finally, we mention some similarities between control theory and zeta-functions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goutsias John
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for the analysis of complex systems. In a recent paper, we have introduced a thermodynamically consistent variance-based sensitivity analysis approach for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems under uncertainty in the standard chemical potentials of the activated complexes of the reactions and the standard chemical potentials of the molecular species. In that approach, key sensitivity indices were estimated by Monte Carlo sampling, which is computationally very demanding and impractical for large biochemical reaction systems. Computationally efficient algorithms are needed to make variance-based sensitivity analysis applicable to realistic cellular networks, modeled by biochemical reaction systems that consist of a large number of reactions and molecular species. Results We present four techniques, derivative approximation (DA, polynomial approximation (PA, Gauss-Hermite integration (GHI, and orthonormal Hermite approximation (OHA, for analytically approximating the variance-based sensitivity indices associated with a biochemical reaction system. By using a well-known model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade as a case study, we numerically compare the approximation quality of these techniques against traditional Monte Carlo sampling. Our results indicate that, although DA is computationally the most attractive technique, special care should be exercised when using it for sensitivity analysis, since it may only be accurate at low levels of uncertainty. On the other hand, PA, GHI, and OHA are computationally more demanding than DA but can work well at high levels of uncertainty. GHI results in a slightly better accuracy than PA, but it is more difficult to implement. OHA produces the most accurate approximation results and can be implemented in a straightforward manner. It turns out that the computational cost of the
Meta-stochastic simulation of biochemical models for systems and synthetic biology.
Sanassy, Daven; Widera, Paweł; Krasnogor, Natalio
2015-01-16
Stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) are used to trace realistic trajectories of biochemical systems at low species concentrations. As the complexity of modeled biosystems increases, it is important to select the best performing SSA. Numerous improvements to SSAs have been introduced but they each only tend to apply to a certain class of models. This makes it difficult for a systems or synthetic biologist to decide which algorithm to employ when confronted with a new model that requires simulation. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine which algorithm is best suited to simulate a particular model and that this can be predicted a priori to algorithm execution. We present a Web based tool ssapredict that allows scientists to upload a biochemical model and obtain a prediction of the best performing SSA. Furthermore, ssapredict gives the user the option to download our high performance simulator ngss preconfigured to perform the simulation of the queried biochemical model with the predicted fastest algorithm as the simulation engine. The ssapredict Web application is available at http://ssapredict.ico2s.org. It is free software and its source code is distributed under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License.
Biochemical systems identification by a random drift particle swarm optimization approach
2014-01-01
Background Finding an efficient method to solve the parameter estimation problem (inverse problem) for nonlinear biochemical dynamical systems could help promote the functional understanding at the system level for signalling pathways. The problem is stated as a data-driven nonlinear regression problem, which is converted into a nonlinear programming problem with many nonlinear differential and algebraic constraints. Due to the typical ill conditioning and multimodality nature of the problem, it is in general difficult for gradient-based local optimization methods to obtain satisfactory solutions. To surmount this limitation, many stochastic optimization methods have been employed to find the global solution of the problem. Results This paper presents an effective search strategy for a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm that enhances the ability of the algorithm for estimating the parameters of complex dynamic biochemical pathways. The proposed algorithm is a new variant of random drift particle swarm optimization (RDPSO), which is used to solve the above mentioned inverse problem and compared with other well known stochastic optimization methods. Two case studies on estimating the parameters of two nonlinear biochemical dynamic models have been taken as benchmarks, under both the noise-free and noisy simulation data scenarios. Conclusions The experimental results show that the novel variant of RDPSO algorithm is able to successfully solve the problem and obtain solutions of better quality than other global optimization methods used for finding the solution to the inverse problems in this study. PMID:25078435
Importance theory for lumped-parameter systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cady, K.B.; Kenton, M.A.; Ward, J.C.; Piepho, M.G.
1981-01-01
A general sensitivity theory has been developed for nonlinear lumped parameter system simulations. The point of departure is general perturbation theory for nonlinear systems. Importance theory as developed here allows the calculation of the sensitivity of a response function to any physical or design parameter; importance of any equation or term or physical effect in the system model on the response function; variance of the response function caused by the variances and covariances of all physical parameters; and approximate effect on the response function of missing physical phenomena or incorrect parameters
Distribution system reliability evaluation using credibility theory
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Xufeng Xu, Joydeep Mitra
have found that credibility theory, which broadens the scope of fuzzy set theory, is an effective tool for representing fuzzy events, and have developed a theoretical .... Based on the status of switches, the distribution system can be divided into multiple SPSS, which are connected with tie switches. For example, SPSS.
Parquet theory of finite temperature boson systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, H.W.
1992-01-01
In this dissertation, the author uses the parquet summation for the two-body vertex as the framework for a perturbation theory of finite-temperature homogeneous boson systems. The present formalism is a first step toward a full description of the thermodynamic behavior of a finite temperature boson system through parquet summation. The current approximation scheme focuses on a system below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature and considers only the contribution from Bogoliubov excitations out of a boson condensate. Comparison with the finite temperature variational theory by Campbell et al. shows strong similarities between variational theory and the current theory. Numerical results from a 4 He system and a nuclear system are discussed
ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY, SYSTEMIC THINKING AND SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
Shahram Mirzaie Daryani; Samad Aali; Ahmad Asli-zadeh
2012-01-01
Organizational theory offers effective ways of thinking to researchers and practitioners who are interested in this field of study. This knowledge helps managers make organizational behavior more efficient through analyzing complex situations and developing effective tools to resolve them. In other words, it opens human’s mind to different aspects of life both inside and outside of the organization. Therefore, the value of organizational theory is in changing managers' thinking ways, thought ...
Applications of the Theory of Technical Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; McAloone, Timothy Charles
2008-01-01
of Vladimir Hubka and a short historical sketch of the incidental nature of our group’s introduction to Vladimir Hubka, which led to life long cooperation and academic development. Results have been obtained in the areas of DFX, workbench-based design, mechatronics, product development, and multi......This paper uses the development and applications of Hubka’s Theory of Technical Systems (TTS) at DTU as an example of the power of the theory, the necessity of detailing and fitting the theory, and the role of a theory as a basis for research.At the same time the paper is a balance of the influence...
Degradable Systems: A Survey of Multistate System Theory.
1982-08-01
and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED C. O DEGRADABLE SYSTEMS: A SURVEY OF MULTISTATE TECHNICAL SYSTEM THEORY 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...THIS PAGE(R7,en Date £nt.,.d) AEoS-T- 8- 9 2 0 Degradable Systems: A Survey of Multistate System Theory by 1 2Emad El-Neweihi and Frank Proschan
Efficient simulation of intrinsic, extrinsic and external noise in biochemical systems
Pischel, Dennis; Sundmacher, Kai; Flassig, Robert J.
2017-01-01
Abstract Motivation: Biological cells operate in a noisy regime influenced by intrinsic, extrinsic and external noise, which leads to large differences of individual cell states. Stochastic effects must be taken into account to characterize biochemical kinetics accurately. Since the exact solution of the chemical master equation, which governs the underlying stochastic process, cannot be derived for most biochemical systems, approximate methods are used to obtain a solution. Results: In this study, a method to efficiently simulate the various sources of noise simultaneously is proposed and benchmarked on several examples. The method relies on the combination of the sigma point approach to describe extrinsic and external variability and the τ-leaping algorithm to account for the stochasticity due to probabilistic reactions. The comparison of our method to extensive Monte Carlo calculations demonstrates an immense computational advantage while losing an acceptable amount of accuracy. Additionally, the application to parameter optimization problems in stochastic biochemical reaction networks is shown, which is rarely applied due to its huge computational burden. To give further insight, a MATLAB script is provided including the proposed method applied to a simple toy example of gene expression. Availability and implementation: MATLAB code is available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: flassig@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28881987
Neurosemantics, neurons and system theory.
Breidbach, Olaf
2007-08-01
Following the concept of internal representations, signal processing in a neuronal system has to be evaluated exclusively based on internal system characteristics. Thus, this approach omits the external observer as a control function for sensory integration. Instead, the configuration of the system and its computational performance are the effects of endogenous factors. Such self-referential operation is due to a strictly local computation in a network and, thereby, computations follow a set of rules that constitute the emergent behaviour of the system. These rules can be shown to correspond to a "logic" that is intrinsic to the system, an idea which provides the basis for neurosemantics.
Bugenhagen, Scott M; Beard, Daniel A
2012-10-21
Biochemical reaction systems may be viewed as discrete event processes characterized by a number of states and state transitions. These systems may be modeled as state transition systems with transitions representing individual reaction events. Since they often involve a large number of interactions, it can be difficult to construct such a model for a system, and since the resulting state-level model can involve a huge number of states, model analysis can be difficult or impossible. Here, we describe methods for the high-level specification of a system using hypergraphs, for the automated generation of a state-level model from a high-level model, and for the exact reduction of a state-level model using information from the high-level model. Exact reduction is achieved through the automated application to the high-level model of the symmetry reduction technique and reduction by decomposition by independent subsystems, allowing potentially significant reductions without the need to generate a full model. The application of the method to biochemical reaction systems is illustrated by models describing a hypothetical ion-channel at several levels of complexity. The method allows for the reduction of the otherwise intractable example models to a manageable size.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tai-Yin Chiu
Full Text Available The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.
Activity System Theory Approach to Healthcare Information System
Bai, Guohua
2004-01-01
Healthcare information system is a very complex system and has to be approached from systematic perspectives. This paper presents an Activity System Theory (ATS) approach by integrating system thinking and social psychology. First part of the paper, the activity system theory is presented, especially a recursive model of human activity system is introduced. A project ‘Integrated Mobile Information System for Diabetic Healthcare (IMIS)’ is then used to demonstrate a practical application of th...
MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 20 ITEMS AND A DISCUSSION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS PRESENTED TO DESCRIBE CURRENT UTILIZATION OF SUBJECT THEORIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY. ALSO, A THEORY MODEL WAS USED TO DEMONSTRATE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL THEORY. THE THEORY MODEL INCORPORATED SET THEORY (S), INFORMATION THEORY…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seshadri Sajjala
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwamb, M.
2006-01-01
An overview over present achievements and future challenges in the field of few-nucleon systems is presented. Special emphasis is laid on the construction of a unified approach to hadronic and electromagnetic reactions on few-nucleon systems, necessary for studying the borderline between quark-gluon and effective descriptions. (orig.) (orig.)
Educational Interpretations of General Systems Theory.
Hug, William E.; King, James E.
This chapter discusses General Systems Theory as it applies to education, classrooms, innovations, and instructional design. The principles of equifinality, open and closed systems, the individual as the key system, hierarchical structures, optimization, stability, cooperation, and competition are discussed, and their relationship to instructional…
Get with the System: General Systems Theory for Business Officials.
Graczyk, Sandra L.
1993-01-01
An introduction to general systems theory and an overview of vocabulary and concepts are presented to introduce school business officials to systems thinking and to foster its use as an analytical tool. The theory is then used to analyze a sample problem: planning changes to a district's administrative computer system. (eight references) (MLF)
General systems theory mathematical foundations
Mesarovic, Mihajlo D
1975-01-01
In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat
Distributed computer systems theory and practice
Zedan, H S M
2014-01-01
Distributed Computer Systems: Theory and Practice is a collection of papers dealing with the design and implementation of operating systems, including distributed systems, such as the amoeba system, argus, Andrew, and grapevine. One paper discusses the concepts and notations for concurrent programming, particularly language notation used in computer programming, synchronization methods, and also compares three classes of languages. Another paper explains load balancing or load redistribution to improve system performance, namely, static balancing and adaptive load balancing. For program effici
Application of Chaos Theory to Engine Systems
Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Diebner, Hans H.; Tsuda, Ichiro; Hosoi, Yukiharu
2008-01-01
We focus on the control issue for engine systems from the perspective of chaos theory, which is based on the fact that engine systems have a low-dimensional chaotic dynamics. Two approaches are discussed: controlling chaos and harnessing chaos, respectively. We apply Pyragas' chaos control method to an actual engine system. The experimental results show that the chaotic motion of an engine system may be stabilized to a periodic motion. Alternatively, harnessing chaos for engine systems is add...
The Theory of Random Laser Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xunya Jiang
2002-01-01
Studies of random laser systems are a new direction with promising potential applications and theoretical interest. The research is based on the theories of localization and laser physics. So far, the research shows that there are random lasing modes inside the systems which is quite different from the common laser systems. From the properties of the random lasing modes, they can understand the phenomena observed in the experiments, such as multi-peak and anisotropic spectrum, lasing mode number saturation, mode competition and dynamic processes, etc. To summarize, this dissertation has contributed the following in the study of random laser systems: (1) by comparing the Lamb theory with the Letokhov theory, the general formulas of the threshold length or gain of random laser systems were obtained; (2) they pointed out the vital weakness of previous time-independent methods in random laser research; (3) a new model which includes the FDTD method and the semi-classical laser theory. The solutions of this model provided an explanation of the experimental results of multi-peak and anisotropic emission spectra, predicted the saturation of lasing modes number and the length of localized lasing modes; (4) theoretical (Lamb theory) and numerical (FDTD and transfer-matrix calculation) studies of the origin of localized lasing modes in the random laser systems; and (5) proposal of using random lasing modes as a new path to study wave localization in random systems and prediction of the lasing threshold discontinuity at mobility edge
The theory of hadronic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbs, W.R.
1995-01-01
This report briefly discusses progress on the following topics: isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon system; subthreshold amplitudes in the πN system; neutron-proton charge-exchange; transparency in pion production; energy dependence of pion DCX; direct capture of pions into deeply bound atomic states; knock out of secondary components in the nucleus; radii of neutron distributions in nuclei; the hadronic double scattering operator; pion scattering and charge exchange from polarized nuclei; pion absorption in nuclei; modification of nucleon structure in nuclei; and antiproton annihilation in nuclei
Algebraic methods in system theory
Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.; Willsky, A. S.
1975-01-01
Investigations on problems of the type which arise in the control of switched electrical networks are reported. The main results concern the algebraic structure and stochastic aspects of these systems. Future reports will contain more detailed applications of these results to engineering studies.
A novel classification system for aging theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucas Siqueira Trindade
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial, maladaptive (neutral, assisted death (detrimental and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental. We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.
Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy
2015-01-01
Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology
On the kinetic theory of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calkoen, C.J.
1986-01-01
The contents of this thesis which deals with transport phenomena of specific gases, plasmas and fluids, can be separated into two distinct parts. In the first part a statistical way is suggested to estimate the neutrino mass. Herefore use is made of the fact that massive neutrinos possess a non-zero volume viscosity in contrast with massless neutrinos. The second part deals with kinetic theory of strongly condensed quantum systems of which examples in nature are: liquid Helium, heavy nuclei, electrons in a metal and the interior of stars. In degenerate systems fermions in general interact strongly so that ordinary kinetic theory is not directly applicable. For such cases Landau-Fermi-liquid theory, in which the strongly interacting particles are replaced by much weaker interacting quasiparticles, proved to be very useful. A method is developed in this theory to calculate transport coefficients. Applications of this method on liquid 3 Helium yield surprisingly good agreement with experimental results for thermal conductivities. (Auth.)
Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application
Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob
2013-01-01
Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic
Optimization theory for large systems
Lasdon, Leon S
2002-01-01
Important text examines most significant algorithms for optimizing large systems and clarifying relations between optimization procedures. Much data appear as charts and graphs and will be highly valuable to readers in selecting a method and estimating computer time and cost in problem-solving. Initial chapter on linear and nonlinear programming presents all necessary background for subjects covered in rest of book. Second chapter illustrates how large-scale mathematical programs arise from real-world problems. Appendixes. List of Symbols.
Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems
Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der
2005-01-01
Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac
Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice
Ayers, Mark L
2012-01-01
"Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"
Dynamic Systems Theory and Team Sport Coaching
Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul
2014-01-01
This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…
Correlation control theory of chaotic laser systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Fuli.
1986-04-01
A novel control theory of chaotic systems is studied. The correlation functions are calculated and used as feedback signals of the chaotic lasers. Computer experiments have shown that in this way the chaotic systems can be controlled to have time-independent output when the external control parameters are in chaotic domain. (author)
IDEA: A Unifying Theory for Evaluation Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bella, Giampaolo; Giustolisi, Rosario
2017-01-01
Secure systems for voting, exams, auctions and conference paper management are theorised to address the same problem, that of secure evaluations. In support of such a unifying theory comes a model for Secure Evaluation Systems (SES), which offers innovative common grounds to understand all four...
Rube Goldberg Salad System: Teaching Systems Theory in Communication
Linabary, Jasmine R.; Long, Ziyu; Mouton, Ashton; Rao, Ranjani L.; Buzzanell, Patrice M.
2016-01-01
Systems theory has been a staple in organizational communication textbooks since the field's inception (Miller, 2015; Poole, 2014). Nevertheless, the authors' classroom experiences have revealed that systems theory may not seem applicable to students due to its complicated nature. While examples and cases can help students make sense of the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Hodžić
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.
Dynamical Systems Theory: Application to Pedagogy
Abraham, Jane L.
Theories of learning affect how cognition is viewed, and this subsequently leads to the style of pedagogical practice that is used in education. Traditionally, educators have relied on a variety of theories on which to base pedagogy. Behavioral learning theories influenced the teaching/learning process for over 50 years. In the 1960s, the information processing approach brought the mind back into the learning process. The current emphasis on constructivism integrates the views of Piaget, Vygotsky, and cognitive psychology. Additionally, recent scientific advances have allowed researchers to shift attention to biological processes in cognition. The problem is that these theories do not provide an integrated approach to understanding principles responsible for differences among students in cognitive development and learning ability. Dynamical systems theory offers a unifying theoretical framework to explain the wider context in which learning takes place and the processes involved in individual learning. This paper describes how principles of Dynamic Systems Theory can be applied to cognitive processes of students, the classroom community, motivation to learn, and the teaching/learning dynamic giving educational psychologists a framework for research and pedagogy.
Using institutional theory in enterprise systems research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svejvig, Per
2013-01-01
This paper sets out to examine the use of institutional theory as a conceptually rich lens to study social issues of enterprise systems (ES) research. More precisely, the purpose is to categorize current ES research using institutional theory to develop a conceptual model that advances ES research...... model that advocates multi-level and multi-theory approaches and applies newer institutional aspects such as institutional logics. The findings show that institutional theory in ES research is in its infancy and adopts mainly traditional institutional aspects like isomorphism, with the organization....... Key institutional features are presented such as isomorphism, rationalized myths, and bridging macro and micro structures, and institutional logics and their implications for ES research are discussed. Through a literature review of 181 articles, of which 18 papers are selected, we build a conceptual...
Murphy, Patrick Thomas
The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pdetergent fiber (NDF) as a cell-wall isolation procedure, and (iii) elimination of the fermentation organism in the SSCF procedures used to determine biochemically available carbohydrates. The original and the HTP assay methods were compared using corn cobs, hybrid poplar, kenaf, and switchgrass. Biochemically available carbohydrates increased with the HTP methods in the corn cobs, hybrid poplar, and switchgrass, but remained the same in the kenaf. Total available carbohydrates increased and unavailable carbohydrates decreased with the HTP methods in the corn cobs and switchgrass and remained the same in the hybrid poplar and kenaf. There were no differences in total carbohydrates (CT) between the two methods. The final study evaluated the variability of biomass quality parameters in a set of corn stover samples, and developed calibration equations for determining parameter values using near
Relativistic Theory of Few Body Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franz Gross
2002-11-01
Very significant advances have been made in the relativistic theory of few body systems since I visited Peter Sauer and his group in Hannover in 1983. This talk provides an opportunity to review the progress in this field since then. Different methods for the relativistic calculation of few nucleon systems are briefly described. As an example, seven relativistic calculations of the deuteron elastic structure functions, A, B, and T{sub 20}, are compared. The covariant SPECTATOR {copyright} theory, among the more successful and complete of these methods, is described in more detail.
Neurodynamic system theory: scope and limits.
Erdi, P
1993-06-01
This paper proposes that neurodynamic system theory may be used to connect structural and functional aspects of neural organization. The paper claims that generalized causal dynamic models are proper tools for describing the self-organizing mechanism of the nervous system. In particular, it is pointed out that ontogeny, development, normal performance, learning, and plasticity, can be treated by coherent concepts and formalism. Taking into account the self-referential character of the brain, autopoiesis, endophysics and hermeneutics are offered as elements of a poststructuralist brain (-mind-computer) theory.
Nonlinear system theory: another look at dependence.
Wu, Wei Biao
2005-10-04
Based on the nonlinear system theory, we introduce previously undescribed dependence measures for stationary causal processes. Our physical and predictive dependence measures quantify the degree of dependence of outputs on inputs in physical systems. The proposed dependence measures provide a natural framework for a limit theory for stationary processes. In particular, under conditions with quite simple forms, we present limit theorems for partial sums, empirical processes, and kernel density estimates. The conditions are mild and easily verifiable because they are directly related to the data-generating mechanisms.
Application of grey system theory in telecare.
Huang, Jui-Chen
2011-05-01
As a superiority to conventional statistical models, grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behaviour of unknown systems. Grey system theory can be used in the effective factor assessment, and used in large samples where data are not available or uncertain whether the data was representative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to adopt grey system theory to discuss older adult users' opinions on the telecare and its effect on their quality of life. This study surveyed the older adult users of Taiwan as subjects. User perception of the telecare services was collected via face-to-face interview. The grey system theory was used to examine the model. The results showed that the overall living quality has the greatest effect on the perceived effects of the telecare on their quality of life, followed by the acquisition of information, accessibility of medical care services, and safety. This finding may serve as a reference to future studies and it also shows that the grey system theory is a feasible analysis method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Relativistic quantum theory of composite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogami, I.
1978-01-01
A relativistic quantum theory free from the difficulties of tachyons and ghosts is formulated to describe the scattering processes between composite systems of spinless quarks. To evade the complication brewed by introducing gluon fields or strings, valence quarks are effectively assumed to be in the relative motion of harmonic oscillation correlating with the motion of the composite system as a whole. A quark-antiquark system is represented by a bilocal field describing a sequence of mesons and every meson is identified with the composite system in a definite eigenstate of relative motion. The quantization is performed in the interaction picture, so that the microcausal condition is satisfied by local fields which result from the decomposition of bilocal fields. Imposing a weakened macrocausal condition on the whole motion of the extended system, a causal bilocal propagator is defined and a consistent time ordering among bilocal fields is defined. The invariant S-matrix is obtained and the graphical method for the calculation of its elements is developed in parallel with the conventional local field theory. For the (bilocal field) 3 interaction any malignant divergence does not appear excepting those in the renormalizable local field theory. The theory provides one promising and comprehensive phenomenology of hadrons which is suitable especially to describe the hard structure of hadrons. (author)
The temporolimbic system theory of positive schizophrenic symptoms.
Bogerts, B
1997-01-01
This article proposes that subtle structural and functional disturbance of limbic key structures in the medial temporal lobe-especially of the left hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyrus-can explain the so-called positive symptoms of schizophrenia. After presenting pathophysiological considerations linking limbic dysfunction to schizophrenia, the article reviews evidence from structural, biochemical, and functional studies supporting the theory. Also discussed here are neurodevelopmental and laterality aspects, as well as predictions, questions, and future tasks derived from the theory.
Topological theory of dynamical systems recent advances
Aoki, N
1994-01-01
This monograph aims to provide an advanced account of some aspects of dynamical systems in the framework of general topology, and is intended for use by interested graduate students and working mathematicians. Although some of the topics discussed are relatively new, others are not: this book is not a collection of research papers, but a textbook to present recent developments of the theory that could be the foundations for future developments. This book contains a new theory developed by the authors to deal with problems occurring in diffentiable dynamics that are within the scope of general topology. To follow it, the book provides an adequate foundation for topological theory of dynamical systems, and contains tools which are sufficiently powerful throughout the book. Graduate students (and some undergraduates) with sufficient knowledge of basic general topology, basic topological dynamics, and basic algebraic topology will find little difficulty in reading this book.
Quantum field theory and multiparticle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trlifaj, M.
1981-01-01
The use of quantum field theory methods for the investigation of the physical characteristics of the MANY-BODY SYSTEMS is discussed. Mainly discussed is the method of second quantization and the method of the Green functions. Briefly discussed is the method of calculating the Green functions at finite temperatures. (Z.J.)
General Systems Theory and Counterplan Competition.
Madsen, Arnie
1989-01-01
Discusses the trend in academic debate on policy questions toward a wide acceptance of counterplans, encouraging combinations of proposals which appear at face value able to coexist but upon deeper analysis are incompatible. Argues in opposition to this trend by applying concepts from general systems theory to competition. (KEH)
A Review of Group Systems Theory
Connors, Joanie V.; Caple, Richard B.
2005-01-01
The ability to see interpersonal and group processes beyond the individual level is an essential skill for group therapists (Crouch, Bloch & Wanlass, 1994; Dies, 1994; Fuhriman & Burlingame, 1994). In addition to interpersonal therapy models (e.g., Sullivan and Yalom), there are a number of systems theory models that offer a broad array of…
Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris
2004-10-30
The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.
Theory and Simulation of Multicomponent Osmotic Systems.
Karunaweera, Sadish; Gee, Moon Bae; Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E
2012-05-28
Most cellular processes occur in systems containing a variety of components many of which are open to material exchange. However, computer simulations of biological systems are almost exclusively performed in systems closed to material exchange. In principle, the behavior of biomolecules in open and closed systems will be different. Here, we provide a rigorous framework for the analysis of experimental and simulation data concerning open and closed multicomponent systems using the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions. The results are illustrated using computer simulations for various concentrations of the solutes Gly, Gly(2) and Gly(3) in both open and closed systems, and in the absence or presence of NaCl as a cosolvent. In addition, KB theory is used to help rationalize the aggregation properties of the solutes. Here one observes that the picture of solute association described by the KB integrals, which are directly related to the solution thermodynamics, and that provided by more physical clustering approaches are different. It is argued that the combination of KB theory and simulation data provides a simple and powerful tool for the analysis of complex multicomponent open and closed systems.
ŽAMPA’S SYSTEMS THEORY: A COMPREHENSIVE THEORY OF MEASUREMENT IN DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Rychtáriková
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The article outlines in memoriam Prof. Pavel Žampa’s concepts of system theory which enable us to devise a measurement in dynamic systems independently of the particular system behaviour. From the point of view of Žampa’s theory, terms like system time, system attributes, system link, system element, input, output, sub-systems, and state variables are defined. In Conclusions, Žampa’s theory is discussed together with another mathematical approaches of qualitative dynamics known since the 19th century. In Appendices, we present applications of Žampa’s technical approach to measurement of complex dynamical (chemical and biological systems at the Institute of Complex Systems, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice.
Propositional systems in local field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1980-07-01
The authors investigate propositional systems for local field theories, which reflect intrinsically the uncertainties of measurements made on the physical system, and satisfy the isotony and local commutativity postulates of Haag and Kastler. The spacetime covariance can be implemented in natural way in these propositional systems. New techniques are introduced to obtain these propositional systems: the lattice-valued logics. The decomposition of the complete orthomodular lattice-valued logics shows that these logics are more general than the usual two-valued ones and that in these logics there is enough structure to characterize the classical and quantum, non relativistic and relativistic local field theories in a natural way. The Hilbert modules give the natural inner product ''spaces'' (modules) for the realization of the lattice-valued logics. (author)
A theory of desynchronisable closed loop system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harsh Beohar
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in implementations, whereas the existing supervisory control theories assume synchronous interaction. As a consequence the implementation suffer from the so-called inexact synchronisation problem. In this paper we address the issue of inexact synchronisation in a process algebraic setting, by solving a more general problem of refinement. We construct an asynchronous closed loop system by introducing a communication medium in a given synchronous closed loop system. Our goal is to find sufficient conditions under which a synchronous closed loop system is branching bisimilar to its corresponding asynchronous closed loop system.
Holographic representation of space-variant systems: system theory.
Marks Ii, R J; Krile, T F
1976-09-01
System theory for holographic representation of linear space-variant systems is derived. The utility of the resulting piecewise isoplanatic approximation (PIA) is illustrated by example application to the invariant system, ideal magnifier, and Fourier transformer. A method previously employed to holographically represent a space-variant system, the discrete approximation, is shown to be a special case of the PIA.
Accessible methods for the dynamic time-scale decomposition of biochemical systems.
Surovtsova, Irina; Simus, Natalia; Lorenz, Thomas; König, Artjom; Sahle, Sven; Kummer, Ursula
2009-11-01
The growing complexity of biochemical models asks for means to rationally dissect the networks into meaningful and rather independent subnetworks. Such foregoing should ensure an understanding of the system without any heuristics employed. Important for the success of such an approach is its accessibility and the clarity of the presentation of the results. In order to achieve this goal, we developed a method which is a modification of the classical approach of time-scale separation. This modified method as well as the more classical approach have been implemented for time-dependent application within the widely used software COPASI. The implementation includes different possibilities for the representation of the results including 3D-visualization. The methods are included in COPASI which is free for academic use and available at www.copasi.org. irina.surovtsova@bioquant.uni-heidelberg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsson, Hilde Kristina
the velocity and pressure distributions in a fluid. CFD also enables the modelling of several fluids simultaneously, e.g. gas bubbles in a liquid, as well as the presence of turbulence and dissolved chemicals in a fluid, and many other phenomena. This makes CFD an appreciated tool for studying flow structures......, mixing, and other mass transfer phenomena in chemical and biochemical reactor systems. In this project, four selected case studies are investigated in order to explore the capabilities of CFD. The selected cases are a 1 ml stirred microbioreactor, an 8 ml magnetically stirred reactor, a Rushton impeller...... and an ion-exchange reaction are also modelled and compared to experimental data. The thesis includes a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals behind a CFD software, as well as a more detailed review of the fluid dynamic phenomena investigated in this project. The momentum and continuity equations...
Genetic and biochemical changes of the serotonergic system in migraine pathobiology.
Gasparini, Claudia Francesca; Smith, Robert Anthony; Griffiths, Lyn Robyn
2017-12-01
Migraine is a brain disorder characterized by a piercing headache which affects one side of the head, located mainly at the temples and in the area around the eye. Migraine imparts substantial suffering to the family in addition to the sufferer, particularly as it affects three times more women than men and is most prevalent between the ages of 25 and 45, the years of child rearing. Migraine typically occurs in individuals with a genetic predisposition and is aggravated by specific environmental triggers. Attempts to study the biochemistry of migraine began as early as the 1960s and were primarily directed at serotonin metabolism after an increase of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the main metabolite of serotonin was observed in urine of migraineurs. Genetic and biochemical studies have primarily focused on the neurotransmitter serotonin, considering receptor binding, transport and synthesis of serotonin and have investigated serotonergic mediators including enzymes, receptors as well as intermediary metabolites. These studies have been mainly assayed in blood, CSF and urine as the most accessible fluids. More recently PET imaging technology integrated with a metabolomics and a systems biology platform are being applied to study serotonergic biology. The general trend observed is that migraine patients have alterations of neurotransmitter metabolism detected in biological fluids with different biochemistry from controls, however the interpretation of the biological significance of these peripheral changes is unresolved. In this review we present the biology of the serotonergic system and metabolic routes for serotonin and discuss results of biochemical studies with regard to alterations in serotonin in brain, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, platelets, plasma and urine of migraine patients.
The Global Positioning System: Theory and operation
Tucker, Lester Plunkett
Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to document the theory, development, and training needs of the United States Global Positioning System for the United States Air Force. This subject area had very little information and to assess the United States Air Force training needs required an investigation into existing training accomplished on the Global Positioning System. The United States Air Force has only one place to obtain the data at Headquarters Air Education and Training Command. Findings and conclusion. The United States Air Force, at the time of this study, does not have a theory and operations course dealing with the newest technology advancement in world navigation. Although this new technology is being provided on aircraft in the form of new navigation hardware, no official course of study is provided by the United States Air Force to it's pilots and navigators dealing with theory and operation. Based on the latest reports dealing with the Global Positioning System, a course on the Global Positioning System was developed in the Instructional Systems Design format to provide background information and understanding of this new technology. Readers of this study must be aware that the information contained in this study is very dynamic. Technology is advancing so fast in this area that it might make this information obsolete in a short amount of time.
Symmetric linear systems - An application of algebraic systems theory
Hazewinkel, M.; Martin, C.
1983-01-01
Dynamical systems which contain several identical subsystems occur in a variety of applications ranging from command and control systems and discretization of partial differential equations, to the stability augmentation of pairs of helicopters lifting a large mass. Linear models for such systems display certain obvious symmetries. In this paper, we discuss how these symmetries can be incorporated into a mathematical model that utilizes the modern theory of algebraic systems. Such systems are inherently related to the representation theory of algebras over fields. We will show that any control scheme which respects the dynamical structure either implicitly or explicitly uses the underlying algebra.
Grima, R
2010-07-21
Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the
Do citation systems represent theories of truth?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Betsy Van der Veer Martens
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.
Information theory of open fragmenting systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulminelli, F.; Juillet, O.; Chomaz, Ph.; Ison, M. J.; Dorso, C. O.
2007-01-01
An information theory description of finite systems explicitly evolving in time is presented. We impose a MaxEnt variational principle on the Shannon entropy at a given time while the constraints are set at a former time. The resulting density matrix contains explicit time odd components in the form of collective flows. As a specific application we consider the dynamics of the expansion in connection with heavy ion experiments. Lattice gas and classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown
Biochemical Contributions to Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Alloy 22 in a Continual Flow System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horn, J.; Martin, S.; Masterson, B.; Lian, T.
1998-01-01
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) may decrease the functional lifetime of nuclear waste packaging materials in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Biochemical contributions to corrosion of package materials are being determined in reactors containing crushed repository-site rock with the endogenous microbial community, and candidate waste package materials. These systems are being continually supplied with simulated ground water. Periodically, bulk chemistries are analyzed on the system outflow, and surfacial chemistries are assessed on withdrawn material coupons. Both Fe and Mn dissolved from C1020 coupons under conditions that included the presence of YM microorganisms. Insoluble corrosion products remained in a reduced state at the coupon surface, indicating at least a localized anoxic condition; soluble reduced Mn and Fe were also detected in solution, while precipitated and spalled products were oxidized. Alloy 22 surfaces showed a layer of chrome oxide, almost certainly in the Cr(III) oxidation state, on microcosm-exposed coupons, while no soluble chrome was detected in solution. The results of these studies will be compared to identical testing on systems containing sterilized rock to generate, and ultimately predict, microbial contributions to waste package corrosion chemistries
System Theory Aspects of Multi-Body Dynamics.
1978-08-18
systems are described from a system theory point of view. Various system theory concepts and research topics which have applicability to this class of...systems are identified and briefly described. The subject of multi-body dynamics is presented in a vector space setting and is related to system theory concepts. (Author)
Thermospheric dynamics - A system theory approach
Codrescu, M.; Forbes, J. M.; Roble, R. G.
1990-01-01
A system theory approach to thermospheric modeling is developed, based upon a linearization method which is capable of preserving nonlinear features of a dynamical system. The method is tested using a large, nonlinear, time-varying system, namely the thermospheric general circulation model (TGCM) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. In the linearized version an equivalent system, defined for one of the desired TGCM output variables, is characterized by a set of response functions that is constructed from corresponding quasi-steady state and unit sample response functions. The linearized version of the system runs on a personal computer and produces an approximation of the desired TGCM output field height profile at a given geographic location.
Morphodynamics: Ergodic theory of complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fivaz, R.
1993-01-01
Morphodynamics is a general theory of stationary complex systems, such as living systems, or mental and social systems; it is based on the thermodynamics of physical systems and built on the same lines. By means of the ergodic hypothesis, thermodynamics is known to connect the particle dynamics to the emergence of order parameters in the equations of state. In the same way, morphodynamics connects order parameters to the emergence of higher level variables; through recurrent applications of the ergodic hypothesis, a hierarchy of equations of state is established which describes a series of successive levels of organization. The equations support a cognitivist interpretation that leads to general principles of evolution; the principles determine the spontaneous and irreversible complexification of systems living in their natural environment. 19 refs
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Theory and design of CNC systems
Suh, Suk-Hwan; Chung, Dae-Hyuk; Stroud, Ian
2008-01-01
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers are high value-added products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. The development of CNC technology depends on the integration of technologies from many different industries, and requires strategic long-term support. a oeTheory and Design of CNC Systemsa covers the elements of control, the design of control systems, and modern open-architecture control systems. Topics covered include Numerical Control Kernel (NCK) design of CNC, Programmable Logic Control (PLC), and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), as well as the major modules for t
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krueger, O.
2006-01-01
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janiffe Peres de Oliveira
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.
System theory as applied differential geometry. [linear system
Hermann, R.
1979-01-01
The invariants of input-output systems under the action of the feedback group was examined. The approach used the theory of Lie groups and concepts of modern differential geometry, and illustrated how the latter provides a basis for the discussion of the analytic structure of systems. Finite dimensional linear systems in a single independent variable are considered. Lessons of more general situations (e.g., distributed parameter and multidimensional systems) which are increasingly encountered as technology advances are presented.
Essay on a general theory of nervous system functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schweizer, H J
1985-01-01
The axiomatic theory unites the aspects of neurophysiology, psychology and system-theory. The formulation of the structural-nucleus of the theory relies on basic insights from biology, neurophysiology and system-theory. The structural-nucleus allows the reconstruction of the essential properties of nervous system functions, organisation and development. The theory also contributes to the discussion of stochastic automata and artificial intelligence.
Scattering theory for open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behrndt, Jussi
2006-01-01
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator A D in a Hilbert space H is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation K of A D can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system {A D ,h}, but since K is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family {A(μ)} of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy μ, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single Pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schroedinger-Poisson systems. (orig.)
Scattering theory for open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behrndt, Jussi [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Malamud, Mark M. [Donetsk National University (Ukraine). Dept. of Mathematics; Neidhardt, Hagen [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)
2006-07-01
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator A{sub D} in a Hilbert space H is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation K of A{sub D} can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system {l_brace}A{sub D},h{r_brace}, but since K is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family {l_brace}A({mu}){r_brace} of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy {mu}, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single Pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schroedinger-Poisson systems. (orig.)
Systems biology: the reincarnation of systems theory applied in biology?
Wolkenhauer, O
2001-09-01
With the availability of quantitative data on the transcriptome and proteome level, there is an increasing interest in formal mathematical models of gene expression and regulation. International conferences, research institutes and research groups concerned with systems biology have appeared in recent years and systems theory, the study of organisation and behaviour per se, is indeed a natural conceptual framework for such a task. This is, however, not the first time that systems theory has been applied in modelling cellular processes. Notably in the 1960s systems theory and biology enjoyed considerable interest among eminent scientists, mathematicians and engineers. Why did these early attempts vanish from research agendas? Here we shall review the domain of systems theory, its application to biology and the lessons that can be learned from the work of Robert Rosen. Rosen emerged from the early developments in the 1960s as a main critic but also developed a new alternative perspective to living systems, a concept that deserves a fresh look in the post-genome era of bioinformatics.
Applied optimal control theory of distributed systems
Lurie, K A
1993-01-01
This book represents an extended and substantially revised version of my earlierbook, Optimal Control in Problems ofMathematical Physics,originally published in Russian in 1975. About 60% of the text has been completely revised and major additions have been included which have produced a practically new text. My aim was to modernize the presentation but also to preserve the original results, some of which are little known to a Western reader. The idea of composites, which is the core of the modern theory of optimization, was initiated in the early seventies. The reader will find here its implementation in the problem of optimal conductivity distribution in an MHD-generatorchannel flow.Sincethen it has emergedinto an extensive theory which is undergoing a continuous development. The book does not pretend to be a textbook, neither does it offer a systematic presentation of the theory. Rather, it reflects a concept which I consider as fundamental in the modern approach to optimization of dis tributed systems. ...
Development in structural systems reliability theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murotsu, Y.
1986-01-01
This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem. (orig.)
Development in structural systems reliability theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murotsu, Y
1986-07-01
This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem.
Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems
Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey
2018-01-01
The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.
Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfautsch, J.D.
1981-01-01
Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge
Theories and simulations of complex social systems
Mago, Vijay
2014-01-01
Research into social systems is challenging due to their complex nature. Traditional methods of analysis are often difficult to apply effectively as theories evolve over time. This can be due to a lack of appropriate data, or too much uncertainty. It can also be the result of problems which are not yet understood well enough in the general sense so that they can be classified, and an appropriate solution quickly identified. Simulation is one tool that deals well with these challenges, fits in well with the deductive process, and is useful for testing theory. This field is still relatively new, and much of the work is necessarily innovative, although it builds upon a rich and varied foundation. There are a number of existing modelling paradigms being applied to complex social systems research. Additionally, new methods and measures are being devised through the process of conducting research. We expect that readers will enjoy the collection of high quality research works from new and accomplished researchers. ...
Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas
Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2011-01-01
"Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.
Selective evolutionary generation systems: Theory and applications
Menezes, Amor A.
This dissertation is devoted to the problem of behavior design, which is a generalization of the standard global optimization problem: instead of generating the optimizer, the generalization produces, on the space of candidate optimizers, a probability density function referred to as the behavior. The generalization depends on a parameter, the level of selectivity, such that as this parameter tends to infinity, the behavior becomes a delta function at the location of the global optimizer. The motivation for this generalization is that traditional off-line global optimization is non-resilient and non-opportunistic. That is, traditional global optimization is unresponsive to perturbations of the objective function. On-line optimization methods that are more resilient and opportunistic than their off-line counterparts typically consist of the computationally expensive sequential repetition of off-line techniques. A novel approach to inexpensive resilience and opportunism is to utilize the theory of Selective Evolutionary Generation Systems (SECS), which sequentially and probabilistically selects a candidate optimizer based on the ratio of the fitness values of two candidates and the level of selectivity. Using time-homogeneous, irreducible, ergodic Markov chains to model a sequence of local, and hence inexpensive, dynamic transitions, this dissertation proves that such transitions result in behavior that is called rational; such behavior is desirable because it can lead to both efficient search for an optimizer as well as resilient and opportunistic behavior. The dissertation also identifies system-theoretic properties of the proposed scheme, including equilibria, their stability and their optimality. Moreover, this dissertation demonstrates that the canonical genetic algorithm with fitness proportional selection and the (1+1) evolutionary strategy are particular cases of the scheme. Applications in three areas illustrate the versatility of the SECS theory: flight
Functional theory of extended Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, R.M.; Ortiz, G.
1997-01-01
A consistent formulation is presented for a functional theory of extended quantum many-particle systems with long-range Coulomb interactions, which extends the density-functional theory of Hohenberg and Kohn to encompass the theory of dielectrics formulated in terms of electric fields and polarization. We show that a complete description of insulators in the thermodynamic limit requires a functional of density and macroscopic polarization; nevertheless, for any insulator the state with zero macroscopic electric field can be considered a reference state that is a functional of the density alone. Dielectric phenomena involve the behavior of the material in the presence of macroscopic electric fields that induce changes of the macroscopic polarization from its equilibrium value in the reference state. In the thermodynamic limit there is strictly no ground state and constraints must be placed upon the electronic wave functions in order to have a well-defined energy functional; within these constrained subspaces the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems can be generalized in terms of the density and the change in the macroscopic polarization. The essential role of the polarization is shown by an explicit example of two potentials that lead to the same periodic density in a crystal, but different macroscopic electric fields and polarization. In the Kohn-Sham approach both the kinetic and the exchange-correlation energy are shown to depend upon the changes in polarization; this leads to generalized Kohn-Sham equations with a nonlocal operator. The effect can be traced to the polarization of the average exchange-correlation hole itself in the presence of macroscopic fields, which is essential for an exact description of static dielectric phenomena. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Guohua; Pang Yaning; Liu Lei; Gao Junxia; Lv Baoying
2010-01-01
In this paper, a synergistic combination of the biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation (SBEO) of landfill leachate with sectional treatment on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode is proposed. The first stage involves the synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation. Then, the second stage is followed by individual biochemical treatment. Comparisons among the SBEO, electrochemical oxidation, biochemical treatment and biochemical treatment with the pretreatment of electrochemical oxidation are made systematically, which show that this method is both highly efficient and energy-saving. The higher TOC removal and low energy cost on the BDD electrode can be explained by the conversion of the bio-refractory pollutants to biodegradable organics in the electrochemical oxidation process, improving the current efficiency and reducing the energy cost. The treated wastewater is degraded only with biochemical treatment in the second stage, which further improves efficiency and reduced the energy cost.
Global positioning system theory and practice
Hofmann-Wellenhof, Bernhard; Collins, James
2001-01-01
This book is dedicated to Dr. Benjamin William Remondi for many reasons. The project of writing a Global Positioning System (GPS) book was con ceived in April 1988 at a GPS meeting in Darmstadt, Germany. Dr. Remondi discussed with me the need for an additional GPS textbook and suggested a possible joint effort. In 1989, I was willing to commit myself to such a project. Unfortunately, the timing was less than ideal for Dr. Remondi. Therefore, I decided to start the project with other coauthors. Dr. Remondi agreed and indicated his willingness to be a reviewer. I selected Dr. Herbert Lichtenegger, my colleague from the Technical University Graz, Austria, and Dr. James Collins from Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. In my opinion, the knowledge ofthe three authors should cover the wide spectrum of GPS. Dr. Lichtenegger is a geodesist with broad experience in both theory and practice. He has specialized his research to geodetic astron omy including orbital theory and geodynamical phenomena. Since 1986, Dr. Lichteneg...
The S-Lagrangian and a theory of homeostasis in living systems
Sandler, U.; Tsitolovsky, L.
2017-04-01
A major paradox of living things is their ability to actively counteract degradation in a continuously changing environment or being injured through homeostatic protection. In this study, we propose a dynamic theory of homeostasis based on a generalized Lagrangian approach (S-Lagrangian), which can be equally applied to physical and nonphysical systems. Following discoverer of homeostasis Cannon (1935), we assume that homeostasis results from tendency of the organisms to decrease of the stress and avoid of death. We show that the universality of homeostasis is a consequence of analytical properties of the S-Lagrangian, while peculiarities of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms of homeostasis determine phenomenological parameters of the S-Lagrangian. Additionally, we reveal that plausible assumptions about S-Lagrangian features lead to good agreement between theoretical descriptions and observed homeostatic behavior. Here, we have focused on homeostasis of living systems, however, the proposed theory is also capable of being extended to social systems.
Activity theory as a challenge to systems design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Susanne
1991-01-01
This paper suggests an improvement of the theoretical foundation of information systems research of the 1990s. This foundation is found in human activity theory. The paper deals with how human activity theory can help systems design change, theoretically and practically. Applying activity theory...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schousboe, A; Drejer, J; Hansen, Gert Helge
1985-01-01
By the use of primary cultures of neurons consisting of cerebral cortex interneurons or cerebellar granule cells it is possible to study biochemical and pharmacological aspects of receptors for GABA and glutamate. Cerebellar granule cells have been shown to express both high- and low-affinity GAB...
General Open Systems Theory and the Substrata-Factor Theory of Reading.
Kling, Martin
This study was designed to extend the generality of the Substrata-Factor Theory by two methods of investigation: (1) theoretically, to est"blish the validity of the hypothesis that an isomorphic relationship exists between the Substrata-Factor Theory and the General Open Systems Theory, and (2) experimentally, to disc"ver through a…
Geometric Theory of Reduction of Nonlinear Control Systems
Elkin, V. I.
2018-02-01
The foundations of a differential geometric theory of nonlinear control systems are described on the basis of categorical concepts (isomorphism, factorization, restrictions) by analogy with classical mathematical theories (of linear spaces, groups, etc.).
The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José A. Olalde Rangel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The Systemic Theory of Living Systems is being published in several parts in eCAM. The theory is axiomatic. It originates from the phenomenological idea that physiological health is based on three factors: integrity of its structure or organization, O, functional organic energy reserve, E, and level of active biological intelligence, I. From the theory is derived a treatment strategy called Systemic Medicine (SM. This is based on identifying and prescribing phytomedicines and/or other medications that strengthen each factor. Energy-stimulating phytomedicines increase available energy and decrease total entropy of an open biological system by providing negative entropy. The same occurs with phytomedicines that act as biological intelligence modulators. They should be used as the first line of treatment in all ailments, since all pathologies, by definition, imply a higher than normal organic entropy. SM postulates that the state of health, H, of an individual, is effectively equal to the product of the strength of each factor H = O × E × I. SM observes that when all three factors are brought back to ideal levels, patients' conditions begin the recovery to normal health.
System Dynamics as Model-Based Theory Building
Schwaninger, Markus; Grösser, Stefan N.
2008-01-01
This paper introduces model-based theory building as a feature of system dynamics (SD) with large potential. It presents a systemic approach to actualizing that potential, thereby opening up a new perspective on theory building in the social sciences. The question addressed is if and how SD enables the construction of high-quality theories. This contribution is based on field experiment type projects which have been focused on model-based theory building, specifically the construction of a mi...
Cantilever-based bio-chemical sensor integrated in a microliquid handling system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thaysen, Jacob; Marie, Rodolphe; Boisen, Anja
2001-01-01
The cantilevers have integrated piezoresistive readout which, compared to optical readout, enables simple measurements on even non-transparent liquids, such as blood. First, we introduce a simple theory for using piezoresistive cantilevers as surface stress sensors. Then, the sensor fabrication...... based on conventional microfabrication is described and the sensor characterization is discussed. During the characterization we found a stress sensitivity of (ΔR/R)=4.6:10 -4 (N/m)-1 and a minimum detectable surface stress change of 2.6 mN/m. Aqua regia etch of gold on top of the cantilevers has been...... monitored, and immobilization of single-stranded thiol modified DNA-oligos has been detected by the sensor. Finally, it is demonstrated that it is possible to analyze two samples simultaneously by utilizing the laminar flow in the microliquid handling system....
Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galla, Tobias
2006-01-01
It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 10 11 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kuehn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Scott G.; Pickles, Tom; Kestin, Larry; Potters, Louis; Fearn, Paul; Smith, Ryan; Pratt, Gary
2006-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the interobserver variation of four electronic biochemical failure (bF) calculators using three bF definitions. Methods and Materials: The data of 1200 men were analyzed using the electronic bF calculators of four institutions. Three bF definitions were examined for their concordance of bF identification across the centers: the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition (ACD), the lowest prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to date plus 2 ng/mL (L2), and a threshold of 3 ng/mL (T3). Results: Unanimous agreement regarding bF status using the ACD, L2, and T3 definitions occurred in 87.3%, 96.4%, and 92.7% of cases, respectively. Using the ACD, 63% of the variation was from one institution, which allowed the bF status to be reversed if a PSA decline was seen after bF (PSA 'bounce'). A total of 270 men had an ACD bF time variation of >2 months across the calculators, and the 5-year freedom from bF rate was 49.8-60.9%. The L2 definition had a 20.5% rate of calculated bF times; which varied by >2 months (median, 6.4; range, 2.1-75.6) and a corresponding 5-year freedom from bF rate of 55.9-61.0%. The T3 definition had a 2.0% range in the 5-year freedom from bF. Fifteen definition interpretation variations were identified. Conclusion: Reported bF results vary not only because of bF definition differences, but because of variations in how those definitions are written into computer-based calculators, with multiple interpretations most prevalent for the ACD. An algorithm to avoid misinterpretations is proposed for the L2 definition. A verification system to guarantee consistent electronic bF results requires development
Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian
2013-10-01
Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree
Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories
Shapiro, Irwin
1997-01-01
We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. These tests include an examination of the Principle Of Equivalence (POE), the Shapiro delay, the advances of planetary perihelia, the possibility of a secular variation G in the "gravitational constant" G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. These results are consistent with our preliminary results focusing on the contribution of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which were presented at the seventh Marcel Grossmann meeting on general relativity. The largest improvement over previous results comes in the uncertainty for (eta): a factor of five better than our previous value. This improvement reflects the increasing strength of the LLR data. A similar analysis presented at the same meeting by a group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a similar result for (eta). Our value for (beta) represents our first such result determined simultaneously with the solar quadrupole moment from the dynamical data set. These results are being prepared for publication. We have shown how positions determined from different planetary ephemerides can be compared and how the combination of VLBI and pulse timing information can yield a direct tie between planetary and radio frames. We have continued to include new data in our analysis as they became available. Finally, we have made improvement in our analysis software (PEP) and ported it to a network of modern workstations from its former home on a "mainframe" computer.
The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José A. Olalde Rangel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life.
The Female Voice: Applications to Bowen's Family Systems Theory.
Knudson-Martin, Carmen
1994-01-01
Responds to calls from feminist scholars to address potential biases against women in theories of family therapy. Summarizes findings from studies of female development and integrates findings into expanded model of Bowen's family systems theory. Includes case example comparing expanded model with traditional application of Bowen's theory.…
Lederman, Linda Costigan; Rogers, Don
The two papers in this document focus on general systems theory. In her paper, Linda Lederman discusses the emergence and evolution of general systems theory, defines its central concepts, and draws some conclusions regarding the nature of the theory and its value as an epistemology. Don Rogers, in his paper, relates some of the important features…
Cook, Desmond L.
This document, one of a series of reports examining the possible contribution of other disciplines to evaluation methodology, describes the major elements of general systems theory (GST), cybernetics theory (CT) and management control theory (MCT). The author suggests that MCT encapsulates major concerns of evaluation since it reveals that…
Some open problems in random matrix theory and the theory of integrable systems
Deift, Percy
2007-01-01
We describe a list of open problems in random matrix theory and integrable systems which was presented at the conference ``Integrable Systems, Random Matrices, and Applications'' at the Courant Institute in May 2006.
Theoretical and expert system approach to photoionization theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petrović Ivan D.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of the ponderomotive and the Stark shifts on the tunneling transition rate was observed, for non-relativistic linearly polarized laser field for alkali atoms, with three different theoretical models, the Keldysh theory, the Perelomov, Popov, Terent'ev (PPT theory, and the Ammosov, Delone, Krainov (ADK theory. We showed that aforementioned shifts affect the transition rate differently for different approaches. Finally, we presented a simple expert system for analysis of photoionization theories.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.F. Bogmat
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in the basis of the pathogenesis has generalized autoimmune inflammation, which leads to the development of a wide range of immune-inflammatory organ disorders. Among them, the liver deserves special attention, since its functional state can reflect not only the severity of the pathological process, but also the response on aggressive treatment. The purpose of the work was studying the biochemical markers of the functional state of the liver in children with initial stages of SLE. Materials and methods. Features of the lipid, carbohydrate spectrum of the blood, indicators of pigment exchange, markers of cytolysis, cholestasis, fibrosis and protein-synthetic function of the liver were studied in children and adolescents with SLE. Twenty six patients aged 7–18 years were examined. Two groups were formed: 10 patients (38.4 % with the duration of the disease of 1–3 years and 16 people (61.5 % with duration of more than 3 years. Results. The average blood lipids levels did not exceed the reference values and did not have statistical differences among the patients of the selected groups. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in both groups of patients significantly exceeded the control values (p < 0.05. Indicators of low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased already in the early stages of the disease (p < 0.05 and reached the maximum values in individuals with a course of SLE over 3 years (p < 0.05. Concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients of the second group decreased somewhat (p < 0.1. There was an increase in the average values of atherogenic index by 1.7 times among patients in the first group (p < 0.05 and 2.25 times in persons from the second group (p < 0.05. Studies of other metabolic links showed that the average values of glycaemia and immunoreactive insulin (IRI were consistent with the physiological norm. However, half of patients with SLE had
All in the family: integrating attachment and family systems theories.
Crittenden, Patricia McKinsey; Dallos, Rudi
2009-07-01
This article brings together ideas from attachment and systemic family therapy. There is both growing interest among systemic practitioners in the conceptual and empirical base of attachment theory and also the need for attachment theory to expand dyadic patterning to include its context in family functioning. We propose the Dynamic-Maturational Model (DMM) as being the most compatible and useful variant of attachment theory. With its emphasis on the functional nature of behavior, a dynamic view of development and change, and a focus on multiple attachments and representational systems, the DMM fits systemic concepts well. We propose that many apparent discrepancies between the theories will disappear if careful distinctions are made between observed behavior, functional explanations, and attributions. We conclude with theory-based recommendations for selecting treatment strategies. Several case examples that are theory based, counterintuitive, and tied to disorders that are difficult to treat are offered to give substance to our ideas.
Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control
Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien
2015-01-01
This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...
Alarcon, R A
2012-10-01
A hypothesis suggesting the existence of a ubiquitous physiological anticancer system created by two highly reactive oxidative stress inducers with anticancer properties, acrolein and hydroxyl radical, is reported in this communication. Both components can originate separately or together in several biochemical interactions, among them, the enzymatic oxidation of the polyamine spermine, which appear to be their main source. The foundations of this hypothesis encompass our initial search for growth-inhibitors or anticancer compounds in biological material leading to the isolation of spermine, a polyamine that became highly cytotoxic through the generation of acrolein, when enzymatically oxidized. Findings complemented with pertinent literature data by other workers and observed anticancer activities by sources capable of producing acrolein and hydroxyl radical. This hypothesis obvious implication: spermine enzymatic oxidations or other biochemical interactions that would co-generate acrolein and hydroxyl radical, the anticancer system components, should be tried as treatments for any given cancer. The biochemical generation of acrolein observed was totally unexpected, since this aldehyde was known; as a very toxic and highly reactive xenobiotic chemical produced in the pyrolysis of fats and other organic material, found as an atmospheric pollutant, in tobacco smoke and car emissions, and mainly used as a pesticide or aquatic herbicide. Numerous studies on acrolein, considered after our work a biological product, as well, followed. In them, acrolein widespread presence, its effects on diverse cellular proteins, such as, growth factors, and its anticancer activities, were additionally reported. Regarding hydroxyl radical, the second component of the proposed anticancer system, and another cytotoxic product in normal cell metabolism, it co-generates with acrolein in several biochemical interactions, occurrences suggesting that these products might jointly fulfill some
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
On, S.L.W.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau
1996-01-01
The efficacy and reproducibility of the Phene-Plate (PhP) system (Biosys Inova, Stockholm, Sweden) for biochemical fingerprinting of Salmonella typhimurium was investigated. Duplicate and replicate assays on 40 epidemiologically related and unrelated strains were performed in two batches of PhP-48......P-types which are epidemiologically unjustified, (ii) tests currently recommended for PhP-typing S. typhimurium may be somewhat unstable and not satisfactory for fingerprinting purposes, (iii) caution must be exercised when comparing data from different batches of PhP-48 plates, and (iv) best results...
A general sensitivity theory for simulations of nonlinear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenton, M.A.
1981-01-01
A general sensitivity theory is developed for nonlinear lumped-parameter system simulations. The point-of-departure is general perturbation theory, which has long been used for linear systems in nuclear engineering and reactor physics. The theory allows the sensitivity of particular figures-of-merit of the system behavior to be calculated with respect to any parameter.An explicit procedure is derived for applying the theory to physical systems undergoing sudden events (e.g., reactor scrams, tank ruptures). A related problem, treating figures-of-merit defined as functions of extremal values of system variables occurring at sudden events, is handled by the same procedure. The general calculational scheme for applying the theory to numerical codes is discussed. It is shown that codes which use pre-packaged implicit integration subroutines can be augmented to include sensitivity theory: a companion set of subroutines to solve the sensitivity problem is listed. This combined system analysis code is applied to a simple model for loss of post-accident heat removal in a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. The uses of the theory for answering more general sensitivity questions are discussed. One application of the theory is to systematically determine whether specific physical processes in a model contribute significantly to the figures-of-merit. Another application of the theory is for selecting parameter values which enable a model to match experimentally observed behavior
Optimization and Control of Bilinear Systems Theory, Algorithms, and Applications
Pardalos, Panos M
2008-01-01
Covers developments in bilinear systems theory Focuses on the control of open physical processes functioning in a non-equilibrium mode Emphasis is on three primary disciplines: modern differential geometry, control of dynamical systems, and optimization theory Includes applications to the fields of quantum and molecular computing, control of physical processes, biophysics, superconducting magnetism, and physical information science
General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application
Peery, Newman S., Jr.
1975-01-01
Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…
Client-Controlled Case Information: A General System Theory Perspective
Fitch, Dale
2004-01-01
The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of…
Theory of Technical Systems--Educational Tool for Engineering
Eder, Wolfgang Ernst
2016-01-01
Hubka's theory of technical systems (TTS) is briefly outlined. It describes commonalities in all engineering devices, whatever their physical principles of action. This theory is based on a general transformation system (TrfS), which can be used to show engineering in the contexts of society, economics and historic developments. The life cycle of…
Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations
J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)
2010-01-01
htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state
Continuous and distributed systems theory and applications
Sadovnichiy, Victor
2014-01-01
In this volume, the authors close the gap between abstract mathematical approaches, such as abstract algebra, number theory, nonlinear functional analysis, partial differential equations, methods of nonlinear and multi-valued analysis, on the one hand, and practical applications in nonlinear mechanics, decision making theory and control theory on the other. Readers will also benefit from the presentation of modern mathematical modeling methods for the numerical solution of complicated engineering problems in hydromechanics, geophysics and mechanics of continua. This compilation will be of interest to mathematicians and engineers working at the interface of these field. It presents selected works of the open seminar series of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”. The authors come from Germany, Italy, Spain, Russia, Ukraine, and the USA.
Biochemical and seminal parameters of lambs fed palm kernel cake under grazing system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lopes César Mugabe
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of palm kernel cake on semen quality and biochemical parameters of Santa Inês lambs. A total of 40 animals with 24.10±2.72 kg body weight and five months old were assigned in a completely randomized design into four groups and 10 replicates. The animals were subjected to four levels of palm kernel cake (0, 15, 30, and 45% based on dry matter. The trial lasted 90 days foregone by 15 days for adaptation. Blood samples were collected every 45 days from jugular vein using vacuum tubes without anticoagulant. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very-low-density lipoprotein were assessed. Once the animals reached puberty at a mean age of 225 days, the semen samples were collected by electroejaculator once a week for three sequence weeks and assessed for volume, color, aspect, wave motion, motility, sperm concentration, sperm vigor, total of spermatozoa per ejaculate, viable spermatozoa per mL, and sperm morphology. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by regression analysis. Non-parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein were linearly increased. There was no difference for low-density lipoprotein. Diets did not affect mass motility, sperm motility, vigor, total spermatozoa per ejaculate, viability sperm per mL, and minor and total sperm defects. Sperm concentration increased linearly. Negative quadratic effects were observed for major sperm defects. Supplementation of diets with palm kernel cake up to 45% on dry matter enhance biochemical parameters and do not impair the qualitative variables of lamb sperm.
Perturbation Theory for Open Two-Level Nonlinear Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhijie; Jiang Dongguang; Wang Wei
2011-01-01
Perturbation theory is an important tool in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we extend the traditional perturbation theory to open nonlinear two-level systems, treating decoherence parameter γ as a perturbation. By this virtue, we give a perturbative solution to the master equation, which describes a nonlinear open quantum system. The results show that for small decoherence rate γ, the ratio of the nonlinear rate C to the tunneling coefficient V (i.e., r = C/V) determines the validity of the perturbation theory. For small ratio r, the perturbation theory is valid, otherwise it yields wrong results. (general)
Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Thomas
2007-01-01
This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...
On activity theory in cognitive systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian
Theory' (Virksomhedsteori). Virksomhedsteori er den dominante teori i den sovjetiske tradition af social psykologi. Virksomhedsteori startede med Vygotskys arbejde og fortsatte sin vækst under vejledningen af forskere som Leontiev og Luria. Med sit erkendelsesteoretiske program baseret på interaktion med...
A theory of desynchronisable closed loops system
Beohar, H.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Bliudze, S.; Bruni, R.; Grohmann, D.; Silva, A.
2010-01-01
The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in
Client-controlled case information: a general system theory perspective.
Fitch, Dale
2004-07-01
The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of controller and controlled system, as well as entropy and negentropy, are applied to the information flow and autopoietic behavior as they relate to the boundary-maintaining functions of today's organizations. The author's conclusions synthesize general system theory and human services values to lay the foundation for an information-sharing framework for human services in the 21st century.
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory.
Andréasson, Håkan
2011-01-01
The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on non-relativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to a good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
Elements of automata theory and the theory of Markov chains. [Self-organizing control systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lind, M
1975-03-01
Selected topics from automata theory and the theory of Markov chains are treated. In particular, finite-memory automata are discussed in detail, and the results are used to formulate an automation model of a class of continuous systems. Stochastic automata are introduced as a natural generalization of the deterministic automaton. Markov chains are shown to be closely related to stochastic automata. Results from Markov chain theory are thereby directly applicable to analysis of stochastic automata. This report provides the theoretical foundation for the investigation in Riso Report No. 315 of a class of self-organizing control systems. (25 figures) (auth)
A Mathematical Theory of System Information Flow
2016-06-27
i.i.d. is usually quite involved. There are numerous experiments , often using photons, to test Bell’s Inequality recorded in the literature, but the...classical setting. Peter focused on non-locality as an alternative theory and experiments using the CHSH inequality , and devised a statistical procedure...761 (2014). 7. BIERHORST, P., A new loophole in recent Bell test experiments , arXiv:1311.4488, (2014). 8. BIERHORST, P., A Mathematical Foundation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Hryhorovskyi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Actuality. The correlation analysis between various indices of bone tissue condition was not previously carried out in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Aim. On purpose to determine differences and index correlations before and after intake of pamidronate systemic therapy in 13 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta indices of some methods including histomorphometric were studied. Results. We found correlation parametres of biochemical indices, on one side and histomorphometric – on the other. Conclusion. After systemic therapy mean parametres of «bone volume» in iliobiopsies increase, and «osteoid surface» and «osteoclast index per surface unit» in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta of I type – decrease, that one can regard as a tendency to improvement of the bone tissue structural-functional condition.
The sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yuquan.
1986-01-01
A sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system is developed based on a physical model similar to that embodied in the laser fusion code MEDUSA. The theory presented here can be an efficient tool for estimating the effects of many alternations in the data field. Our result is different from Greenspan's work in 1980. (author)
Multicomponent density-functional theory for time-dependent systems
Butriy, O.; Ebadi, H.; de Boeij, P. L.; van Leeuwen, R.; Gross, E. K. U.
2007-01-01
We derive the basic formalism of density functional theory for time-dependent electron-nuclear systems. The basic variables of this theory are the electron density in body-fixed frame coordinates and the diagonal of the nuclear N-body density matrix. The body-fixed frame transformation is carried
Process theory for supervisory control of stochastic systems with data
Markovski, J.
2012-01-01
We propose a process theory for supervisory control of stochastic nondeterministic plants with data-based observations. The Markovian process theory with data relies on the notion of Markovian partial bisimulation to capture controllability of stochastic nondeterministic systems. It presents a
A denotational theory of synchronous reactive systems
Benveniste , Albert; Le Guernic , Paul; Sorel , Yves; Sorine , Michel
1992-01-01
International audience; In this paper, systems which interact permanently with their environments are considered. Such systems are encountered, for instance, in real-time control or signal processing systems, C3-systems, and man-machine interfaces, to mention just a few cases. The design and implementation of such systems require a concurrent programming language which can be used to verify and synthesize the synchronization mechanisms, and to perform transformations of the concurrent source ...
Thomas, Philipp; Matuschek, Hannes; Grima, Ramon
2012-01-01
The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with
Integrable Hamiltonian systems and spectral theory
Moser, J
1981-01-01
Classical integrable Hamiltonian systems and isospectral deformations ; geodesics on an ellipsoid and the mechanical system of C. Neumann ; the Schrödinger equation for almost periodic potentials ; finite band potentials ; limit cases, Bargmann potentials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudesh Vasdev
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical
Mélykúti, Bence
2010-01-01
The Chemical Langevin Equation (CLE), which is a stochastic differential equation driven by a multidimensional Wiener process, acts as a bridge between the discrete stochastic simulation algorithm and the deterministic reaction rate equation when simulating (bio)chemical kinetics. The CLE model is valid in the regime where molecular populations are abundant enough to assume their concentrations change continuously, but stochastic fluctuations still play a major role. The contribution of this work is that we observe and explore that the CLE is not a single equation, but a parametric family of equations, all of which give the same finite-dimensional distribution of the variables. On the theoretical side, we prove that as many Wiener processes are sufficient to formulate the CLE as there are independent variables in the equation, which is just the rank of the stoichiometric matrix. On the practical side, we show that in the case where there are m1 pairs of reversible reactions and m2 irreversible reactions there is another, simple formulation of the CLE with only m1 + m2 Wiener processes, whereas the standard approach uses 2 m1 + m2. We demonstrate that there are considerable computational savings when using this latter formulation. Such transformations of the CLE do not cause a loss of accuracy and are therefore distinct from model reduction techniques. We illustrate our findings by considering alternative formulations of the CLE for a human ether a-go-go related gene ion channel model and the Goldbeter-Koshland switch. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
f-electron systems: pushing band theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koelling, D.D.
1991-01-01
The f-electron orbitrals have always been the ''incomplete atomic shells acting as local moments, and weakly interacting with the remaining electronic structure'' in the minds of most people. So examining them using a band theory where one views them as itinerant was once - and to some extent even today still is - considered with some skepticism. Nonetheless, a very significant community has successfully utilized band theory as a probe of the electronic structure of the appropriate actinides and rare earths. Those people actually using the approach would be the first to declare that it is not the whole solution. Instead, one is pushing and even exceeding its limit of applicability. However, the apropriate procedure is to push the model consistently to its limits, patch where possible, and then look to see where discrepancies remain. I propose to offer a selected review of past developments (emphasizing the career to data of A.J. Freeman in this area), offer a list of interesting puzzles for the future, and then make some guesses as to the techniques one might want to use. (orig.)
Quantum open system theory: bipartite aspects.
Yu, T; Eberly, J H
2006-10-06
We demonstrate in straightforward calculations that even under ideally weak noise the relaxation of bipartite open quantum systems contains elements not previously encountered in quantum noise physics. While additivity of decay rates is known to be generic for decoherence of a single system, we demonstrate that it breaks down for bipartite coherence of even the simplest composite systems.
Performance improvement of professional printing systems : from theory to practice
Ezzeldin Mahdy Abdelmonem, M.
2012-01-01
Performance Improvement of Professional Printing Systems: from theory to practice Markets demand continuously for higher quality, higher speed, and more energy-efficient professional printers. In this thesis, control strategies have been developed to improve the performance of both professional
JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O P Mishra
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.
Wasserman, Deborah L
2010-05-01
This paper offers a framework for using a systems orientation and "foundational theory" to enhance theory-driven evaluations and logic models. The framework guides the process of identifying and explaining operative relationships and perspectives within human service program systems. Self-Determination Theory exemplifies how a foundational theory can be used to support the framework in a wide range of program evaluations. Two examples illustrate how applications of the framework have improved the evaluators' abilities to observe and explain program effect. In both exemplars improvements involved addressing and organizing into a single logic model heretofore seemingly disparate evaluation issues regarding valuing (by whose values); the role of organizational and program context; and evaluation anxiety and utilization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette; Svejvig, Per
2009-01-01
Institutional theory has proven to be a central analytical perspective for investigating the role of social and historical structures of information systems (IS) implementation. However, it does not explicitly account for how organisational actors make sense of and enact technologies in their local...... context. We address this limitation by exploring the potential of using institutional theory with sensemaking theory to study IS implementation in organisations. We argue that each theoretical perspective has its own explanatory power and that a combination of the two facilitates a much richer...... interpretation of IS implementation by linking macro- and micro-levels of analysis. To illustrate this, we report from an empirical study of the implementation of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system in a clinical setting. Using key constructs from the two theories, our findings address the phenomenon...
Nonsmooth Optimization Algorithms, System Theory, and Software Tools
1993-04-13
Optimization Algorithms, System Theory , and Scftware Tools" AFOSR-90-OO68 L AUTHOR($) Elijah Polak -Professor and Principal Investigator 7. PERFORMING...NSN 754Q-01-2W0-S500 Standard Form 295 (69O104 Draft) F’wsa*W by hA Sit 230.1""V AFOSR-90-0068 NONSMO0 TH OPTIMIZA TION A L GORI THMS, SYSTEM THEORY , AND
Theory and practice in machining systems
Ito, Yoshimi
2017-01-01
This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...
Quantum theory of the nonconservative system II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeon, K.H.
1984-01-01
Utilizing the propagator for a damped harmonic oscillator in nonconservative system, we show the corresponding wave function, energy expectation value, transition amplitude and uncertainty relation. (Author)
Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung
2016-01-01
Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides. PMID:28006823
Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung
2016-01-01
Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides.
Hamilton-Jacobi theory of continuos systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guler, Y.
1987-01-01
The Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation for classical field systems is obtained in a 5n-dimensional phase space and it is integrated by the method of characteristics. Space-time partial derivatives of Hamilton's principal functions S μ (Φ i , x v ) (μ, v = 1, 2, 3, 4) are identified as the energy-momentum tensor of the system
Public Management Information Systems: Theory and Prescription.
Bozeman, Barry; Bretschneider, Stuart
1986-01-01
The existing theoretical framework for research in management information systems (MIS) is criticized for its lack of attention to the external environment of organizations, and a new framework is developed which better accommodates MIS in public organizations: public management information systems. Four models of publicness that reflect external…
Contraction theory based adaptive synchronization of chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, B.B.; Kar, I.N.
2009-01-01
Contraction theory based stability analysis exploits the incremental behavior of trajectories of a system with respect to each other. Application of contraction theory provides an alternative way for stability analysis of nonlinear systems. This paper considers the design of a control law for synchronization of certain class of chaotic systems based on backstepping technique. The controller is selected so as to make the error dynamics between the two systems contracting. Synchronization problem with and without uncertainty in system parameters is discussed and necessary stability proofs are worked out using contraction theory. Suitable adaptation laws for unknown parameters are proposed based on the contraction principle. The numerical simulations verify the synchronization of the chaotic systems. Also parameter estimates converge to their true values with the proposed adaptation laws.
Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach.
Meyer, Raquel M; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda L
2010-12-01
This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a 'black box' that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980-2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. THE Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nonlinear dynamical systems for theory and research in ergonomics.
Guastello, Stephen J
2017-02-01
Nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) theory offers new constructs, methods and explanations for phenomena that have in turn produced new paradigms of thinking within several disciplines of the behavioural sciences. This article explores the recent developments of NDS as a paradigm in ergonomics. The exposition includes its basic axioms, the primary constructs from elementary dynamics and so-called complexity theory, an overview of its methods, and growing areas of application within ergonomics. The applications considered here include: psychophysics, iconic displays, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation in systems. Although these applications make use of different subsets of NDS constructs, several of them share the general principles of the complex adaptive system. Practitioner Summary: Nonlinear dynamical systems theory reframes problems in ergonomics that involve complex systems as they change over time. The leading applications to date include psychophysics, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, biomechanics, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation of system components.
A quest towards a mathematical theory of living systems
Bellomo, Nicola; Gibelli, Livio; Outada, Nisrine
2017-01-01
This monograph aims to lay the groundwork for the design of a unified mathematical approach to the modeling and analysis of large, complex systems composed of interacting living things. Drawing on twenty years of research in various scientific fields, it explores how mathematical kinetic theory and evolutionary game theory can be used to understand the complex interplay between mathematical sciences and the dynamics of living systems. The authors hope this will contribute to the development of new tools and strategies, if not a new mathematical theory. The first chapter discusses the main features of living systems and outlines a strategy for their modeling. The following chapters then explore some of the methods needed to potentially achieve this in practice. Chapter Two provides a brief introduction to the mathematical kinetic theory of classical particles, with special emphasis on the Boltzmann equation; the Enskog equation, mean field models, and Monte Carlo methods are also briefly covered. Chapter Three...
Control theory of digitally networked dynamic systems
Lunze, Jan
2013-01-01
The book gives an introduction to networked control systems and describes new modeling paradigms, analysis methods for event-driven, digitally networked systems, and design methods for distributed estimation and control. Networked model predictive control is developed as a means to tolerate time delays and packet loss brought about by the communication network. In event-based control the traditional periodic sampling is replaced by state-dependent triggering schemes. Novel methods for multi-agent systems ensure complete or clustered synchrony of agents with identical or with individual dynamic
Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation
Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto
2015-01-01
A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available
Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System
Ashwin Kumar
2006-01-01
Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early wr...
Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.
1987-01-01
Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, and losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma fetures are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong r.f. heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong r.f. heating and collisions. 37 refs., 3 figs
Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.
1987-01-01
Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, end losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma features are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong rf heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong rf heating and collisions. 37 refs
Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irene Otero-Muras
Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radouil Tzekov
Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL, tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A, microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B, collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3 and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1, APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the
Bubel, F; Dobrzański, Z; Gaweł, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R
2015-01-01
An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l).
Residue number systems theory and applications
Mohan, P V Ananda
2016-01-01
This new and expanded monograph improves upon Mohan's earlier book, Residue Number Systems (Springer, 2002) with a state of the art treatment of the subject. Replete with detailed illustrations and helpful examples, this book covers a host of cutting edge topics such as the core function, the quotient function, new Chinese Remainder theorems, and large integer operations. It also features many significant applications to practical communication systems and cryptography such as FIR filters and elliptic curve cryptography. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the basics and leading up to current research trends that are not yet widely distributed in other publications, this book will be of interest to both researchers and students alike.
Replacement of the Project Manager Reflected Through Activity Theory and Work-System Theory
Vartiainen, Tero; Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Jussila, Jari; Pirhonen, Maritta; Liikamaa, Kirsi
Replacement of the project manager (RPM) is a known phenomenon in information systems (IS) projects, but scant attention is given to it in the project management or IS literature. Given its critical effects on the project business, the organization, the project team, and the project manager, it should be studied in more depth. We identified factors which make RPM occurrences inherently different and we show that work-system theory and activity theory give comprehensive lenses to advance research on RPM. For the future research on RPM we identified three objectives: experiences on RPM, process model for RPM, and organizational culture's influence on RPM occurrences.
Towards a Systemic Theory of Gifted Education
Ziegler, Albert; Phillipson, Shane N.
2012-01-01
In this target article, we argue that current approaches to gifted education are based on the erroneous view that to understand the development of exceptionality we need to understand firstly the components of giftedness, including cognitive such as intelligence and non-cognitive factors such as motivation. In contrast, systemic approaches to…
Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach
Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L
2010-01-01
meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. Data sources A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980–2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. Discussion The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. Implications for nursing The Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. Conclusion The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. PMID:20831573
Generalized Einstein-Aether theories and the Solar System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Zlosnik, Tom G.; Starkman, Glenn
2008-01-01
It has been shown that generalized Einstein-Aether theories may lead to significant modifications to the nonrelativistic limit of the Einstein equations. In this paper we study the effect of a general class of such theories on the Solar System. We consider corrections to the gravitational potential in negative and positive powers of distance from the source. Using measurements of the perihelion shift of Mercury and time delay of radar signals to Cassini, we place constraints on these corrections. We find that a subclass of generalized Einstein-Aether theories is compatible with these constraints
Affordances in activity theory and cognitive systems engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albrechtsen, H.; Andersen, H.H.K.; Bødker, S.
2001-01-01
on design for low level interaction modalities. To incorporate the concept of affordances in the design of human computer interaction it is necessary to systematically unravel affordances that supporthuman action possibilities. Furthermore, it is a necessity that Gibson's theory of affordances...... is supplemented by careful analyses of other human modalities and activities than visual perception. Within HMI two well established perspectives on HMI,Activity Theory (AT) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), have discussed such analyses and design of action possibilities focusing on providing computer...... to cover deeper semantic and pragmatic aspects of the ecology of work, as compared with the previous applications of Gibson's theory in HMI....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philipp Thomas
Full Text Available The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA, which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network
Grima, Ramon
2012-01-01
The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen’s system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA’s performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with
Mobile Hybrid Power System Theory of Operation
Pierce, Timothy M. Jr.
2016-01-01
Efficiency is a driving constraint for electrical power systems as global energy demands are ever increasing. Followed by the introduction of diesel generators, electricity has become available in more locations than ever. However, operating a diesel generator on its own is not the most energy efficient. This is because the high crest factor loads, of many applications, decrease the fuel efficiency of a hydrocarbon generator. To understand this, we need to understand how an electrical load af...
Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Hu
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.
On nonequilibrium many-body systems III: nonlinear transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.
1986-01-01
A nonlinear transport theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method, is presented. Nonlinear transport equations for a basis set of dynamical quantities are derived using two equivalent treatments that may be considered far reaching generalizations of the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method and Mori's generalized Langevin equations method. The first case is considered in some detail and the general characteristics of the theory are discussed. (Author) [pt
A monequillibrium mary-body systems IV: Respouse function theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.
1987-01-01
A response function theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium is presented. It is based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator method fully described in a previous article. A formal theory is presented evaluation of transition probabilties and the average values of dynamical quantities in far-from-equilibrium many-body systems under the action of external perturbations. A nonequilibrium thermodynamic Green's function algorithn appropriate for the calculation of response functions and scattering cross sections in terms of a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem for far-from-equilibrium systems is also derived. (author) [pt
Fabrication of a pen-shaped portable biochemical reaction system based on magnetic bead manipulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Inagaki, Noriyuki; Okochi, Mina; Honda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Kazuo
2011-01-01
A pen-shaped platform that is similar to a mechanical pencil is proposed for producing a portable reaction system. A reaction unit, as the key component in the system, was produced by using a heat shrinkable tube. A mechanical pencil supplied by Mitsubishi Pencil Co. Ltd was used as the pen-shaped platform for driving the reaction cylinder. It was actuated using an inchworm motion. We confirmed that the magnetic beads were successfully manipulated in the droplet in the cylinder-shaped reaction units. (technical note)
Theories about architecture and performance of multi-agent systems
Gazendam, Henk W.M.; Jorna, René J.
1998-01-01
Multi-agent systems are promising as models of organization because they are based on the idea that most work in human organizations is done based on intelligence, communication, cooperation, and massive parallel processing. They offer an alternative for system theories of organization, which are
Acknowledging the Infrasystem: A Critical Feminist Analysis of Systems Theory.
Creedon, Pamela J.
1993-01-01
Examines the absence of a critical feminist perspective in the application of systems theory as a unifying model for public relations. Describes an unacknowledged third system, the infrasystem, that constructs both suprasystem and subsystem interactions. Concludes with a case analysis of sport as illustration. (HB)
What Should Instructional Designers Know about General Systems Theory?
Salisbury, David F.
1989-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and explains the relationship between instructional systems design (ISD) and GST. Benefits of integrating GST into the curriculum of ISD graduate programs are discussed, and a short bibliography on GST is included. (LRW)
Quantum theory of many-particle systems
Fetter, Alexander L
2003-01-01
""Singlemindedly devoted to its job of educating potential many-particle theorists…deserves to become the standard text in the field."" - Physics Today""The most comprehensive textbook yet published in its field and every postgraduate student or teacher in this field should own or have access to a copy."" - EndeavorA self-contained, unified treatment of nonrelativistic many-particle systems, this text offers a solid introduction to procedures in a manner that enables students to adopt techniques for their own use. Its discussions of formalism and applications move easily between general theo
Control mechanisms for stochastic biochemical systems via computation of reachable sets.
Lakatos, Eszter; Stumpf, Michael P H
2017-08-01
Controlling the behaviour of cells by rationally guiding molecular processes is an overarching aim of much of synthetic biology. Molecular processes, however, are notoriously noisy and frequently nonlinear. We present an approach to studying the impact of control measures on motifs of molecular interactions that addresses the problems faced in many biological systems: stochasticity, parameter uncertainty and nonlinearity. We show that our reachability analysis formalism can describe the potential behaviour of biological (naturally evolved as well as engineered) systems, and provides a set of bounds on their dynamics at the level of population statistics: for example, we can obtain the possible ranges of means and variances of mRNA and protein expression levels, even in the presence of uncertainty about model parameters.
Anthropocentric language theory and Serbian case systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Topolinjska Zuzana
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The author understands case as a relationship of syntactic dependence between a subordinated noun phrase and the governing syntactic construction (predicative expression and/or another noun phrase. The above definition construes case as a universal category characteristics of all the languages sharing the nomen vs verbum opposition. Particular cases are conceived as primarily semantically motivated. The two relevant semantic parameters are /+/ -human / (or /+/ -animated/ and /+/ -localized/, i. e. - in other words - the so-called hierarchy of animateness and the spatial location of the objects that the corresponding noun phrases refer to. N and D are being characterized as /+ hum/, A and I as /-hum/ and L as belonging to another semantic paradigm is defined simply as /+ loc/. Results of the analyses of morphological syncretism's and of syntactic exponents of the NPs-dependence found in Serbian case systems support the above tentative interpretation of the case as a (semantic and syntactic category.
The temporolimbic system theory of paranoid schizophrenia.
Casanova, M F
1997-01-01
The hippocampus serves as a funnel for heavily processed sensory information that has converged at the entorhinal cortex. Lesions of the hippocampus do not alter incoming sensory or motor information but, rather, alter their integration with our baggage of emotional experiences and social values. According to Bogerts, such a lesion would be ideally situated to result in laboriously processed sensory information that is out of context to our outside environment. In this regard, Bogerts describes the pathological findings of a patient with a gross delusional disorder. The salient finding at autopsy was a developmental lesion in the left posterior parahippocampal gyrus. Although a number of lesions have been described in the brains of patients with schizophrenia, Bogerts believes that those in the limbic system appear critical to the expression of paranoid symptoms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sagar Indurkhya
Full Text Available ODE simulations of chemical systems perform poorly when some of the species have extremely low concentrations. Stochastic simulation methods, which can handle this case, have been impractical for large systems due to computational complexity. We observe, however, that when modeling complex biological systems: (1 a small number of reactions tend to occur a disproportionately large percentage of the time, and (2 a small number of species tend to participate in a disproportionately large percentage of reactions. We exploit these properties in LOLCAT Method, a new implementation of the Gillespie Algorithm. First, factoring reaction propensities allows many propensities dependent on a single species to be updated in a single operation. Second, representing dependencies between reactions with a bipartite graph of reactions and species requires only storage for reactions, rather than the required for a graph that includes only reactions. Together, these improvements allow our implementation of LOLCAT Method to execute orders of magnitude faster than currently existing Gillespie Algorithm variants when simulating several yeast MAPK cascade models.
Indurkhya, Sagar; Beal, Jacob
2010-01-01
ODE simulations of chemical systems perform poorly when some of the species have extremely low concentrations. Stochastic simulation methods, which can handle this case, have been impractical for large systems due to computational complexity. We observe, however, that when modeling complex biological systems: (1) a small number of reactions tend to occur a disproportionately large percentage of the time, and (2) a small number of species tend to participate in a disproportionately large percentage of reactions. We exploit these properties in LOLCAT Method, a new implementation of the Gillespie Algorithm. First, factoring reaction propensities allows many propensities dependent on a single species to be updated in a single operation. Second, representing dependencies between reactions with a bipartite graph of reactions and species requires only storage for reactions, rather than the required for a graph that includes only reactions. Together, these improvements allow our implementation of LOLCAT Method to execute orders of magnitude faster than currently existing Gillespie Algorithm variants when simulating several yeast MAPK cascade models. PMID:20066048
Indurkhya, Sagar; Beal, Jacob
2010-01-06
ODE simulations of chemical systems perform poorly when some of the species have extremely low concentrations. Stochastic simulation methods, which can handle this case, have been impractical for large systems due to computational complexity. We observe, however, that when modeling complex biological systems: (1) a small number of reactions tend to occur a disproportionately large percentage of the time, and (2) a small number of species tend to participate in a disproportionately large percentage of reactions. We exploit these properties in LOLCAT Method, a new implementation of the Gillespie Algorithm. First, factoring reaction propensities allows many propensities dependent on a single species to be updated in a single operation. Second, representing dependencies between reactions with a bipartite graph of reactions and species requires only storage for reactions, rather than the required for a graph that includes only reactions. Together, these improvements allow our implementation of LOLCAT Method to execute orders of magnitude faster than currently existing Gillespie Algorithm variants when simulating several yeast MAPK cascade models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vink, J.P.M.; Meeussen, J.C.L.
2007-01-01
The chemical speciation model BIOCHEM was extended with ecotoxicological transfer functions for uptake of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by plants and soil invertebrates. It was coupled to the object-oriented framework ORCHESTRA to achieve a flexible and dynamic decision support system (DSS) to analyse natural or anthropogenic changes that occur in river systems. The DSS uses the chemical characteristics of soils and sediments as input, and calculates speciation and subsequent uptake by biota at various scenarios. Biotic transfer functions were field-validated, and actual hydrological conditions were derived from long-term monitoring data. The DSS was tested for several scenarios that occur in the Meuse catchment areas, such as flooding and sedimentation of riverine sediments on flood plains. Risks are expressed in terms of changes in chemical mobility, and uptake by flood plain key species (flora and fauna). - A diagnostic risk-assessment tool for heavy metals, based on biotic and abiotic interactions, compares risks under different environmental scenarios
Kudaeva, I V; Dyakovich, O A; Beygel, E A; Masnavieva, L B; Naumova, O V; Budarina, L A
There are many harmful factors that possess a damaging impact on the body of employees at aluminum production. It leads to the development of bronchial asthma (BA), chronic nonobstructive bronchitis (CNB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathogenesis of these disorders, as well as sensitizing effect offluorine in the aluminum production is not fully understood. The purpose of this work was to study the characteristics of laboratory indices in patients with occupational diseases of the respiratory system. In workers of aluminum production with the diagnosis of occupational diseases of respiratory system (15 patients with a diagnosis of asthma, 30 CNB cases, 20 COPD patients) we evaluated the content of total protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), total calcium, phosphorus, ceruloplasmin, hematological indices and performed emigration of leukocytes braking test (TTEEL). Clinical and biochemical profile ofpersons with occupational asthma was characterized by a low level of total calcium and ceruloplasmin, a high concentration of phosphorus in the blood serum and inhibition of leukocyte emigration in the test with sodium fluoride. For aluminum production CNB workers characteristic active proatherogenic process was pronounced by a decrease in the HDLC level and an increase in atherogenic index; higher hematocrit value and concentration of erythrocytes, and more than 50% of cases of sensitization to the presence of sodium fluoride. COPD cases had occupational lower average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte, total protein in serum, as well as polymorphic variant response to sodium fluoride in the form of a depression and activation of leucocytes emigration.
Hahl, Sayuri K; Kremling, Andreas
2016-01-01
In the mathematical modeling of biochemical reactions, a convenient standard approach is to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that follow the law of mass action. However, this deterministic ansatz is based on simplifications; in particular, it neglects noise, which is inherent to biological processes. In contrast, the stochasticity of reactions is captured in detail by the discrete chemical master equation (CME). Therefore, the CME is frequently applied to mesoscopic systems, where copy numbers of involved components are small and random fluctuations are thus significant. Here, we compare those two common modeling approaches, aiming at identifying parallels and discrepancies between deterministic variables and possible stochastic counterparts like the mean or modes of the state space probability distribution. To that end, a mathematically flexible reaction scheme of autoregulatory gene expression is translated into the corresponding ODE and CME formulations. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, deterministic stable fixed points usually correspond well to the modes in the stationary probability distribution. However, this connection might be disrupted in small systems. The discrepancies are characterized and systematically traced back to the magnitude of the stoichiometric coefficients and to the presence of nonlinear reactions. These factors are found to synergistically promote large and highly asymmetric fluctuations. As a consequence, bistable but unimodal, and monostable but bimodal systems can emerge. This clearly challenges the role of ODE modeling in the description of cellular signaling and regulation, where some of the involved components usually occur in low copy numbers. Nevertheless, systems whose bimodality originates from deterministic bistability are found to sustain a more robust separation of the two states compared to bimodal, but monostable systems. In regulatory circuits that require precise coordination, ODE modeling is thus still
[Age changes of immunological, morphological and biochemical indices of male reproductive system].
Boĭko, O V; Akhmineeva, A Kh; Gudinskaia, N I; Boĭko, V I; Kozak, D M
2014-01-01
The article analyzes the dependence of bactericidal activity of sperm--natural resistance factors controlling the survival of bacteria in the urogenital tract, on the age of men. These data are compared with the results of the standard (on the recommendations of the WHO) spermogram, reflecting reproductive health. Due to the fact that one of the main etiological agents of infectious disease groups in the male reproductive system in adulthood are Staphylococcus spp., we consider the level of bactericidal activity of sperm in resident and transient carriage of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.
Designing a reusable system based on nanodiamonds for biochemical determination of urea.
Ronzhin, N O; Baron, A V; Bondar, V S; Gitelson, I I
2015-01-01
A reusable system including urease covalently bound to the surface of modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) has been developed for the multiple determination of urea. The immobilized enzyme exhibits functional activity and catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia. The presence of ammonia is confirmed by the formation of a colored product after the addition of chemical reagents. It was shown that the MNDs-urease complex can function in a wide range of temperatures and pH as well as in deionized water. The complex provides a linear yield of the product at low analyte concentrations and allows the multiple determination of urea in vitro.
Rahman, Mokhlasur; Bhuiyan, N A; Kuhn, I; Ramamurthy, T; Rahman, M; Mollby, R; Nair, G Balakrish
2006-10-01
During recent years a pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged. Isolates of this clone are distributed among several serotypes, but are genotypically related. In the present study, a phenotyping method (biochemical fingerprinting) was used to characterize pandemic and non-pandemic isolates belonging to V. parahaemolyticus. It was found that the pandemic isolates showed a high level of phenotypic homogeneity and a majority of the pandemic isolates belonged to the same biochemical phenotype, whereas non-pandemic V. parahemolyticus isolates were more heterogeneous. In conclusion, biochemical fingerprinting of V. parahaemolyticus can be used as a first screening method to differentiate between pandemic and non-pandemic isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.
Product Distribution Theory for Control of Multi-Agent Systems
Lee, Chia Fan; Wolpert, David H.
2004-01-01
Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for controlling Multi-Agent Systems (MAS's). First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint stare of the agents. Accordingly we can consider a team game in which the shared utility is a performance measure of the behavior of the MAS. For such a scenario the game is at equilibrium - the Lagrangian is optimized - when the joint distribution of the agents optimizes the system's expected performance. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a reinforcement learning algorithm. Here we investigate the alternative of exploiting PD theory to run gradient descent on the Lagrangian. We present computer experiments validating some of the predictions of PD theory for how best to do that gradient descent. We also demonstrate how PD theory can improve performance even when we are not allowed to rerun the MAS from different initial conditions, a requirement implicit in some previous work.
Open-system Kohn-Sham density functional theory.
Zhou, Yongxi; Ernzerhof, Matthias
2012-03-07
A simple model for electron transport through molecules is provided by the source-sink potential (SSP) method [F. Goyer, M. Ernzerhof, and M. Zhuang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 144104 (2007)]. In SSP, the boundary conditions of having an incoming and outgoing electron current are enforced through complex potentials that are added to the Hamiltonian. Depending on the sign of the imaginary part of the potentials, current density is generated or absorbed. In this way, a finite system can be used to model infinite molecular electronic devices. The SSP has originally been developed for the Hückel method and subsequently it has been extended [F. Goyer and M. Ernzerhof, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 174101 (2011)] to the Hubbard model. Here we present a step towards its generalization for first-principles electronic structure theory methods. In particular, drawing on our earlier work, we discuss a new generalized density functional theory for complex non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. This theory enables us to combine SSP and Kohn-Sham theory to obtain a method for the description of open systems that exchange current density with their environment. Similarly, the Hartree-Fock method is extended to the realm of non-Hermitian, SSP containing Hamiltonians. As a proof of principle, we present the first applications of complex-density functional theory (CODFT) as well as non-Hermitian Hartree-Fock theory to electron transport through molecules. © 2012 American Institute of Physics
Extending density functional embedding theory for covalently bonded systems.
Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A
2017-12-19
Quantum embedding theory aims to provide an efficient solution to obtain accurate electronic energies for systems too large for full-scale, high-level quantum calculations. It adopts a hierarchical approach that divides the total system into a small embedded region and a larger environment, using different levels of theory to describe each part. Previously, we developed a density-based quantum embedding theory called density functional embedding theory (DFET), which achieved considerable success in metals and semiconductors. In this work, we extend DFET into a density-matrix-based nonlocal form, enabling DFET to study the stronger quantum couplings between covalently bonded subsystems. We name this theory density-matrix functional embedding theory (DMFET), and we demonstrate its performance in several test examples that resemble various real applications in both chemistry and biochemistry. DMFET gives excellent results in all cases tested thus far, including predicting isomerization energies, proton transfer energies, and highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps for local chromophores. Here, we show that DMFET systematically improves the quality of the results compared with the widely used state-of-the-art methods, such as the simple capped cluster model or the widely used ONIOM method.
Systems Theory and the Earth Systems Approach in Science Education. ERIC Digest.
Lee, Hyongyong
The systems approach provides a framework for integrating different scientific disciplines. This approach is used often in Earth Systems Education. This ERIC Digest describes the systems theory and its influence on science education. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)
Gauge theory for finite-dimensional dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurfil, Pini
2007-01-01
Gauge theory is a well-established concept in quantum physics, electrodynamics, and cosmology. This concept has recently proliferated into new areas, such as mechanics and astrodynamics. In this paper, we discuss a few applications of gauge theory in finite-dimensional dynamical systems. We focus on the concept of rescriptive gauge symmetry, which is, in essence, rescaling of an independent variable. We show that a simple gauge transformation of multiple harmonic oscillators driven by chaotic processes can render an apparently ''disordered'' flow into a regular dynamical process, and that there exists a strong connection between gauge transformations and reduction theory of ordinary differential equations. Throughout the discussion, we demonstrate the main ideas by considering examples from diverse fields, including quantum mechanics, chemistry, rigid-body dynamics, and information theory
Systemic Functional Theory: A Pickax of Textual Investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taofeek Dalamu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The study examines Systemic Functional Theory (SFT as a tool of examining text, and perhaps, text of any dimension as long as it falls within the grammatical organs of the clause. The author provides explanations for the theory from its relevant source(s. The chronological appreciation involves the efforts of Saussure, Firth, Malinowski, Hjelmslev, etc. However, Halliday’s insight seems prominent and upon which Systemic Functional Theory receives a global status that it has assumed today. Halliday constructs numerous concepts e.g. lexicogrammar, processes, cohesion, coherence, system, system network with background from traditional grammar and sociological tokens. In addition to that, the three metafunctions are characterized as its core operational concepts. Out of these, the mood system serves as the instrument of analysis of Psalm one utilized in this endeavor as a case study. Although the clauses fall within the profile of the indicative and imperative, the study reveals that some of the structures are inverted in order to propagate the intended messages. To that end, there are inverted indicative clauses expressed as inverted declarative statements, inverted imperative questions and inverted negativized polarity. In sum, Systemic Functional Theory is a facility for explaining different shapes of texts.
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Håkan Andréasson
2002-12-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on nonrelativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. The Vlasov equation describes matter phenomenologically, and it should be stressed that most of the theorems presented in this article are not presently known for other such matter models (i.e., fluid models. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.
Miller, James G.
General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…
Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach
Anderson, Brian D O
2006-01-01
Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations
Lectures on algebraic system theory: Linear systems over rings
Kamen, E. W.
1978-01-01
The presentation centers on four classes of systems that can be treated as linear systems over a ring. These are: (1) discrete-time systems over a ring of scalars such as the integers; (2) continuous-time systems containing time delays; (3) large-scale discrete-time systems; and (4) time-varying discrete-time systems.
Time delay systems theory, numerics, applications, and experiments
Ersal, Tulga; Orosz, Gábor
2017-01-01
This volume collects contributions related to selected presentations from the 12th IFAC Workshop on Time Delay Systems, Ann Arbor, June 28-30, 2015. The included papers present novel techniques and new results of delayed dynamical systems. The topical spectrum covers control theory, numerical analysis, engineering and biological applications as well as experiments and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of time delay systems, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students alike. .
Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard
2013-12-01
A system dynamics (SD) approach was taken to model crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression from measured biochemical and physiological constants. SD emphasizes state-dependent feedback interaction to describe the emergent properties of a complex system. These mechanisms maintain biological systems with homeostatic limits on a temporal basis. Previous empirical studies on CAM have correlated biological constants (e.g. enzyme kinetic parameters) with expression over the CAM diel cycle. The SD model integrates these constants within the architecture of the CAM 'system'. This allowed quantitative causal connections to be established between biological inputs and the four distinct phases of CAM delineated by gas exchange and malic acid accumulation traits. Regulation at flow junctions (e.g. stomatal and mesophyll conductance, and malic acid transport across the tonoplast) that are subject to feedback control (e.g. stomatal aperture, malic acid inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and enzyme kinetics) was simulated. Simulated expression for the leaf-succulent Kalanchoë daigremontiana and more succulent tissues of Agave tequilana showed strong correlation with measured gas exchange and malic acid accumulation (R(2) = 0.912 and 0.937, respectively, for K. daigremontiana and R(2) = 0.928 and 0.942, respectively, for A. tequilana). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantitatively identify determinants of diel CO2 uptake. The transition in CAM expression from low to high volume/area tissues (elimination of phase II-IV carbon-uptake signatures) was achieved largely by the manipulation three input parameters. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalid, N.; Hussain, M.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.
2017-01-01
Pollution caused by vehicular exhaust emissions detrimentally affect plants and other living beings. This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of vehicular exhaust pollutants on Parthenium hysterophorus at various sites along two major roads [Pindi Bhattian to Lillah (M-2) and Faisalabad to Sargodha (FSR)]in the Punjab, Pakistan. Control samples of P. hysterophorus were also collected from 100m away from the roads. Chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, substomatal CO/sub 2/ concentration, water use efficiency, total free amino acids and total antioxidant activity of P. hysterophorus were measured. The results depicted significant reductions in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of P. hysterophorus. Likewise, reduction in stomatal conductance was also recorded which resulted in lowered photosynthetic and transpiration rates. The overall reduction in photosynthetic rate of P. hysterophorus was 30.92% and 35.38% along M-2 and FSR roads, respectively. The limited photosynthesis resulted in increased levels of sub stomatal /sub 2/ concentration and water use efficiency. The elevated levels of free amino acids and total antioxidant activity were noted and could be attributed to activation of plant's defense system to cope with the deleterious effects of vehicular air pollutants. The significant correlations between various attributes of P. hysterophorus with traffic density signifies the stress caused by vehicular emissions. (author)
Statistical quasi-particle theory for open quantum systems
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2018-04-01
This paper presents a comprehensive account on the recently developed dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) theory. This is a statistical quasi-particle theory for quantum dissipative dynamics. It accurately describes the influence of bulk environments, with a few number of quasi-particles, the dissipatons. The novel dissipaton algebra is then followed, which readily bridges the Schrödinger equation to the DEOM theory. As a fundamental theory of quantum mechanics in open systems, DEOM characterizes both the stationary and dynamic properties of system-and-bath interferences. It treats not only the quantum dissipative systems of primary interest, but also the hybrid environment dynamics that could be experimentally measurable. Examples are the linear or nonlinear Fano interferences and the Herzberg-Teller vibronic couplings in optical spectroscopies. This review covers the DEOM construction, the underlying dissipaton algebra and theorems, the physical meanings of dynamical variables, the possible identifications of dissipatons, and some recent advancements in efficient DEOM evaluations on various problems. The relations of the present theory to other nonperturbative methods are also critically presented.
International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics
Szegö, G
1969-01-01
The International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics was held at the Villa Monastero in Varenna, Italy, from June 1 through June 12, 1967. The objective of this Summer School was to review the state of the art and the prospects for the application of the mathematical theory of systems to the study and the solution of economic problems. Particular emphasis was given to the use of the mathematical theory of control for the solution of problems in economics. It was felt that the publication of a volume collecting most of the lectures given at the school would show the current status of the application of these methods. The papers are organized into four sections arranged into two volumes: basic theories and optimal control of economic systems which appear in the first volume, and special mathematical problems and special applications which are contained in the second volume. Within each section the papers follow in alphabetical order by author. The seven papers on basic theories are a rat...
Modeling of MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters using electromagnetic and power system theories
Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Alshareef, Husam N.; Elshurafa, Amro M.; Salama, Khaled N.
2012-01-01
-to-electrical analogy, electromagnetic theory, and power system theory is developed. The mechanical-to-electrical analogy and power system theory allow the derivation of an equivalent input impedance expression for the network, whereas electromagnetic transmission line
Nitric oxide in the nervous system: biochemical, developmental, and neurobiological aspects.
Cossenza, Marcelo; Socodato, Renato; Portugal, Camila C; Domith, Ivan C L; Gladulich, Luis F H; Encarnação, Thaísa G; Calaza, Karin C; Mendonça, Henrique R; Campello-Costa, Paula; Paes-de-Carvalho, Roberto
2014-01-01
Nitric oxide (NO) is a very reactive molecule, and its short half-life would make it virtually invisible until its discovery. NO activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), increasing 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels to activate PKGs. Although NO triggers several phosphorylation cascades due to its ability to react with Fe II in heme-containing proteins such as sGC, it also promotes a selective posttranslational modification in cysteine residues by S-nitrosylation, impacting on protein function, stability, and allocation. In the central nervous system (CNS), NO synthesis usually requires a functional coupling of nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I) and proteins such as NMDA receptors or carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of NOS (CAPON), which is critical for specificity and triggering of selected pathways. NO also modulates CREB (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein), ERK, AKT, and Src, with important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Differences in the regulation of neuronal death or survival by NO may be explained by several mechanisms involving localization of NOS isoforms, amount of NO being produced or protein sets being modulated. A number of studies show that NO regulates neurotransmitter release and different aspects of synaptic dynamics, such as differentiation of synaptic specializations, microtubule dynamics, architecture of synaptic protein organization, and modulation of synaptic efficacy. NO has also been associated with synaptogenesis or synapse elimination, and it is required for long-term synaptic modifications taking place in axons or dendrites. In spite of tremendous advances in the knowledge of NO biological effects, a full description of its role in the CNS is far from being completely elucidated. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoosain, N; Lastovica, A J
2009-06-01
To evaluate the Oxoid Biochemical Identification System (OBIS) Campy test (ID0800M) against Campylobacter; Arcobacter; and other micro-organisms, with similar colonial morphology, for the detection of l-alanine aminopeptidase (l-ALA). The KOH and l-ALA (OBIS and Fluka) tests were carried out on every isolate. The procedures were followed as indicated in the OBIS and Fluka kit instructions. A total of 146 strains of 19 species of Campylobacter, seven strains of Arcobacter butzleri, four Arcobacter butzleri-like strains, 42 strains of 10 species of Helicobacter, 96 Gram-negative and 49 Gram-positive clinical isolates were tested. As expected, Campylobacter and Arcobacter strains were negative, while other Gram-negative bacteria were positive for the l-ALA test. An unexpected finding was that Helicobacter strains, although Gram-negative, were all negative for the l-ALA tests suggesting the absence of l-ALA within this genus. This is a novel finding. The absence of l-ALA was confirmed upon comparison with the available full genomic sequences of Helicobacter on the NCBI database. The OBIS Campy (ID0800M) test kit proved to be rapid and accurate for the presumptive characterization of Campylobacter and Arcobacter. A novel finding was that Helicobacter species also did not have the l-ALA enzyme. The OBIS kit will be useful in diagnostic laboratories for the presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter strains.
Xin, Lingling; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Guangmei; Wang, Xiaoru; Chen, Xi
2007-09-01
An on-line roboticized apparatus, including an optical biosensing film with an automatic flow sampling system, has been developed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination of seawater. The sensing film employed in the apparatus consisted of an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) film embedded with tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) perchlorate. Three species of microorganism cultivated from seawater were immobilized in an ORMOSIL-polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Possible factors affecting BOD determination were studied, including sampling frequency, temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration. Based on measurements of the linear fluctuant coefficients and the reproducibility of its response to seawater, the BOD apparatus showed the advantages of high veracity and short response time. Generally, the linear fluctuant coefficient (R2) in the BOD range 0.2-40 mg l-1 was 0.9945 when using a glucose/glutamate (GGA) BOD standard solution. A reproducible response for the BOD sensing film of within ±2.8% could be obtained in the 2 mg l-1 GGA solution. The BOD apparatus was applied to the BOD determination of seawater, and the values estimated by this biosensing apparatus correlated well with those determined by the conventional 5 day BOD (BOD5) test.
A synthesis theory for self-oscillating adaptive systems /SOAS/
Horowitz, I.; Smay, J.; Shapiro, A.
1974-01-01
A quantitative synthesis theory is presented for the Self-Oscillating Adaptive System (SOAS), whose nonlinear element has a static, odd character with hard saturation. The synthesis theory is based upon the quasilinear properties of the SOAS to forced inputs, which permits the extension of quantitative linear feedback theory to the SOAS. A reasonable definition of optimum design is shown to be the minimization of the limit cycle frequency. The great advantages of the SOAS is its zero sensitivity to pure gain changes. However, quasilinearity and control of the limit cycle amplitude at the system output, impose additional constraints which partially or completely cancel this advantage, depending on the numerical values of the design parameters. By means of narrow-band filtering, an additional factor is introduced which permits trade-off between filter complexity and limit cycle frequency minimization.
A Theory of the Origin of the Solar System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. MITRA
1969-06-01
Full Text Available theory of tlie origin of the solar system is propounded.
The approach belongs to the dualistic class of theories but still retains all
the essential features of a monistic theory. It emphasizes the need of a
foreign body approaching the solar nebula for the occurrence of an instability
in the boundary layer of the nebular disc. This foreign body is postulated
to be a brother star of the Sun in the sense that both belong to a common
central parent body such as any two successive planets belong to
the Sun. The analysis gives a law of distance of the planets from tlie Sun.
This law is obeyed separately by both the groups of the planets more closely
than the existing Titius - Bode's law. The law is also found to be applicable
in the various satellite systems.
Nonautonomous linear Hamiltonian systems oscillation, spectral theory and control
Johnson, Russell; Novo, Sylvia; Núñez, Carmen; Fabbri, Roberta
2016-01-01
This monograph contains an in-depth analysis of the dynamics given by a linear Hamiltonian system of general dimension with nonautonomous bounded and uniformly continuous coefficients, without other initial assumptions on time-recurrence. Particular attention is given to the oscillation properties of the solutions as well as to a spectral theory appropriate for such systems. The book contains extensions of results which are well known when the coefficients are autonomous or periodic, as well as in the nonautonomous two-dimensional case. However, a substantial part of the theory presented here is new even in those much simpler situations. The authors make systematic use of basic facts concerning Lagrange planes and symplectic matrices, and apply some fundamental methods of topological dynamics and ergodic theory. Among the tools used in the analysis, which include Lyapunov exponents, Weyl matrices, exponential dichotomy, and weak disconjugacy, a fundamental role is played by the rotation number for linear Hami...
A mean field theory of coded CDMA systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yano, Toru; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Saad, David
2008-01-01
We present a mean field theory of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with error-control coding. On the basis of the relation between the free energy and mutual information, we obtain an analytical expression of the maximum spectral efficiency of the coded CDMA system, from which a mean-field description of the coded CDMA system is provided in terms of a bank of scalar Gaussian channels whose variances in general vary at different code symbol positions. Regular low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded CDMA systems are also discussed as an example of the coded CDMA systems
A mean field theory of coded CDMA systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yano, Toru [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida Hon-machi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yano@thx.appi.keio.ac.jp
2008-08-15
We present a mean field theory of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with error-control coding. On the basis of the relation between the free energy and mutual information, we obtain an analytical expression of the maximum spectral efficiency of the coded CDMA system, from which a mean-field description of the coded CDMA system is provided in terms of a bank of scalar Gaussian channels whose variances in general vary at different code symbol positions. Regular low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded CDMA systems are also discussed as an example of the coded CDMA systems.
Ecological theories of systems and contextual change in medical education.
Ellaway, Rachel H; Bates, Joanna; Teunissen, Pim W
2017-12-01
Contemporary medical practice is subject to many kinds of change, to which both individuals and systems have to respond and adapt. Many medical education programmes have their learners rotating through different training contexts, which means that they too must learn to adapt to contextual change. Contextual change presents many challenges to medical education scholars and practitioners, not least because of a somewhat fractured and contested theoretical basis for responding to these challenges. There is a need for robust concepts to articulate and connect the various debates on contextual change in medical education. Ecological theories of systems encompass a range of concepts of how and why systems change and how and why they respond to change. The use of these concepts has the potential to help medical education scholars explore the nature of change and understand the role it plays in affording as well as limiting teaching and learning. This paper, aimed at health professional education scholars and policy makers, explores a number of key concepts from ecological theories of systems to present a comprehensive model of contextual change in medical education to inform theory and practice in all areas of medical education. The paper considers a range of concepts drawn from ecological theories of systems, including biotic and abiotic factors, panarchy, attractors and repellers, basins of attraction, homeostasis, resilience, adaptability, transformability and hysteresis. Each concept is grounded in practical examples from medical education. Ecological theories of systems consider change and response in terms of adaptive cycles functioning at different scales and speeds. This can afford opportunities for systematic consideration of responses to contextual change in medical education, which in turn can inform the design of education programmes, activities, evaluations, assessments and research that accommodates the dynamics and consequences of contextual change.
The Formation of the Solar System: Theories Old and New
Woolfson, Michael
ch. 1. Theories come and theories go -- ch. 2. Measuring atoms and the universe -- ch. 3. Greek offerings -- ch. 4. The shoulders of giants -- ch. 5. A voyage of discovery to the solar system -- ch. 6. The problem to be solved -- ch. 7. The French connection -- ch. 8. American Catherine-Wheels -- ch. 9. British big tides -- ch. 10. Russian could capture-with British help -- ch. 11. German vortices-with a little French help -- ch. 12. McCrea's floccules -- ch. 13. What earlier theories indicate -- ch. 14. Disks around new stars -- ch. 15. Planets around other stars -- ch. 16. Disks around older stars -- ch. 17. What a theory should explain now -- ch. 18. The new Solar Nebula theory: the angular momentum problem -- ch. 19. Making planets top-down -- ch. 20. A bottom-up alternative -- ch. 21. Making planets faster -- ch. 22. Wandering planets -- ch. 23. Back to top-down -- ch. 24. This is the stuff that stars are made of -- ch. 25. Making dense cool clouds -- ch. 26. A star is born -- ch. 27. Close to the maddening crowd -- ch. 28. Close encounters of the stellar kind -- ch. 29. Ever decreasing circles -- ch. 30. How many planetary systems? -- ch. 31. Starting a family -- ch. 32. Tilting-but not as windmills -- ch. 33. The terrestrial planets raise problems! -- ch. 34. A British Bang theory: the earth and Venus -- ch. 35. Behold the wandering moon -- ch. 36. Fleet Mercury and warlike Mars -- ch. 37. Gods of the sea and the nether regions -- ch. 38. Bits and pieces -- ch. 39. Comets-the harbingers of doom! -- ch. 40. Making atoms with a biggish bang -- ch. 41. Is the capture theory valid?
Applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems
Vos, Hendrik J.
1994-01-01
Some applications of Bayesian decision theory to intelligent tutoring systems are considered. How the problem of adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to the changing nature of a student's capabilities during the learning process can be situated in the general framework of Bayesian decision
A Dynamic Systems Theory Model of Visual Perception Development
Coté, Carol A.
2015-01-01
This article presents a model for understanding the development of visual perception from a dynamic systems theory perspective. It contrasts to a hierarchical or reductionist model that is often found in the occupational therapy literature. In this proposed model vision and ocular motor abilities are not foundational to perception, they are seen…
Optimal relaxed causal sampler using sampled-date system theory
Shekhawat, Hanumant; Meinsma, Gjerrit
This paper studies the design of an optimal relaxed causal sampler using sampled data system theory. A lifted frequency domain approach is used to obtain the existence conditions and the optimal sampler. A state space formulation of the results is also provided. The resulting optimal relaxed causal
An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.
Matthews, Charles O.
1992-01-01
Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)
Study of one dimensional magnetic system via field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talim, S.L.
1988-04-01
We present a study of one-dimensional magnetic system using field theory methods. We studied the discreteness effects in a classical anisotropic one dimensional antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field. It is shown that for TMMC, at the temperatures and magnetic fields where most experiments have been done, the corrections are small and can be neglected. (author)
Solution of quantum integrable systems from quiver gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorey, Nick [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zhao, Peng [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook (United States)
2017-02-23
We construct new integrable systems describing particles with internal spin from four-dimensional N = 2 quiver gauge theories. The models can be quantized and solved exactly using the quantum inverse scattering method and also using the Bethe/Gauge correspondence.
Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity and time-reversal invariance . In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asymmetric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour spacing ...
Complex Time-Delay Systems Theory and Applications
Atay, Fatihcan M
2010-01-01
Time delays in dynamical systems arise as an inevitable consequence of finite speeds of information transmission. Realistic models increasingly demand the inclusion of delays in order to properly understand, analyze, design, and control real-life systems. The goal of this book is to present the state-of-the-art in research on time-delay dynamics in the framework of complex systems and networks. While the mathematical theory of delay equations is quite mature, its application to the particular problems of complex systems and complexity is a newly emerging field, and the present volume aims to play a pioneering role in this perspective. The chapters in this volume are authored by renowned experts and cover both theory and applications in a wide range of fields, with examples extending from neuroscience and biology to laser physics and vehicle traffic. Furthermore, all chapters include sufficient introductory material and extensive bibliographies, making the book a self-contained reference for both students and ...
International Conference on Dynamical Systems : Theory and Applications
2016-01-01
The book is a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the international conference "Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications," held in Lódz, Poland on December 7-10, 2015. The studies give deep insight into new perspectives in analysis, simulation, and optimization of dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Broadly outlined topics covered include: bifurcation and chaos in dynamical systems, asymptotic methods in nonlinear dynamics, dynamics in life sciences and bioengineering, original numerical methods of vibration analysis, control in dynamical systems, stability of dynamical systems, vibrations of lumped and continuous sytems, non-smooth systems, engineering systems and differential equations, mathematical approaches to dynamical systems, and mechatronics.
International Conference on Dynamical Systems : Theory and Applications
2016-01-01
The book is the second volume of a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the international conference "Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications," held in Lódz, Poland on December 7-10, 2015. The studies give deep insight into new perspectives in analysis, simulation, and optimization of dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Broadly outlined topics covered include: bifurcation and chaos in dynamical systems, asymptotic methods in nonlinear dynamics, dynamics in life sciences and bioengineering, original numerical methods of vibration analysis, control in dynamical systems, stability of dynamical systems, vibrations of lumped and continuous sytems, non-smooth systems, engineering systems and differential equations, mathematical approaches to dynamical systems, and mechatronics.
Theory of heavy-fermion compounds theory of strongly correlated Fermi-systems
Amusia, Miron Ya; Shaginyan, Vasily R; Stephanovich, Vladimir A
2015-01-01
This book explains modern and interesting physics in heavy-fermion (HF) compounds to graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics. It presents a theory of heavy-fermion (HF) compounds such as HF metals, quantum spin liquids, quasicrystals and two-dimensional Fermi systems. The basic low-temperature properties and the scaling behavior of the compounds are described within the framework of the theory of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). Upon reading the book, the reader finds that HF compounds with quite different microscopic nature exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior, while the data collected on very different HF systems have a universal scaling behavior, and these compounds are unexpectedly uniform despite their diversity. For the reader's convenience, the analysis of compounds is carried out in the context of salient experimental results. The numerous calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties, being in good...
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariano Rodriguez
Full Text Available In hemodialysis patients, deviations from KDIGO recommended values of individual parameters, phosphate, calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH, are associated with increased mortality. However, it is widely accepted that these parameters are not regulated independently of each other and that therapy aimed to correct one parameter often modifies the others. The aim of the present study is to quantify the degree of association between parameters of chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD.Data was extracted from a cohort of 1758 adult HD patients between January 2000 and June 2013 obtaining a total of 46.141 records (10 year follow-up. We used an advanced data analysis system called Random Forest (RF which is based on self-learning procedure with similar axioms to those utilized for the development of artificial intelligence. This new approach is particularly useful when the variables analyzed are closely dependent to each other.The analysis revealed a strong association between PTH and phosphate that was superior to that of PTH and Calcium. The classical linear regression analysis between PTH and phosphate shows a correlation coefficient is 0.27, p<0.001, the possibility to predict PTH changes from phosphate modification is marginal. Alternatively, RF assumes that changes in phosphate will cause modifications in other associated variables (calcium and others that may also affect PTH values. Using RF the correlation coefficient between changes in serum PTH and phosphate is 0.77, p<0.001; thus, the power of prediction is markedly increased. The effect of therapy on biochemical variables was also analyzed using this RF.Our results suggest that the analysis of the complex interactions between mineral metabolism parameters in CKD-MBD may demand a more advanced data analysis system such as RF.
Yang-Baxter algebra - Integrable systems - Conformal quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karowski, M.
1989-01-01
This series of lectures is based on investigations [1,2] of finite-size corrections for the six-vertex model by means of Bethe ansatz methods. In addition a review on applications of Yang-Baxter algebras and an introduction to the theory of integrable systems and the algebraic Bethe ansatz is presented. A Θ-vacuum like angle appearing in the RSOS-models is discussed. The continuum limit in the critical case of these statistical models is performed to obtain the minimal models of conformal quantum field theory. (author)
Elements of a compatible optimization theory for coupled systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnemay, A.
1969-01-01
The first theory deals with the compatible optimization in coupled systems. A game theory for two players and with a non-zero sum is first developed. The conclusions are then extended to the case of a game with any finite number of players. After this essentially static study, the dynamic aspect of the problem is applied to the case of games which evolve. By applying PONTRYAGIN maximum principle it is possible to derive a compatible optimisation theorem which constitutes a necessary condition. (author) [fr
Nonlinear PI control of chaotic systems using singular perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jiang; Wang Jing; Li Huiyan
2005-01-01
In this paper, we develop the nonlinear PI controllers for a class of chaotic systems based on singular perturbation theory. The original system is decomposed into two reduced order systems, to which the nonlinear uncertain terms belongs. In order to alleviate the deterioration of these nonlinear uncertainties, the nonlinear PI controllers are applied to each subsystem and combined to construct the composite controller for the full order system. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulations on the chaotic Chua's circuit
Linear circuits, systems and signal processing: theory and application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrnes, C.I.; Saeks, R.E.; Martin, C.F.
1988-01-01
In part because of its universal role as a first approximation of more complicated behaviour and in part because of the depth and breadth of its principle paradigms, the study of linear systems continues to play a central role in control theory and its applications. Enhancing more traditional applications to aerospace and electronics, application areas such as econometrics, finance, and speech and signal processing have contributed to a renaissance in areas such as realization theory and classical automatic feedback control. Thus, the last few years have witnessed a remarkable research effort expended in understanding both new algorithms and new paradigms for modeling and realization of linear processes and in the analysis and design of robust control strategies. The papers in this volume reflect these trends in both the theory and applications of linear systems and were selected from the invited and contributed papers presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems held in Phoenix on June 15-19, 1987
Guillemin, Ernst A
2013-01-01
An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.
Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications
Xing, Jing Tang
2015-01-01
This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...
Mode 3 knowledge production: Systems and systems theory, clusters and networks
Carayannis, Elias G.; Campbell, David F. J.; Rehman, Scheherazade S.
2016-01-01
With the comprehensive term of "Mode 3," we want to draw a conceptual link between systems and systems theory and want to demonstrate further how this can be applied to knowledge in the next steps. Systems can be understood as being composed of "elements", which are tied together by a "self-rationale". For innovation, often innovation clusters and innovation networks are being regarded as important. By leveraging systems theory for innovation concepts, one can implement references between the...
Fortunato, Ana S; Lidon, Fernando C; Batista-Santos, Paula; Leitão, António Eduardo; Pais, Isabel P; Ribeiro, Ana I; Ramalho, José Cochicho
2010-03-15
Low positive temperature (chilling) is frequently linked to the promotion of oxidative stress conditions, and is of particular importance in the coffee plant due to its severe impact on growth, development, photosynthesis and production. Nevertheless, some acclimation ability has been reported within the Coffea genus, and is possibly related to oxidative stress control. Using an integrated biochemical and molecular approach, the characterization of the antioxidative system of genotypes with different cold acclimation abilities was performed. Experiments were carried out using 1.5-year-old coffee seedlings of Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. dewevrei and 2 hybrids, Icatu (C. arabicaxC. canephora) and Piatã (C. dewevreixC. arabica) subjected to a gradual cold treatment and a recovery period. Icatu showed the greatest ability to control oxidative stress, as reflected by the enhancement of several antioxidative components (Cu,Zn-SOD and APX activities; ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) contents) and lower reactive oxygen species contents (H(2)O(2) and OH). Gene expression studies show that GRed, DHAR and class III and IV chitinases might also be involved in the cold acclimation ability of Icatu. Catuaí showed intermediate acclimation ability through the reinforcement of some antioxidative molecules, usually to a lesser extent than that observed in Icatu. On the other hand, C. dewevrei showed the poorest response in terms of antioxidant accumulation, and also showed the greatest increase in OH values. The difference in the triggering of antioxidative traits supports the hypothesis of its importance to cold (and photoinhibition) tolerance in Coffea sp. and could provide a useful probe to identify tolerant genotypes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns.
Hasegawa, Yoshihiko
2018-02-01
Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.
Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems.
Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian
2013-03-01
Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.
Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed
2017-03-01
This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.
Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.
Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles
2008-05-01
In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential
The theory and practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification system
Satija, M P
2013-01-01
The Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC) is the world's most popular library classification system. The 23rd edition of the DDC was published in 2011. This second edition of The Theory and Practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification System examines the history, management and technical aspects of the DDC up to its latest edition. The book places emphasis on explaining the structure and number building techniques in the DDC and reviews all aspects of subject analysis and number building by the most recent version of the DDC. A history of, and introduction to, the DDC is followed by subjec
Theory and applications of artificial endocrine system-an overview
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CUI Wei; QIANG Sheng; GAO X Z
2006-01-01
Inspired by the biological endocrine system, the Artificial Endocrine System (AES) has been proposed and investigated during the past decade. As a novel branch of computational intelligence methods, it has its unique and distinguishing features. This paper intends to give an overview of the current research work in the AES. The preliminary theory of the AES, which is based on the simplified mathematic models of natural endocrine system, is first introduced here. Some typical AES algorithms and their applications are also briefly discussed. Finally, a few remarks and conclusions are made.
Quantum theory of many-body systems techniques and applications
Zagoskin, Alexandre
2014-01-01
This text presents a self-contained treatment of the physics of many-body systems from the point of view of condensed matter. The approach, quite traditionally, uses the mathematical formalism of quasiparticles and Green’s functions. In particular, it covers all the important diagram techniques for normal and superconducting systems, including the zero-temperature perturbation theory and the Matsubara, Keldysh and Nambu-Gor'kov formalism, as well as an introduction to Feynman path integrals. This new edition contains an introduction to the methods of theory of one-dimensional systems (bosonization and conformal field theory) and their applications to many-body problems. Intended for graduate students in physics and related fields, the aim is not to be exhaustive, but to present enough detail to enable the student to follow the current research literature, or to apply the techniques to new problems. Many of the examples are drawn from mesoscopic physics, which deals with systems small enough that quantum...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuo Tanne
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article was designed to report the current status of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs and the therapeutic system on the basis of a series of clinical, biomechanical, histological and biochemical studies in our research groups. In particular, we have focused on the association of degenerative changes of articular cartilage in the mandibular condyle and the resultant progressive condylar resorption with mechanical stimuli acting on the condyle during the stomatognathic function. In a clinical aspect, the nature and prevalence of TMDs, association of malocclusion with TMDs, association of condylar position with TMDs, association of craniofacial morphology with TMDs, and influences of TMDs, TMJ-osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA in particular, were examined. In a biomechanical aspect, the nature of stress distribution in the TMJ from maximum clenching was analyzed with finite element method. In addition, the pattern of stress distribution was examined in association with varying vertical discrepancies of the craniofacial skeleton and friction between the articular disk and condyle. The results demonstrated an induction of large compressive stresses in the anterior and lateral areas on the condyle by the maximum clenching and the subsequent prominent increases in the same areas of the mandibular condyle as the vertical skeletal discrepancy became more prominent. Increase of friction at the articular surface was also indicated as a cause of larger stresses and the relevant disk displacement, which further induced an increase in stresses in the tissues posterior to the disks, indicating an important role of TMJ disks as a stress absorber. In a histological or biological aspect, increase in TMJ loading simulated by vertical skeletal discrepancy, which has already been revealed by the preceding finite element analysis or represented by excessive mouth opening, produced a decrease in the thickness of cartilage layers, an increase in the numbers of
Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger
2015-01-01
Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...
A Systematic Review of Literature Using Business Systems Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Morgan, Glenn
2015-01-01
, international business (IB) studies do not tend to borrow much from this sub-field. This paper reviews BST literature from 1992 to 2015 and seeks to identify its contributions and gaps, in ways that can be helpful for future research in IB. Trend analysis of BST literature and mapping this sub-field suggests......Business system theory (BST) lies at the intersection of organization theory, political economy and sociology. It is gaining incremental attention in the field of management, particularly in cross-border and comparative studies of the structure, strategy and management of multinationals. Yet...... that the BST research stream can be identified in relation to four ‘broad themes’ which we describe as junctures- i.e. comparative business systems, internationalisation and MNC management, organizational capability and innovation, and transnational communities. Mapping and pattern recognition of the ‘themes...
Theory of many-body localization in periodically driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abanin, Dmitry A.; De Roeck, Wojciech; Huveneers, François
2016-01-01
We present a theory of periodically driven, many-body localized (MBL) systems. We argue that MBL persists under periodic driving at high enough driving frequency: The Floquet operator (evolution operator over one driving period) can be represented as an exponential of an effective time-independent Hamiltonian, which is a sum of quasi-local terms and is itself fully MBL. We derive this result by constructing a sequence of canonical transformations to remove the time-dependence from the original Hamiltonian. When the driving evolves smoothly in time, the theory can be sharpened by estimating the probability of adiabatic Landau–Zener transitions at many-body level crossings. In all cases, we argue that there is delocalization at sufficiently low frequency. We propose a phase diagram of driven MBL systems.
Information theory and stochastics for multiscale nonlinear systems
Majda, Andrew J; Grote, Marcus J
2005-01-01
This book introduces mathematicians to the fascinating emerging mathematical interplay between ideas from stochastics and information theory and important practical issues in studying complex multiscale nonlinear systems. It emphasizes the serendipity between modern applied mathematics and applications where rigorous analysis, the development of qualitative and/or asymptotic models, and numerical modeling all interact to explain complex phenomena. After a brief introduction to the emerging issues in multiscale modeling, the book has three main chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to information theory with novel applications to statistical mechanics, predictability, and Jupiter's Red Spot for geophysical flows. The second chapter discusses new mathematical issues regarding fluctuation-dissipation theorems for complex nonlinear systems including information flow, various approximations, and illustrates applications to various mathematical models. The third chapter discusses stochastic modeling of com...
Continuous and distributed systems II theory and applications
Zgurovsky, Mikhail
2015-01-01
As in the previous volume on the topic, the authors close the gap between abstract mathematical approaches, such as applied methods of modern algebra and analysis, fundamental and computational mechanics, nonautonomous and stochastic dynamical systems, on the one hand, and practical applications in nonlinear mechanics, optimization, decision making theory and control theory on the other. Readers will also benefit from the presentation of modern mathematical modeling methods for the numerical solution of complicated engineering problems in biochemistry, geophysics, biology and climatology. This compilation will be of interest to mathematicians and engineers working at the interface of these fields. It presents selected works of the joint seminar series of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Institute for Applied System Analysis at National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”. The authors come from Brazil, Germany, France, Mexico, Spain, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and the USA. ...
Developments in entanglement theory and applications to relevant physical systems
Lamata Manuel, Lucas
2007-01-01
This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of entanglement in relevant physical systems. Entanglement is the conducting theme of this research, though I do not dedicate to a single topic, but consider a wide scope of physical situations. I have followed mainly three lines of research for this Thesis, with a series of different works each, which are, Entanglement and Relativistic Quantum Theory, Continuous-variable entanglement, and Multipartite entanglement.
Y-system for γ-deformed ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hui-Huang; Liu, Peng [Institute of High Energy Physics, and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities,Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jun-Bao [School of Science, University of Tianjin,92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University,37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities,Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871 (China)
2017-03-27
We investigate the integrable aspects of the planar γ-deformed ABJM theory and propose the twisted asymptotic Bethe ansatz equations. A more general method through a twisted generating functional is discussed, based on which, the asymptotic large L solution of Y-system is modified in order to match the asymptotic Bethe ansatz equations. Several applications of our method in the sl(2)-like sector and some important examples in β-deformed ABJM are presented as well.
Category Theory as a Formal Mathematical Foundation for Model-Based Systems Engineering
Mabrok, Mohamed; Ryan, Michael J.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce Category Theory as a formal foundation for model-based systems engineering. A generalised view of the system based on category theory is presented, where any system can be considered as a category. The objects
The Systemic Theory of Living Systems. Part IV: Systemic Medicine—The Praxis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José A. Olalde Rangel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This fourth lecture illustrates the praxis and results of Systemic Medicine (SM in various therapeutic applications. SM's success has made it popular throughout Venezuela and Puerto Rico. The treatment of over 300 000 patients by 150 orthodox MD's, trained and qualified in SM, in 35 medical establishments with above average results corroborate its effectiveness as an eCAM in chronic degenerative diseases. Herein we provide a synopsis of results obtained in four such pathologies—the journal's necessary space restrictions somewhat limiting content—as well as clinical and photographic evidence. The validity of any medical theory is substantiated by its degree of effectivity and success. The workability of evidence-based SM corroborates Systemic Theory's transcendence.
The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olvera de la C, M.
1981-01-01
An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)
Developing interprofessional education online: An ecological systems theory analysis.
Bluteau, Patricia; Clouder, Lynn; Cureton, Debra
2017-07-01
This article relates the findings of a discourse analysis of an online asynchronous interprofessional learning initiative involving two UK universities. The impact of the initiative is traced over three intensive periods of online interaction, each of several-weeks duration occurring over a three-year period, through an analysis of a random sample of discussion forum threads. The corpus of rich data drawn from the forums is interpreted using ecological systems theory, which highlights the complexity of interaction of individual, social and cultural elements. Ecological systems theory adopts a life course approach to understand how development occurs through processes of progressively more complex reciprocal interaction between people and their environment. This lens provides a novel approach for analysis and interpretation of findings with respect to the impact of pre-registration interprofessional education and the interaction between the individual and their social and cultural contexts as they progress through 3/4 years of their programmes. Development is mapped over time (the chronosystem) to highlight the complexity of interaction across microsystems (individual), mesosystems (curriculum and institutional/care settings), exosystems (community/wider local context), and macrosystems (national context and culture). This article illustrates the intricacies of students' interprofessional development over time and the interactive effects of social ecological components in terms of professional knowledge and understanding, wider appreciation of health and social care culture and identity work. The implications for contemporary pre-registration interprofessional education and the usefulness and applicability of ecological systems theory for future research and development are considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeni V Nikolaev
2016-04-01
, performed for a biochemically-detailed and biologically-relevant model that we developed. Another novel feature of our approach is that our theorems on exponential stability of steady states for homogeneous or mixed populations are valid independently of the number N of cells in the population, which is usually very large (N ≫ 1 and unknown. We prove that the exponential stability depends on relative proportions of each type of state only. While monotone systems theory has been used previously for systems biology analysis, the current work illustrates its power for synthetic biology design, and thus has wider significance well beyond the application to the important problem of coordination of toggle switches.
Theory of L -edge spectroscopy of strongly correlated systems
Lüder, Johann; Schött, Johan; Brena, Barbara; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Thunström, Patrik; Eriksson, Olle; Sanyal, Biplab; Di Marco, Igor; Kvashnin, Yaroslav O.
2017-12-01
X-ray absorption spectroscopy measured at the L edge of transition metals (TMs) is a powerful element-selective tool providing direct information about the correlation effects in the 3 d states. The theoretical modeling of the 2 p →3 d excitation processes remains to be challenging for contemporary ab initio electronic structure techniques, due to strong core-hole and multiplet effects influencing the spectra. In this work, we present a realization of the method combining the density-functional theory with multiplet ligand field theory, proposed in Haverkort et al. [Phys. Rev. B 85, 165113 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.165113]. In this approach, a single-impurity Anderson model (SIAM) is constructed, with almost all parameters obtained from first principles, and then solved to obtain the spectra. In our implementation, we adopt the language of the dynamical mean-field theory and utilize the local density of states and the hybridization function, projected onto TM 3 d states, in order to construct the SIAM. The developed computational scheme is applied to calculate the L -edge spectra for several TM monoxides. A very good agreement between the theory and experiment is found for all studied systems. The effect of core-hole relaxation, hybridization discretization, possible extensions of the method as well as its limitations are discussed.
Sarode, Ketan Dinkar; Kumar, V Ravi; Kulkarni, B D
2016-05-01
An efficient inverse problem approach for parameter estimation, state and structure identification from dynamic data by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm methodology (ETFGA) is proposed for nonlinear dynamical biosystems using S-system canonical models. Use of multiple shooting and decomposition approach as training functions has been shown for handling of noisy datasets and computational efficiency in studying the inverse problem. The advantages of the methodology are brought out systematically by studying it for three biochemical model systems of interest. By studying a small-scale gene regulatory system described by a S-system model, the first example demonstrates the use of ETFGA for the multifold aims of the inverse problem. The estimation of a large number of parameters with simultaneous state and network identification is shown by training a generalized S-system canonical model with noisy datasets. The results of this study bring out the superior performance of ETFGA on comparison with other metaheuristic approaches. The second example studies the regulation of cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium cells now assuming limited availability of noisy data. Here, flexibility of the approach to incorporate partial system information in the identification process is shown and its effect on accuracy and predictive ability of the estimated model are studied. The third example studies the phenomenological toy model of the regulation of circadian oscillations in Drosophila that follows rate laws different from S-system power-law. For the limited noisy data, using a priori information about properties of the system, we could estimate an alternate S-system model that showed robust oscillatory behavior with predictive abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The S(c)ensory Immune System Theory.
Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Freitas, António A
2017-10-01
Viewpoints on the immune system have evolved across different paradigms, including the clonal selection theory, the idiotypic network, and the danger and tolerance models. Herein, we propose that in multicellular organisms, where panoplies of cells from different germ layers interact and immune cells are constantly generated, the behavior of the immune system is defined by the rules governing cell survival, systems physiology and organismic homeostasis. Initially, these rules were imprinted at the single cell-protist level, but supervened modifications in the transition to multicellular organisms. This context determined the emergence of the 'sensory immune system', which operates in a s(c)ensor mode to ensure systems physiology, organismic homeostasis, and perpetuation of its replicating molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fundamental link between system theory and statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atmanspacher, H.; Scheingraber, H.
1987-01-01
A fundamental link between system theory and statistical mechanics has been found to be established by the Kolmogorov entropy. By this quantity the temporal evolution of dynamical systems can be classified into regular, chaotic, and stochastic processes. Since K represents a measure for the internal information creation rate of dynamical systems, it provides an approach to irreversibility. The formal relationship to statistical mechanics is derived by means of an operator formalism originally introduced by Prigogine. For a Liouville operator L and an information operator M tilde acting on a distribution in phase space, it is shown that i[L, M tilde] = KI (I = identity operator). As a first consequence of this equivalence, a relation is obtained between the chaotic correlation time of a system and Prigogine's concept of a finite duration of presence. Finally, the existence of chaos in quantum systems is discussed with respect to the existence of a quantum mechanical time operator
Renormalization group theory of phase transitions in square Ising systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nienhuis, B.
1978-01-01
Some renormalization group calculations are presented on a number of phase transitions in a square Ising model, both second and first order. Of these transitions critical exponents are calculated, the amplitudes of the power law divergences and the locus of the transition. In some cases attention is paid to the thermodynamic functions also far from the critical point. Universality and scaling are discussed and the renormalization group theory is reviewed. It is shown how a renormalization transformation, which relates two similar systems with different macroscopic dimensions, can be constructed, and how some critical properties of the system follow from this transformation. Several numerical and analytical applications are presented. (Auth.)
Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design
Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.
2014-12-01
Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.
Nakajima, Toshiyuki
2015-12-01
Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conductance of finite systems and scaling in localization theory
Suslov, I. M.
2012-11-01
The conductance of finite systems plays a central role in the scaling theory of localization (Abrahams et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 673 (1979)). Usually it is defined by the Landauer-type formulas, which remain open the following questions: (a) exclusion of the contact resistance in the many-channel case; (b) correspondence of the Landauer conductance with internal properties of the system; (c) relation with the diffusion coefficient D(ω, q) of an infinite system. The answers to these questions are obtained below in the framework of two approaches: (1) self-consistent theory of localization by Vollhardt and Wölfle, and (2) quantum mechanical analysis based on the shell model. Both approaches lead to the same definition for the conductance of a finite system, closely related to the Thouless definition. In the framework of the self-consistent theory, the relations of finite-size scaling are derived and the Gell-Mann-Low functions β( g) for space dimensions d = 1, 2, 3 are calculated. In contrast to the previous attempt by Vollhardt and Wölfle (1982), the metallic and localized phase are considered from the same standpoint, and the conductance of a finite system has no singularity at the critical point. In the 2D case, the expansion of β( g) in 1/ g coincides with results of the σ-model approach on the two-loop level and depends on the renormalization scheme in higher loops; the use of dimensional regularization for transition to dimension d = 2 + ɛ looks incompatible with the physical essence of the problem. The results are compared with numerical and physical experiments. A situation in higher dimensions and the conditions for observation of the localization law σ(ω) ∝ - iω for conductivity are discussed.
Conductance of finite systems and scaling in localization theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suslov, I. M.
2012-01-01
The conductance of finite systems plays a central role in the scaling theory of localization (Abrahams et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 673 (1979)). Usually it is defined by the Landauer-type formulas, which remain open the following questions: (a) exclusion of the contact resistance in the many-channel case; (b) correspondence of the Landauer conductance with internal properties of the system; (c) relation with the diffusion coefficient D(ω, q) of an infinite system. The answers to these questions are obtained below in the framework of two approaches: (1) self-consistent theory of localization by Vollhardt and Wölfle, and (2) quantum mechanical analysis based on the shell model. Both approaches lead to the same definition for the conductance of a finite system, closely related to the Thouless definition. In the framework of the self-consistent theory, the relations of finite-size scaling are derived and the Gell-Mann-Low functions β(g) for space dimensions d = 1, 2, 3 are calculated. In contrast to the previous attempt by Vollhardt and Wölfle (1982), the metallic and localized phase are considered from the same standpoint, and the conductance of a finite system has no singularity at the critical point. In the 2D case, the expansion of β(g) in 1/g coincides with results of the σ-model approach on the two-loop level and depends on the renormalization scheme in higher loops; the use of dimensional regularization for transition to dimension d = 2 + ε looks incompatible with the physical essence of the problem. The results are compared with numerical and physical experiments. A situation in higher dimensions and the conditions for observation of the localization law σ(ω) ∝ −iω for conductivity are discussed.
Disformal theories of gravity: from the solar system to cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: j.a.sakstein@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2014-12-01
This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find M ∼> O(eV), which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible.
Disformal theories of gravity: from the solar system to cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakstein, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find M ∼> O(eV), which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible
Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.
Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A
2011-06-22
In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.
Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems.
Alvaro, Celeste; Lyons, Renée F; Warner, Grace; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Martens, Patricia J; Labonté, Ronald; Brown, Richard E
2010-10-20
Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally) with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT) research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use?In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR) theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. COR theory contributes to understanding the role of resources in research use, resistance to
Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hobfoll Stevan E
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to
Regularity theory for mean-field game systems
Gomes, Diogo A; Voskanyan, Vardan
2016-01-01
Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-09-14
Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems
Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K.
2016-01-01
Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
Extended Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory for degenerate Bose systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tommasini, Paolo; Passos, E J V de; Pires, M O C; Piza, A F R de Toledo
2005-01-01
An extension of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory of degenerate Bose systems in which the coupling between one and two quasi-particles is taken into account is developed. The excitation operators are written as linear combinations of one and two HFB quasi-particles. Excitation energies and quasi-particle amplitudes are given by generalized Bogoliubov equations. The excitation spectrum has two branches. The first one is a discrete branch which is gapless and has a phonon character at large wavelength and, contrarily to HFB, is always stable. This branch is detached from a second, continuum branch whose threshold, at fixed total momentum, coincides with the two quasi-particle threshold of the HFB theory. The gap between the two branches at P = 0 is twice the HFB gap, which thus provides for the relevant energy scale. Numerical results for a specific case are given
GRG computer algebra system in gravitation and general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhitnikov, V.V.; Obukhova, I.G.
1985-01-01
The main concepts and capabilities of the GRG specialized computer agebra system intended for performing calculations in the gravitation theory are described. The GRG system is written in the STANDARD LISP language. The program consists of two parts: the first one - for setting initial data, the second one - for specifying a consequence of calculations. The system can function in three formalisms: a coordinate, a tetradic with the Lorentz basis and a spinor ones. The major capabilities of the GRG system are the following: calculation of connectivity and curvature according to the specified metrics, tetrad and torsion; metric type determination according to Petrov; calculation of the Bianchi indentities; operation with an electromagnetic field; tetradic rotations; coordinate conversions
System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.
Brockett, R. W.
1972-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.
Designing modular manufacturing systems using mass customisation theories and methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Hvilshøj, Mads; Madsen, Ole
2012-01-01
Today, manufacturing systems are developed as engineered to order (ETO) solutions tailored to produce a specific product or a limited product mix. However, such dedicated systems are not consistent with the current market demands for rapid product changes, high product variety, and customisation....... In response, modular manufacturing systems (MMS) are evolving, which are aimed to possess the required responsiveness and to be the manufacturing paradigm of mass customisation (MC). Hereby, MMS brings the development process of manufacturing systems against configured to order (CTO). Up to now, research...... in MMS has primarily focused on potential benefits, basic principles, and enabling technologies, while the approaches of actually designing and creating modular architectures have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying MC theories and methods is identified based...
Theory of activated transport in bilayer quantum Hall systems.
Roostaei, B; Mullen, K J; Fertig, H A; Simon, S H
2008-07-25
We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor nu=1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern-Simons theory that in drag geometries current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment.
Effective field theories for superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braga, P.R., E-mail: pedro.rangel.braga@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Granado, D.R., E-mail: diegorochagrana@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Guimaraes, M.S., E-mail: msguimaraes@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Wotzasek, C., E-mail: clovis@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2016-11-15
In this work we investigate the description of superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces. For the case of one Fermi surface we re-obtain the result that the superconductor is more precisely described as a topological state of matter. Studying the case of more than one Fermi surface, we obtain the effective theory describing a time reversal symmetric topological superconductor. These results are obtained by employing a general procedure to construct effective low energy actions describing states of electromagnetic systems interacting with charges and defects. The procedure consists in taking into account the proliferation or dilution of these charges and defects and its consequences for the low energy description of the electromagnetic response of the system. We find that the main ingredient entering the low energy characterization of the system with more than one Fermi surface is a non-conservation of the canonical supercurrent triggered by particular vortex configurations.
Classical and Quantum Nonlinear Integrable Systems: Theory and Application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezinski, Tomasz
2003-01-01
This is a very interesting collection of introductory and review articles on the theory and applications of classical and quantum integrable systems. The book reviews several integrable systems such as the KdV equation, vertex models, RSOS and IRF models, spin chains, integrable differential equations, discrete systems, Ising, Potts and other lattice models and reaction--diffusion processes, as well as outlining major methods of solving integrable systems. These include Lax pairs, Baecklund and Miura transformations, the inverse scattering method, various types of the Bethe Ansatz, Painleve methods, the dbar method and fusion methods to mention just a few. The book is divided into two parts, each containing five chapters. The first part is devoted to classical integrable systems and introduces the subject through the KdV equation, and then proceeds through Painleve analysis, discrete systems and two-dimensional integrable partial differential equations, to culminate in the review of solvable lattice models in statistical physics, solved through the coordinate and algebraic Bethe Ansatz methods. The second part deals with quantum integrable systems, and begins with an outline of unifying approaches to quantum, statistical, ultralocal and non-ultralocal systems. The theory and methods of solving quantum integrable spin chains are then described. Recent developments in applying Bethe Ansatz methods in condensed matter physics, including superconductivity and nanoscale physics, are reviewed. The book concludes with an introduction to diffusion-reaction processes. Every chapter is devoted to a different subject and is self-contained, and thus can be read separately. A reader interesting in classical methods of solitons, such as the methods of solving the KdV equation, can start from Chapter 1, while a reader interested in the Bethe Ansatz method can immediately proceed to Chapter 5, and so on. Thus the book should appeal and be useful to a wide range of theoretical
Voronkova, Anna V; Smaglyuk, Lyubov V
2018-01-01
Introduction: Many research studies involving orthodontic patients focus on changes in levels of oral microbiocenosis after bracket placement. Based upon this the objective of the current study was to determine the effect of the developed mucosal gel with probiotics on the biochemical parameters of the oral fluid of patients during the orthodontic treatment with a bracket system. The aim: Aim of our study is to determine the effect of the developed mucosal gel with probiotics on the biochemical parameters of the oral fluid of patients during the orthodontic treatment with a bracket system. Materials and methods: 45 patients at the age of 18-24, with 15 people in each group (control, main and comparison group) were examined. The main group was presented by patients who, in order to prevent dysbiosis of the oral cavity during orthodontic treatment, were prescribed local use of the developed mucosal gel with probiotic. The statistical processing of the results of the study was carried out using methods of variation statistics using the EXCEL program (the standard package of Microsoft Office). Results: According to the results of biochemical studies, it was found that the use of orthodontic treatment of mucosal gel with probiotic in patients with crowded teeth contributes to the strengthening of antioxidant protection, an increase in nonspecific resistance, decrease in inflammation and normalization of microbiocenosis of the oral cavity. Conclusion: These studies indicated that the use of the developed mucosal gel with probiotic in patients with maxillofacial anomalies from the first day after fixation, as indicated by the level of biochemical markers of inflammation.
A unified theory for systems and cellular memory consolidation.
Dash, Pramod K; Hebert, April E; Runyan, Jason D
2004-04-01
The time-limited role of the hippocampus for explicit memory storage has been referred to as systems consolidation where learning-related changes occur first in the hippocampus followed by the gradual development of a more distributed memory trace in the neocortex. Recent experiments are beginning to show that learning induces plasticity-related molecular changes in the neocortex as well as in the hippocampus and with a similar time course. Present memory consolidation theories do not account for these findings. In this report, we present a theory (the C theory) that incorporates these new findings, provides an explanation for the length of time for hippocampal dependency, and that can account for the apparent longer consolidation periods in species with larger brains. This theory proposes that a process of cellular consolidation occurs in the hippocampus and in areas of the neocortex during and shortly after learning resulting in long-term memory storage in both areas. For a limited time, the hippocampus is necessary for memory retrieval, a process involving the coordinated reactivation of these areas. This reactivation is later mediated by longer extrahippocampal connectivity between areas. The delay in hippocampal-independent memory retrieval is the time it takes for gene products in these longer extrahippocampal projections to be transported from the soma to tagged synapses by slow axonal transport. This cellular transport event defines the period of hippocampal dependency and, thus, the duration of memory consolidation. The theoretical description for memory consolidation presented in this review provides alternative explanations for several experimental observations and presents a unification of the concepts of systems and cellular memory consolidation.
Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnino, Giorgio
2009-01-01
A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.
CHAOS THEORY, GLOBAL SYSTEMIC CHANGE, AND HYBRID WARS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Korybko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The global system is being rocked by the dueling ambitions of two competing blocs, with the US and its allies fighting to reinforce their unipolar system while Russia and its partners struggle to forge a multipolar future. The rapidity and scope with which events are unfolding makes it overwhelming for the casual observer to make sense of all of the complex processes currently at play, and truth be told, it’s understandable that all of this can appear confusing. In an attempt to clarify the present state of global affairs and forecast the direction that it’s all headed in, the article begins by explaining the nature of chaos theory and describing how it’s applicable to conceptualizing contemporary international relations. Afterwards, the idea of “chaos sequencing” is proposed, which in essence is a model that can be used in understanding the process of chaotic change. Following that, the article addresses the topic of global systemic change and includes the most relevant examples for how this relates to the present day. Next, the research combines these two aforementioned elements (chaos theory and global systemic change and presents a forward-looking geopolitical analysis that incorporates cutting-edge Hybrid War theory and aims to put the New Cold War into its proper perspective. Finally, the article ends on a suggestive note in encouraging analysts to study the authors’ conceptualization of Hybrid War in order to better prepare themselves for understanding and responding to forthcoming international events.
Theory of strong hybridization-induced relaxation in uranium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, G.; Cooper, B.R.
1988-01-01
Commonly, for metallic uranium systems, sharp magnetic excitations are not observed in neutron inelastic scattering experiments, but rather there is a continuous spectrum of magnetic response. By extending our earlier theory for partially delocalized cerium systems, we can understand this behavior. The band-f hybridization is transformed to resonant scattering in our theory, where the exchange part of the scattering gives both a two-ion interaction (physically corresponding to cooperative hybridization, giving anisotropic magnetic ordering with unusual excitation dispersion for cerium systems) and a hybridization coupling of each ion to the band sea (giving relaxation and strong energy renormalization of the excitations for cerium systems). For uranium the f delocalization (and hence the hybridization) is much stronger than for cerium. The two-ion interaction (giving quasi-ionic energy level splitting) grows by an order of magnitude or more, as evidenced by greatly increased magnetic ordering temperatures. On the other hand, the single-site hybridization strength parameter J-script characterizing the f-to-band-bath coupling grows more moderately as the f levels move toward the Fermi energy, because of the renormalizing effect of the direct scattering which broadens the f levels. The increased energy scale of the quasi-ionic level splitting for uranium as compared to cerium or plutonium is the major contributor to the greatly increased width of magnetic scattering distributions, while the moderate increase in coupling of each uranium quasi-ion to the band sea gives a lesser contribution. We apply this theory to UP and UAs and compare our results with experiment
Scattering Theory for Open Quantum Systems with Finite Rank Coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behrndt, Jussi; Malamud, Mark M.; Neidhardt, Hagen
2007-01-01
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator A D in a Hilbert space is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation of A D can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system, but since K-tilde is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family {A(μ)} of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy μ, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schroedinger-Poisson systems
Weird astronomical theories of the solar system and beyond
Seargent, David
2016-01-01
After addressing strange cosmological hypotheses in Weird Universe, David Seargent tackles the no-less bizarre theories closer to home. Alternate views on the Solar System's formation, comet composition, and the evolution of life on Earth are only some of the topics he addresses in this new work. Although these ideas exist on the fringe of mainstream astronomy, they can still shed light on the origins of life and the evolution of the planets. Continuing the author's series of books popularizing strange astronomy facts and knowledge, Weird Astronomical Theories presents an approachable exploration of the still mysterious questions about the origin of comets, the pattern of mass extinctions on Earth, and more. The alternative theories discussed here do not come from untrained amateurs. The scientists whose work is covered includes the mid-20th century Russian S. K. Vsekhsvyatskii, cosmologist Max Tegmark, British astronomers Victor Clube and William Napier, and American Tom Van Flandern, a special...
General Systems Theory: Application To The Design Of Speech Communication Courses
Tucker, Raymond K.
1971-01-01
General systems theory can be applied to problems in the teaching of speech communication courses. The author describes general systems theory as it is applied to the designing, conducting and evaluation of speech communication courses. (Author/MS)
On the theory system of hydrothermal uranium metallization in China
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Letian
2011-01-01
Based on summarizing the mass of research outcome of the predecessors, the author attempts to make a brief generalization on the theory system of hydrothermal uranium mineralization in China. The system of uranium metallization is founded in the basic way of uranium source-migration-transportation-richment-reservation. The system mainly consists of the following frames: (1) mineralization type of silification zone; (2) age gap of mineralization to host rock; (3) alkli metasomatism; (4) metallogenic layer of crust; (5)integratation of 4 types mineralization (granite, volcanics, carbonaceous-siliceous-argilaceous rock and sandstone) in tectonic-hydrothermal process; (6) pre-enrichment process of metallization; (7) decouplement of granite magma evolution; (8) types of rich ore by high tempreture sericitization; (9)basalt event;(10) rock and ore formation by HARCON. (authors)
Bifurcation theory for finitely smooth planar autonomous differential systems
Han, Maoan; Sheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiang
2018-03-01
In this paper we establish bifurcation theory of limit cycles for planar Ck smooth autonomous differential systems, with k ∈ N. The key point is to study the smoothness of bifurcation functions which are basic and important tool on the study of Hopf bifurcation at a fine focus or a center, and of Poincaré bifurcation in a period annulus. We especially study the smoothness of the first order Melnikov function in degenerate Hopf bifurcation at an elementary center. As we know, the smoothness problem was solved for analytic and C∞ differential systems, but it was not tackled for finitely smooth differential systems. Here, we present their optimal regularity of these bifurcation functions and their asymptotic expressions in the finite smooth case.
Modelling machine ensembles with discrete event dynamical system theory
Hunter, Dan
1990-01-01
Discrete Event Dynamical System (DEDS) theory can be utilized as a control strategy for future complex machine ensembles that will be required for in-space construction. The control strategy involves orchestrating a set of interactive submachines to perform a set of tasks for a given set of constraints such as minimum time, minimum energy, or maximum machine utilization. Machine ensembles can be hierarchically modeled as a global model that combines the operations of the individual submachines. These submachines are represented in the global model as local models. Local models, from the perspective of DEDS theory , are described by the following: a set of system and transition states, an event alphabet that portrays actions that takes a submachine from one state to another, an initial system state, a partial function that maps the current state and event alphabet to the next state, and the time required for the event to occur. Each submachine in the machine ensemble is presented by a unique local model. The global model combines the local models such that the local models can operate in parallel under the additional logistic and physical constraints due to submachine interactions. The global model is constructed from the states, events, event functions, and timing requirements of the local models. Supervisory control can be implemented in the global model by various methods such as task scheduling (open-loop control) or implementing a feedback DEDS controller (closed-loop control).
Renormalization group method in the theory of dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinai, Y.G.; Khanin, K.M.
1988-01-01
One of the most important events in the theory of dynamical systems for the last decade has become a wide penetration of ideas and renormalization group methods (RG) into this traditional field of mathematical physics. RG-method has been one of the main tools in statistical physics and it has proved to be rather effective while solving problems of the theory of dynamical systems referring to new types of bifurcations (see further). As in statistical mechanics the application of the RG-method is of great interest in the neighborhood of the critical point concerning the order-chaos transition. First the RG-method was applied in the pioneering papers dedicated to the appearance of a stochastical regime as a result of infinite sequences of period doubling bifurcations. At present this stochasticity mechanism is the most studied one and many papers deal with it. The study of the so-called intermittency phenomenon was the next example of application of the RG-method, i.e. the study of such a situation where the domains of the stochastical and regular behavior do alternate along a trajectory of the dynamical system
The coupled cluster theory of quantum lattice systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, R.; Xian, Yang
1994-01-01
The coupled cluster method is widely recognized nowadays as providing an ab initio method of great versatility, power, and accuracy for handling in a fully microscopic and systematic way the correlations between particles in quantum many-body systems. The number of successful applications made to date within both chemistry and physics is impressive. In this article, the authors review recent extensions of the method which now provide a unifying framework for also dealing with strongly interacting infinite quantum lattice systems described by a Hamiltonian. Such systems include both spin-lattice models (such as the anisotropic Heisenberg or XXZ model) exhibiting interesting magnetic properties, and electron lattice models (such as the tJ and Hubbard models), where the spins or fermions are localized on the sites of a regular lattice; as well as lattice gauge theories [such as the Abelian U(1) model of quantum electrodynamics and non-Abelian SU(n) models]. Illustrative results are given for both the XXZ spin lattice model and U(1) lattice gauge theory
Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.
Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S
2016-09-01
Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.
The dispersion-focalization theory of sound systems
Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Abry, Christian; Boë, Louis-Jean; Vallée, Nathalie; Ménard, Lucie
2005-04-01
The Dispersion-Focalization Theory states that sound systems in human languages are shaped by two major perceptual constraints: dispersion driving auditory contrast towards maximal or sufficient values [B. Lindblom, J. Phonetics 18, 135-152 (1990)] and focalization driving auditory spectra towards patterns with close neighboring formants. Dispersion is computed from the sum of the inverse squared inter-spectra distances in the (F1, F2, F3, F4) space, using a non-linear process based on the 3.5 Bark critical distance to estimate F2'. Focalization is based on the idea that close neighboring formants produce vowel spectra with marked peaks, easier to process and memorize in the auditory system. Evidence for increased stability of focal vowels in short-term memory was provided in a discrimination experiment on adult French subjects [J. L. Schwartz and P. Escudier, Speech Comm. 8, 235-259 (1989)]. A reanalysis of infant discrimination data shows that focalization could well be the responsible for recurrent discrimination asymmetries [J. L. Schwartz et al., Speech Comm. (in press)]. Recent data about children vowel production indicate that focalization seems to be part of the perceptual templates driving speech development. The Dispersion-Focalization Theory produces valid predictions for both vowel and consonant systems, in relation with available databases of human languages inventories.
Theory Interpretation of Control System and Design Practice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Heon Sul
2003-11-01
This book tells of theory interpretation of control system and design practice using automatic balancing weighing machine , including what control is, basic use of CEM Tool such as summary, work environment of CEM Tool, Symbol of CEM Tool, instruction of CEM Tool, drawing graph, and practice of making of CEM Tool, basic use of SIM Tool, driving test of sensor measurement motor such as LED, Pulse pick-up, answer test of RC circuit, structure of balancing weighing machine and wheel mathematical model, analysis of time response and frequency response of balancing weighing machine, and mathematical model and material property of balancing weighing machine.
Renormalized perturbation theory: Vlasov-Poisson System, weak turbulence limit and gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1987-10-01
The Self-consistency of the renormalized perturbation theory is demonstrated by applying it to the Vlasov-Poisson System and showing that the theory has the correct weak turbulence limit. Energy conservation is proved to arbitrary high order for the electrostatic drift waves. The theory is applied to derive renormalized equations for a low-β gyrokinetic system. Comparison of our theory with other current theories is presented. 22 refs
Bioattractors: dynamical systems theory and the evolution of regulatory processes
Jaeger, Johannes; Monk, Nick
2014-01-01
In this paper, we illustrate how dynamical systems theory can provide a unifying conceptual framework for evolution of biological regulatory systems. Our argument is that the genotype–phenotype map can be characterized by the phase portrait of the underlying regulatory process. The features of this portrait – such as attractors with associated basins and their bifurcations – define the regulatory and evolutionary potential of a system. We show how the geometric analysis of phase space connects Waddington's epigenetic landscape to recent computational approaches for the study of robustness and evolvability in network evolution. We discuss how the geometry of phase space determines the probability of possible phenotypic transitions. Finally, we demonstrate how the active, self-organizing role of the environment in phenotypic evolution can be understood in terms of dynamical systems concepts. This approach yields mechanistic explanations that go beyond insights based on the simulation of evolving regulatory networks alone. Its predictions can now be tested by studying specific, experimentally tractable regulatory systems using the tools of modern systems biology. A systematic exploration of such systems will enable us to understand better the nature and origin of the phenotypic variability, which provides the substrate for evolution by natural selection. PMID:24882812
Biochemical reactions of the organism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedorova, A.V.
1984-01-01
Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment
Embedding research in health systems: lessons from complexity theory.
Caffrey, Louise; Wolfe, Charles; McKevitt, Christopher
2016-07-22
Internationally, there has been increasing focus on creating health research systems. This article aims to investigate the challenges of implementing apparently simple strategies to support the development of a health research system. We focus on a case study of an English National Health Service Hospital Trust that sought to implement the national recommendation that health organisations should introduce a statement about research on all patient admission letters. We apply core concepts from complexity theory to the case study and undertake a documentary analysis of the email dialogue between staff involved in implementing this initiative. The process of implementing a research statement in patient admission letters in one clinical service took 1 year and 21 days. The length of time needed was influenced firstly by adaptive self-organisation, underpinned by competing interests. Secondly, it was influenced by the relationship between systems, rather than simply being a product of issues within those systems. The relationship between the health system and the research system was weaker than might have been expected. Responsibilities were unclear, leading to confusion and delayed action. Conventional ways of thinking about organisations suggest that change happens when leaders and managers change the strategic vision, structure or procedures in an organisation and then persuade others to rationally implement the strategy. However, health research systems are complex adaptive systems characterised by high levels of unpredictability due to self-organisation and systemic interactions, which give rise to 'emergent' properties. We argue for the need to study how micro-processes of organisational dynamics may give rise to macro patterns of behaviour and strategic organisational direction and for the use of systems approaches to investigate the emergent properties of health research systems.
System theory in industrial patient monitoring: an overview.
Baura, G D
2004-01-01
Patient monitoring refers to the continuous observation of repeating events of physiologic function to guide therapy or to monitor the effectiveness of interventions, and is used primarily in the intensive care unit and operating room. Commonly processed signals are the electrocardiogram, intraarterial blood pressure, arterial saturation of oxygen, and cardiac output. To this day, the majority of physiologic waveform processing in patient monitors is conducted using heuristic curve fitting. However in the early 1990s, a few enterprising engineers and physicians began using system theory to improve their core processing. Applications included improvement of signal-to-noise ratio, either due to low signal levels or motion artifact, and improvement in feature detection. The goal of this mini-symposium is to review the early work in this emerging field, which has led to technologic breakthroughs. In this overview talk, the process of system theory algorithm research and development is discussed. Research for industrial monitors involves substantial data collection, with some data used for algorithm training and the remainder used for validation. Once the algorithms are validated, they are translated into detailed specifications. Development then translates these specifications into DSP code. The DSP code is verified and validated per the Good Manufacturing Practices mandated by FDA.
Predictive microbiology in a dynamic environment: a system theory approach.
Van Impe, J F; Nicolaï, B M; Schellekens, M; Martens, T; De Baerdemaeker, J
1995-05-01
The main factors influencing the microbial stability of chilled prepared food products for which there is an increased consumer interest-are temperature, pH, and water activity. Unlike the pH and the water activity, the temperature may vary extensively throughout the complete production and distribution chain. The shelf life of this kind of foods is usually limited due to spoilage by common microorganisms, and the increased risk for food pathogens. In predicting the shelf life, mathematical models are a powerful tool to increase the insight in the different subprocesses and their interactions. However, the predictive value of the sigmoidal functions reported in the literature to describe a bacterial growth curve as an explicit function of time is only guaranteed at a constant temperature within the temperature range of microbial growth. As a result, they are less appropriate in optimization studies of a whole production and distribution chain. In this paper a more general modeling approach, inspired by system theory concepts, is presented if for instance time varying temperature profiles are to be taken into account. As a case study, we discuss a recently proposed dynamic model to predict microbial growth and inactivation under time varying temperature conditions from a system theory point of view. Further, the validity of this methodology is illustrated with experimental data of Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus plantarum. Finally, we propose some possible refinements of this model inspired by experimental results.
Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility
Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan
2015-03-01
Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.
Complex adaptive systems and game theory: An unlikely union
Hadzikadic, M.; Carmichael, T.; Curtin, C.
2010-01-01
A Complex Adaptive System is a collection of autonomous, heterogeneous agents, whose behavior is defined with a limited number of rules. A Game Theory is a mathematical construct that assumes a small number of rational players who have a limited number of actions or strategies available to them. The CAS method has the potential to alleviate some of the shortcomings of GT. On the other hand, CAS researchers are always looking for a realistic way to define interactions among agents. GT offers an attractive option for defining the rules of such interactions in a way that is both potentially consistent with observed real-world behavior and subject to mathematical interpretation. This article reports on the results of an effort to build a CAS system that utilizes GT for determining the actions of individual agents. ?? 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity, 16,24-42, 2010.
System theory in medical diagnostic devices: an overview.
Baura, Gail D
2006-01-01
Medical diagnostics refers to testing conducted either in vitro or in vivo to provide critical health care information for risk assessment, early diagnosis, treatment, or disease management. Typical in vivo diagnostic tests include the computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, and blood pressure screening. Typical in vitro diagnostic tests include cholesterol, Papanicolaou smear, and conventional glucose monitoring tests. Historically, devices associated with both types of diagnostics have used heuristic curve fitting during signal analysis. However, since the early 1990s, a few enterprising engineers and physicians have used system theory to improve their core processing for feature detection and system identification. Current applications include automated Pap smear screening for detection of cervical cancer and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Future applications, such as disease prediction before symptom onset and drug treatment customization, have been catalyzed by the Human Genome Project.
Theory of Magnetoelectric Properties of 2D Systems
Chen, S. C.; Wu, J. Y.; Lin, C. Y.; Lin, M. F.
2017-12-01
This book addresses important advances in diverse quantization phenomena. 'Theory of Magnetoelectric Properties of 2D Systems' develops the generalized tight-binding model in order to comprehend the rich quantization phenomena in 2D materials. The unusual effects, taken into consideration simultaneously, mainly come from the multi-orbital hybridization, the spin-orbital coupling, the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions, the layer number, the stacking configuration, the site-energy difference, the magnetic field, and the electric field. The origins of the phenomena are discussed in depth, particularly focusing on graphene, tinene, phosphorene and MoS2, with a broader model also drawn. This model could be further used to investigate electronic properties of 1D and 3D condensed-matter systems, and this book will prove to be a valuable resource to researchers and graduate students working in 2D materials science.
Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems
Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun
2016-10-01
Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.
HRM Model in Tourism, Based on Dialectical Systems Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona Šarotar Žižek
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A human resources management (HRM model integrating trends in HRM with trends in tourism into a dialectical system by the Dialectical Systems Theory (DST. HRM strategy, integrated within the tourism organization’s (to’s strategy is implemented through functional strategies helping their users to achieve a requisitely holistic (rh HRM strategy replacing the prevailing one-sided ones. to’s strategy covers: employees (1 planning, (2 acquisition and selection, (3 development and training, (4 diversity management, (5 teamwork and creativity, (6 motivation and rewarding, (7 stress reduction and health, (8 relationships, (9 personal holism, (10 well-being, (11 work and results assessment; etc. Everyone matters; their synergy is crucial. An innovated HRM model for TOS, which applies employees’, organizations’ rh and integrates new knowledge about HRM. HRM belongs to central managers’ tools. Their HRM must be adapted for TOS, where employees are crucial.
What Learning Systems do Intelligent Agents Need? Complementary Learning Systems Theory Updated.
Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; McClelland, James L
2016-07-01
We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure. Finally, we note the relevance of the theory to the design of artificial intelligent agents, highlighting connections between neuroscience and machine learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An enactive and dynamical systems theory account of dyadic relationships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miriam eKyselo
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Many social relationships are a locus of struggle and suffering, either at the individual or interactional level. In this paper we explore why this is the case and suggest a modeling approach for dyadic interactions and the well-being of the participants. To this end we bring together an enactive approach to self with dynamical systems theory. Our basic assumption is that the quality of any social interaction or relationship fundamentally depends on the nature and constitution of the individuals engaged in these interactions. From an enactive perspective the self is conceived as an embodied and socially enacted autonomous system striving to maintain an identity. This striving is involves a basic two-fold goal: the ability to exist as an individual in its own right, while also being open to and affected by others. In terms of dynamical systems theory one can thus consider the individual self as a self-other organized system represented by a phase space spanned by the dimensions of distinction and participation, and in which attractors can be defined. Based on two everyday examples of dyadic relationship we propose a simple model of relationship dynamics in which struggle or well-being in the dyad is analyzed in terms of movements of dyadic states that are in tension or in harmony with individually developed attractors. Our model predicts that relationships can be sustained when the dyad develops a new joint attractor towards which dyadic states tend to move, and well-being when this attractor is in balance with the individuals’ attractors. We outline how this can inspire research on psychotherapy. The psychotherapy process itself provides a setting in which participants can become aware how they fare with regards to the two-fold norm of distinction and participation and develop, through active engagement between client (or couple and therapist, strategies to co-negotiate their self-organization.
An enactive and dynamical systems theory account of dyadic relationships.
Kyselo, Miriam; Tschacher, Wolfgang
2014-01-01
Many social relationships are a locus of struggle and suffering, either at the individual or interactional level. In this paper we explore why this is the case and suggest a modeling approach for dyadic interactions and the well-being of the participants. To this end we bring together an enactive approach to self with dynamical systems theory. Our basic assumption is that the quality of any social interaction or relationship fundamentally depends on the nature and constitution of the individuals engaged in these interactions. From an enactive perspective the self is conceived as an embodied and socially enacted autonomous system striving to maintain an identity. This striving involves a basic two-fold goal: the ability to exist as an individual in one's own right, while also being open to and affected by others. In terms of dynamical systems theory one can thus consider the individual self as a self-other organized system represented by a phase space spanned by the dimensions of distinction and participation, where attractors can be defined. Based on two everyday examples of dyadic relationship we propose a simple model of relationship dynamics, in which struggle or well-being in the dyad is analyzed in terms of movements of dyadic states that are in tension or in harmony with individually developed attractors. Our model predicts that relationships can be sustained when the dyad develops a new joint attractor toward which dyadic states tend to move, and well-being when this attractor is in balance with the individuals' attractors. We outline how this can inspire research on psychotherapy. The psychotherapy process itself provides a setting that supports clients to become aware how they fare with regards to the two-fold norm of distinction and participation and develop, through active engagement between client (or couple) and therapist, strategies to co-negotiate their self-organization.
Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guevara, Miguel; González, Mayelys; Cortez, Roraysi; Arredondo-Vega, Bertha
2013-09-01
Thalassiosira pseudonana is a marine Bacillariophyta commonly used as live feed in mariculture. The growth rate and biochemical composition of microalgae are highly influenced by environmental factors such as, irradiance and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three irradiances (60, 120 and 180 microE/m2.s) and two culture media (Algal and Humus) on growth and biochemical composition of this diatom. The microalga was grown semicontinuously at a daily renewal rate of fresh media of 30%, 37 per thousand salinity, 25 +/- 1 degree C and constant aeration (200 mL/min). The cell densities (cel/mL) and contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and fatty acids, showed significant differences (p media, the fatty acids unsaturation degree was lower with increasing irradiance, being eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 (EPA) most represented (6.20%) in Algal medium at 60 microE/m2.s. This strain of T. pseudonana showed multiple physiological responses to changes in culture conditions, and may be cultivated with an alternative medium, which reduced the operating costs and allowed a high nutritional biomass production value for animals under culture.
On the role of general system theory for functional neuroimaging.
Stephan, Klaas Enno
2004-12-01
One of the most important goals of neuroscience is to establish precise structure-function relationships in the brain. Since the 19th century, a major scientific endeavour has been to associate structurally distinct cortical regions with specific cognitive functions. This was traditionally accomplished by correlating microstructurally defined areas with lesion sites found in patients with specific neuropsychological symptoms. Modern neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution have promised an alternative approach, enabling non-invasive measurements of regionally specific changes of brain activity that are correlated with certain components of a cognitive process. Reviewing classic approaches towards brain structure-function relationships that are based on correlational approaches, this article argues that these approaches are not sufficient to provide an understanding of the operational principles of a dynamic system such as the brain but must be complemented by models based on general system theory. These models reflect the connectional structure of the system under investigation and emphasize context-dependent couplings between the system elements in terms of effective connectivity. The usefulness of system models whose parameters are fitted to measured functional imaging data for testing hypotheses about structure-function relationships in the brain and their potential for clinical applications is demonstrated by several empirical examples.
Vanhoof, E.; Huysmans, P.; Aerts, Walter; Verelst, J.; Aveiro, D.; Tribolet, J.; Gouveia, D.
2014-01-01
This paper uses a mixed methods approach of design science and case study research to evaluate structures of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) that report in multiple Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), using Normalized Systems Theory (NST). To comply with regulation, many companies
INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD: Theory and Practice in Second Life
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nil GOKSEL CANBEK
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The considerable changes in distance learning related technologies and Web 2.0 tools direct new immersive platforms to serve on the concept of avatar-driven interactions. In this sense, the immersive learning platforms, like Second Life (SL, embrace innovative forms of network based settings for effective community interactions. SL, as an interactive learning milieu, conducts 3D interactions and active education within the context of Instructional Systems Design (ISD which makes learning experiences efficient for both the tutor and learners on the platform designed on social networking. The platform gives an appropriate service to its users to be part of an instructional application of virtual worlds in where learners become connected though online activities. Within the learning theories existing nowadays, instructional designers, who are working in 3D environment like SL, are using mainly cognitive theory and constructivist strategy of learning. According to cognitive learning theory, people learn in different ways that are individually contextual and new trends in Instructional Design (ID had to address these differences. There are number of already approbated instructional models, which are used widely in the process of creation learning courses for 3D environments. The most frequently used model is ADDIE (Assess–Design–Develop–Implement– Evaluate, and the model PIE (Plan-Integrate–Evaluate, that is relatively new and become increasingly popular as it allows easy integration of technology in the classroom-oriented (virtual or real teaching. Based on the above mentioned concerns, this paper will examine the instructional design models used to create immersive courses within SL. Further, the paper will collect ideas on the instructional tools and technologies used for designing SL courses as these new technologies used in this environment draws heavily on andragogy. The paper will also clarify the obstacles on virtual learning
Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems
Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man
2013-03-01
Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased
A non–extensive thermodynamic theory of ecological systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xuan, Le Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Khac; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2017-01-01
After almost 30 years of development, it is not controversial issue that the so–called Tsallis entropy provides a useful approach to studying the complexity where the non–additivity of the systems under consideration is frequently met. Also, in the ecological research, Tsallis entropy, or in other words, q –entropy has been found itself as a generalized approach to define a range of diversity indices including Shannon–Wiener and Simpson indices. As a further stage of development in theoretical research, a thermodynamic theory based on Tsallis entropy or diversity indices in ecology has to be constructed for ecological systems to provide knowledge of ecological macroscopic behaviors. The standard method of theoretical physics is used in the manipulation and the equivalence between phenomenological thermodynamics and ecological aspects is the purpose of the ongoing research. The present work is in the line of the authors research to implement Tsallis non–extensivity approach to obtain the most important thermodynamic quantities of ecological systems such as internal energy U q and temperature T q based on a given modeled truncated Boltzmann distribution of the Whittaker plot for a dataset. These quantities have their own ecological meaning, especially the temperature T q provides the insight of equilibrium condition among ecological systems as it is well–known in 0th law of thermodynamics. (paper)
A non-extensive thermodynamic theory of ecological systems
Van Xuan, Le; Khac Ngoc, Nguyen; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2017-06-01
After almost 30 years of development, it is not controversial issue that the so-called Tsallis entropy provides a useful approach to studying the complexity where the non-additivity of the systems under consideration is frequently met. Also, in the ecological research, Tsallis entropy, or in other words, q-entropy has been found itself as a generalized approach to define a range of diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices. As a further stage of development in theoretical research, a thermodynamic theory based on Tsallis entropy or diversity indices in ecology has to be constructed for ecological systems to provide knowledge of ecological macroscopic behaviors. The standard method of theoretical physics is used in the manipulation and the equivalence between phenomenological thermodynamics and ecological aspects is the purpose of the ongoing research. The present work is in the line of the authors research to implement Tsallis non-extensivity approach to obtain the most important thermodynamic quantities of ecological systems such as internal energy Uq and temperature Tq based on a given modeled truncated Boltzmann distribution of the Whittaker plot for a dataset. These quantities have their own ecological meaning, especially the temperature Tq provides the insight of equilibrium condition among ecological systems as it is well-known in 0th law of thermodynamics.
CALIBRATION OF EQUILIBRIUM TIDE THEORY FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANET SYSTEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, Brad M. S.
2010-01-01
We provide an 'effective theory' of tidal dissipation in extrasolar planet systems by empirically calibrating a model for the equilibrium tide. The model is valid to high order in eccentricity and parameterized by two constants of bulk dissipation-one for dissipation in the planet and one for dissipation in the host star. We are able to consistently describe the distribution of extrasolar planetary systems in terms of period, eccentricity, and mass (with a lower limit of a Saturn mass) with this simple model. Our model is consistent with the survival of short-period exoplanet systems, but not with the circularization period of equal mass stellar binaries, suggesting that the latter systems experience a higher level of dissipation than exoplanet host stars. Our model is also not consistent with the explanation of inflated planetary radii as resulting from tidal dissipation. The paucity of short-period planets around evolved A stars is explained as the result of enhanced tidal inspiral resulting from the increase in stellar radius with evolution.
Farazdaghi, Hadi
2011-02-01
Photosynthesis is the origin of oxygenic life on the planet, and its models are the core of all models of plant biology, agriculture, environmental quality and global climate change. A theory is presented here, based on single process biochemical reactions of Rubisco, recognizing that: In the light, Rubisco activase helps separate Rubisco from the stored ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), activates Rubisco with carbamylation and addition of Mg²(+), and then produces two products, in two steps: (Step 1) Reaction of Rubisco with RuBP produces a Rubisco-enediol complex, which is the carboxylase-oxygenase enzyme (Enco) and (Step 2) Enco captures CO₂ and/or O₂ and produces intermediate products leading to production and release of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) and Rubisco. PGA interactively controls (1) the carboxylation-oxygenation, (2) electron transport, and (3) triosephosphate pathway of the Calvin-Benson cycle that leads to the release of glucose and regeneration of RuBP. Initially, the total enzyme participates in the two steps of the reaction transitionally and its rate follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. But, for a continuous steady state, Rubisco must be divided into two concurrently active segments for the two steps. This causes a deviation of the steady state from the transitional rate. Kinetic models are developed that integrate the transitional and the steady state reactions. They are tested and successfully validated with verifiable experimental data. The single-process theory is compared to the widely used two-process theory of Farquhar et al. (1980. Planta 149, 78-90), which assumes that the carboxylation rate is either Rubisco-limited at low CO₂ levels such as CO₂ compensation point, or RuBP regeneration-limited at high CO₂. Since the photosynthesis rate cannot increase beyond the two-process theory's Rubisco limit at the CO₂ compensation point, net photosynthesis cannot increase above zero in daylight, and since there is always respiration at
Play therapy in perspective theory of eco systemic therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofwan Adiputra
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Play therapy is a counseling approach for children applying toys, games, and other play media to communicate to the children "language." One of the Play therapy models that combine ecosystems as being formed by an inseparable reciprocal relationship between living things, and their environment is Eco systemic Play Therapy (EPT. Ecosystem Play Therapy as a hybrid model that integrates the concepts of science biology, several models of child psychotherapy, and developmental theories. This model is not eclectic. Rather, it is the integration of several models to create an independent model that is different from the sum of its parts. The focus of EPT is on the process of optimizing the implementation of the child's function as the context of the child's ecosystem or world. EPT is developed from a phenomenological philosophical perspective, in contrast to traditional perspectives.
Describing a Strongly Correlated Model System with Density Functional Theory.
Kong, Jing; Proynov, Emil; Yu, Jianguo; Pachter, Ruth
2017-07-06
The linear chain of hydrogen atoms, a basic prototype for the transition from a metal to Mott insulator, is studied with a recent density functional theory model functional for nondynamic and strong correlation. The computed cohesive energy curve for the transition agrees well with accurate literature results. The variation of the electronic structure in this transition is characterized with a density functional descriptor that yields the atomic population of effectively localized electrons. These new methods are also applied to the study of the Peierls dimerization of the stretched even-spaced Mott insulator to a chain of H 2 molecules, a different insulator. The transitions among the two insulating states and the metallic state of the hydrogen chain system are depicted in a semiquantitative phase diagram. Overall, we demonstrate the capability of studying strongly correlated materials with a mean-field model at the fundamental level, in contrast to the general pessimistic view on such a feasibility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Backes, Steffen
2017-04-01
The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backes, Steffen
2017-04-15
The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non
Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge Hao; Qian Min; Qian Hong
2012-01-01
The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section , in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section ). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation–inhibition switching (Section ) and the well-known non-Michaelis–Menten-cooperativity (Section ) and kinetic proofreading (Section ), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section ). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück–Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections ). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept — the temporal cooperativity (Sections ), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section ). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.
The Power and Promise of Developmental Systems Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Letitia Meynell
2008-09-01
Full Text Available I argue that it is time for many feminists to rethink their attitudes towards evolutionary biology, not because feminists have been wrong to be deeply sceptical about many of its claims, both explicit and implicit, but because biology itself has changed. A new appreciation for the importance of development in biology has become mainstream and a new ontology, associated with developmental systems theory (DST, has been introduced over the last two decades. This turn challenges some of the features of evolutionary biology that have most troubled feminists. DST undermines the idea of biologicales sence and challenges both nature /nurture and nature/culture distinctions. Freed from these conceptual constraints, evolutionary biology no longer poses the problems that have justified feminist scepticism. Indeed, feminists have already found useful applications for DST and I argue that they should expand their use of DST to support more radical and wide-ranging political theories.Si les féministes n’ont pas eu tort d’être profondément sceptiques face aux nombreuses revendications de la biologie, leur attitude face à cette science doit être remise en question car la biologie s’est transformée au courant des dernières décennies. La «théorie des systèmes de développement» (developmental systems theory-TDS est une théorie qui s’est considérablement développée et qui a pris beaucoup d’ampleur. Cette théorie n’accepte pas le concept d’essence biologique ce qui pose un défi important à la distinction nature/culture. Une des conséquences de cet apport théorique est que le scepticisme des féministes face à la biologie de l’évolution n’est plus justifié car la biologie ne comporte plus les contraintes essentialistes qui s’avéraient contentieuses. En effet, certaines féministes ont déjà trouvé des applications utiles pour la TDS et nous avançons que les féministes doivent maintenant élargir l’utilisation de la
Numerical perturbative methods in the quantum theory of physical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, G.
1980-01-01
During the last two decades, development of digital electronic computers has led to the deployment of new, distinct methods in theoretical physics. These methods, based on the advances of modern numerical analysis as well as on specific equations describing physical processes, enabled to perform precise calculations of high complexity which have completed and sometimes changed our image of many physical phenomena. Our efforts have concentrated on the development of numerical methods with such intrinsic performances as to allow a successful approach of some Key issues in present theoretical physics on smaller computation systems. The basic principle of such methods is to translate, in numerical analysis language, the theory of perturbations which is suited to numerical rather than to analytical computation. This idea has been illustrated by working out two problems which arise from the time independent Schroedinger equation in the non-relativistic approximation, within both quantum systems with a small number of particles and systems with a large number of particles, respectively. In the first case, we are led to the numerical solution of some quadratic ordinary differential equations (first section of the thesis) and in the second case, to the solution of some secular equations in the Brillouin area (second section). (author)
Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.
Kondraske, George V
2010-01-01
General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).
Using Organizational Systems Theory to Improve Defense Acquisition and Warfighter Requirements
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Alexander, Michael J
2007-01-01
.... Hence, this MBA study employed a systems approach to more credibly pinpoint improvement areas in the Defense Acquisition System through the use of systems theory and an organizational systems model...
Network theory and its applications in economic systems
Huang, Xuqing
This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing theoretical framework of complex networks; and ii) applying complex networks models to quantitatively analyze economics systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks, which includes two chapters: 1) We develop a mathematical framework to study the percolation of interdependent networks under targeted-attack and find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc = 0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. 2) We analytically demonstrates that clustering, which quantifies the propensity for two neighbors of the same vertex to also be neighbors of each other, significantly increases the vulnerability of the system. In part II, we apply the complex networks models to study economics systems, which also includes two chapters: 1) We study the US corporate governance network, in which nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards, and propose a quantitative measure of information and influence transformation in the network. Thus we are able to identify the most influential directors in the network. 2) We propose a bipartite networks model to simulate the risk propagation process among commercial banks during financial crisis. With empirical bank's balance sheet data in 2007 as input to the model, we find that our model efficiently identifies a significant portion of the actual failed banks reported by Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation during the financial crisis between 2008 and 2011. The results suggest that complex networks model could be useful for systemic risk stress testing for financial systems. The model also identifies that commercial rather than residential real estate assets are major culprits for the
Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications
Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco
2013-06-01
[17], von Neumann [18], Krylov [19]3 and Asonov and Sinai [20] on ergodic theory. Lyapunov exponents quantify exponential sensitivity to initial conditions and provide direct access to the entropy production in ergodic systems via the Pesin theory [21]. Further advances have been made possible by the introduction of proper physical invariant measures for certain dissipative systems due to Sinai [22], Ruelle [23] and Bowen [24, 25]. However, it was necessary to wait until the end of the 1970s before the independent works of Shimada and Nagashima [26] and Benettin et al [27] introduced the numerical algorithms required to compute Lyapunov exponents beyond the largest one. The availability of such algorithms and also, at about the same time, of those necessary for the computation of fractal dimensions and entropies by Grassberger and Procaccia [28], made possible the study of chaotic behavior in physically relevant models. Lyapunov analysis, applied to experimental systems [29], was also made possible by a combination of these numerical methods with ideas from nonlinear time series analysis [30]. As a result, it is nowadays widely recognized that Lyapunov exponents are a central tool of chaos theory, crucial for characterizing a number of interesting physical properties including dynamical entropies and fractal dimensions [31]. Their pivotal role in modern dynamical systems theory has been established by a fruitful exchange between a rigorous (and beautiful) mathematical theory and the algorithmic approaches essential for understanding many physical phenomena. From the 1990s to the present, with the concomitant progress in both theoretical understanding and computer capabilities, there has been a progressive shift of interest from low dimensional towards high dimensional systems. This shift towards dynamics characterized by many degrees of freedom, possibly spatially organized and/or with several characteristic temporal scales, has been accompanied by the need for
King, Chiara R
2011-05-01
post-1980 increase in US autism diagnoses. In addition to explaining the epidemic within the wider retinoic acid/estradiol model of causation, this theory leads to potential explanations for certain genetic findings in autism, autistic regression, and changing trends in autism symptomatology with regard to mental retardation, wheat allergy, and gastrointestinal problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Huey T
2016-12-01
Theories of program and theories of evaluation form the foundation of program evaluation theories. Theories of program reflect assumptions on how to conceptualize an intervention program for evaluation purposes, while theories of evaluation reflect assumptions on how to design useful evaluation. These two types of theories are related, but often discussed separately. This paper attempts to use three theoretical perspectives (reductionism, systems thinking, and pragmatic synthesis) to interface them and discuss the implications for evaluation practice. Reductionism proposes that an intervention program can be broken into crucial components for rigorous analyses; systems thinking view an intervention program as dynamic and complex, requiring a holistic examination. In spite of their contributions, reductionism and systems thinking represent the extreme ends of a theoretical spectrum; many real-world programs, however, may fall in the middle. Pragmatic synthesis is being developed to serve these moderate- complexity programs. These three theoretical perspectives have their own strengths and challenges. Knowledge on these three perspectives and their evaluation implications can provide a better guide for designing fruitful evaluations, improving the quality of evaluation practice, informing potential areas for developing cutting-edge evaluation approaches, and contributing to advancing program evaluation toward a mature applied science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Principles of General Systems Theory: Some Implications for Higher Education Administration
Gilliland, Martha W.; Gilliland, J. Richard
1978-01-01
Three principles of general systems theory are presented and systems theory is distinguished from systems analysis. The principles state that all systems tend to become more disorderly, that they must be diverse in order to be stable, and that only those maximizing their resource utilization for doing useful work will survive. (Author/LBH)
BOOK REVIEW: Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems
Galla, Tobias
2006-04-01
It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 1011 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kühn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the
Walloth, Christian
2016-01-01
This book presents a theory as well as methods to understand and to purposively influence complex systems. It suggests a theory of complex systems as nested systems, i. e. systems that enclose other systems and that are simultaneously enclosed by even other systems. According to the theory presented, each enclosing system emerges through time from the generative activities of the systems they enclose. Systems are nested and often emerge unplanned, and every system of high dynamics is enclosed by a system of slower dynamics. An understanding of systems with faster dynamics, which are always guided by systems of slower dynamics, opens up not only new ways to understanding systems, but also to effectively influence them. The aim and subject of this book is to lay out these thoughts and explain their relevance to the purposive development of complex systems, which are exemplified in case studies from an urban system. The interested reader, who is not required to be familiar with system-theoretical concepts or wit...
Isla, Enrique; Homs, Patricia; Sañé, Elisabet; Escribano, Rubén; Claramunt, Gabriel; Teixidó, Nuria
2010-07-01
The biochemical composition of seston within the Humboldt Current System (HCS) in two bays off northern Chile (21°S-23°S) was assessed to estimate its chemical quality as potential food supply for benthic communities, large zooplankton and fish larvae. As part of the CENSOR project, in the summer of 2006 physical and biochemical variables were analyzed in Chipana and Mejillones Bays during one week at four depths determined by the occurrence of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone and fluorescence peaks. The depth of the oxy- and pycnoclines controlled the distribution of biochemical variables in both bays. There were significant differences in the concentration of protein (PRT), lipid (LPD) and carbohydrates (CHO) among depths in both bays. The differences were also found in the PRT and LPD contribution to the biopolymeric carbon (BPC) among bays and among depths in the case of CHO. However, the concentration of suspended particulate matter and biogenic silica (bSi) were similar in both bays. PRT, LPD and CHO showed the highest concentrations in the upper meters of the water column and small peaks close to the seabed related to sediment resuspension and/or lateral transport. In Chipana Bay, the high nutritive quality of seston occurring near the seabed suggests a rapid sinking of diatom aggregates and a reduced respiration of the particulate organic matter. PRT, LPD and CHO varied between 0.05 and 0.47 mg l - 1 , 0.06 and 0.39 mg l - 1 and 0.07 and 0.51 mg l - 1 , respectively. LPD were the most important contributors to the BPC in both bays. The seston in these bays presented a high PRT and LPD content in comparison to a number of settings of different latitudes and oceanographic characteristics. The high quantity and biochemical quality of the particulate matter in both bays may reflect the high productivity of this zone and partially explain their condition as spawning areas within the HCS.
Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models
Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz
2017-01-01
The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...
Switching theory-based steganographic system for JPEG images
Cherukuri, Ravindranath C.; Agaian, Sos S.
2007-04-01
Cellular communications constitute a significant portion of the global telecommunications market. Therefore, the need for secured communication over a mobile platform has increased exponentially. Steganography is an art of hiding critical data into an innocuous signal, which provide answers to the above needs. The JPEG is one of commonly used format for storing and transmitting images on the web. In addition, the pictures captured using mobile cameras are in mostly in JPEG format. In this article, we introduce a switching theory based steganographic system for JPEG images which is applicable for mobile and computer platforms. The proposed algorithm uses the fact that energy distribution among the quantized AC coefficients varies from block to block and coefficient to coefficient. Existing approaches are effective with a part of these coefficients but when employed over all the coefficients they show there ineffectiveness. Therefore, we propose an approach that works each set of AC coefficients with different frame work thus enhancing the performance of the approach. The proposed system offers a high capacity and embedding efficiency simultaneously withstanding to simple statistical attacks. In addition, the embedded information could be retrieved without prior knowledge of the cover image. Based on simulation results, the proposed method demonstrates an improved embedding capacity over existing algorithms while maintaining a high embedding efficiency and preserving the statistics of the JPEG image after hiding information.
System of marketing deciding support based on game theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gordana Dukić
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Quantitative methods and models can be applied in numerous spheres of marketing deciding. The choice of optimal strategy in product advertising is one of the problems that the marketing-management often meets. The use of models developed within the framework of game theory makes significantly easier to find out the solutions of conflict situations that appear herewith. The system of deciding support presented in this work is based on the supposition that two opposed sides take part in the game. With the aim of deciding process promotion, the starting model incorporates computer simulation of percentile changes in the market share that represent elements of payment matrix. The supposition is that the random variables that represent them follow the normal division. It is necessary to carry out the evaluation of their parameters because of relevant data. Information techniques, computer and the adequate program applications take the special position in solving and analysis of the suggested model. This kind of their application represents the basic characteristic of the deciding support system.
Density functional theory for polymeric systems in 2D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Słyk, Edyta; Bryk, Paweł; Roth, Roland
2016-01-01
We propose density functional theory for polymeric fluids in two dimensions. The approach is based on Wertheim’s first order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and closely follows density functional theory for polymers proposed by Yu and Wu (2002 J. Chem. Phys . 117 2368). As a simple application we evaluate the density profiles of tangent hard-disk polymers at hard walls. The theoretical predictions are compared against the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. We find that for short chain lengths the theoretical density profiles are in an excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo data. The agreement is less satisfactory for longer chains. The performance of the theory can be improved by recasting the approach using the self-consistent field theory formalism. When the self-avoiding chain statistics is used, the theory yields a marked improvement in the low density limit. Further improvements for long chains could be reached by going beyond the first order of TPT. (paper)
Gravitation theory - Empirical status from solar system experiments.
Nordtvedt, K. L., Jr.
1972-01-01
Review of historical and recent experiments which speak in favor of a post-Newtonian relativistic gravitational theory. The topics include the foundational experiments, metric theories of gravity, experiments designed to differentiate among the metric theories, and tests of Machian concepts of gravity. It is shown that the metric field for any metric theory can be specified by a series of potential terms with several parameters. It is pointed out that empirical results available up to date yield values of the parameters which are consistent with the prediction of Einstein's general relativity.
D1/D5 systems in N=4 string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gava, Edi; Hammou, Amine B.; Morales, Jose F.; Narain, Kumar S.
2001-01-01
We propose CFT descriptions of the D1/D5 system in a class of freely acting Z 2 orbifolds/orientifolds of type IIB theory, with sixteen unbroken supercharges. The CFTs describing D1/D5 systems involve N=(4,4) or N=(4,0) sigma models on (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 x(T 4 ) N /S N )/Z 2 , where the action of Z 2 is diagonal and its precise nature depends on the model. We also discuss D1(D5)-brane states carrying non-trivial Kaluza-Klein charges, which correspond to excitations of two-dimensional CFTs of the type (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 ) N /S N xZ 2 N . The resulting multiplicities for two-charge bound states are shown to agree with the predictions of U-duality. We raise a puzzle concerning the multiplicities of three-charge systems, which is generically present in all vacuum configurations with sixteen unbroken supercharges studied so far, including the more familiar type IIB on K3 case: the constraints put on BPS counting formulae by U-duality are apparently in contradiction with any CFT interpretation. We argue that the presence of RR backgrounds appearing in the symmetric product CFT may provide a resolution of this puzzle. Finally, we show that the whole tower of D-instanton corrections to certain 'BPS saturated couplings' in the low energy effective actions match with the corresponding one-loop threshold corrections on the dual fundamental string side
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, A; Gross, E K U
2014-01-01
We derive the fundamental equations of an optimal control theory for systems containing both quantum electrons and classical ions. The system is modeled with Ehrenfest dynamics, a non-adiabatic variant of molecular dynamics. The general formulation, that needs the fully correlated many-electron wavefunction, can be simplified by making use of time-dependent density-functional theory. In this case, the optimal control equations require some modifications that we will provide. The abstract general formulation is complemented with the simple example of the H 2 + molecule in the presence of a laser field. (paper)
Dissipative open systems theory as a foundation for the thermodynamics of linear systems.
Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Sandberg, Henrik
2017-03-06
In this paper, we advocate the use of open dynamical systems, i.e. systems sharing input and output variables with their environment, and the dissipativity theory initiated by Jan Willems as models of thermodynamical systems, at the microscopic and macroscopic level alike. We take linear systems as a study case, where we show how to derive a global Lyapunov function to analyse networks of interconnected systems. We define a suitable notion of dynamic non-equilibrium temperature that allows us to derive a discrete Fourier law ruling the exchange of heat between lumped, discrete-space systems, enriched with the Maxwell-Cattaneo correction. We complete these results by a brief recall of the steps that allow complete derivation of the dissipation and fluctuation in macroscopic systems (i.e. at the level of probability distributions) from lossless and deterministic systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Causal fermion systems as a candidate for a unified physical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, Felix; Kleiner, Johannes
2015-01-01
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics. Giving quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases, it is a candidate for a unified physical theory. We here give a non-technical introduction. (paper)
Causal fermion systems as a candidate for a unified physical theory
Finster, Felix; Kleiner, Johannes
2015-07-01
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics. Giving quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases, it is a candidate for a unified physical theory. We here give a non-technical introduction.
van der Heijden, R T; Heijnen, J J; Hellinga, C; Romein, B; Luyben, K C
1994-01-05
Measurements provide the basis for process monitoring and control as well as for model development and validation. Systematic approaches to increase the accuracy and credibility of the empirical data set are therefore of great value. In (bio)chemical conversions, linear conservation relations such as the balance equations for charge, enthalpy, and/or chemical elements, can be employed to relate conversion rates. In a pactical situation, some of these rates will be measured (in effect, be calculated directly from primary measurements of, e.g., concentrations and flow rates), as others can or cannot be calculated from the measured ones. When certain measured rates can also be calculated from other measured rates, the set of equations, the accuracy and credibility of the measured rates can indeed be improved by, respectively, balancing and gross error diagnosis. The balanced conversion rates are more accurate, and form a consistent set of data, which is more suitable for further application (e.g., to calculate nonmeasured rates) than the raw measurements. Such an approach has drawn attention in previous studies. The current study deals mainly with the problem of mathematically classifying the conversion rates into balanceable and calculable rates, given the subset of measured rates. The significance of this problem is illustrated with some examples. It is shown that a simple matrix equation can be derived that contains the vector of measured conversion rates and the redundancy matrix R. Matrix R plays a predominant role in the classification problem. In supplementary articles, significance of the redundancy matrix R for an improved gross error diagnosis approach will be shown. In addition, efficient equations have been derived to calculate the balanceable and/or calculable rates. The method is completely based on matrix algebra (principally different from the graph-theoretical approach), and it is easily implemented into a computer program. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons
Gmoshinsky, I V; Shipelin, V A; Vorozhko, I V; Sentsova, T B; Soto, S Kh; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Kravchenko, L V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutelyan, V A
2016-01-01
Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) with primary nanoparticles (NPs) size in the range of 10-80 nm in aqueous suspension was administered to rats with initial weight 80±10 gfor the first 30 day intragastrically and for lasting 62 days with the diet consumed in doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight b.w) per day based on silver (Ag). The control animals received deionized water and carrier of NPs - aqueous solution of stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone. Activity (Vmax) was determined in liver of microsomal mixed function monooxygenase isoforms CYP 1A1, 1A2 and 2B1 against their specific substrates, the activity of liver conjugating enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) in the microsomal fraction and a cytosol, and the overall and non-sedimentable activities of lysosomal hydrolases. In blood plasma there were evaluated malonic dialdehyde, PUFA diene conjugates, in erythrocytes - the activity of antioxidant enzymes. A set of standard biochemical indicators of blood serum was also determined. The studies revealed changes in a number of molecular markers of toxic action. Among them - the increase in the activity of key enzymes I and II stages of detoxification of xenobiotics, indicating its functional overvoltage; reducing the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GP), the total arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase (in the absence of changes in their non-sedimentable activity), levels of uric acid, increased alkaline phosphatase activity. These changes occurred mainly at the dose Ag of 10 mg/kg b.w., except for the GP to which the threshold dose was 1 mg/kg b.w. No significant changes in the studied markers in a dose Ag 0,1 mg/kg b.w. were identified. Possible mechanisms of the toxic action of silver NPs are discussed.
Untangling the drivers of nonlinear systems with information theory
Wing, S.; Johnson, J.
2017-12-01
Many systems found in nature are nonlinear. The drivers of the system are often nonlinearly correlated with one another, which makes it a challenge to understand the effects of an individual driver. For example, solar wind velocity (Vsw) and density (nsw) are both found to correlate well with radiation belt fluxes and are thought to be drivers of the magnetospheric dynamics; however, the Vsw is anti-correlated with nsw, which can potentially confuse interpretation of these relationships as causal or coincidental. Information theory can untangle the drivers of these systems, describe the underlying dynamics, and offer constraints to modelers and theorists, leading to better understanding of the systems. Two examples are presented. In the first example, the solar wind drivers of geosynchronous electrons with energy range of 1.8-3.5 MeV are investigated using mutual information (MI), conditional mutual information (CMI), and transfer entropy (TE). The information transfer from Vsw to geosynchronous MeV electron flux (Je) peaks with a lag time (t) of 2 days. As previously reported, Je is anticorrelated with nsw with a lag of 1 day. However, this lag time and anticorrelation can be attributed mainly to the Je(t + 2 days) correlation with Vsw(t) and nsw(t + 1 day) anticorrelation with Vsw(t). Analyses of solar wind driving of the magnetosphere need to consider the large lag times, up to 3 days, in the (Vsw, nsw) anticorrelation. Using CMI to remove the effects of Vsw, the response of Je to nsw is 30% smaller and has a lag time < 24 hr, suggesting that the loss mechanism due to nsw or solar wind dynamic pressure has to start operating in < 24 hr. nsw transfers about 36% as much information as Vsw (the primary driver) to Je. Nonstationarity in the system dynamics are investigated using windowed TE. When the data is ordered according to high or low transfer entropy it is possible to understand details of the triangle distribution that has been identified between Je(t + 2
Solar system constraints on multifield theories of modified dynamics
Sanders, R. H.
2006-01-01
Any viable theory of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) as modified gravity is likely to require fields in addition to the usual tensor field of General Relativity. For these theories, the MOND phenomenology emerges as an effective fifth force probably associated with a scalar field. Here, I
Affect Theory and Autoethnography in Ordinary Information Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Chamberlain, Alan
2016-01-01
This paper uses philosophical theories of affect as a lens for exploring autoethnographic renderings of everyday experience with information technology. Affect theories, in the paper, denote a broad trend in post-humanistic philosophy that explores sensation and feeling as emergent and relational...
Macroscopic Theory for Evolving Biological Systems Akin to Thermodynamics.
Kaneko, Kunihiko; Furusawa, Chikara
2018-05-20
We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions. On the basis of simulations of cell models, we further show that this global proportionality is a consequence of evolution in which expression changes in response to environmental or genetic perturbations are constrained along a unique one-dimensional curve, which is a result of evolutionary robustness. It then follows that the expression changes induced by environmental changes are proportionally reduced across different components of a cell by evolution, which is akin to the Le Chatelier thermodynamics principle. Finally, with the aid of a fluctuation-response relationship, this proportionality is shown to hold between fluctuations caused by genetic changes and those caused by noise. Overall, these results and support from the theoretical and experimental literature suggest a formulation of cellular systems akin to thermodynamics, in which a macroscopic potential is given by the growth rate (or fitness) represented as a function of environmental and evolutionary changes.
Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory
Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.
2003-01-01
This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.
Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?
Pellegrini, Dario W.
2009-01-01
This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and…
General System Theory: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Science and Technology Education for All.
Chen, David; Stroup, Walter
1993-01-01
Suggests using general system theory as a unifying theoretical framework for science and technology education for all. Five reasons are articulated: the multidisciplinary nature of systems theory, the ability to engage complexity, the capacity to describe system dynamics, the ability to represent the relationship between microlevel and…
Ensemble Bayesian forecasting system Part I: Theory and algorithms
Herr, Henry D.; Krzysztofowicz, Roman
2015-05-01
The ensemble Bayesian forecasting system (EBFS), whose theory was published in 2001, is developed for the purpose of quantifying the total uncertainty about a discrete-time, continuous-state, non-stationary stochastic process such as a time series of stages, discharges, or volumes at a river gauge. The EBFS is built of three components: an input ensemble forecaster (IEF), which simulates the uncertainty associated with random inputs; a deterministic hydrologic model (of any complexity), which simulates physical processes within a river basin; and a hydrologic uncertainty processor (HUP), which simulates the hydrologic uncertainty (an aggregate of all uncertainties except input). It works as a Monte Carlo simulator: an ensemble of time series of inputs (e.g., precipitation amounts) generated by the IEF is transformed deterministically through a hydrologic model into an ensemble of time series of outputs, which is next transformed stochastically by the HUP into an ensemble of time series of predictands (e.g., river stages). Previous research indicated that in order to attain an acceptable sampling error, the ensemble size must be on the order of hundreds (for probabilistic river stage forecasts and probabilistic flood forecasts) or even thousands (for probabilistic stage transition forecasts). The computing time needed to run the hydrologic model this many times renders the straightforward simulations operationally infeasible. This motivates the development of the ensemble Bayesian forecasting system with randomization (EBFSR), which takes full advantage of the analytic meta-Gaussian HUP and generates multiple ensemble members after each run of the hydrologic model; this auxiliary randomization reduces the required size of the meteorological input ensemble and makes it operationally feasible to generate a Bayesian ensemble forecast of large size. Such a forecast quantifies the total uncertainty, is well calibrated against the prior (climatic) distribution of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olah, Zita; Doczi, Rita [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques; Szuecs, Zoltan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Varga, Zoltan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Centre for Natural Sciences
2015-07-01
A simple method was developed for the separation of radioactive {sup 77}As from neutron irradiated natural GeO{sub 2} samples for environmental and biochemical studies. The method is based on the volatility of GeCl{sub 4}. The GeCl{sub 4} was co-evaporated from the reaction mixture with an azeotropic mixture of HCl and water, and immediately condensed into a separate finger part of the special glass apparatus which was cooled by liquid nitrogen. By inverting the room temperature and the deep frozen parts of the glass equipment after three half-lives of the {sup 77}Ge the separation process can be repetitive, getting a special type of {sup 77}Ge/{sup 77}As parent-daughter system. The radionuclidic purity of the remaining As fraction was found to be 99.95%. Its yield, however, drastically decreased in the second and subsequent separations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiaochu Liang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD is a widely used index of water quality in wastewater treatment; however, conventional measurement methods are time-consuming. In this study, we analyzed a novel flame-oxidized stainless steel anode (FO-SSA for use as the probe of bioelectrochemical system (BES-based biosensors to monitor the BOD of treated swine wastewater. A thinner biofilm formed on the FO-SSA compared with that on a common carbon-cloth anode (CCA. The FO-SSA was superior to the CCA in terms of rapid sensing; the response time of the FO-SSA to obtain the value of R2 > 0.8 was 1 h, whereas the CCA required 4 h. These results indicate that the FO-SSA offers better performance than traditional CCAs in BES biosensors and can be used to improve biomonitoring of wastewater.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olah, Zita; Doczi, Rita; Szuecs, Zoltan; Varga, Zoltan
2015-01-01
A simple method was developed for the separation of radioactive 77 As from neutron irradiated natural GeO 2 samples for environmental and biochemical studies. The method is based on the volatility of GeCl 4 . The GeCl 4 was co-evaporated from the reaction mixture with an azeotropic mixture of HCl and water, and immediately condensed into a separate finger part of the special glass apparatus which was cooled by liquid nitrogen. By inverting the room temperature and the deep frozen parts of the glass equipment after three half-lives of the 77 Ge the separation process can be repetitive, getting a special type of 77 Ge/ 77 As parent-daughter system. The radionuclidic purity of the remaining As fraction was found to be 99.95%. Its yield, however, drastically decreased in the second and subsequent separations.
Koole, Sander L; Schlinkert, Caroline; Maldei, Tobias; Baumann, Nicola
2018-03-10
One of the enduring missions of personality science is to unravel what it takes to become a fully functioning person. In the present article, the authors address this matter from the perspectives of self-determination theory (SDT) and personality systems interactions (PSI) theory. SDT (a) is rooted in humanistic psychology; (b) has emphasized a first-person perspective on motivation and personality; (c) posits that the person, supported by the social environment, naturally moves toward growth through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. PSI theory (a) is rooted in German volition psychology; (b) has emphasized a third-person perspective on motivation and personality; and (c) posits that a fully functioning person can form and enact difficult intentions and integrate new experiences, and that such competencies are facilitated by affect regulation. The authors review empirical support for SDT and PSI theory, their convergences and divergences, and how the theories bear on recent empirical research on internalization, vitality, and achievement flow. The authors conclude that SDT and PSI theory offer complementary insights into developing a person's full potential. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xue, Jingxin
The article aims to completely, systematically and objectively analyze the current situation of Entrepreneurship Education in China with Ecological Systems Theory. From this perspective, the author discusses the structure, function and its basic features of higher education entrepreneur services network system, and puts forward the opinion that every entrepreneurship organization in higher education institution does not limited to only one platform. Different functional supporting platforms should be combined closed through composite functional organization to form an integrated network system, in which each unit would impels others' development.
Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SARAH
2014-02-28
Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.
Cancer Theory from Systems Biology Point of View
Wang, Gaowei; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ao, Ping
In our previous work, we have proposed a novel cancer theory, endogenous network theory, to understand mechanism underlying cancer genesis and development. Recently, we apply this theory to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A core endogenous network of hepatocyte was established by integrating the current understanding of hepatocyte at molecular level. Quantitative description of the endogenous network consisted of a set of stochastic differential equations which could generate many local attractors with obvious or non-obvious biological functions. By comparing with clinical observation and experimental data, the results showed that two robust attractors from the model reproduced the main known features of normal hepatocyte and cancerous hepatocyte respectively at both modular and molecular level. In light of our theory, the genesis and progression of cancer is viewed as transition from normal attractor to HCC attractor. A set of new insights on understanding cancer genesis and progression, and on strategies for cancer prevention, cure, and care were provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negri, L.J.
1982-01-01
A tecnique permiting the construction of a lagrangian function for nao-holononic systems is established. The classical formalism of the relativistic strings is discussed in the point of view of the Dirac theory for singular systems and in the context of a problem of two-dimensional surface immersion in space-time. It is shown how to solve the problem corresponding to the immersion in the case of free-finite and open strings by the specification of a non-conventional gauge. The relation between the string theory and Maxwell fields of place 2 is analyzed and the properties of string 'current density' to obtain new information about the model is explored. (L.C.) [pt
A stochastic perturbation theory for non-autonomous systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, W., E-mail: wm275@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8109 (United States); Wettlaufer, J. S., E-mail: wettlaufer@maths.ox.ac.uk [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8109 (United States); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)
2013-12-15
We develop a perturbation theory for a class of first order nonlinear non-autonomous stochastic ordinary differential equations that arise in climate physics. The perturbative procedure produces moments in terms of integral delay equations, whose order by order decay is characterized in a Floquet-like sense. Both additive and multiplicative sources of noise are discussed and the question of how the nature of the noise influences the results is addressed theoretically and numerically. By invoking the Martingale property, we rationalize the transformation of the underlying Stratonovich form of the model to an Ito form, independent of whether the noise is additive or multiplicative. The generality of the analysis is demonstrated by developing it both for a Brownian particle moving in a periodically forced quartic potential, which acts as a simple model of stochastic resonance, as well as for our more complex climate physics model. The validity of the approach is shown by comparison with numerical solutions. The particular climate dynamics problem upon which we focus involves a low-order model for the evolution of Arctic sea ice under the influence of increasing greenhouse gas forcing ΔF{sub 0}. The deterministic model, developed by Eisenman and Wettlaufer [“Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(1), 28–32 (2009)] exhibits several transitions as ΔF{sub 0} increases and the stochastic analysis is used to understand the manner in which noise influences these transitions and the stability of the system.
Transport through correlated systems with density functional theory.
Kurth, S; Stefanucci, G
2017-10-18
We present recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) for applications in the field of quantum transport, with particular emphasis on transport through strongly correlated systems. We review the foundations of the popular Landauer-Büttiker(LB) + DFT approach. This formalism, when using approximations to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential with steps at integer occupation, correctly captures the Kondo plateau in the zero bias conductance at zero temperature but completely fails to capture the transition to the Coulomb blockade (CB) regime as the temperature increases. To overcome the limitations of LB + DFT, the quantum transport problem is treated from a time-dependent (TD) perspective using TDDFT, an exact framework to deal with nonequilibrium situations. The steady-state limit of TDDFT shows that in addition to an xc potential in the junction, there also exists an xc correction to the applied bias. Open shell molecules in the CB regime provide the most striking examples of the importance of the xc bias correction. Using the Anderson model as guidance we estimate these corrections in the limit of zero bias. For the general case we put forward a steady-state DFT which is based on one-to-one correspondence between the pair of basic variables, steady density on and steady current across the junction and the pair local potential on and bias across the junction. Like TDDFT, this framework also leads to both an xc potential in the junction and an xc correction to the bias. Unlike TDDFT, these potentials are independent of history. We highlight the universal features of both xc potential and xc bias corrections for junctions in the CB regime and provide an accurate parametrization for the Anderson model at arbitrary temperatures and interaction strengths, thus providing a unified DFT description for both Kondo and CB regimes and the transition between them.
Zhang, Cheng; Ah Kan Razafindrabe, Richard-Hermann; Chen, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Li; Chen, Xingyong; Jin, Sihua; Geng, Zhaoyu
2018-04-01
This study was conducted using a total of 360 22-day-old Chaohu ducks to evaluate the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum parameters of male and female Chaohu ducks. The birds were divided and raised in separate pens according to sex and rearing system, with three replicate pens of 30 male or 30 female ducks per pen for each rearing system. The rearing systems consisted of a floor rearing system (FRS) and a net rearing system (NRS). Results showed that ducks raised in NRS had better growth performance, whereas, ducks raised in FRS exhibited better carcass traits and meat color, and lower intramuscular fat. For the serum parameters, NRS significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, and enhanced total protein and triacylglycerol contents. Male ducks had lower abdominal fat percentage, and higher growth performance and shear force, but there were no other significant differences between sexes. No rearing system × sex interaction was observed in the present study, revealing that rearing system had the same effect on both sexes. In conclusion, NRS was beneficial to the growth performance of Chaohu ducks, whereas this system had some negative effects on carcass traits, meat quality and serum profiles. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
The network perspective: an integration of attachment and family systems theories.
Kozlowska, Kasia; Hanney, Lesley
2002-01-01
In this article we discuss the network paradigm as a useful base from which to integrate attachment and family systems theories. The network perspective refers to the application of general systems theory to living systems, and provides a framework that conceptualizes the dyadic and family systems as simultaneously distinct and interconnected. Network thinking requires that the clinician holds multiple perspectives in mind, considers each system level as both a part and a whole, and shifts the focus of attention between levels as required. Key epistemological issues that have hindered the integration of the theories are discussed. These include inconsistencies within attachment theory itself and confusion surrounding the theoretical conceptualizations of the relationship between attachment and family systems theories. Detailed information about attachment categories is provided using the Dynamic Maturational model. Case vignettes illustrating work with young children and their families explore the clinical implications of integrating attachment data into family therapy practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamiya, Noriaki; Sato, Matsuo
2014-01-01
We define Hermitian (ϵ,δ)-Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems and prove a structure theorem. We also give some examples of triple systems that are generalizations of the u(N)⊕u(M) and sp(2N)⊕u(1) Hermitian 3-algebras. We apply a *-generalized Jordan triple system to a field theory and obtain a Chern-Simons gauge theory. We find that the novel Higgs mechanism works, where the Chern-Simons gauge theory reduces to a Yang-Mills theory in a certain limit
Linear theory for filtering nonlinear multiscale systems with model error.
Berry, Tyrus; Harlim, John
2014-07-08
In this paper, we study filtering of multiscale dynamical systems with model error arising from limitations in resolving the smaller scale processes. In particular, the analysis assumes the availability of continuous-time noisy observations of all components of the slow variables. Mathematically, this paper presents new results on higher order asymptotic expansion of the first two moments of a conditional measure. In particular, we are interested in the application of filtering multiscale problems in which the conditional distribution is defined over the slow variables, given noisy observation of the slow variables alone. From the mathematical analysis, we learn that for a continuous time linear model with Gaussian noise, there exists a unique choice of parameters in a linear reduced model for the slow variables which gives the optimal filtering when only the slow variables are observed. Moreover, these parameters simultaneously give the optimal equilibrium statistical estimates of the underlying system, and as a consequence they can be estimated offline from the equilibrium statistics of the true signal. By examining a nonlinear test model, we show that the linear theory extends in this non-Gaussian, nonlinear configuration as long as we know the optimal stochastic parametrization and the correct observation model. However, when the stochastic parametrization model is inappropriate, parameters chosen for good filter performance may give poor equilibrium statistical estimates and vice versa; this finding is based on analytical and numerical results on our nonlinear test model and the two-layer Lorenz-96 model. Finally, even when the correct stochastic ansatz is given, it is imperative to estimate the parameters simultaneously and to account for the nonlinear feedback of the stochastic parameters into the reduced filter estimates. In numerical experiments on the two-layer Lorenz-96 model, we find that the parameters estimated online , as part of a filtering
Tsai, Chung-Hung
2014-05-07
Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung-Hung Tsai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.
Control and System Theory, Optimization, Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems
1988-09-14
Justlfleatlen Distribut ion/ Availability Codes # AFOSR-87-0350 Avat’ and/or1987-1988 Dist Special *CONTROL AND SYSTEM THEORY , ~ * OPTIMIZATION, * INVERSE...considerable va- riety of research investigations within the grant areas (Control and system theory , Optimization, and Ill-posed problems]. The
Control of underactuated driftless systems using higher-order averaging theory
Vela, Patricio A.; Burdick, Joel W.
2003-01-01
This paper applies a recently developed "generalized averaging theory" to construct stabilizing feedback control laws for underactuated driftless systems. These controls exponentialy stabilize in the average; the actual system may orbit around the average. Conditions for which the orbit collapses to the averaged trajectory are given. An example validates the theory, demonstrating its utility.
Set Theory Applied to Uniquely Define the Inputs to Territorial Systems in Emergy Analyses
The language of set theory can be utilized to represent the emergy involved in all processes. In this paper we use set theory in an emergy evaluation to ensure an accurate representation of the inputs to territorial systems. We consider a generic territorial system and we describ...
What is the Role of Legal Systems in Financial Intermediation? Theory and Evidence
Bottazzi, L.; Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.
2008-01-01
We develop a theory and empirical test of how the legal system affects the relationship between venture capitalists and entrepreneurs. The theory uses a double moral hazard framework to show how optimal contracts and investor actions depend on the quality of the legal system. The empirical evidence
Azaola, Marta Cristina
2012-01-01
The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Stine; Tølbøll, Trine; Andersen, Pia Haubro Fischer
2005-01-01
Previous studies have notede that susceptibility to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure seems to differ between individual cows. However, to date inter-individual variation in the existence or extent has never been backed up by statistical analyses.......Previous studies have notede that susceptibility to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure seems to differ between individual cows. However, to date inter-individual variation in the existence or extent has never been backed up by statistical analyses....
Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon
2008-01-01
The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, S.K.; Cipriani, C.; Atzei, G.
1998-01-01
Cancer patient needs less diagnosis but an effective therapy. The systemic nature of cancer, often right from its inception, requires systemic therapy with cancer-affine radiopharmaceuticals which contain radionuclide species recognizing both the primary and secondary cancers which have generally different biochemical properties. Cancers may be classified into two groups: I. CATIONIC COMPLEX-AFFINE TUMOURS; Lung cancer, thyroid cancer, primary breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bone metastases from anionic complex-affine cancers, ...; II. ANIONIC COMPLEX-AFFINE TUMOURS; Primary prostate cancer, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, bone metastases from cationic complex-affine cancer. With cancer-affine citratogallate-67 complexes we have diagnosed and followed up, and with citratoyttrate-90 complexes we have treated advanced breast, prostate, renal cell cancer patients. The patient preparation by advising to avoid cancer risk factors and to take cancer preventing and radiopharmaceutical stabilizing diets during diagnosis and therapy have given better results. Friendliness, caring visits and telephone calls from the therapist group help to obtain better outcomes of the diagnosis, and mainly of the therapy. The complexes of these radionuclides with other chelating agents EDTA and DPTA are expected to give better images and cure of advanced cancer patients. Cancer-affine formulations of Tc-99m(V), Re-186(V) and Re-188(V)-DMSA are being studied for their future use in early diagnosis and follow-up, and for the systemic therapy of cancer which will show affinity for them. (author)
Quantization of dynamical systems and stochastic control theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerra, F.; Morato, L.M.
1982-09-01
In the general framework of stochastic control theory we introduce a suitable form of stochastic action associated to the controlled process. Then a variational principle gives all main features of Nelson's stochastic mechanics. In particular we derive the expression of the current velocity field as the gradient of the phase action. Moreover the stochastic corrections to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are in agreement with the quantum mechanical form of the Madelung fluid (equivalent to the Schroedinger equation). Therefore stochastic control theory can provide a very simple model simulating quantum mechanical behavior
Xiao, Kemeng; Li, Yunzhen; Sun, Yang; Liu, Ruyue; Li, Junjie; Zhao, Yun; Xu, Heng
2017-09-13
Soil contamination with heavy metals has caused serious environmental problems and increased the risks to humans and biota. Herein, we developed an effective bottom up metals removal system based on the synergy between the activation of immobilization metal-resistant bacteria and the extraction of bioaccumulator material (Stropharia rugosoannulata). In this system, the advantages of biochar produced at 400 °C and sodium alginate were integrated to immobilize bacteria. Optimized by response surface methodology, the biochar and bacterial suspension were mixed at a ratio of 1:20 (w:v) for 12 h when 2.5% sodium alginate was added to the mixture. Results demonstrated that the system significantly increased the proportion of acid soluble Cd and Cu and improved the soil microecology (microbial counts, soil respiration, and enzyme activities). The maximum extractions of Cd and Cu were 8.79 and 77.92 mg kg -1 , respectively. Moreover, details of the possible mechanistic insight into the metal removal are discussed, which indicate positive correlation with the acetic acid extractable metals and soil microecology. Meanwhile, the "dilution effect" in S. rugosoannulata probably plays an important role in the metal removal process. Furthermore, the metal-resistant bacteria in this system were successfully colonized, and the soil bacteria community were evaluated to understand the microbial diversity in metal-contaminated soil after remediation.
Hinze, Thomas; Schumann, Mathias; Bodenstein, Christian; Heiland, Ines; Schuster, Stefan
2011-01-01
Exploration of chronobiological systems emerges as a growing research field within bioinformatics focusing on various applications in medicine, agriculture, and material sciences. From a systems biological perspective, the question arises whether biological control systems for regulation of oscillatory signals and their technical counterparts utilise similar mechanisms. If so, modelling approaches and parameterisation adopted from building blocks can help to identify general components for frequency control in circadian clocks along with gaining insight into mechanisms of clock synchronisation to external stimuli like the daily rhythm of sunlight and darkness. Phase-locked loops could be an interesting candidate in this context. Both, biology and engineering, can benefit from a unified view resulting from systems modularisation. In a first experimental study, we analyse a model of coupled repressilators. We demonstrate its ability to synchronise clock signals in a monofrequential manner. Several oscillators initially deviate in phase difference and frequency with respect to explicit reaction and diffusion rates. Accordingly, the duration of the synchronisation process depends on dedicated reaction and diffusion parameters whose settings still lack to be sufficiently captured analytically. PMID:22046179
Integrable System and $N=2$ Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Nakatsu, T.; Takasaki, K.
1996-01-01
Comment: 6 pages,latex file with sprocl.sty, no figures, to appear in the Proceedings of the Workshop (Talk presented at the Workshop "Frontiers in Quantum Field Theory" in honor of the 60th birthday of Prof. Keiji Kikkawa, Osaka, Japan, December 1995
BMN gauge theory as a quantum mechanical system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beisert, N.; Kristjansen, C.; Plefka, J.
2003-01-01
We rigorously derive an effective quantum mechanical Hamiltonian from N = 4 gauge theory in the BMN limit. Its eigenvalues yield the exact one-loop anomalous dimensions of scalar two-impurity BMN operators for all genera. It is demonstrated that this reformulation vastly simplifies computations. ...
Solvable Relativistic Hydrogenlike System in Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caron-Huot, Simon; Henn, Johannes M.
2014-01-01
this symmetry? In this Letter we show that the answer is positive: in the nonrelativistic limit, we identify the dual conformal symmetry of planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with the well-known symmetries of the hydrogen atom. We point out that the dual conformal symmetry offers a novel way to compute...
Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian sys- tems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity P and time-reversal invariance T. In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asym- metric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour ...
Dekorvin, Andre
1989-01-01
The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.
Testing components of Rothbard’s theory with the current information system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurelian Virgil BĂLUŢĂ
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The concept of aggression against property rights of individuals generates a series of developments that allow solutions and options to problems and dilemmas of today's economy: the dynamics of the tax system, focusing attention on shaping the budget with macro-economic calculations, the protection of competition, and customs policy in the modern era. The confidence in theory in general, especially in economic theory, is based on the logical and methodological validation of scientific reasoning and moral aspects. Transforming the theory into a means of changing the society can only be made when a theory is experimentally validated. The economic theory needs confirmation from specialized disciplines such as statistics and accounting. It is possible and necessary for the advantages of radical liberal thinking to be reflected in every company’s bookkeeping and in public statistics. As an example, the paper presents the way some components of Rothbard's theory are reflect in the accounting and statistics information system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorokina, E.I.; Poshkus, N.B.; Tupitsina, Yu.Yu.; Volkova, L.P.; Shubina, A.V.; Krasnikov, V.E.
An attempt was made to determine optimal localization for the action of decimeter waves (DMW) and its intensity, and to evaluate the action of DMW on the functions of the cardiovascular system. Clinical biochemical and immunological indices were determined in myocardium infarction patients during the early convalescent period. The study was carried out on 186 male patients 47.5 years old on the average, 4 to 10 weeks after infarction. When applied at the same location, no significant differences could be observed in reflex reactions or in therapeutic effect when a 20 or 40 Vt intensity was applied. Considerable differences were seen in relationship to the location of applied DMW. Optimal results were obtained with 40 Vt intensity and D/sub I/-D/sub IV/ localization. The effect of DMW through segmental-vegetative apparatus gave more pronounced results than through the endocrine system or through peripheral vessels. DMW applied under such conditions optimized reparatory processes in cardiac muscle and improved immunological reactivity of the organism. 9 references.
Noori, Roohollah; Safavi, Salman; Nateghi Shahrokni, Seyyed Afshin
2013-07-01
The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) is one of the key parameters in water quality management. In this study, a novel approach, i.e., reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ROANFIS) model was developed for rapid estimation of BOD5. In addition, an uncertainty analysis of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and ROANFIS models was carried out based on Monte-Carlo simulation. Accuracy analysis of ANFIS and ROANFIS models based on both developed discrepancy ratio and threshold statistics revealed that the selected ROANFIS model was superior. Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error for the best fitted ROANFIS model were 0.96 and 7.12, respectively. Furthermore, uncertainty analysis of the developed models indicated that the selected ROANFIS had less uncertainty than the ANFIS model and accurately forecasted BOD5 in the Sefidrood River Basin. Besides, the uncertainty analysis also showed that bracketed predictions by 95% confidence bound and d-factor in the testing steps for the selected ROANFIS model were 94% and 0.83, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yury V. Fedosov
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Aims The interrelation between hemodynamic changes, functions of the cardiovascular system and biochemical reactions in the cells of the heart muscle is investigated in the present paper. Materials and methods Several methods were used to influence the metabolism processes in the myocardium. The changes in the phase functions of contraction of different cardiac muscles were recorded. In order to have comprehensive influence on the metabolism processes, normalization of the acid-base balance was performed. L-carnitine and octolipen were used to affect the lipid metabolism. Results Phase blood volumes that are characteristic of hemodynamics changed in the course of treatment to reach their nornal values. The ECG shape during the heart cycle phases also changed to reach the norm. The initial ECG shape describing Brugada syndrome almost reached its normal value. Extrasystole disappeared therewith. Conclusion The method of the heart cycle phase analysis enables monitoring any changes in hemodynamics and functions of the cardiovascular system. The method can be used for identifying the original cause of pathologies and efficient monitoring of the treatment progress.
Noyes, Jane; Brenner, Maria; Fox, Patricia; Guerin, Ashleigh
2014-05-01
To report a novel review to develop a health systems model of successful transition of children with complex healthcare needs from hospital to home. Children with complex healthcare needs commonly experience an expensive, ineffectual and prolonged nurse-led discharge process. Children gain no benefit from prolonged hospitalization and are exposed to significant harm. Research to enable intervention development and process evaluation across the entire health system is lacking. Novel mixed-method integrative review informed by health systems theory. DATA CINAHL, PsychInfo, EMBASE, PubMed, citation searching, personal contact. REVIEW Informed by consultation with experts. English language studies, opinion/discussion papers reporting research, best practice and experiences of children, parents and healthcare professionals and purposively selected policies/guidelines from 2002-December 2012 were abstracted using Framework synthesis, followed by iterative theory development. Seven critical factors derived from thirty-four sources across five health system levels explained successful discharge (new programme theory). All seven factors are required in an integrated care pathway, with a dynamic communication loop to facilitate effective discharge (new programme logic). Current health system responses were frequently static and critical success factors were commonly absent, thereby explaining ineffectual discharge. The novel evidence-based model, which reconceptualizes 'discharge' as a highly complex longitudinal health system intervention, makes a significant contribution to global knowledge to drive practice development. Research is required to develop process and outcome measures at different time points in the discharge process and future trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of integrated health system discharge models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Modeling of uncertainties in biochemical reactions.
Mišković, Ljubiša; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily
2011-02-01
Mathematical modeling is an indispensable tool for research and development in biotechnology and bioengineering. The formulation of kinetic models of biochemical networks depends on knowledge of the kinetic properties of the enzymes of the individual reactions. However, kinetic data acquired from experimental observations bring along uncertainties due to various experimental conditions and measurement methods. In this contribution, we propose a novel way to model the uncertainty in the enzyme kinetics and to predict quantitatively the responses of metabolic reactions to the changes in enzyme activities under uncertainty. The proposed methodology accounts explicitly for mechanistic properties of enzymes and physico-chemical and thermodynamic constraints, and is based on formalism from systems theory and metabolic control analysis. We achieve this by observing that kinetic responses of metabolic reactions depend: (i) on the distribution of the enzymes among their free form and all reactive states; (ii) on the equilibrium displacements of the overall reaction and that of the individual enzymatic steps; and (iii) on the net fluxes through the enzyme. Relying on this observation, we develop a novel, efficient Monte Carlo sampling procedure to generate all states within a metabolic reaction that satisfy imposed constrains. Thus, we derive the statistics of the expected responses of the metabolic reactions to changes in enzyme levels and activities, in the levels of metabolites, and in the values of the kinetic parameters. We present aspects of the proposed framework through an example of the fundamental three-step reversible enzymatic reaction mechanism. We demonstrate that the equilibrium displacements of the individual enzymatic steps have an important influence on kinetic responses of the enzyme. Furthermore, we derive the conditions that must be satisfied by a reversible three-step enzymatic reaction operating far away from the equilibrium in order to respond to
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Harmon, Scott
2001-01-01
This project accomplished all of its objectives: document a theory of information physics, conduct a workshop on planing experiments to test this theory, and design experiments that validate this theory...
Monteiro, Emiliano C; Tamaki, Fábio K; Terra, Walter R; Ribeiro, Alberto F
2014-03-01
This work presents a detailed morphofunctional study of the digestive system of a phasmid representative, Cladomorphus phyllinus. Cells from anterior midgut exhibit a merocrine secretion, whereas posterior midgut cells show a microapocrine secretion. A complex system of midgut tubules is observed in the posterior midgut which is probably related to the luminal alkalization of this region. Amaranth dye injection into the haemolymph and orally feeding insects with dye indicated that the anterior midgut is water-absorbing, whereas the Malpighian tubules are the main site of water secretion. Thus, a putative counter-current flux of fluid from posterior to anterior midgut may propel enzyme digestive recycling, confirmed by the low rate of enzyme excretion. The foregut and anterior midgut present an acidic pH (5.3 and 5.6, respectively), whereas the posterior midgut is highly alkaline (9.1) which may be related to the digestion of hemicelluloses. Most amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities occur in the foregut and anterior midgut. Maltase is found along the midgut associated with the microvillar glycocalix, while aminopeptidase occurs in the middle and posterior midgut in membrane bound forms. Both amylase and trypsin are secreted mainly by the anterior midgut through an exocytic process as revealed by immunocytochemical data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Productive Systems and the Structuring Role of Economic and Social Theories
Frank Wilkinson
2002-01-01
The institutions of productive systems are structured by mutual interests and relative power. Securing mutually beneficial cooperation in production requires resolving distributional differences. These objectives are secured in liberal economic theory by the working of markets which mediate the power of individuals and reward individual success. The centrality of individuals and hierarchies in market theory contrasts with developments in labour management theory which identifies group activit...
Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruin, A. de
1976-01-01
A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents
Stochastic theory for classical and quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pena, L. de la; Cetto, A.M.
1975-01-01
From first principles a theory of stochastic processes in configuration space is formulated. The fundamental equations of the theory are an equation of motion which generalizes Newton's second law and an equation which expresses the condition of conservation of matter. Two types of stochastic motion are possible, both described by the same general equations, but leading in one case to classical Brownian motion behavior and in the other to quantum mechanical behavior. The Schroedinger equation, which is derived with no further assumption, is thus shown to describe a specific stochastic process. It is explicitly shown that only in the quantum mechanical process does the superposition of probability amplitudes give rise to interference phenomena; moreover, the presence of dissipative forces in the Brownian motion equations invalidates the superposition principle. At no point are any special assumptions made concerning the physical nature of the underlying stochastic medium, although some suggestions are discussed in the last section
Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayannavar, A.M.
1991-01-01
The large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disorderd one-dimensional conductor is derived explicitly. It is shown that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder single parameter scaling consistent with existing theoretical treatments is recovered. (author). 33 refs., 4 figs
Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayannavar, A.M.
1990-05-01
We have derived explicitly, the large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disordered one-dimensional conductor. We show that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder we recover single parameter scaling, consistent with existing theoretical treatments. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs
Quantum dissipative systems from theory of continuous measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensky, Michael B.; Stenholm, Stig
2003-01-01
We apply the restricted-path-integral (RPI) theory of non-minimally disturbing continuous measurements for correct description of frictional Brownian motion. The resulting master equation is automatically of the Lindblad form, so that the difficulties typical of other approaches do not exist. In the special case of harmonic oscillator the known familiar master equation describing its frictionally driven Brownian motion is obtained. A thermal reservoir as a measuring environment is considered
Modified perturbation theory for strongly correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takagi, Osamu; Saso, Tetsuro
1999-01-01
We propose a modified scheme for calculating the single-particle excitation spectrum of the impurity Anderson model. It is based on the second order perturbation theory, but modifies the self-energy so as to reproduce the correct atomic limit and to fulfill the Friedel sum rule. Therefore, it offers a simple scheme valid over wide range of excitation energy and parameters, and would be useful also for potential application to the lattice problems. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chan Sung Chung
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.
Planets and planetarians. A history of theories of the origin of planetary systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaki, S L
1978-01-01
A critical review is presented of theories of the origin of planetary systems. The book deals chronologically with the subject from Greek times to the present. The last of the eight chapters covers the post-war period. Particular attention is paid to theories of the origin of our own planetary system and to the degree of frequency of planetary systems (in particular, the frequency of planets carrying life in some form) in the universe.
Planets and planetarians. A history of theories of the origin of planetary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaki, S.L.
1978-01-01
A critical review is presented of theories of the origin of planetary systems. The book deals chronologically with the subject from Greek times to the present. The last of the eight chapters covers the post-war period. Particular attention is paid to theories of the origin of our own planetary system and to the degree of frequency of planetary systems (in particular, the frequency of planets carrying life in some form) in the universe. (U.K.)
Pirger, Zsolt; Laszlo, Zita; Hiripi, Laszlo; Hernadi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Mark, Laszlo
2010-11-01
PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.
Prediction on corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system based on optimized grey theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Jiang Wei
2007-01-01
For the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, the pre- diction error from the grey theory is greater, so a new method, optimized grey theory was presented in the paper. A comparison among predicted results from present and other methods was carried out, and it is seem that optimized grey theory is correct and effective for the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, and it provides a fundamental basis for the maintenance of pipe in nuclear power system. (authors)
Deterministic Local Sensitivity Analysis of Augmented Systems - I: Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cacuci, Dan G.; Ionescu-Bujor, Mihaela
2005-01-01
This work provides the theoretical foundation for the modular implementation of the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure (ASAP) for large-scale simulation systems. The implementation of the ASAP commences with a selected code module and then proceeds by augmenting the size of the adjoint sensitivity system, module by module, until the entire system is completed. Notably, the adjoint sensitivity system for the augmented system can often be solved by using the same numerical methods used for solving the original, nonaugmented adjoint system, particularly when the matrix representation of the adjoint operator for the augmented system can be inverted by partitioning
Multiscale N=2 SUSY field theories, integrable systems and their stringy/brane origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorsky, A.; Gukov, S.; Mironov, A.
1998-01-01
We discuss supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with multiple scales in the brane language. The issue concerns N=2 SUSY gauge theories with massive fundamental matter including the UV finite case of n f =2n c , theories involving products of SU(n) gauge groups with bifundamental matter, and systems with several parameters similar to Λ QCD . We argue that the proper integrable systems are, accordingly, twisted XXX SL(2) spin chain, SL(p) magnets and degenerations of the spin Calogero system. The issue of symmetries underlying integrable systems is addressed. Relations with the monopole systems are specially discussed. Brane pictures behind all these integrable structures in the IIB and M-theory are suggested. We argue that degrees of freedom in integrable systems are related to KK excitations in M-theory or D-particles in the IIA string theory, which substitute the infinite number of instantons in the field theory. This implies the presence of more BPS states in the low-energy sector. (orig.)
Humphreys, Michael S.; And Others
1989-01-01
An associative theory of memory is proposed to serve as a counterexample to claims that dissociations among episodic, semantic, and procedural memory tasks necessitate separate memory systems. The theory is based on task analyses of matching (recognition and familiarity judgments), retrieval (cued recall), and production (free association). (TJH)
Autonomy and the Ambiguity of Biological Rationalities: Systems Theory, ADHD and Kant
Haye, Andrés; Matus, Claudia; Cottet, Pablo; Niño, Sebastián
2018-01-01
We present a theoretical review of notions of autonomy to show how they organize discourses within social sciences around the biological reality of ideal self-regulating individuals. First, we reconstruct key meanings of autonomy in biological theory, focusing on theories of autopoietic systems and their connections to constructivist…
Christoffel symbols and inertia in flat space-time theory. [Curvilinear coordinate systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krause, J [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas
1976-11-01
A necessary and sufficient criterion of inertia is presented, for the flat space-time theory of general frames of reference, in terms of the vanishing of some typical components of the affine connection pertaining to curvilinear coordinate systems. The physical identification of inertial forces thus arises in the context of the special theory of relativity.
Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.
2011-01-01
- Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory
Expectancy Theory as a Predictor of Faculty Motivation to Use a Course Management System
Turcan, Marian
2010-01-01
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the elements of the Expectancy theory and faculty motivation to use a course management system. Specifically it analyzed if the elements of the Expectancy theory (Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy) were useful in predicting faculty motivation when using Blackboard tools in…
Equilibrium distribution of hard-sphere systems and revised Enskog theory
Beijeren, H. van
1983-01-01
A revised Enskog theory (RET) is shown to lead to a correct equilibrium distribution in hard-sphere systems in a stationary external potential, while the standard Enskog theory (SET) does not. Attention is given to the s-component hard-sphere mixture with constant external potential acting on
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Can-fu; CHENG Xiao-qiu
2011-01-01
Construction of forestry socialized service systems is the important content for reform of collective forestry tenure systems.Based on the necessity, possibility and problem of construction of forestry socialized service system, according to Barnard's Organizational Structure theory, the path and countermeasure of forestry socialized service system in China are discussed.
Lins, Cecilia Maria M S; Alves, Maria Cristina M; Campos, Juacyara C; Silva, Fabrícia Maria S; Jucá, José Fernando T; Lins, Eduardo Antonio M
2015-01-01
The inadequate disposal of leachate is one of the key factors in the environmental impact of urban solid waste landfills in Brazil. Among the compounds present in the leachates from Brazilian landfills, ammonia nitrogen is notable for its high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier filled with a natural zeolite, which is part of a biochemical system for the tertiary treatment of the leachate from Muribeca Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Pernambuco, Brazil, to reduce its ammonia nitrogen concentration. This investigation initially consisted of kinetic studies and batch equilibrium tests on the natural zeolite to construct the sorption isotherms, which showed a high sorption capacity, with an average of 12.4 mg NH4+.L(-1), a value close to the sorption rates found for the aqueous ammonium chloride solution. A permeable reactive barrier consisting of natural zeolite, as simulated by the column test, was efficient in removing the ammonia nitrogen present in the leachate pretreated with calcium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the regenerated zeolite did not satisfactorily maintain the sorption properties of the natural zeolite, and an analysis of their cation-exchange properties showed a reduced capacity of 54 meq per 100 g for the regenerated zeolite compared to 150 meq per 100 g for the natural zeolite.
Gümüş, Pınar; Özçaka, Özgün; Ceyhan-Öztürk, Banu; Akcali, Aliye; Lappin, David F; Buduneli, Nurcan
2015-03-01
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as varying glucose intolerance, with first onset or recognition in pregnancy. This study evaluates clinical and biochemical parameters in a possible association between GDM and gingivitis. A total of 167 pregnant females was included in the study. There were 101 females with GDM and 66 females without GDM. Subgroups were created according to the presence or absence of gingival inflammation. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, and probing depth were recorded at four sites per tooth. Serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation analysis. Age and anthropometric indices were higher in the GDM than non-GDM group (P gingivitis group than non-GDM with gingivitis group (P = 0.044). Serum and GCF BAFF (P gingivitis group than GDM without gingivitis group. The inflammatory response seems to be more pronounced in females with GDM. The observed increase in both local and systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines may suggest an interaction between gingivitis and GDM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jepps, Owen G; Rondoni, Lamberto
2010-01-01
Deterministic 'thermostats' are mathematical tools used to model nonequilibrium steady states of fluids. The resulting dynamical systems correctly represent the transport properties of these fluids and are easily simulated on modern computers. More recently, the connection between such thermostats and entropy production has been exploited in the development of nonequilibrium fluid theories. The purpose and limitations of deterministic thermostats are discussed in the context of irreversible thermodynamics and the development of theories of nonequilibrium phenomena. We draw parallels between the development of such nonequilibrium theories and the development of notions of ergodicity in equilibrium theories. (topical review)
Measures of Biochemical Sociology
Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell
2008-01-01
In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…